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Name_______________________________ Vocabulary People Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) Mao Zedong Mohandas Gandhi Kemal Mustafa Reza Shah

Pahlavi Terms

World History Honors The Interwar Years Chapter 27

Places China India Turkey Iran Egypt

Guomindang warlords Red Army Long March Zionists Balfour Declaration *Hussein-McMahon Letter Manchukuo

*Hirohito Manchuria

Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere Nanjing

Benito Mussolini Ethiopia Haile Selassie Josef Stalin Adolf Hitler

March on Rome fascism Il Duce totalitarianism *Black Shirts *corporate state Five-Year Plans collectivization gulag purge Weimar Republic Nazi Party Mein Kampf Fuhrer Chancellor Anti-Semitism Nuremberg Laws Kristallnacht *Brown Shirts *Nazis Siberia

*Third Reich * *Terms not in your textbook nterwar Japan Japan sees itself as a world power

West doesnt see Japan as equal Acquired German Islands in the Pacific as mandates from the Treaty of Versailles Whites refused a statement on racial equality Because of colonialism, Europeans + U.S wouldnt be justified in colonizing then Bothers Japan

Economy Economic Problems

Strikes and layoffs Lacks resources Tariffs, limiting market availability Need to expand Population explosion In 50 years the population doubled

Capitalism economy controlled by Government

Zaibatsu: Corporation thats owns other companies whose influence and size allowed for control over significant parts of the Japanese economy Government + Business connected Japan argues its more effective Small amount of businesses control production of a specific item Companies produced a variety of products, For example: A car company would also make mattresses

Politics Politically has an emperor

Emperor Hirohito Constitutional Monarchy Emperor is seen as a god Prime Minister runs government

Democracy growing during Interwar Years

Political parties grow Conservatives Business, Military Uncomfortable about growing democracy Young people become Westernized (worries conservatives) Growth of labor unions (worries conservatives) No socialism/communism Military grows powerful and more aggressive Military sees a united Japan under the rule of the military

People unhappy with the government

1927 Financial Crisis/ Depression Military questions connection with the West; West doesnt see Japan as equal

1922 Washington Naval Treaty- (U.S, U.K, France, Italy, Japan)

Attempt to restrict weapons, more specifically battleships U.S, U.K-5 new ships (They argue they have 2 Oceans to defend while the others have 1) France, Italy, Japan-3 new ships Japan feel this is unfair

Treaty of Versailles

Japan doesnt get territory in China

Japanese Exclusion Act 1924- U.S law bans immigration of Japanese Japan feels the world is against them

Nationalism unites Japan

Military Japan is behind in technology so they focus on military

Not much natural resources Rely on soldiers

Remove surrender, retreat, and defeat from the manual Soldiers are brave 1930-1932 Assassination attempts on Prime Ministers Funded by military 1930-Military recognize the need for natural resources

1930-Manchurian Incident

Chinese were blamed for blowing up Japanese rail road line Japanese blew it up themselves General ordered troops in without governments order Prime Minister has no power Japanese establish the state under Japanese control called Manchukuo League of Nations condemns Japans aggression, and Japan withdraws in 1933 Leaves Naval treaty and begins to build new ships Manchuria produces Iron, Steel, and Coke (to make steel)

Forming New Alliances 1936 Anti-Comintern Pact with Germany

To oppose the spread of communism 1937 joined by Italy

Japan is interested in South East Asia for resources 1940- Japan announced the creation of the Greater East Asia Co Prosperity Sphere

Saying its time for Asians to remove Western imperialists Japan says it will help other Asian countries Countries recognize they would trade Western Imperialism for Japanese Imperialism

Nanjing Massacre/ Rape of Nanking The war between China and Japan began in the summer of 1937

Japanese claim it would take 3 months to conquer China

The defense of Shanghai had an impact on the Battle for Nanjing because it wounded the Japanese pride and slowed down their time table. The standing orders referencing captives is to kill all captives

Missionary John Magee shot the movies that are part of the video. The Japanese soldiers viewed the Chinese counterparts who surrendered as subhuman because they would surrender to the enemy so easily Japanese officers ordered the atrocities committed on Chinese troops because they were afraid of a coordinated uprising because the Japanese were outnumbered. Also the atrocities hardened the soldiers against death. The massacre lasted for 6-8 weeks. The officers told their troops that the rapes were encouraged and were perfectly acceptable as long as the evidence was disposed of (killing the rape victims)

20,000-80,000 Chinese woman were raped

International Safety Zones

Camps that were established and provisioned during the final days of Chinese occupation They were off limit to the Japanese 2.5 Square miles, 300,000 Chinese were crowded into it 20 foreigners and missionaries were left behind Japan didnt want to attack the International Safety Zones because of the risk of harming the Westerners and getting into a war with the Western Countries

John Rabe

Head of the Nazi Party in Shanghai Helped save people in Nanjing Unlikely Hero Harming people back in Germany but helped the Chinese in Nanjing

Comfort women were women who were forced into prostitution in the Japanese Army. Japanese War Crimes Tribunal was less successful than the Nuremberg Trials

Japanese soldiers wouldnt surrender unless the emperor was untouched and not treated as a war criminal The defendant could just say the emperor ordered them but it was agreed that charges couldnt be brought upon the emperor Prosecutors couldnt press as aggressively

Japan dealt with its war criminals by sending them to Sugamo Prison in Tokyo. They were released in a few years and often appointed to high government jobs. The Japanese honor their war criminals as gods and who worshipped them at shrines. Descendants worshipped them as family members due to the Buddhist religion. Two areas of similar war crimes against humanity that have occurred since WWII are in Cambodia and Kosovo. Totalitarian Governments Political

