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Qmax Test Equipments (P) Ltd.

Test Director II Users Manual

TEST DIRECTOR II

Users Manual Volume - I

Qmax Test Equipments Ltd. #6,Elcot Avenue, Sholinganallur, Chennai-600 119 Phone: (91)-44-24509627 Fax:(91)-44-24509631 E-mail: qmax@md3.vsnl.net.in

Test Director II Users Manual

Copyright 2004. Qmax Test Equipments Pvt. Ltd., India. All rights reserved February 2005, V200

Test Director II Interactive Workstation Users Manual, Ver. 1.0


Due to continued product development this information may change without notice. The information and intellectual property contained herein is confidential between Qmax Test Equipments Pvt. Ltd and the client and remains the exclusive property of Qmax Test Equipments Pvt. Ltd. If you find any problems in the documentation, please report them to us in writing. Qmax Test Equipments Pvt. Ltd does not warrant that this document is errorfree. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of Qmax Test Equipments Pvt. Ltd.

TestDirector II is a trademark of Qmax Test Equipments Pvt. Ltd. Microsoft Windows XP is either registered trademark or trademark of Microsoft Corporation. All other product names or logos mentioned herein are used for identification purposes only, and are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Printed in-house at: Qmax Test Equipments Pvt. Ltd., E-mail: qmax@md3.vsnl.net.in URL: www.qmaxtest.com

Qmax Test Equipments Pvt. Ltd.


#6,Elcot Avenue, Sholinganallur, Chennai-600 119, Tamil Nadu India Telephone +91-44-24509627 Fax +91-44-24509631 qmax@md3.vsnl.net.in www.qmaxtest.com

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Revision History

Date August 2005

Version 1.0

Description TestDirector II Users Manual Volume 1 Interactive WorkStation

Author Qmax Technical Writer

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Test Director II Users Manual

HOW THIS MANUAL IS ORGANIZED


This manual is designed to help you to use and operate TestDirector II Interactive WorkStation software.

Chapter I:

Introduction to Test Director II describes the contents and main features Of Test Director II package. The complete introduction to Test Director II Is given in brief for clear understanding. Introduction to Interactive Workstation describes the features and facilities available in the package and the hierarchy In circuit Functional Testing describes how to open in-circuit test program window and how this In-Circuit Functional Test technique can be used for repairing the faulty PCBs and also detect the PCB faults encountered such as short/open circuit conditions, functionally faulty devices, bus faults, fan out problems, wrong placement of devices. Out Circuit Functional Testing describes how to open Out-circuit Functional Test program window. The device under test(D.U.T) is taken out of circuit while testing or in isolation. In this testing technique a out- circuit board must be used to plug in the devices. Interactive QSM describes about a technique called Interactive Qmax Signature method, which is used for testing the devices by measuring the nodal impedance. The most important feature is the movable reference nodes. Using this the terminal characteristics between any two nodes can be determined i.e. a particular pins trace can be determined with respect to any other pin rather than GND alone. The traces of voltage versus current (V/ I) , voltage versus impedance(V/Z) and voltage versus time(V/T) are stored in a database for comparison against another board or for analysis. Measurements describes how to measure the parameters like Frequency, Inductance, Capacitance, Voltage and Resistance in the Interactive Workstation Window. Oscilloscope describes about Qmaxs Triple channel oscilloscope, which is used for waveform analysis. Open/ Short Testing describes the techniques used for finding the opens/ shorts present within the pins of a device/ module/ unit or connectors. Function Generator describes about Qmaxs Triple Channel Function Generator feature which helps to generate the user definable wave patterns or Qmax Standard patterns. Boundary Scan Test describes the Boundary scan method for testing Boundary scan devices. Test Sequencer describes about the sequencing of tests whereby the sequence of test programs can be generated. Test Station describes how to test the program sequenced in Test Sequencer whereby the selected programs can be tested here.

Chapter II: Chapter III:

Chapter IV:

Chapter V:

Chapter VI:

Chapter VII: Chapter VIII:

Chapter IX:

Chapter X: Chapter XI: Chapter XII:

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Table Of Contents
Chapter I Introduction to Test Director II ......................................................I-1 I.1 Main Features of TestDirector II: ...........................................................I-2 I.2 Interactive WorkStation..........................................................................I-3 I.3 TPS Development Studio (Optional)......................................................I-4 I.3.0 Test Station ......................................................................................I-4 I.4 Test Sequencer........................................................................................I-4 I.5 Boundary Scan (Optional) ......................................................................I-5 I.5.0 Features of Boundary Scan Test Tool .............................................I-5 I.6 Test Program Set Development Studio Features ..................................I-5 I.6.0 Development of Test program in Test Director II ...........................I-6 I.7 Types of Programs used in Test Director II............................................I-8 Chapter II Interactive Workstation ................................................................II.I II.1 Interactive WorkStation System Flow..................................................II.2 II.2 Interactive Application Features...........................................................II.2 Chapter III In-Circuit Functional Testing ...................................................III-1 III.1 How to: Starting the In-Circuit Testing ............................................ III-2 III.2 Function ............................................................................................ III-4 III.3 Features in the In-Circuit Test Window............................................ III-4 III.3.0 Device Name.............................................................................. III-4 III.3.1 Device List ................................................................................. III-5 III.3.2 Library........................................................................................ III-7 III.3.3 Package ...................................................................................... III-7 III.3.4 Threshold.................................................................................... III-7 III.3.5 Time per tick .............................................................................. III-7 III.3.6 Test............................................................................................. III-8 III.3.7 Device Data................................................................................ III-8 III.3.8 Compare ..................................................................................... III-8 III.3.9 Listen.......................................................................................... III-8 III.3.10 Loop Test ................................................................................. III-8 III.3.11 Identify ................................................................................... III-11 III.3.12 Procedure for identifying a device ......................................... III-12 III.4 Invoking the Set up Options............................................................ III-15 III.5 Steps to be followed for In-circuit testing....................................... III-16 Chapter IV Out-Circuit Functional Testing.................................................IV-1 IV.1 How to: Starting the Out-Circuit Testing.......................................... IV-2 IV.2 Function ............................................................................................ IV-3 IV.3 Features in the Out-Circuit Test Window......................................... IV-4 IV.3.0 Device Name.............................................................................. IV-4 IV.3.1 Device List ................................................................................. IV-4 IV.3.2 Library........................................................................................ IV-6 IV.3.3 Package ...................................................................................... IV-6 IV.3.4 Threshold ................................................................................... IV-6 IV.3.5 Time per tick .............................................................................. IV-6 IV.3.6 Test............................................................................................. IV-7

Test Director II Users Manual

IV.3.7 Device Data................................................................................IV-7 IV.3.8 Compare .....................................................................................IV-7 IV.3.9 Listen..........................................................................................IV-8 IV.3.10 Loop test...................................................................................IV-9 IV.3.11 Identify ...................................................................................IV-11 IV.3.12 Procedure for identifying a device .........................................IV-14 IV.4 Invoking the Set up Options ...........................................................IV-17 IV.5 Steps to be followed for Out Circuit Testing ..................................IV-18 Chapter V Interactive QSM ............................................................................ V-1 V.1 QSM Concept ................................................................................... V-2 V.2 When to use QSM for troubleshooting?.............................................. V-2 V.3 How to: Starting the QSM-VI Test ..................................................... V-2 V.4 Operating Mode................................................................................... V-5 V.5 QSM VI Interactive window ............................................................. V-6 V.6 Step-by-Step Procedure for Interactive mode QSM: ........................ V-12 Chapter VI Measurements ............................................................................. VI.1 VI.1 How to: Starting the Measurement Parameters................................. VI.2 VI.2 Resistance.......................................................................................... VI.3 VI.3 Capacitance ....................................................................................... VI.8 VI.4 Voltage ............................................................................................ VI.12 VI.5 Inductance ....................................................................................... VI.16 VI.6 Frequency........................................................................................ VI.20 Chapter VII Open/Short Test ...................................................................... VII.1 VII.1 How to: Starting the Open/Short Test (OST) Window ..................VII.2 VII.2 Description of the OST Measurement Window .............................VII.3 VII.3 Drive Information for testing (OST parameters):...........................VII.5 Chapter VIII Oscilloscope ...........................................................................VIII.1 VIII.1 Functional description ..................................................................VIII.2 VIII.2 Measurements...............................................................................VIII.6 Chapter IX Function Generator .................................................................... IX.1 IX.1 A brief description of Function Generator........................................ IX.2 IX.2 Opening the Qmax Function Generator ............................................ IX.3 IX.3 Functional description....................................................................... IX.4 IX.4 Measurement procedure.................................................................... IX.6 Chapter X Boundary Scan Test .......................................................................X.1 X.1 What is Boundary Scan? ......................................................................X.2 X.2 Requirements for Boundary Scan Test Data ........................................X.3 X.3 Procedure for Boundary Scan Test.......................................................X.4 X.4 How To: Starting the Boundary Scan Test...........................................X.4 X.5 Test Options .........................................................................................X.5 X.5.0 Opening Boundary Scan path........................................................X.5 X.5.1 Selecting Device Name .................................................................X.6 X.5.2 Selecting Package details ..............................................................X.7 X.5.3 BOM List entry ...........................................................................X.10 X.5.4 Net List Details............................................................................X.11 X.5.5 Saving the Learnt Database.........................................................X.13

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Chapter XI Test Sequencer ............................................................................ XI.1 XI.1 How to: Starting the Test Sequencer ................................................ XI.2 XI.2 Board Details .................................................................................... XI.5 XI.3 BOM List Details.............................................................................. XI.6 XI.4 Net List Details ................................................................................. XI.7 XI.5 Edge connector.................................................................................. XI.8 XI.6 Channel map Mode ......................................................................... XI.11 XI.7 Special Options Test Types: ........................................................... XI.23 Chapter XII Board Test Station ...................................................................XII.1 XII.1 Board Test Station .......................................................................... XII.2 XII.2 How to: Starting the Board Test Station......................................... XII.2

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Chapter I

Introduction to Test Director II

Test Director II Users Manual

Introduction
Test Director II (TD II) is Proprietary Test Software for Qmaxs new generation testers. It offers a complete suite of powerful and user-friendly software to complement the proven hardware from Qmaxs range of products for PCB Troubleshooting. The Test Director II combines the power of Industry Standard test technologies like VHDL (Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language and BSDL (Boundary Scan Description Language) with the flexibility and extensibility of Python Test Language.

I.1 Main Features of TestDirector II:


Open end Python platform for test application software VHDL based SIMULATION models for components Boundary Scan Test Software (BSTS) for testing Boundary Scan devices Extensive model & test Libraries based on VHDL User defined Libraries on VHDL & BSDL Windows Operating System Industry Standard VHDL simulator for Board simulation Easy transportability of programs to other systems

The Test Director II suite

The Test Director II suite comprises: Interactive WorkStation TPS Development Studio (Optional) Test Sequencer Board Test Station

I-2

Introduction to Test DirectorII

The illustration as shown below brings out the system software flow:

I.2 Interactive WorkStation


The Interactive Workstation covers topics such as In-Circuit Functional Testing (ICFT), OutCircuit Functional Testing (OCFT), Qmax Signature Method-VI (QSM-VI), Open Short Testing (OST), Oscilloscope, and Measurement of parameters like Resistance, Voltage, Capacitance, Inductance and Frequency.

Features of Interactive WorkStation


In-Built Design Rule Checker (DRC) Device pin status check In- Circuit functional test facility for testing individual ICs Out of circuit testing of ICs Graphical overview of the device Click of a button links to detailed data sheets of the device under test IEEE Standard VHDL library Industry standard VHDL Simulator to predict the expected output Response for any digital device. SSI / MSI / LSI / VLSI etc. Auto compensation is extended for all digital devices

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Test Director II Users Manual

Features of Interactive WorkStation


Measurement such as L, C, R, V & F Open/Short Testing (OST) Digital Oscilloscope facility while testing

I.3 TPS Development Studio (Optional)


The TPS Development Studio, which is a part of Test Director-II suite, allows the user to develop, test and debug test programs for boards and devices, all in an Integrated Development Environment. The all-new test language is based on the open source Python language.

TPS Development Studio comprises:


Board Testing Device Testing

Board Test Station is provided for testing the Board programs compiled.

I.3.0 Test Station


Programs developed in Test Director II WorkStation can be exported to Test Station Only Testing facility by the operator and no program / data / tolerance can be modified. For use by operators. User Defined Error Log reporting, Failure Analysis, statistics and data log. Network ready for remote monitoring of yield and statistics.

I.4 Test Sequencer


For Sequencing of multiple tests With conditional branching Messaging User prompting External trigger and external handshake Board level Test using combination of ICFT, QSM VI, Card Edge Test, Boundary Scan Test All in one test program

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Introduction to Test DirectorII

I.5 Boundary Scan (Optional)


Test Director II suite also includes Boundary Scan Tool, which is used to perform boundary scan test for Boundary Scan (BS) devices in interactive workstation mode. In this testing mode boundary scan cell is the fundamental component of the boundary scan architecture. This software is optional.

I.5.0 Features of Boundary Scan Test Tool


There is no need for the user to write a separate program. Devices on board can be tested using the boundary scan chain test. Automated/Manual generation of SVF using net list and BD files, also, schematic or layout of PCB data can be used. Fault dictionary of devices can be created from BSD file. Any Open/Short on device or board can be tested. Compatibility of execution of program on various ports (USB, PCI, Parallel port).

I.6 Test Program Set Development Studio Features


Net List entry of PCB for diagnosis PCB overview for component identification. Schematic Tagging for Net/node follow-up Test Vector generation for Advanced PCB Programming Text mode entry & Graphical mode entry Go-No Go Program edit. Probe &Check Learn and Compare facility for Intermediate Nodes in PCB

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Test Director II Users Manual

I.6.0 Development of Test program in Test Director II


The following steps below describe the various steps to be followed in the development of test program in Test Director II.

1. Open New Project 2. Enter the associated documents if any required 3. Enter the components covered 4. Enter the connectivity or Net list 5. Check for any left out components or connections( Not connected components) 6. Initialize the PCB 7. Develop test vectors for the inputs 8. Check for drive patterns 9. Debug the program 10. If the program passes save it and use as required

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Introduction to Test DirectorII

Test Program Generation System Flowchart

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Test Director II Users Manual

I.7

Types of Programs used in Test Director II

There are different programs used in the Test Director II suite. Some of these programs are mentioned below:

Go/No Go Program:
Go/No Go Program is made and run by the system to measure the actual response of PCB and compare with the expected response. Based on the result obtained by the response of the PCB Pass/Fail may be declared. This method will identify quickly whether the board is a good board or a bad board. In this method all the input pins, Bi-directional pins and output pins are identified and the input/Bi-directional pins are driven as per the working of the devices which covers these pins and the expected data will be monitored at the corresponding outputs. In this program both the input drive pattern and the programmer will provide the expected output pattern at the particular level. If and only if the expected output matches with the actual output from the device to edge pin the software will display the message as Board Passed otherwise software displays Board Fails message. The corresponding failed edge connector pin will be displayed in the message window with associated data and the waveform window displays the corresponding waveform with the red color. The advantage with this method is that the results are Fast and immediate. This program is generally used to test more number of PCBs.

Diagnostic (Simulation) Program:


The Diagnostic (Simulation) Program is similar to Go/No Go program except that the expected response predictions are generated for all nodes in a PCB for the purpose of Guided Probe Technique Learn and Compare method: The drive pattern driven in the GO/No GO will be converted to drive file using the software in text format. Using the net list for the PCB the software will automatically generate the Net and nodes to learn for the program driven. If selected by the programmer, the corresponding pattern will be stored for the respective node. Programmer can check and verify the same pattern and store the same for reference. Similarly the program is driven for all the intermediate nodes and the pattern is stored for the same program. Programmer can create this database and can visually see the pattern driven in intermediate node. The program is said to be completed when all the intermediate nodes are learned and checked. As per generated file, the comparator will expect the output taking the input drive pattern from the Go/No Go file. If the expected output from the simulator and the actual output coming from the edges of the board matches, the board passes otherwise board fails.Once the program is stored and whenever the PCB is tested, the functionality of the PCB is checked for its all inputs and outputs. As and when any output fails the software automatically calls for Guided Probe Technique and guides the operator to probe the corresponding nodes in the PCB. Graphical View of the PCB under test is included as help for the operator to locate the components in the PCB. The Software generates Netlist tree and this Netlist tree, which follows further for checking, is also displayed for ease of use. The faulty area is located while probing further and the software stops automatically to probe further. Automatic and Manual tracking can be enabled by the programmer for his choice.

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Introduction to Test DirectorII

Simulator method: Using Simulator the PCB program made can be made to run and the inputs/outputs faults simulation can be checked for its correctness. The drive pattern driven in the GO/NOGO will be converted to drive file using the software in text format. Using the net list for the PCB the software will automatically generate the VHDL and Test bench file. As per generated VHDL file, the simulator will expect the output taking the input drive pattern from the stimulus file. If the expected output from the simulator and the actual output coming from the edges of the board matches, the board passes otherwise board fails.

Cluster Program:
This program is used for an interested area in a PCB for which the program can be generated and tested. For clusters also the Guided Probe technique can be initiated.

PC(Probe and Compare) Learn And Check:


This method will be useful to find out the fault exactly at a particular node in the PCB but user should have a good board to learn at each node. The software will guide to probe at all the nodes on the PCB there by user can learn the whole PCB and learnt data will be stored in the library. PC check method can be used for testing a fault introduced board / faulty board. The software guides the user to probe at the nodes in the path for the corresponding failure. The tested data will be compared with the learnt data, if both matches the particular node will be taken as pass else fail. In this way software identifies the fault and point to the user exactly where the fault exists.

Summary
This chapter explained the features and facilities incorporated in Test Director II suite for PCB troubleshoot.

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Chapter II

Interactive Workstation

Introduction
The main purpose of using the Interactive WorkStation suite is to test the Integrated Circuits and Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) for repair and maintenance.

II.1 Interactive WorkStation System Flow

Features
In-Built DRC (Design Rule Checker) In- Circuit functional test facility using Device Pin Status Check for testing Individual ICs Out of circuit testing of ICs Graphical overview of the device Click of a button links to detailed data sheets of the Device Under Test. IEEE Standard VHDL library. PYTHON TD/VHDL test language program development. Industry standard VHDL simulator to predict the expected output. Response for any digital device. (SSI / MSI / LSI / VLSI etc.) Auto compensation is extended for all digital devices.

II.2 Interactive Application Features


ICFT
The ICFT technique is easy to use and is used to test the devices in "as is where" condition, ie, in In-Circuit conditions on board. It can detect the device faults encountered such as short / open circuit conditions, functionally faulty devices, bus faults, fan out problems, wrong placement of devices etc. The library contains the device and pin descriptions of more than 20000 devices of various families. In most cases, you just need to place the test clip over the chip and enter the device base number.

Introduction To Interactive Workstation

V200 can functionally test almost all IC families, making it an ideal choice for PCB repair centers, production line Recovery and Production-line Functional Test Centers. The system compensates the drive pattern according to connections of the device in board. It is designed with custom hybrid drivers to back drive and force a particular test pattern into a test node for in-circuit testing. The hybrid drivers provide reliability, compactness and ease of maintenance. You can interactively test a device: under actual in-circuit conditions, as the device is present in a board. (For example, if an input pin is grounded or linked to an output pin, the system does not drive that pin.) In-circuit mode is useful for testing a device under the actual circumstances in which it is going to be used in the PCB.

OCFT
The Out-Circuit testing is same as In-Circuit testing, except that the device is taken out of circuit while testing. The Out-Circuit Tester board must be used for this testing. This board is provided with a tiny lever operated ZIF (Zero Insertion Force) IC socket (marked as DEVICE) for easy plug-in and plug-out of device. It is provided with Loading Hybrids (one each for TTL and CMOS) to load all the pins to facilitate testing of ICs while loaded. These act as loads as well as pull-up resistors to the outputs. The appropriate loading hybrid is to be plugged in respective socket. Please do not use these loads in case if you are testing other logic families like ECL, EIA etc. In out-circuit mode, the system warns about any short detected between the pins, since there cannot be any shorts in out-circuit mode, but continues to drive the pins with their actual test pattern. Out-circuit mode is useful for checking whether the device is actually bad or not. Any device tested in Out-circuit must pass the functional test as it is tested in total isolation. Out circuit mode testing can be done for any device before it can be used in the PCB. This can weed out the possibility of using a faulty device during assembly or repair and maintenance.

QSM
In the Qmax Signature method (QSM), the impedance at a node is measured and is displayed on the screen as Voltage versus Current (VI). Also Voltage vs. Time (VT) or Impedance (VZ) is measured automatically. The nodal impedance analysis can be used equally well for digital nodes (nodes on digital devices) and analog nodes (nodes on analog devices and other components). The nodal impedance analysis can detect the subtle changes in device performance, which are hard to detect on any oscilloscope or other testing equipment. The changes in device performance can occur due to aging of device or some other causes such as a leaky capacitor or loaded VCC line etc. Although most of the board / device faults can be detected using ICFT, it is limited to digital components only. The VI-Trace provides a testing method, which covers all types of devices and is done in power-off condition. The VI-Trace, unlike ICFT, does not make use of any device programs. Each pin on a device is considered to be a node and is tested by comparing its traces with that of a good device learnt earlier. It also provides the facility to change the frequency and the amplitude of the drive signal. The choice of a specific frequency and amplitude is to be made depending upon the components, which constitute a node. For a reactive node (Capacitive or Inductive) choosing the right frequency will enhance the VI-Trace in terms of the details.

II.3

Test Director II Users Manual

However, for Resistive node, frequency has no much effect. For TTL nodes use of 8V range is quite adequate. Qmax tester provides error %, linear and non-linear methods of comparison for testing each of the nodes. For Digital TTL ICs the portion above 5.5V and below -0.6V is not of much significance. Hence while testing, it is advisable to use non-linear envelope. But for testing analog devices, all the portions will have equal importance, and hence Error % or linear comparison mode must be selected. Patterns are generated as Qmax Library with the specified values. It is made easy to the operator to select the desired pattern from the Library and drive it into the device under test. However using Function generator facility the operator can program required patterns as new and store it in the name required and hence new library for Arbitrary waveform patterns also can be created. QSM will increase the fault coverage multiple times as it does not use GND alone as reference pin. It selects all combinations by changing the reference pin. Consider testing a 7400 device having its pin 1 and 2 shorted internally or externally, with stored VI-Traces of a good 7400 without this pin 1 and 2 shorted. Pins 1 and 2 being high impedance input pins, their VI-Traces with respect to GND pin will be more or less same even if they are shorted together. Thus normal VI-Trace test will pass the device even though their pins 1 and 2 shorted. But QSM VI-Trace test will fail the test. QSM will use pin 1 as reference and test the remaining pins 2 to 14. This will detect pin 1 and 2 as short and the test will fail. This is a simple example to show the power of QSM VI-Traces.

Together with ICFT, the VI-Trace test method acts as complementary test strategy to make the available tester an excellent test system to cover all types of board faults. BST (Optional)
Boundary-scan, as defined by the IEEE Std. 1149.1 standard, is an integrated method for testing interconnects on printed circuit boards that are implemented at the IC level. This capability enables in-circuit testing without the need of bed-of-nail in-circuit test equipment.

OST
Open Short testing of components or devices on board can be learnt from a Known Good Board (KGB) and compared for any similar components in other Board. Diode measurements also made possible in this.

Oscilloscope
A ready to use Oscilloscope in V200 having three channels is a very handy tool for the operator to use. This Oscilloscope is to be used for measuring TTL signals only. It combines high bandwidth, fast sampling rates, extensive trigger capabilities and signal processing. This oscilloscope is designed with measurement facility to serve as a range of different instruments: oscilloscope, transient recorder, frequency meter and digital voltmeter.

Function Generator
An arbitrary waveform generator has been incorporated to facilitate the waveform generation as required basis. The required waveforms can be generated, previewed and stored in the user definable database. This can be and used in the application later.

II.4

Introduction To Interactive Workstation

The Basic Specification of the Function Generator is as follows: Amplitude: Frequency: Samples/Sec: +/- 13 Volts 500 KHz to 10 MHz. 20 MSPS

Measurement: On Screen mouse click ready to measure Waveform types: Mathematical, Square, Ramp, Triangle and DC Resolution: 12 bits

The Function Generator feature helps to generate the user definable wave patterns or Qmax Standard patterns to be selected and driven into the point where it is required.

Measurements
In-circuit measurements of vital parameters of PCB troubleshooting is designed and incorporated in this module to enable the measurements on time and anytime. This is used to measure the values and interactively the values can be compared for easy access.

Resistance/Capacitance/Inductance/Voltage Measurements
Diode Measurements Frequency Measurement Any of these applications can be called in Test Sequencer and learning of the Board can be performed in Sequencer mode and the Board program can be saved. Test Station is used to test the above saved Board program using the concerned PCBs.

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Test Director II Users Manual

II.6

Chapter III

In-Circuit Functional Testing

Test Director II Users Manual

Introduction
The ICFT technique is easy to use and is a widely accepted technique for repairing the faulty PCBs/devices on board. It can detect the device faults encountered such as short / open circuit conditions, functionally faulty devices, bus faults, fan out problems, wrong placement of devices etc. The library contains the device and pin descriptions of more than 20000 devices of various families. In most cases, you just need to place the test clip over the chip and enter the device base number. V200 can functionally test almost all IC families, making it an ideal choice for PCB repair centers, production line Recovery and Production-line Functional Test Centers. It is designed with custom hybrid drivers to back drive and force a particular test pattern into a test node for in-circuit testing. The hybrid drivers provide reliability, compactness and ease of maintenance. You can interactively test a device under actual in-circuit conditions, as the device is present in a board, or in out-circuit mode, using the external interface. In in-circuit mode, the system compensates the drive pattern according to the connections of the device. For example, if an input pin is grounded or linked to an output pin, the system does not drive that pin. In-circuit mode is useful for testing a device under the actual circumstances in which it is going to be used in the PCB.