State interest over individual interest common good over individual Single party system Dictator unites and symbolizes society


Government control all aspects of daily life Secret Police Citizens denied rights


Government controls economy Labor union and businesses fulfill state objectives

Italian Fascism Italy=First fascist state Benito Mussolini

Il Duce The Leader Born 1883 First a socialist Goes from socialist to nationalist to fascist After WWI becomes a nationalist Decides to form Fasci di Combattimento Nationalist Fascist Party Fasces- Latin word which referred to an ancient Roman symbol Symbol for unity and strength Makes connection to Rome; We are the new Roman Empire


Authoritarian form of government that places the good of the nation above all including individual needs and rights Glorification of the state Single Party System Strong ruler Aggressive Nationalism

Unrest in Italy

Italians unhappy after Versailles Economy is bad, Poverished are struggling Middle Class + Wealthy fear Communism Mussolini Plays both sides (poor, rich) Poor- Pledges to fix the economy Rich- Keep out communism Blackshirts Mussolinis followers who wore Blackshirts and acted as his Secret Police

October 1922- Mussolini and his followers March on Rome

Mussolini is in Milan (If things dont go well) King worried troops will support Mussolini Mussolini Meets with King King declares Mussolini the Prime Minister

Begins to implement totalitarian state

Ban other political parties Control media Media as propaganda Linkage to Roman heritage enhances nationalism

Military Power

Invades Ethiopia Ethiopia leader: Haile Selassie Didnt keep up military Italy crushed Ethiopia Haile pleas to the League of Nations

League does little Condemns Italy Sanctions; Bans selling of weapons to Italy Italy produces its own weapons

Soviet Union Totalitarianism under Joseph Stalin Trotsky-Lenins right hand man, commander of Red Army Stalin beat Trotsky

Josef Stalin has more power within the party

Stalin is not a Marxian

Different ideas then Marx (Communist Revolution to take over the world) Interested in control of Russia, building Socialism in a single country Makes sure he retains power Paranoid, sees enemies everywhere Kills people who he thought were planning to take over

Modernize Economy 5 year plans

Idea that government will plan out economy for next 5 years Cant adjust to unexpected problems

Central Planning

Dictating where companies send their products Setting a quota Problems: Shortages, people are lazy, quotas arent reaches, lack incentives

Heavy Industry Up

Large scale factories succeed Oil Production doubles Coal and Steel Production quadruples

Consumer goods down (Food, Shirts) Collectivization

Farming Argued that combining farms will increase production Begins to take back land Peasants= unhappy, Lenin promised them Peace, Land, and Bread


Prosperous farmers Dont want to give up their land Stalin kills some of them with the Secret Police Locks the others up in Gulags in Siberia (Labor Camps)

Bread Basket of U.S.S.R

Most unhappy with collectivization 1932 famine hits Ukraine Stalin denies help Made his point: Dont complain 5 million Ukrainians die

1930s Stalin in complete power+ control

Believe people are conspiring against him Great Purges Kills government officials who he thought or were his enemies His philosophy: Take them out before they take out me Religion discouraged (Churches, closed) Purged military leaders 6 months before German Invasion Childrens organizations Young Childrens Organization Focused on Nationalism and Stalin Cult of Personality Focused on leader Staling maintains stronghold on society

Postwar Germany Weimer Republic

New republican government after WWI 1919-1923 Intensely disliked; imposed on Germans by Versailles treaty

Hitler elected 1932: Ends Weimer Republic Reparations

$35 billion dollars 1922 Germany announces it couldnt keep up with their payments to France In the Versailles treaty there was a clause in case Germany couldnt make their payments France will get Ruhr Valley 1923 Major industrial center (coal)


German Marks prior to WWI: 4 Marks=1 Dollar 1923: 3 Trillion Marks=1 Dollar Germany printed a lot of money By mid 1920s Germans economy picks up 1927-18 Depression hits Europe Economy gets Worse

Hitlers Germany Adolf Hitler

Born in Austria 1889 Fought on German side during WWI and only rose to the rank of a corporal Joins Nationalist Socialist Workers Party- Nazis names it Socialist because wants worker to support them actually opposite/ fascist Secret Police: Brownshirts Der Fuhrer: The Leader

October 1923 Putsch: German for coup

Hitler says its time to take over Munich Coup lasts for 2 hours Police arrest him In jail writes Mein Kampf-My Struggle In jail for about 2 years Book talks about nationalist

Racial superiority of Germans; Aryans Blames the loss of WWI to Jews + Communists; Backstabbers

Great Depression

Germans desperate for a strong leader Hitler stands up and saws follow me

1932 Election

Nazi Party voted most popular Hitler was appointed Chancellor 1933 Calls for new elections in a year Nazis win majority and in complete control

Reichstag (Parliament)-fire

Hitler blames it on the Communists Tells Reichstag to give him full power because of emergency (Communists) Bans all political parties Limits rights and press Labor unions placed under Nazi control


Prejudice towards Jews Hitler blamed the Jews for Germanys problems Nuremberg Laws-1935 Created a separate legal status for Jews Eliminate their citizenship and civil and property rights Based on ancestry not Religion Must wear Yellow Badges

Kristallnacht (November 9-10, 1938)

Night of the Broken Glass Anti-Jewish riots throughout Germany 100 Jews killed Thousands of Jewish building destroyed First concentration camps pop up