Opening the In-Circuit Testing


There are two ways you can open the In-Circuit Test program in windows environment. You can select the Interactive Application program from your Programs menu and click on the In Circuit button in the Interactive Application window. Alternatively, you can double click the Interactive Application shortcut icon in your desktop and click on the In Circuit button in the Interactive Application window.

III.1 How to: Starting the In-Circuit Testing


1. To start the In-Circuit Test program window, click on the Start button, and point to Programs. (Figure 3.1) 2. Point to the folder named Qmax and then click on the Interactive Application icon in the Test Director II sub-folder. The Interactive Application window opens. (Figure 3.2) 3. After opening the Interactive Application window, click on the In-circuit button in the Interactive Application window. (Figure 3.3) 4. After clicking on the In-Circuit button, the In-Circuit window opens as shown in Figure. (Figure 3.5)

III-2

In-Circuit Functional Testing

Figure 3.1. Starting the In-Circuit program window

Figure 3.2 Interactive Workstation Windows

Figure 3.3 In-Circuit Icon


Alternatively, to start the In-Circuit Test program window you can Double Click on the Interactive Application shortcut icon (Figure 3.4) on your desktop as shown below.

Figure 3.4 InterActive Application desktop shortcut


After opening the Interactive Application window follow the steps as described above.

Selection
This mode is selected by selecting the In-circuit Icon in the Interactive Workstation Main Menu Icons.

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Test Director II Users Manual

Figure 3.5 In-Circuit Device Test Window

III.2 Function
In-circuit mode tests any device selected for its functional program written in the Library and compares the actual output from the device. When the outputs matches with the expected outputs in the Library, the device is declared Passed Functionally ,else fails. In the In-Circuit mode of testing, if an input pin is connected to Vcc / Gnd or linked to an output pin of the same device the system will not drive the input pin, when its linked to an output pin. Corresponding interfaces like clips and probes are to be used to connect the device for test.

III.3 Features in the In-Circuit Test Window


III.3.0 Device Name
Begin testing of device by entering the Base Number of the device printed on the chip such as DM74LS00P as 7400 simply, in the edit box provided then you choose the package type of the device from the available package types, which will be listed out, for your convenience. After completing the above basic information needed, if you want to get the information about the device, you can click the Device data button. The information about the device, that is, the pin-out, and the description of each pin is displayed. Once you test a device, its name gets entered in the drop-down list, so next time you want to test the same device, you need not enter the device name again; you can simply select the device name from the drop-down list.

III-4

In-Circuit Functional Testing

Figure 3.6. In-Circuit window

Device List Utility

Figure 3.7 Device List Utility Button


This option is provided to list the devices available in the library, for which the functional test routines are available in the system database. By default, this option gives the device library listing provided with the system.

III.3.1 Device List


The database list window provides the facility to list all the devices in the database or list specific devices. You can use the following options to display the device list. If the device could not be found in the list, an error message is displayed. The device list can be printed or stored to a file for further reference. Apart from giving the list of devices as per the specified category, this option is also very useful to find the equivalents or aliases of standard devices.

Device list window-Field Descriptions

Figure 3.8 Field Descriptions (Query Specifications) window

Device Name
This edit box is to enter the Base Number of the device as its name. e.g., DM7474CB can be entered as 7474 only. If the number to be entered is not clear wildcards like ? and * can also be entered to display the devices present in the database. The devices whose names match with the specified name will be displayed. In case the device name need not be matched for the current query, make this entry blank.

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Test Director II Users Manual

Library You can select the library and test the devices present. The default library is listed as various packages such TTL, CMOS, etc., If you have created user Library using your own names etc., will be dropped out and you can select the respective libraries. Package Select the package type to list the devices of the specified package type present in the database. No. of Pins Enter the number of pins to list devices having the specified number of pins. Make the entry blank if the number of pins need not be matched for the current query.

Description (Device)
Enter the description of the device. When the Query button is clicked, devices having the specified description would be listed. Even if part of the description string is entered, the matching entries are filtered and listed. If the description need not be matched for the current query, make the entry blank. Normally, the description is for identifying the device as per its functionality. If query match takes place all the devices in the category will be listed out and you can select the device you require to test.

Figure 3.9 Device List dialog box Include Aliases also in the listing
Tick mark in this selection box, Include Aliases also in this listing, the device list includes the device name as well as its aliases of similar type devices.

Number of devices found


Displays the total number of devices that are displayed based on the current query. Close Use this to close the dialog box. Select This facility is used to add the selected device from the list displayed to the Device name in the test window. Click the left mouse button on the device number in the list shown and press select button, which automatically enter the device number into the Test window. Now you are ready to run the test.

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III.3.2 Library
You can select the library and test the devices present in the library. The default library is loaded family wise, like TTL, CMOS etc., If any user Library created that also will be dropped out for selection. You can select the type of Library as per the device program available.

III.3.3 Package
Select the package type of the device that is to be tested. The package type can be DIP(300/600), SIP, PLCC or SOIC, METALCAN.

III.3.4 Threshold Library


The device test program has its own drive voltage levels and receives threshold levels defined in the database. When you select the library threshold option, the device is tested using the threshold defined in the database by default.

User
This facility is provided to the user to select his choice for the threshold setting to test the device. At times, the device may fail when tested using the threshold defined in the library. The devices output could be in the in-between state if the testing was done at critical threshold levels. So, it may be required to test the device using a different threshold (loosening the threshold). Selecting the User button does this option. When the User option is selected, the system prompts you to choose the threshold levels before testing the device.

Figure 3.10 Threshold and Time Per Tick dialog box III.3.5 Time per tick Library
The test programs for each device has its drive speed defined in the database. When you select the Library option, the device is driven for testing using the speed defined in the database i.e. default drive speed.

User
This facility is provided to the user to select his choice for the drive speed. At times, the device may fail when driven using the drive speed defined in the library. It could be due to the In-circuit configuration making the device to operate at a lower speed, or if the output pin of the device is loaded with R-C, then its response will be slower than the normal operating speed. So, it may be required to test the device using a different drive speed rather than the one defined in the library. This is done by selecting the User button in the Times per tick selection box.

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Any change in the Threshold or Times per tick default values will pop up customize Threshold/Time base menu and the user can select the required values accordingly then proceed with testing.

III.3.6 Test
Click Test button to start testing the device.

III.3.7 Device Data


To view the device information, click the Device Data button. The pin-out information and the description of each pin are displayed in the clip window. You can also make a hard copy of the device information if required. Printer icon is placed in the bottom of the window.

III.3.8 Compare
This facility is provided to check similar devices. By testing one good device, other devices are being compared for its inputs and outputs. This feature will be useful for checking more number of devices.

Fig 3.11 Pin Status Compare Window


III.3.9 Listen
Listen facility is provided to monitor the device activities when the device is powered and when the device is not driven with any test pattern. When a device fails the ICFT, this button can be used to check a device just like a logic analyzer. In the Listen mode, the test program simply monitors all the ticks.

III.3.10 Loop Test


Loop test button is used to check the consistency / stability of the device under test during power on conditions. You are presented with a number of options of how the system has to test the device. You can also set the loop counts with internal pull up /pull down options.

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Set Loop Test Conditions


The Loop Test option is provided to check how stable the device behavior is. To test the device in a loop, click the button Loop Test. Set Loop Test Conditions dialog box is displayed (Figure 3.12) and the loop test can be initiated after the various test conditions are set according to the requirement.

Select tests
Pin Status tests Selecting this option, the loop test checks the Pin status. Pin status checking is done by comparing the clip status obtained during the first time with the status obtained during the subsequent times and if they match they are declared pass. Actual functional testing is not done. This option is good for checking the contact between the DUT and the test clip.

Figure 3.12 Set loop test conditions dialog box


Functional tests Selecting this option, the system takes the clip status only once, but drives the DUT and tests it functionally a number of times as specified by the loop number. This option is useful in testing intermittent functional failures. Both the tests Selecting this option, the clip status is done each time before the DUT is functionally tested.

Unconditional loop
Check this option to perform the tests unconditionally the number of times as specified in the loop count. Checking this disables the Stop at option.

Stop when
Clip Status compares different Select this option to stop the loop test when the clip status condition of the DUT changes during one test to another test. Clip Status compares same Select this option to stop the loop test when the clip status of the DUT is the same during Loop test.

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Functional test fails Select this option to stop the loop test when the functional test performed on the DUT fails. Functional test passes Select this option to stop the loop test when the functional test performed on the DUT passes. Functional test compares same Select this option to stop the loop test when the functional test result performed on the DUT is the same as that of the result performed during the very first time. Functional test compares different Select this option to stop the loop test when the functional test result performed on the DUT is different from that of the result when performed during the very first time.

Use Internal pull-up / pull down


If the option Use internal pull-up is checked, then the system uses its internal pull-up resistors while performing the loop test if the device is an open-collector device. Select this option, if you not sure the device's output pins have been pulled up or not.

Loop count
Enter the number of times the DUT is to be tested.

Abort
Click the Abort button, to cancel the operation.

Figure 3.13 Compare Test result window

Proceed
Click the Proceed button, to perform the loop test. While performing the loop test, when the device fails the very first time due to clock pins, the clock pin termination is performed by displaying the Clock pin termination dialog box. But, when the device passes the very first time and if the device fails in a subsequent test in the loop, the clock pin termination option is not invoked because all the devices testing in the loop test mode is with reference to the first device.

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III.3.11 Identify
Clicking the Identify button identifies the device by comparing it with the devices in the library. It comes out with a list of possible devices with their identification numbers.

Description
During search of base number of ICs it is experienced that at times the base number of the device is not clear or not readable. The Identify option provided in the testing (both Incircuit & Out-circuit) can identify a device by comparing it with the devices in the library. It comes out with a list of possible devices with their names. This feature also helps in testing devices that are not supported in the library, by identifying the equivalent devices and using their test routines to test them. This useful feature can only be used in powered condition and preferably in the in-circuit conditions. The front-end menu is organized in such a manner that the information entered helps the program in filtering the devices lists for matching conditions.

Device Identity Window-Field Descriptions


This option provides various fields for the user to enter pertinent details about the device to be identified. This helps in narrowing down the search for matching conditions, and the results are also more effective. Pins Enter the total number of pins for the device to be identified. Package Select the package type (DIP, PLCC or SOIC) from the drop down list. Library The library selected in the in-circuit / out-circuit mode is displayed initially. Select the library from the drop list. If the user has developed libraries they can also be selected.

Match floating pins


When a pin floats, it could be an un-connected input or a tri-state output or a bi-directional pin. This information is used in selective foot print matching (i.e. the pin status of the devices in the library are matched with the pin details recognized from the clip status, in arriving at the filtered list). With this option enabled, the identify list becomes smaller and hence it can identify the device faster and more accurately. Check for OC devices and Check for OE devices only Check this option, if the user suspects the device as an OC/OE device. Then the comparison is made only with the OC/OE devices in the library, resulting in faster and more accurate identification. Check for bus devices only Check this option, if the user suspects the device as a bus device. Then the comparison is made only with the bus devices in the library, resulting in faster and more accurate identification. Check All libraries This check box selection used to check all the libraries made including the user libraries to identify the devices. You can check this box for all the times.

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User custom selections


Custom threshold and Custom time base User can select custom threshold to compare for identifying the devices and the time base for selecting the Library devices in the list. This makes the search faster and the result will be more accurate to find out correct device. Similarly User can check the box provided for Internal termination, which is hardwired for selecting any unknown device scrutiny. Identify the unknown device Click this button to start the identifying process.

Figure 3.14 Identify dialog box


Retest the previous list Click this button to retest the previous identified device list.

III.3.12 Procedure for identifying a device


Following steps given below can identify the device, taking into account all the guidelines explained above. 1. Click the button Identify. 2. The Identify window opens with the default options set. 3. Enter the number of pins for the device to be identified. 4. Select the package type of the device to be identified. 5. Select the library that would probably match the device to be identified.

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6. Setting these options and other custom selections are to be checked and click the button Identify the unknown device. 7. Then, the clip status of the device is displayed in the Clip Status window. The Power pins, HIZ pins, the NC pins and the float pins are clearly displayed. You can confirm the presence of the power pins from the clip status, before proceeding further.

Figure 3.15 Confirm action dialog box 8. The devices that match the footprint according to the parameters prefixed earlier are displayed (Figure 3.16(a)).

Figure 3.16 (a) Matching Footprint with Library

Figure 3.16 (b) Tested Devices Description Window


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Figure 3.16 (c) Devices that match the footprint dialog


9. From the list displayed, select the devices that match with footprint and press the Check button to proceed further. Otherwise click the Check all button.

Figure 3.17 (a) Testing Device

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Fig 3.17(b). Set parameters dialog box


Now the Set parameters dialog box (Figure 3.17 (b)) is displayed. By default, the devices are tested with the system library time base and threshold settings. For testing, if you would like to define your own time base and threshold settings this dialog box will lead you to edit palette and drive speed. This is normally done when the devices are not identified with the default settings otherwise you can click Use Default. 10. In case of OC/OE devices, the user has the option of using pull-up/pull-down feature respectively, to test the devices. 11. The device is checked and the result is displayed in the List of identified devices dialog box as shown in the above figure. The device will be tested as per the selections made above and the passed list of devices will be listed out. Hence you can see the device for which the result tested is passed and this is the identified device. Click the Retest the previous list to retest the previous identified device list if you have any doubt to recheck.

III.4 Invoking the Set up Options


Click on the To Set Options button in the Out-Circuit Device Test window in the Interactive Workstation suite.

Figure 3.18 To Set Options button


Clicking on To Set Options button opens a new window called Options.

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Figure 3.19 Setup Options dialog box


The software is made for selection of some optional settings for you, while operating in the In- circuit mode. The various options listed in the Options Window are Auto Clipping, Back Driving Defense Time Limit, Internal Pull-up, Guarding, Listen mode and General options. Select the general options from General options sub-window. The General options like BUT should be kept always on while testing. The other options like Scroll to Error, Match LZ to Power, diagnostic Prompt , Compare Links against Netlist of the Board, Delay for drive pattern after BUT power switched on are provided with control box for Checking and Unchecking. On selection of the above shown options the selected control will be exhibited during testing. Otherwise the default options will be made through for all device testing. You can make various preferences before the testing begins. This facilitates the use of full control of software for different options.

III.5 Steps to be followed for In-circuit testing


1. Click the In Circuit button from the toolbar. 2. The In Circuit mode window opens. 3. Enter the name of the device that is to be tested. 4. To display the details of the device, click the Device Data button. 5. Place the clip on the device that is to be tested. 6. Select the package type for the device that is to be tested. 7. To test the device using the default threshold defined in the library, check the Library threshold button. To test the device in the user defined threshold, select the User button.

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8. To test the device using the default time base (times per tick) defined in the library, check the Library time base (times per tick) button. To test the device in the user defined time base (times per tick), select the User button. 9. To test the devices click the Test button. 10. The system starts testing the device, by trying to locate the position of the device in the clip. In case there is any problem auto clipping, the system displays an error message. 11. In case of an output level error, the system prompts for an alternative. The user can either slow down the drive speed or loosen the threshold level and retry testing. 12. If a device fails due to clock pins, Clock pin terminator dialog box appears listing the clock pins of the BUT with their default values of resistors and voltages. You can change these values and click the Drive button for the changes to take effect. You can also skip the termination process by clicking the Skip button. The modified resistance and voltage values are for the current device and current session and they are not retained for the next device or session. 13. While testing the device, the results of the test are displayed in the message window. 14. Click the Listen button to monitor the device activities when the device is powered and when the device is not driven with any test pattern. When a device fails the ICFT, this button can be used to check a device just like a logic analyzer. In the Listen mode, the test program simply monitors all the ticks. 15. To perform the loop test click the button Loop test. (The Loop test procedure is explained in the respective section ) 16. Clicking the Identify button identifies the device by comparing it with the devices in the library. It comes out with a list of possible devices with their identification numbers. (The Identify test procedure is explained in the respective section)

Figure 3.20 Window showing device functionally passed

Summary
In-circuit mode of testing the devices is most widely and frequently used option for testing troubleshooting the electronic devices. This Chapter has covered all the options that need to be understood for the maximum usage of functions in V200.

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Chapter IV

Out-Circuit Functional Testing

Test Director II Users Manual

Introduction
The Out-Circuit testing is basically same as In-Circuit testing, except that the device is taken out of circuit while testing. The Out-Circuit Tester board must be used for this testing. This board is provided with a tiny lever operated ZIF (Zero Insertion Force) IC socket (marked as DEVICE) for easy plug-in and plug-out of device. It is provided with Loading Hybrids (one each for TTL and CMOS) to load all the pins to facilitate testing of ICs while loaded. These act as loads as well as pull-up resistors to the outputs. The appropriate loading hybrid is to be plugged in respective socket. Please do not use these loads in case if you are testing other logic families like ECL, EIA etc. In out-circuit mode, the system warns about any short detected between the pins, since there cannot be any shorts in out-circuit mode, but continues to drive the pins with their actual test pattern. Out-circuit mode is useful for checking whether the device is actually bad or not.

IV.1 How to: Starting the Out-Circuit Testing


The procedure for opening the Out Circuit test program window is same as that for opening In Circuit window as explained in Chapter 3. The figure below shows the Out Circuit icon. Clicking on this button opens the Out Circuit Testing Window.

Figure 4.1. Out-circuit Icon

Figure 4.2. Out-Circuit Window

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IV.2 Function
This mode of testing is useful for testing devices in the received condition is good or bad. Devices for its functionality can be tested in this mode. The devices are to be plugged in into the ZIF adaptor and locked with the pin 1 of the device in the marked position. VCC and GND connection jumpers are to be placed as per the device data pin connections. The Out-Circuit board is to be used for this testing.

Figure 4.3. Out-Circuit Board


This board is provided with a tiny lever operated ZIF (Zero Insertion Force) IC socket (marked as DEVICE) for easy plug-in and plug-out of device. It is provided with Load Boards (one each for TTL and CMOS) to load all the pins to facilitate testing of ICs while testing. This board act as loads as well as pull-up resistors to the outputs. The appropriate loading board is to be plugged in at J3 socket. The test cable is to be plugged-in at sockets J1 and J2. The out-circuit board is powered by plugging-in the power connector at J6 and tapping the power from the front panel at device power terminals. The device is powered by setting the jumpers on the two SIP connectors (J4 and J5). These connectors have three vertical rows of pins. The pins in the middle row of J5 (second) are wired to the left half of the ZIF socket. The pins in the middle row of J4 are wired to the right half of the ZIF socket. All the pins in the left row (first) of J4 and J5 are connected to VCC whereas all the pins in the right row (third) are connected to GND. To connect a pin of device to VCC, the jumper should be placed in the left position (linking rows 1&2). To connect a pin to GND, the jumper should be placed in the right position (linking rows 2&3). Any good device, when tested for out-circuit, must pass the functional test as it is tested in total isolation.

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When a device is reported to fail the in-circuit test, after checking the possible causes, it is always advisable to test it in out-circuit mode before declaring the device as faulty. This will confirm the device failure and help the troubleshooting to be in the right direction. Out-circuit can also be used to test any device, before it can be used in the circuit. This helps to weed out the possibility of using a faulty device during a circuit board assembly.

IV.3 Features in the Out-Circuit Test Window

Figure 4.4 Out-Circuit Test Window IV.3.0 Device Name


Begin testing of device by entering the Base Number of the device printed on the chip such as DM74LS00P as 7400 simply, in the edit box provided then you choose the package type of the device from the available package types, which will be listed out, for your convenience. After completing the above basic information needed, If you want to get the information about the device, you can click the Device data button. The information about the device, that is, the pin-out, and the description of each pin is displayed. Once you test a device, its name gets entered in the drop-down list, so next time you want to test the same device, you need not enter the device name again; you can simply select the device name from the drop-down list.

Device List Utility button

Figure 4.5 Device List Utility Button


This option is provided to list the devices available in the library, for which the functional test routines are available in the system database. By default, this option gives the device library listing provided with the system.

IV.3.1 Device List


The Device list(Fig.4.6) provides the facility to list all the devices in the Library. You can use the following options to display the device list. If the device could not be found in the list, an error message is displayed. The device list can be printed or stored to a file for further reference. Apart from giving the list of devices as per the specified category, this option is also very useful to find the equivalents or aliases of standard devices.

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Device List Window-Field Descriptions


Device Name Enter the name of the device. Wildcards like ? and * can also be entered to display the devices present in the database. The devices whose names match with the specified name will be displayed. The usage for the wildcard option is the same as for the DOS command DIR. In case the device name need not be matched for the current query, make this entry blank.

Package
Select the package type to list the devices of the specified package type present in the database.

Pins
Enter the number of pins to list devices having the specified number of pins. Make the entry blank, if the no. of pins need not be matched for the current query.

Description of device
Enter the description of the device. When the Query button is clicked, devices having the specified description would be listed. Even if part of the description string is entered, the matching entries are filtered and listed. If the description need not be matched for the current query, make the entry blank.

Figure 4.6 Device List dialog box Include Aliases also in the listing
Selecting the Include Aliases button, the device list includes the device name as well as its aliases. Number of devices found Displays the total number of devices that are displayed based on the current query. Select This facility is used to add the selected device from the list displayed to the Device name in the test window. Click the left mouse button on the device number in the list shown and press select button, which automatically enter the device number into the Test window. Now you are ready to run the test.

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Close
Use this to close the dialog box.

IV.3.2 Library
You can select the library and test the devices present in the library. It is not possible for you to create a new library in WorkStation. Creating a library can only be done in IDDE. The default library in WorkStation is QMAX.

IV.3.3 Package
Select the package type of the device that is to be tested. The package type can be DIP300 or DIP600 or SIP or PLCC or SOIC, etc.

IV.3.4 Threshold Library


The device test program has its own drive voltage levels and receives threshold levels defined in the database. When you select the library threshold option, the device is tested using the threshold defined in the database by default.

User
This facility is provided to the user to select his choice for the threshold setting to test the device. At times, the device may fail when tested using the threshold defined in the library. The devices output could be in the in-between state if the testing was done at critical threshold levels. So, it may be required to test the device using a different threshold (loosening the threshold). Selecting the User button does this option. When the User option is selected, the system prompts you to choose the threshold levels before testing the device. Normally the user defined threshold settings need not to be done for out circuit testing.

Figure 4.7 Threshold and Times Per Tick Dialog Box IV.3.5 Time per tick

Library
The test programs for each device has its drive speed defined in the database. When you select the Library option, the device is driven for testing using the speed defined in the database i.e. default drive speed.

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User
This facility is provided to the user to select his choice for the drive speed. At times, the device may fail when driven using the drive speed defined in the library. It could be due to the In-circuit configuration making the device to operate at a lower speed, or if the output pin of the device is loaded with R-C, then its response will be slower than the normal operating speed. So, it may be required to test the device using a different drive speed rather than the one defined in the library. This is done by selecting the User button in the Times per tick selection box. Any change in the Threshold or Times per tick default values will pop up customize Threshold/Time base menu and the user can select the required values accordingly then proceed with testing. Generally the time base is defined in the library for all the devices. If required only, the user has to select different time base and test the devices in out circuit.

IV.3.6 Test
Click the Test button to start testing the device.

IV.3.7 Device Data


To get the device information, click the Device Data button. The pin-out information and the descriptions of each pin are displayed in the clip window. You can also print the device information, if required for which the printer icon is provided in the device data window.

Figure 4.8 Device Data Window IV.3.8 Compare


This facility is provided to check similar devices. By testing one good device, other devices are being compared for its inputs and outputs. This feature will be useful for checking more number of devices.

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Figure 4.9 Pin Status Compare Window

Figure 4.10 Device Comparison Same Window IV.3.9 Listen


The Listen facility is provided to monitor the device activities when the device is powered. Also no drive patterns will be driven into the device. This facility may be used to check a device just like a logic analyzer. In the Listen mode, the test program simply monitors all the ticks, which can be driven.

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Figure 4.11 Listen Facility Window IV.3.10 Loop test


To confirm the device test status, this facility Loop test to be used. Clicking the Loop test button, the system performs loop test mode, where it displays the Set Loop test conditions dialog. You are presented with a number of options of loop test to be carried out.

Set Loop Test conditions

Figure 4.12 Set loop test conditions dialog box


Set Loop Test Conditions dialog box is displayed and the loop test can be initiated after the various test conditions are set according to the requirement.

Select tests
Clip Status tests Selecting this option, the loop test checks the clip status. Comparing the clip status obtained during the first time with the status obtained during the subsequent times does clip status checking and if they match they are declared pass. Actual functional testing is not done. This option is good for checking the contact between the device and the test clip.

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Functional tests Selecting this option, the system takes the clip status only once, but drives the device and tests it functionally a number of times as specified by the loop number. This option is useful in testing intermittent functional failures. Both the tests Selecting this option, the clip status is done each time before the device is functionally tested.

Unconditional loop
Check this option to perform the tests unconditionally the number of times as specified in the loop count. Checking this disables the Stop at option.

Stop when
Clip Status compares different Select this option to stop the loop test when the clip status of the device compares different. Clip Status compares same Select this option to stop the loop test when the clip status of the device compares same. Functional test fails Select this option to stop the loop test when the functional test performed on the device fails. Functional test passes Select this option to stop the loop test when the functional test performed on the device passes. Functional test compares same Select this option to stop the loop test when the functional test result performed on the device is the same as that of the result performed during the very first time. Functional test compares different Select this option to stop the loop test when the functional test result performed on the device is different as that of the result when performed during the very first time.

Use Internal pull-up / pull down


If the option Use internal pull-up is checked, then the system uses its internal pull-up resistors while performing the loop test if the device is an open-collector device. Select this option, if the user is not sure if the device's output pins have been pulled up or not.

Loop count
Enter the number of times the device is to be tested.

Abort
Click the Abort button, to cancel the current operation.

Proceed
Click the Proceed button, to perform the loop test. While performing the loop test, when the device fails the very first time due to clock pins, the clock pin termination is performed by displaying the Clock pin termination dialog box. But, when the device passes the very first time and if the device fails in some others the

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clock pin termination option is not invoked, since all the devices testing in the loop test mode is with reference to the first device.

Figure 4.13 Loop test result dialog box IV.3.11 Identify


Clicking the Identify button identifies the device by comparing it with the devices in the library. It comes out with a list of possible devices with their identification numbers.

Figure 4.14 Device Identify Window Description


During search of base number of ICs it is experienced that at times the base number of the device is not clear or not readable. The Identify option provided in the testing (both Incircuit & Out-circuit) can identify a device by comparing it with the devices in the library. It comes out with a list of possible devices with their names. This feature also helps in testing devices, which are not supported in the library, by identifying the equivalent devices and using their test routines to test them.

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This useful feature can only be used in powered condition and preferably in the in-circuit conditions. The front-end menu is organized in such a manner that the information entered helps the program in narrowing down (filtering) the devices lists for matching conditions.

Device identity window-Field Descriptions


This option provides various fields for you to enter pertinent details about the device to be identified. This helps in narrowing down the search for matching conditions, and the results are also more effective.

Pins
Enter the total number of pins for the device to be identified.

Figure 4.15 Identify dialog box

Figure 4.16 Align clip message box Package


Select the package type (DIP, PLCC or SOIC) from the drop down list.

Match floating pins


When a pin floats, it could be an un-connected input or a tri-state output or a bi-directional pin. This information is used in selective foot print matching (i.e. the pin status of the devices in the library are matched with the pin details recognized from the clip status, in arriving at the filtered list). With this option enabled the identify list is smaller and hence it can identify faster and more accurately.

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Figure 4.17 Devices Matching with the Footprint Message Box Check for OC/OE devices only
Check this option, if you suspect the device as an OC/OE device. Then the comparison is made only with the OC/OE devices in the library, resulting in faster and more accurate identification.

Check for bus devices only


Check this option, if the user suspects the device as a bus device. Then the comparison is made only with the bus devices in the library, resulting in faster and more accurate identification.

Check all libraries


This check box selection used to check all the libraries made including the user libraries to identify the devices. You can check this box for all the times.

Custom threshold and Custom time base


User can select custom threshold to compare for identifying the devices and the time base for selecting the Library devices in the list. This makes the search faster and the result will be more accurate to find out correct device.

Use internal termination


Similarly User can check the box provided for Internal termination, which is hardwired for selecting any unknown device scrutiny.

Identify the unknown device


Click this button to start the identifying process.

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Figure 4.18 Device Identify window

Figure 4.19 Window Showing Tested devices Retest the previous list
Click this button to retest the previous identified device list.

IV.3.12 Procedure for identifying a device


Following steps given below can identify the device, taking into account all the guidelines explained above.

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1. Click the button Identify. 2. The Identify window opens with the default options set. 3. Enter the number of pins for the device to be identified. 4. Select the package type of the device to be identified. 5. Select the library that would probably match the device to be identified. 6. Setting these options and other custom selections are to be checked and click the button Identify the unknown device. The system prompts to align clips pin 1 to devices pin1. 7. Then, the clip status of the device is displayed in the Clip Status window. The Power pins, HIZ pins, the NC pins and the float pins are clearly displayed. You can confirm the presence of the power pins from the clip status, before proceeding further. (Figure 4.20)

Figure 4.20 Confirm action dialog box


8. The devices that match the footprint according to the parameters prefixed earlier are displayed (Figure 4.21).

Figure 4.21 Matching Footprint with Library Window

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Figure 4.22 Devices that match the footprint dialog


9. From the list displayed, select the devices that match with footprint and press the Check button to proceed further. Otherwise click the Check all button.

Figure 4.23 Set parameters dialog box 10. Now the Set parameters dialog box (Figure 4.23) is displayed. By default, the devices
are tested with the system library time base and threshold settings. For testing if you would like to define your own time base and threshold settings this dialog box will lead you to edit palette and drive speed. This is normally done when the devices are not identified with the default settings otherwise you can click Use Default. 11. In case of OC/OE devices, the user has the option of using pull-up/pull-down feature respectively, to test the devices. 12. The device is checked and the result is displayed in the List of identified devices dialog box as shown in the above figure.

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Interactive QSM

The device will be tested as per the selections made above and the passed list of devices will be listed out. Hence you can see the device for which the result tested is passed and this is the identified device. Click the Retest the previous list to retest the previous identified device list if you have any doubt to recheck.

IV.4 Invoking the Set up Options


Click on the To Set Options button in the Out-Circuit Device Test window in the Interactive Workstation suite.

Figure 4.24 To Set Options button


Clicking on To Set Options button opens a new window called Options.

Figure 4.25 Setup Options dialog box


The software is made for selection of some optional settings for you, while operating in the Out circuit mode. The various options listed in the Options Window are Auto Clipping, Back Driving Defence Time Limit, Internal Pull-up, Guarding, Listen Mode and General options. Select the general options from General options sub-window. The General options like BUT should be kept always on while testing in Out circuit mode. The other options like Scroll to Error, Match LZ to Power, diagnostic Prompt , Compare Links against Netlist of the Board, Delay for drive pattern after BUT power switched on are provided with control box for Checking and Unchecking. On selection of the above shown options the selected control will be exhibited during testing.

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Otherwise the default options will be made through for all device testing. You can make various preferences before the testing begins. This facilitates the use of full control of software for different options.

IV.5 Steps to be followed for Out Circuit Testing


1. Click the Out Circuit button from the toolbar. Alternatively, select the Out Circuit option from the Mode menu. 2. The Out Circuit mode window opens. 3. Enter the name of the device that is to be tested. 4. The out-circuit tester is powered by plugging-in the power connector at J6 and tapping the power from the front panel of V200 at BUT Power terminals. 5. The BUT is to be powered by setting the jumpers on the two SIP connectors (J4 and J5). These connectors have three vertical rows of pins. The pins in the middle (second) row of J5 are wired to the left half of the ZIF socket. The pins in the middle row of J4 are wired to the right half of the ZIF socket. All the pins in the left row (first) of J4 and J5 are connected to VCC whereas all the pins in right row (third) re-connected to GND. So, to connect a pin of BUT to VCC, the jumper should be placed in the left position (linking rows 1&2). To connect a pin to GND, the jumper should be placed in the right position (linking rows 2&3). 6. Place the device on the out-circuit test board. 7. To display the details of the device, click the Device Data button. 8. Select the package type for the device that is to be tested. 9. To test the device using the default threshold defined in the library, check the Library threshold button. To test the device in the user defined threshold, select the User button. You would be prompted to set the threshold while testing. 10. Check the Library button to test the device using the default speed defined in the library. To test the device in the user defined speed select the User button. You would be prompted to set the speed while testing 11. Click the Test button to test the device under test. 12. The system starts testing the device, by trying to locate the position of the device in the clip. In case there is any problem auto clipping, the system displays error message. 13. In case of an output level error, the system prompts for an alternative. The user can either slow down the drive speed or loosen the threshold level and retry testing 14. If a device fails due to the presence of clock pins, Clock pin terminator dialog box appears listing the clock pins of the BUT with their default values of resistors and voltages. You can change these values and click the Drive button for the changes to take effect. You can also skip the termination process by clicking the Skip button. The modified resistance and voltage values are for the current device and current session and they are not retained for the next device. 15. While testing the device, the results of the test are displayed in the message window. 16. Click the Listen button to monitor the device activities when the device is powered and when the device is not driven with any test pattern. When a device fails the ICFT, this

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Interactive QSM

button can be used to check a device just like a logic analyzer. In the Listen mode, the test program simply monitors all the ticks. 17. To perform the loop test click the button Loop test. 18. Clicking the Identify button identifies the device by comparing it with the devices in the library. It comes out with a list of possible devices with their identification numbers.

Summary
Out-circuit mode of testing the devices is used for testing and troubleshooting the ICs in out-circuit conditions. Plugging in the Out circuit Board can test number of ICs. This Chapter has covered all the options that need to be understood for the usage of the functions in V200.

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Chapter V

Interactive QSM

Test Director II Users Manual

Introduction
V.1 QSM Concept
A sine wave of selected amplitude, frequency and cycle count is injected into a circuit node. The resultant current flowing into the circuit with respect to amplitude is plotted as a trace. This trace reflects the electrical characteristics of the node or terminal under test. The VITrace test, although indicates a Voltage versus Current trace, can also be programmed to show the voltage trace against impedance (V/Z) or time (V/T). V200 uses a technique called QSM VI-Trace for testing the devices by measuring the nodal impedance. The most important feature is the movable reference nodes. Using this the terminal characteristics between any two nodes can be determined i.e. a particular pin's trace can be determined with respect to any other pin rather than GND alone. While testing a device or board for VI, using the VI-Trace method, sine wave is fed to the node under test with reference to the GND pin. This while referring to GND pin is the normal VI-Trace test. The resultant current and voltage of the node is captured and it is used to compute the VI-Trace. VI is voltage versus current. It can be displayed graphically. QSM mode offers yet another unique VI-Traces. Here the reference pin need not be GND alone; it can be any other pin in the DUT. For e.g. VI-Trace for a 20 pin device with normal VI will take 20 VI-Traces, whereas QSM will take 20*19/2 = 190 VI-Traces. This will increase the fault coverage multiple times compared to a normal VI-Trace. The VI-Trace test, although indicates a Voltage versus Current trace, can also be programmed to show the voltage trace against impedance (V/Z) or time (V/T). These can be stored in a database for comparison against another board or for analyzing purposes. Using the VI-Trace test you can check any circuit node or a device pin for its characteristic behavior. With this test method, you can observe how a device behaves with respect to the applied voltage. You can also detect subtle degradation in device performance by analyzing the traces. A special test probe is provided to access any node or device pin on the board. You can also test the devices using the test clips. QSM will increase the fault coverage multiple times as it does not use GND alone as reference pin. It selects all combinations by changing the reference pin.

V.2 When to use QSM for troubleshooting?


Basically, the QSM method is adopted for troubleshooting when you are unable to troubleshoot a PCB using ICFT methods. It is also used for testing generic components also for testing devices not supported in the library. But it is a must to have a Known Good working Board (KGB) for adopting the QSM methodology for comparing the reference responses with the signatures from the faulty board. Sometimes, for discrete devices like transistors might have test programs developed, but suitable clips/probes may not be available to test those specific packages. In those cases, they can be tested and troubleshooted only by using the flying channels instead of clips.

V.3 How to: Starting the QSM-VI Test


The procedure to open the interactive workstation is same as the one explained in chapter 3 for In-Circuit Functional Test. 1. To start the Interactive QSM-VI Test application window, click on the Start button, and point to Programs. (Figure 4.1)

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Interactive QSM

Figure 5.1 Opening the Interactive Workstation window


2. Point to the folder named Qmax and then click on the Interactive Application icon in the Test Director II sub-folder. The Interactive Application window opens. (Figure 5.2)

Figure 5.2 Interactive Workstation Window


3. After opening the Interactive Application window, click on the QSM-VI Icon in the tool bar section of the Interactive Application window. (Figure 5.3)

Figure 5.3 QSM-VI icon


4. After clicking on the QSM-VI Icon, a new window called Interactive Window opens as shown in Figure below. (Figure 5.4) Alternatively, to start the QSM program window you can Double Click on the Interactive Application shortcut icon on your desktop. After opening the Interactive Application window, follow the steps as described above

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Figure 5.4 Interactive QSM window


On top of the Interactive Window, a number of icons are listed as shown above.

Figure 5.5 Interactive QSM icons view

Figure 5.6 Select options icon


Clicking this icon opens a new window called QSM Options window. This dialog box sets up the various options for testing.

Figure 5.7 QSM Options Dialog Box


After selecting the values press Accept icon, otherwise press Cancel icon.

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Interactive QSM

Dialog box options


Log
When the log is on, the test results are all logged into a file.

Format
The log can be displayed in either of the two formats, namely Short and Verbose. When the option short is selected, the contents of the log file are given in short. When the option verbose is selected, the contents of the log file are in detail. When the log is off, the test results are not logged into the file. In the Short mode only failure analysis reports and the Device / Board Pass or Fail status will be reported. In Verbose apart from the analysis report, each pin failure report is included in the Log.

DRC check
When this option is On then the DRC check is performed.

V.4 Operating Mode


During UUT compare Stop on first failure
\When comparing the Traces the process will be stopped if any failure observed during the operation. This will stop testing further and other pins and links. This will be used for reliability check and confirm of similarity of device connectivity in the Board.

Detect Links
Checking this option will confirm the Links obtained in regular probing of Pins. Link confirmation shall be selected / deselected in Learn Mode. The same thing will apply to Verify and Test mode, where the mode at Learnt is followed. Link confirmation will be useful to avoid terming as short, any Low impedance point such as between Power Points or in case of reactive impedance loads. The UUT Learn function is a very useful feature provided in the interactive QSM mode. This feature is especially useful to test individual devices, because the complete testing of the device including tracing links, detecting shorts or opens, tracing the nodal characteristics etc. are done in one shot. Clicking the UUT Learn button start learning the device under test for all the above mentioned characteristics for all the pins of the device and the Reference pin can be changed and relearned for the check. Click on UUT Learn button Click this button to proceed further. It scans the device for open pins and the links present within the device. The open and short pins are displayed in the result box and the links / HIZ are displayed in the clip window. The UUT Compare function is useful in comparing devices for the learnt signatures. instantaneously. The characteristics of a good device learnt and tested with that of the suspected device being trouble-shooted.

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Figure 5.8 Device Compare connect Info Dialog Box

Connectivity
The same device can be compared against the previous learnt data Online comparison Using two clips the device data can be compared Comparison Options Mode Linear Non Linear Error % Trace Comparison Tolerance Enter the % of tolerance (in the Device Compare mode) whether the comparison is done allowing some % tolerance.

V.5 QSM VI Interactive window


The interactive window lists device info, Characteristics info, connection info, trace view and dual trace.

Figure 5.9 QSM Interactive Window

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Interactive QSM

UUT Info
Enter library, device name, total pins, Pin Number and reference Pin values.

Figure 5.10 Device Info Known or Unknown


Known represents the devices available in Library for quick reference. Unknown devices are those unavailable in Library or not identified for the base number of the device. Appropriate device selection can be made for correct results.

Device Name
Specify the name of the device that is to be tested.

Test Points
Enter the total number of pins for the device you are about to test. You can vary the total pins using the increment / decrement buttons. If the Device entered is found in library, the system will automatically enter the Total Pins while starting Interactive or other UUT Learn and compare modes.

Patterns
Default Qmax patterns which are generated and calibrated will be loaded for easy selection of available patterns for testing. If user wants to create new patterns he/she can select New button and follow the further screen menus. New button selection will open pattern pop up menu for selecting any pattern and name the pattern as the user desires. After this select the Number of cycles and other selective parameter as shown in the figure which is explained below:

Figure 5.11 Patterns window

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Figure 5.12 Waveform Details pop up menu


Enter the pattern name. If you want to change the name or delete the pattern, press Delete Pattern icon. Choose the amplitude, source impedance and time per tick values given in the individual buttons and select Next. Otherwise click on Abort icon to enter a new pattern name and fresh set of values. On clicking the Next icon, a new window called Define waveform window opens.

Figure 5.13 Define Waveform Window


In this window, you get Pattern type, Ticks per cycle, Cycles, Drive time, Amplitude. To select multiple patterns hold down the Ctrl key. Clicking on the Add button opens a new window called Define Patterns.

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Interactive QSM

Figure 5.14Define Patterns Pop up menu


Enter the values for ticks per cycle and number of cycles. Mention the polarity whether Unipolar or Bipolar. Enter the Amplitude value.

Select the waveform type

Figure 5.15 Waveform Type selection window


After selecting the values for Ticks per cycle, Number of cycles, Polarity, Amplitude and waveform type, Click on Apply icon. If you would like to enter different set of values and waveform type, click on Cancel icon. Click on Preview icon to preview the waveform pattern whether it is Mathematical (sin, cos, tan) Square, Triangle, Ramp or DC as defined so far in defining new pattern.

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Figure 5.16 Pattern Preview for the selected Waveform Definition


Click on Previous icon in the Define Waveform window to go back to the waveform details window. Press the Apply icon after entering the relevant values and after previewing the waveform. You will be prompted by the question asking you to save the current pattern as the User Defined Pattern. Click Yes if you want to save the parameters in a folder; otherwise click No

Connectivity
Select the Clip type, Probe type, fixture sub-window. Select the Probe& Ref channels by the drop down button

Figure 5.17 Device Connectivity window


Clip 1 Selecting Clip1 makes the mode of testing to be clip and selects Clip1 for testing. System supports two clip definitions. Clip 2 Selecting Clip2 makes the mode of testing to be clip and selects Clip2 for testing. Fixture Select this button to make the mode of testing to be fixture.

Probe(s)
Probe1 & Ref1 Selecting Probe1&Ref1 makes the mode of testing to be Probe and selects the flying probe as PROBE1 with Ref1.

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Interactive QSM

Probe 2 & Ref2 Selecting Probe2&Ref2 makes the mode of testing to be Probe and selects the flying probe as PROBE2 with Ref2. After entering the relevant values required for testing the board, press the Start button.

Figure 5.18 Interactive mode menu window

Online Comparison (Dual Trace Mode)


This Interactive mode is provided to see the dual trace for comparing two similar devices on Board. To view the traces for both the devices Both the Clips or Both Probes modes is to be selected. Checking the Dual Trace mode, two boards can be tested simultaneously and the traces compared. This is done by testing the trace with two probes i.e. probe 1 with respect to fixed reference 1 and probe 2 with respect to fixed reference 2. This mode would be useful in fast diagnosis of two similar boards without storing the traces. When this option is checked, the other modes are disabled. If Probe is selected, you should use both Probe1 and Probe2. In Clip mode, the system takes trace from Clip1 and Clip2. Fixture is not allowed in Dual Trace Mode.

Trace Mode
Select trace Mode whether VI, VT OR VZ.

Figure 5.19 Trace Mode select Box Select whether Dual trace is required or not.

Trace Modes
V-I Selecting V-I, displays the waveform as Voltage plotted against Current. The display type can be changed while performing the test.

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V-T Selecting V-T, displays the waveform as Voltage plotted against Time. The display type can be changed while performing the test. V-Z Selecting V-Z, displays the waveform as Voltage plotted against Impedance. The display type can be changed while performing the test. Start Click the Start button to start testing interactively. Stop Click the Stop button to stop testing interactively. Hence any component in PCB can be checked for its nodal impedance and characteristics in the PCB. Also two components, which are similar in circuitry, can be compared for its traces in the PCB. Thus QSM makes testing of components an easy and immediate result oriented procedure.

Traces Stored
Displays the number of traces that are stored. A maximum of 4 traces can be stored. In the traces window right click of the mouse opens up Store /Remove button for selection. Select the options accordingly and the traces stored will be updated as per the selection. Store Clicking the Store button, stores the current trace that is being tested interactively. Remove Click the Remove button to remove the trace that is stored.

V.6 Step-by-Step Procedure for Interactive mode QSM:


A trace can be learnt in the interactive mode as follows: 1. Place the clip on the device, if you are to use the clip as the testing mode. There is no auto clip and you will have to align Clip's Pin 1 to Device's Pin 1 always. 2. Enter the total number of pins for the device that is to be tested interactively. 3. Set the pin number and reference pin and click the Start Interactive button to start testing interactively. 4. Set the Pattern to be driven with which the device is to be learnt in the interactive mode. 5. Set the Connect Info whether Clip1 or Clip2 or Probe1 or Probe2. 6. Set Dual Trace option, to compare two boards simultaneously. When the Dual Trace is set, you can view the traces of each pin of both the board interactively and can do a comparative study about the devices 7. Click the Device Compare menu to test two devices pin by pin simultaneously in the interactive mode. Clicking the Device Scan menu, scans the device for any links within itself and any open pins. 8. Set the display whether the trace is plotted as voltage against current (V-I) or voltage against time (V-T) or voltage against impedance (V-Z).

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Interactive QSM

9. Check the Show Trace option, to show each and every trace. 10. The pin is tested with respect to the reference pin that is set. In the interactive mode, the device is learnt with fixed reference only. 11. Click the Stop Interactive button, to stop learning the trace interactively. 12. To store a trace, click the Store button. You can store as many as 4 traces. Once a trace has been stored, you cannot change the comparison type (linear, non-linear or error%). This is enabled again, only when all the stored traces are removed. 13. To remove the stored trace, click the Remove button. The total number of traces stored are also displayed 14. Once the device is tested, the result is displayed in the interactive window. 15. To quit the interactive mode, click the button Close.

Summary
This chapter explained the use of QSM traces usage and how to use effectively to troubleshoot the PCB. The use of various options for different applications also explained in a clear manner.

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Chapter VI

Measurements

Test Director II Users Manual Vol1

Introduction
This chapter describes the details of the procedures used to measure parameters such as Resistance(R), Capacitance(C), Voltage (V), Inductance (L), and Frequency (F) in the Interactive Workstation Window, using this tester.

VI.1 How to: Starting the Measurement Parameters


1. To start the measurements of parameters like resistance, capacitance, inductance, click on the Start button, and point to Programs. (Figure 6.1) 2. Click on the programs folder. This will open the available programs in the system. Select Qmax under which TestDirector suite is available and then click on the Interactive Application icon in the TestDirector II sub-folder. The Interactive Application window opens. (Figure 6.2) 3. After opening the Interactive Application window, click on the buttons of the parameters like resistance, capacitance, inductance which you would like to measure, in the Interactive Application window.

Figure 6.1 Opening the Interactive Workstation Window

VI.2

Measurements

Figure 6.2 Interactive Workstation Window


After opening the Interactive Workstation window click on the buttons of the parameters like resistance, capacitance, inductance which you would like to measure, in the Interactive Application window as shown in Figure 6.2 above. The following sections will clearly explain the various measurements, which can be performed using TestDirector II.

VI.2 Resistance

Figure 6.3 Resistance Measurement icon


The measurement of resistance is carried out for the device under test, which is known, or unknown in the Library.

Fig.6.4 Resistance measurement window The device under test is to be entered for its base number and the default details of the device will be updated from Library. If the base number of the device is not known clearly then select Device List Query button, next to it, and as per the devices found in the library select the appropriate device and the field will be updated.

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Click select Pin combinations button to get the pins selection for the reference and the pin measurement to be done. If any change in the package of the device under test, the query dialog box will be opened with all the devices in Library listed out. Select the appropriate device and click OK.

Figure 6.4 Query Dialog window


For Unknown devices enter the total test points which is the total pins in the device under test. Press Update and the pin combination data will be updated as per the total pins entered. Connectivity Select the appropriate clip, fixture or Probes to be used to make connectivity to the device under test with the tester. For devices, Clip is to be selected and the clips available in the list can be selected. For custom applications the newly made fixture if any can be selected for the device under test. Probes and references can be selected if any measurement to be done using the same. The clips, Probes and fixtures once thus made physically if entered in the list then the same can be utilized for measurement purposes at any point of testing.

Select Pin Combinations


This feature is provided whether to carryout the test for all the pins or selected pins with Fixed Reference or moving reference method.

VI.4

Measurements

Figure 6.5 Select pin combination window Fixed Reference


Select the pin which is reference and the values are measured with respect to this pin only.

Moving reference
Moving reference pin is for checking the values from the reference pin to other pins in the forward direction or with cross-reference. Select the appropriate reference pin and types of combination for which the value is to be measured. Choosing the correct pin combinations click OK. The test points and ref points will be updated and the tester is now ready to measure the values. Learn Click Learn button to start learning all the pin combinations selected and the values will be displayed in the Exp Value column. On checking multiple times the Tolerance can be set in to have the error of approximation for the learnt value . The Set tolerance pop up window is illustrated below. Select the tolerance Information for the device under test as required and enter the tolerance required in percentage, Envelope value min-max, or range within values.

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Figure 6.6 Set Tolerance Window


This can be selected for the pin displayed or for remaining pins in the device under test or for all pins combinations selected. Enter OK once concluded with tolerance ranges. Verify the values learnt are ok by doing once Learn. Test Now Test the device under test for the measured values with tolerance set in. Once the test runs the Actual value column will be filled with the values read. Applied tolerance for each pin value and the actual value read is displayed with the result whether the value is within or out of tolerance. The Green color value means pass and red color means fail. Also the overall result is updated for Pass or Fail as per the tolerance set in. The same procedure may be applied with fixtures and Probes Any channels provided in the tester can be used to connect the terminals of the resistance using clips or out circuit Board Adaptor. Export The values measured in a device under test can thus be exported using this button to any of the application for which the tester is being used . Interactive Mode When the device under test is connected with the concerned clips, fixture or Probes the value can be read instantaneously using this mode.

VI.6

Measurements

The Selected pin combination displayed with double arrow in the screen will be measured and displayed its current value for reference. The value displayed may be cross checked with the value in the actual column for the learnt and tested value. Whenever the start button is clicked, the instantaneous value of resistance across the terminals of probe and reference is measured and displayed.

Figure 6.7 Resistance measurement

Start
Click on the Start button to measure the resistance. The instantaneous value obtained will be displayed.

Stop
Stop button is to be used as soon as the measurement is over. This brings an end to the measurement operation using the tester.

Stability Check Calibrate


This button is provided for calibrating the measurement before measuring any unknown value. In resistance measurement the calibrate button is provided to do calibration if required. Normally, this is performed before learning any values and the calibration provides any undue errors in the initial set value will be corrected. Automatic calibration menu will be displayed if any change in the reference value is more then the limit.

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Number of Samples to average This check box is provided to average the result value obtained from the device for the pins measured and the number of times the samples to be averaged is to be entered and the result will be displayed accordingly. The values displayed will be the averaged as in the check box and the default is one sample average.

VI.3 Capacitance
The capacitance icon in the interactive workstation window is shown in the Figure 6.8. When this icon is clicked the capacitance window will be invoked.

Figure 6.8 Capacitance icon

Figure 6.9 Capacitance Measurement Window


The measurement of capacitance is carried out for the device under test, which is known, or unknown in the Library. The device under test is entered for its base number and the default details of the device will be updated from the library. If the base number of the device is not known clearly, then select Device List Query button, next to it, and as per the device found in the library, select the appropriate device and the field will be updated. Click select Pin combinations button to get the pins selection for the reference and the pin measurement to be done. If any change in the package of the device under test, the query dialog box will be opened with all the devices in Library listed out. Select the appropriate device and click OK.

VI.8

Measurements

Figure 6.10 Query Dialog window


For Unknown devices enter the total test points which is the total pins in the device under test. Press Update and the pin combination data will be updated as per the total pins entered. Connectivity Select the appropriate clip, fixture or Probes to be used to make connectivity to the device under test with the tester. For devices Clip is to be selected and the clips available in the list can be selected. For custom applications the newly made fixture if any can be selected for the device under test. Probes and references can be selected if any measurement to be done using the same. The clips , Probes and fixtures once thus made physically if entered in the list , then the same can be utilized for measurement purposes at any point of testing.

Select Pin Combinations


This feature is provided whether to carryout the test for all the pins or selected pins with Fixed Reference or moving reference method. Fixed Reference Select the pin which is the reference and the values are measured with respect to this pin only. Moving reference Moving reference pin is for checking the values from the reference pin to other pins in the forward direction or with cross-reference. Select the appropriate reference pin and types of combination for which the value is to be measured. Choosing the correct pin combinations click OK. The test points and ref points will be updated and the tester is now ready to measure the values.

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Figure 6.11 Select pin combination window


Learn Click Learn button to start learning all the pin combinations selected and the values will be displayed in the Exp Value column. On checking multiple times, the Tolerance can be set in to have the error of approximation for the learnt value . The Set tolerance pop up window is illustrated below.

Figure 6.12 Set Tolerance Window

VI.10

Measurements

Select the tolerance Information for the device under test as required and enter the tolerance required in percentage, Envelope value min-max, or range within values. This can be selected for the pin displayed or for remaining pins in the device under test or for all pins combinations selected. Enter OK once concluded with tolerance ranges.

Verify the values learnt are ok by doing once Learn. Test Now Test the device under test for the measured values with tolerance set in. Once the test runs the Actual value column will be filled with the values read. Applied tolerance for each pin value and the actual value read is displayed with the result whether the value is within or out of tolerance. The Green color value means the pass and red color means fail. Also the overall result is updated for Pass or Fail as per the tolerance set in. The same procedure may be applied with fixtures and Probes Any channels provided in the tester can be used to connect the terminals of the capacitance using clips or Out Circuit Board Adaptor. Export The values measured in a device under test can thus be exported using this button to any of the application for which the tester is being used. Interactive Mode When the device under test is connected with the concerned clips, fixture or Probes the value can be read instantaneously using this mode . The Selected pin combination displayed with double arrow in the screen will be measured and displayed its current value for reference. The value displayed may be crosschecked with the value in the actual column for the learnt and tested value. Whenever the start button is clicked, the instantaneous value of resistance across the terminals of probe and reference selected, is measured and displayed.

Start
Click on the Start button to measure the resistance. The instantaneous value obtained will be displayed.

Stop
Stop button is to be used as soon as the measurement is over. This brings an end to the measurement operation using the tester.

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Stability Check
Calibrate
This button is provided for calibrating the measurement before measuring any unknown value. In Capacitance measurement the calibrate button is provided to do calibration if required Normally, this is performed before learning any values and the calibration provides any undue errors in the initial set value will be corrected Automatic calibration menu will be displayed if any change in the reference value is more then the limit. You need not do any calibration at the time of testing. Number of Samples to average This check box is provided to average the result value obtained from the device for the pins measured and the number of times the samples to be averaged is to be entered and the result will be displayed accordingly. The values displayed will be the averaged as in the check box and the default is one sample average.

VI.4 Voltage
The Voltage icon in the interactive workstation is shown in the Figure. The measured voltage is displayed using the unit volts. To measure DC voltages while testing a PCB or any other electronic circuitry, this feature is provided. Voltages upto 25 volts maximum can be measured. In the Interactive WorkStation window, select the voltage (V) icon for measuring the voltage. The voltage measurement window opens as shown below in figure

Figure 6.13 Voltage icon in Interactive Workstation window


The measurement of voltage is carried out for the device under test pins which is known or unknown in the Library. The device under test is entered for its base number and the software automatically searches for the presences of this number in the library and updates the field. Click select Pin combinations button to get automatic search of the device in the Library. If any change in the package the query dialog box will be opened with all the devices in Library listed out. Select the appropriate device and click OK. For Unknown devices enter the total test points which is the total pins in the device under test.

VI.12

Measurements

Figure 6.14 Query Dialog window


Press Update the Select pin combination data will be updated as per the total pins entered. Connectivity Select the appropriate clip, fixture or Probes to be used to make connectivity to the device under test with the tester. For devices, Clip is to be selected and the clips available in the list can be selected. For custom applications the newly made fixture if any can be selected for the device under test. Probes and references can be selected if any measurement to be done using the same. The clips, Probes and fixtures once thus made physically if entered in the list then the same can be utilized for measurement purposes at any point of testing.

Select Pin Combinations


This feature is provided whether to carryout the test for all the pins or selected pins with Fixed Reference or moving reference method.

Figure 6.15 Select pin combination window

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Fixed Reference
Select the pin which is the reference and the values are measured with respect to this pin only.

Moving reference
Moving reference pin is for checking the values from the reference pin to other pins in the forward direction or with cross-reference. Select the appropriate reference pin and types of combination for which the value is to be measured. Choosing the correct pin combinations click OK. The test points and ref points will be updated and the tester is now ready to measure the values . Learn Click Learn button to start learning all the pin combinations selected and the values will be displayed in the Exp Value column. On checking multiple times the Tolerance can be set in to have the error of approximation for the learnt value . The Set tolerance pop up window is illustrated below

Figure 6.16 Set tolerance window

VI.14

Measurements

Figure 6.17 Voltage measurement

Differential voltage measurement


By default the differential button will not be enabled the reference pin will also be disabled. When this option differential is selected the reference pin is will be enabled. When the start button is clicked, it shows the differential voltage between the ref pin and the test pins of the device under test, in volts. This is shown in Figure

Figure 6.18 Voltage measurement when differential is selected

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VI.5 Inductance
The inductance icon is shown in the Figure 6.13. When the inductance icon in the Interactive Workstation window (Figure 6.14) is clicked the inductance window opens.

Figure 6.19 Inductance icon

Figure 6.20 Inductance Measurement window


The measurement of inductance is carried out for the device under test, which is known, or unknown in the Library. The device under test is entered for its base number and the default details of the device will be updated from library. If the base number of the device is not known clearly, then select Device List Query button, next to it, and as per the devices found in the library, select the appropriate device and the field will be updated. Click select Pin combinations button to get automatic search of the device in the Library. If any change in the package the query dialog box will be opened with all the devices in Library listed out. Select the appropriate device and click OK.

VI.16

Measurements

Figure 6.21 Query Dialog window For Unknown devices enter the total test points which is the total pins in the device under test.
Press Update and the pin combination data will be updated as per the total pins entered. Connectivity Select the appropriate clip, fixture or Probes to be used to make connectivity to the device under test with the tester. For devices Clip is to be selected and the clips available in the list can be selected. For custom applications the newly made fixture if any can be selected for the device under test. Probes and references can be selected if any measurement to be done using the same. The clips, Probes and fixtures once thus made physically if entered in the list then the same can be utilized for measurement purposes at any point of testing.

Select Pin Combinations


This feature is provided whether to carryout the test for all the pins or selected pins with Fixed Reference or moving reference method.

Figure 6.22 Select pin combination window

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Fixed Reference
Select the pin which is the reference and the values are measured with respect to this pin only.

Moving reference
Moving reference pin is for checking the values from the reference pin to other pins in the forward direction or with cross reference . Select the appropriate reference pin and types of combination for which the value is to be measured. Choosing the correct pin combinations click OK. The test points and ref points will be updated and the tester is now ready to measure the values . Learn Click Learn button to start learning all the pin combinations selected and the values will be displayed in the Exp Value column. On checking multiple times the Tolerance can be set in to have the error of approximation for the learnt value . The Set tolerance pop up window is illustrated below.

Figure 6.23 Set tolerance window

VI.18

Measurements

Select the tolerance Information for the device under test as required and enter the tolerance required in percentage, Envelope value min-max, or range within values. This can be selected for the pin displayed or for remaining pins in the device under test or for all pins combinations selected. Enter OK once concluded with tolerance ranges. Verify the values learnt are ok by doing once more Learn. Test Now Test the device under test for the measured values with tolerance set in Once the test runs the Actual value column will be filled with the values read. Applied tolerance for each pin value and the actual value read is displayed with the result whether the value is within or out of tolerance. The Green color value means the pass and red color means fail. Also the overall result is updated for Pass or Fail as per the tolerance set in. The same procedure may be applied with fixtures and probes Any channels provided in the tester can be used to connect the terminals of the inductance using clips or Out circuit Board Adaptor Interactive Mode When the device under test is connected with the concerned clips, fixture or Probes the value can be read instantaneously using this mode . The Selected pin combination displayed with double arrow in the screen will be measured and displayed its current value for reference. The value displayed may be cross checked with the value in the actual column for the learnt and tested value.

Start
Click on the Start button to measure the inductance. The instantaneous value obtained will be displayed.

Stop
Stop button is to be used as soon as the measurement is over. This brings an end to the measurement operation using the tester.

Stability Check Calibrate


This button is provided for calibrating the measurement before measuring any unknown value. In inductance measurement the calibrate button is provided to do calibration if required Normally ,this is performed before learning any values and the calibration provides any undue errors in the initial set value will be corrected

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Automatic calibration menu will be displayed if any change in the reference value is more then the limit. You need not do any calibration at the time of testing

VI.6 Frequency

Figure 6.24 Frequency icon


The frequency icon in the Interactive Workstation window is shown above. When this icon is clicked, the frequency measurement window appears and looks like as shown below in the Figure.

Frequency Jack
Check this box to enable the jack to be ready for Frequency measurement. Insert the Probe lead to attach with the Jack.

Figure 6.25 Frequency Options dialog box


The threshold range in volts is to be entered for measuring the frequency across the selected pin.

VI.20

Measurements

Figure 6.26 Frequency measurement


The measurement of frequency is carried out for the device under test, which is known, or unknown in the Library. The device under test is entered for its base number and the software automatically searches for the presences of this number in the library and updates the field. Click select Pin combinations button to get automatic search of the device in the Library. If any change in the package the query dialog box will be opened with all the devices in Library listed out. Select the appropriate device and click OK.

Figure 6.27 Query Dialog window


For Unknown devices enter the total test points which is the total pins in the device under test. Press Update the Select pin combination and data will be updated as per the total pins entered.

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Select Pin Combinations


This feature is provided whether to carryout the test for all the pins or selected pins with Fixed Reference or moving reference method.

Figure 6.28 Select pin combination window Choosing the correct pin click OK. The test points will be updated and the tester is now ready to measure the values . Click Learn button to start learning all the pin combinations selected and the values will be displayed in the Exp Value column. On checking multiple times the Tolerance can be set in to have the error of approximation for the learnt value . The Set tolerance pop up window is illustrated in Fig.6.29. Select the tolerance Information for the device under test as required and enter the tolerance required in percentage, Envelope value min-max, or range within values. This can be selected for the pin displayed or for remaining pins in the device under test or for all pins combinations selected. Enter OK once concluded with tolerance ranges. Verify the values learnt are ok by doing once Learn.

VI.22

Measurements

Figure 6.29 Set tolerance window


Now Test the device under test for the measured values with tolerance set in. Once the test runs the Actual value column will be filled with the values read. Applied tolerance for each pin value and the actual value read is displayed with the result whether the value is within or out of tolerance. The Green color value means the pass and red color means fail. Also the overall result is updated for Pass or Fail as per the tolerance set in. Interactive Mode When the device under test is connected the value can be read instantaneously using this mode . The Selected pin displayed with double arrow in the screen will be measured and displayed its current value for reference. The value displayed may be cross checked with the value in the actual column for the learnt and tested value.

Start
When the start button is clicked, it shows the frequency of the specified probe or the test channel. Refer Figure 6.18.

Stop
When the stop button is clicked on, the processing is stopped.

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Stability Check Number of samples to be averaged can be entered and that many times the averaging will be done and the value will be displayed for stable readings.

Note:
Frequency measurement value upto 48 MHz can be measured using this tester.

Summary
Thus, the method for measuring the Resistance, Capacitance, Voltage, Frequency and Inductance has been explained briefly in this chapter.

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Chapter VII

Open/Short Test

Test Director II Users Manual Vol1

Introduction
What is Open/Short Test
The OST Test option presented in the Interactive Main Menu is used for finding the opens / shorts present within the pins of a device/module/unit or connectors. Using Probe/Ref provided in the Front Panel of the machine or the channels provided in the connectors the Open/Short among the leads or any channel to another channel can be measured instantaneously. Custom fixtures also can be used for finding the same with the details of the fixture mapped with the tester channels..

VII.1 How to: Starting the Open/Short Test (OST) Window


The procedure to open the Interactive WorkStation window is the same as explained in Chapter 1. After opening the Interactive WorkStation Window, click on the Open/Short Test Icon as shown in Figure below.

Figure 7.1 Interactive WorkStation Window

Figure 7.2 Open/Short Testing icon


Alternatively you can also start the Open/Short Test by clicking on the InterActive Application shortcut icon on your Desktop

Figure 7.3 Interactive Application Window


After opening the Interactive WorkStation Window, click on the Open/Short Test Icon as shown in Figure 7.1. Clicking on the OST icon in the Interactive Workstation window shown in the previous page opens a new window called Open Short Test Measurement.

VII.2

Open/Short Test

VII.2 Description of the OST Measurement Window

Figure 7.4 OST Test Main screen


There are various test attributes provided as options in the interactive testing front-end menu and the following sections briefly describe them.

Figure 7.5 Device Info

UUT Information
Known Device / Unknown Device
The device is to be selected for the identity. If the base number of the device is known, select Known Device otherwise select Unknown device. Known device selection will enable the Library search for checking the availability of the device.

Device Name
Specify the name of the device that is to be tested.

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Device library
Enter Device library or the software will automatically search for it from the available Library when Select Pin combination is selected.

Unknown Device
If the device under test is not in the Library or the base number of the device is not known, this selection is to be made and enter the relevant details as required.

Total Test Pin


Enter the total number of pins for the device you are about to test.

Connectivity

Figure 7.6 Connectivity window Select Clip


This button is provided to select the required clip for clipping the device on board. Any clip is to be selected from the List of clips available.

Select Fixture
Fixture is custom made to test any particular device or component on board as per the requirement. The pins are to be selected as the design of the fixture.

Select Probe(s)
Select the probe and the reference points from Probe1& Ref1 or Probe 2&Ref

Select Pin Combinations


This feature is provided whether to carryout the test for all the pins or selected pins with Fixed Reference or moving reference method.

Figure 7.7 Select Pin Combination Window

VII.4

Open/Short Test

Fixed Reference
Select the pin which is the reference and the values are measured with respect to this pin only.

Moving reference
Moving reference pin is for checking the values from the reference pin to other pins in the forward direction or with cross-reference. Select the appropriate reference pin and types of combination for which the value is to be measured. Choosing the correct pin combinations click OK. The test points and ref points will be updated and the tester is now ready to measure the values . Click Learn button to start learning all the pin combinations selected and the values will be displayed in the Exp Value column. Before starting learning the appropriate clips , fixtures or Probes should have been selected and ready for learning.

VII.3 Drive Information for testing (OST parameters):

Figure 7.8 OST parameters Window Drive Voltage


Enter the drive voltage value to be driven into all the pins of the device under test.

Voltage Range
Select the voltage range from the drop down list of values. Select the nearby value for driving into the pins of the device. Ranges are 1V, 2.5V, 5V 8V & 13V.

Source Impedance
Select the source impedance through which the voltage selected to be driven into the device under test. Impedance ranges are 50 Ohms, 200 Ohms, 1Kohm, 10Kohm & 100Kohms.

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Time Base
Select the time base the speed in which the Open Short test to be carried out Option for time base selection runs from 100nS to 200Micro Seconds in the steps of 100 nS.

Threshold
This is the resistance the user has to enter for checking the Open short between the selected Probe and Ref or Test channels selecting Clip1 or fixture. More than this value the software will declare the returned value as Open.

Apply this value to


Selected pin combination All Remaining pin combination All pin combination Once the selection is made enter OK. Now the tester is ready to learn the Open Short among the pins displayed. Click Learn and see the Exp value for all pin combinations selected. Verify the values learnt are ok by doing once Learn. Now Test the device under test for the measured values with drive info. set in. Once the test runs the Actual value column will be filled with the values read. The Green color value means the pass and red color means fail. Also the overall result is updated for Pass or Fail .

Interactive Mode
When the device under test is connected with the concerned clips, fixture or Probes the value can be read instantaneously using this mode . The Selected pin combination displayed with double arrow in the screen will be measured and displayed its current value for reference. The value displayed may be cross checked with the value in the actual column for the learnt and tested value.

Start
Click on the Start button to measure the Open Short. The instantaneous value obtained will be displayed.

Stop
Stop button is to be used as soon as the measurement is over. This brings an end to the measurement operation using the tester.

VII.6

Open/Short Test

Calibrate
This button is provided for calibrating the measurement before measuring any unknown value. In OST measurement the calibrate button is provided to do calibration if there are changes in the values and the stored reference value is changed. Automatic calibration menu will be displayed if any change in the reference value is more then the limit. You need not do any calibration at the time of testing.

Summary
This chapter clearly explained the usage of OST module application for the devices under test using the Open Short testing method.

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VII.8

Chapter VIII

Oscilloscope

Test Director II Users Manual Vol1

Introduction
A brief overview of Digital Oscilloscopes
Digital oscilloscopes and waveform digitizers sample signals using a fast analog to digital converter (ADC). At evenly spaced intervals, the ADC measures the voltage levels and stores the digitized value in high-speed dedicated memory. The shorter the intervals, the faster the digitizing rates are, and hence higher signal frequency can be recorded. As the resolution of the ADC is greater, there is more sensitivity to small voltage changes. The time taken to record the values increases with more memory. With digital oscilloscopes having more memories, the benefits associated with these digital oscilloscopes are many some of which are listed below: No details are missed on the waveforms thanks to higher effective sampling rate. Permanent glitch capture without waveform distortion. Better time and frequency resolution.

VIII.1 Functional description


Qmax's Triple channel oscilloscope is a powerful high-resolution instrument for waveform analysis. The instruments features 12 bit ADCs, 8k if non-volatile acquisition memory per channel and a highly sophisticated trigger system to capture signals including spikes and glitches. Scope utility is provided with 0.5 to 2.5 V ranges and time-base of 4 microseconds to 8milliSeconds in step of 4 microseconds ranges. There are facilities for capturing waveforms, and analysis is possible through cursor measurements. Capturing of the expected waveforms is possible with powerful triggering facility. Single mode is available to see the instant waveforms.

Main features
12-bit resolution 8K Memory per channel High Display quality Segmentable memories with trigger point stamps Dynamic source impedance selection User-friendly interface Three channels

Opening the Oscilloscope Window


The procedure to open the Interactive WorkStation window is the same as mentioned in Chapter III.

Selection
The oscilloscope utility can be selected by clicking the Oscilloscope icon in the Interactive workstation window.

VIII.2

Oscilloscope

Figure 8.1 Oscilloscope Icon

Oscilloscope Options
In the Oscilloscope dialog box the control options are set for the Scope Utility. The controls settings like voltage, and offset specific to the voltage are set in the Channels group box. In the Timebase+Trigger group box, the trigger condition, and trigger modes are set and the required timebase is selected. Descriptions of the control are as follows:

Figure 8.2 Oscilloscope Dialog Box

Channels
To set up the trigger condition like positive edge or negative edge, with respect to channel, the Trigger button is used.

Trace ON / OFF
This group helps in switching the channels. These button controls are toggling type with ON and OFF functionality.

Figure 8.3 Trace ON / OFF

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Select Channel
Multiplexed control for channel settings. This select control sets the channel that is selected.

Figure 8.4 Select Channel buttons

Timebase+Trigger
The power of a digital oscilloscope in any given application depends on a combination of several features including the ability to trigger on the event of interest. In oscilloscope, we can specify a channel for triggering along with trigger voltage and trigger delay. There are different modes of operation supported by the scope utility, which are as follows:

Auto
Automatically re-arms after each sweep. If no trigger occurs, one is generated at an appropriate rate.

Normal
Re-arms after each sweep. If no trigger occurs after a reasonable length of time, the message No or Slow Trigger is displayed.

Single
Holds display after a trigger occurs. Re-arms only when the Single button is pressed again.

Stop
Stops the triggering. To restart, click Auto or Normal button.

Trigger
To set up the trigger condition like positive edge or negative edge, with respect to channel, the Trigger button is used and trigger setup panel dialog will open. Positive Edge Triggering The main objective of positive edge triggering is to lock the required transition (positive transition) after you specify the delay. The trigger selection is shown in the screen as below:

Figure 8.5 Positive edge triggering


Negative Edge Triggering The main objective of negative edge triggering is to lock the required transition (negative transition) after you specify the delay. The trigger selection screen is shown as in fig.8.6

Figure 8.6 Negative edge triggering

VIII.4

Oscilloscope

Figure 8.7 Trigger Setup

Timebase
Select the time base for which processing is done

Figure 8.8 Time base

Impedance
Load impedance is given for the ranges 100K Ohms, 10K Ohms, 1K Ohms, 200 Ohms, 50 Ohms and Open source for easy selection.

Figure 8.9 Impedance

Volts/Division
Selects the Volts/Division for which processing is done

Figure 8.10 Volts/Division

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Oscilloscope Icons

Figure 8.11 Oscilloscope Icons

The above icon window shows the possible options given for Oscilloscope Usage. BUT Power On Used to control the BUT power supply for Switching On and Off. Graphical Scale display Used to show the Graphical display of Scale in the Oscilloscope Screen. Measurement Used to select the measurement points in the waveform for display of measured values like voltage, time Period and frequency.

VIII.2 Measurements
V200 Scope uses mouse cursor for its measurements. It is possible to get different readings like voltage and time elapsed from the start of the sample. This can be done by placing the mouse cursor to the required position on the Scope screen. The voltage and time displayed corresponds to the channel selected. When the signals are triggered, the triggered delay point refers to a time of 0; points preceding this are measured as negative time base with respect to delay point. Points succeeding this are measured as positive time base. It is possible to do mathematical operations over this received waveform like measuring the voltage and time lapsed between two-cursor selections. If the received waveform is not triggered the reference is taken as the start point of the scope.

Measuring voltage and time base


To measure the voltage and time base do the following steps given below in sequence. 1. Select from the menu 2. The system will request you to click the first reference point. The request will be in the color of the active channel. 3. The screen shot below shows the reference and measurement points in the Oscilloscope window.

VIII.6

Oscilloscope

Figure 8.12 Oscilloscope window Reference and Measurement Points


4. Now click the first reference point with your left mouse button once. Reference point will be denoted as a + in pink color. 5. After this, the system requests for the measurement point. Next left button click will denote second reference point. 6. System displays the voltage difference and time base between measurement point and reference point with appropriate polarity in the same screen.

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VIII.8

Chapter IX

Function Generator

Test Director II Users Manual Vol1

Function Generator
IX.1 A brief description of Function Generator Specification:
Sine, square, pulse, ramp DC and more 3 Channels with 20 MS/s 10 MHz wave outputs 12-bit, 64K-point deep arbitrary waveform generation User definable waveform patterns Easy portability Simple mouse click operation for measurements V200 is designed to produce all the waveforms you need for the vast majority of electronics test needs up to 10 MHz. Standard outputs include Sine, Cosine, Tan, square, ramp, Triangle, and other mathematical functional waveforms, dc volts and more. When the testing of PCB requires arbitrary waveform for testing, this Function Generator simplifies the process of creating Arbitrary Waveforms and makes the measurements also easy in on-screen display. You can create an unlimited variety of unique waveforms that match your requirements and suit your application purposes. Additionally, the Graphical User Interface makes the Function Generator use easy. The vast timebase range from 100 nS to 200 Micro Seconds with 100 nS steps makes the process of creating arbitrary waveforms easy on mouse click.

Custom Waveform Generation


Standard Waveforms are generated and stored for ready use. You have to select the required pattern and drive the same into the PCB. The patterns are depicted with Waveform type, amplitude, Source Impedance and frequency for easy selection. The Library of waveforms comes ready with the tester. Also you can generate any kind of waveform for custom requirements and store in the name you want and use it as required. The software allows you to maintain a separate library for the patterns for future use. The created patterns can be selected and used in any or all of the channels. The waveforms can be created with a max. of 13V amplitude. Preview screen is provided to see the generated waveform for one cycle.

Create the right waveform the first time, every time


The graphical color display, easy to use menus to help you create complex waveforms. User definable Library helps you to create the waveform for first time and every time. The created waveforms can be used at any point of time.

IX.2

Function Generator

Follow the menus and enter the required parameters to set up your waveform, and then verify the results with graph mode using preview screen.

Function Generator Window


The Function Generator feature helps to generate the user definable wave patterns or Qmax Standard patterns to be selected and driven into the point where it is required. The channels provided for this purpose are FC1, FC2 & FC3. The patterns can be edited also and can be renamed for future use and reference. The function Generator Icon is provided in the main window of Interactive Workstation. On selecting this icon the Function Generator Main window opens. BUT, Grid show, Measure Icon, and Close are the main buttons provided for the functions. The channels FC1, FC2 and/or FC3 can be selected and the offset for each channel also can be set by dragging the offset cursor check box. Volts per division for each selected channel also can be set. A separate check box is given. Define wave pattern for each channel using Qmax Standard patterns or required functional pattern can be defined by you and save in the user library. The pattern can be selected and re-defined for each channel separately. Mathematical functions like Sine, Cosine, Tan etc., can be selected just by using drop box alongside Sine, Square, Triangle (Ramp) & DC waveforms can be selected by using checkbox provided for each. The selected pattern can be previewed for correctness. Once the selected waveform is correct the same can be stored in the name of User Library names and can be used for future reference.

Figure 9.1 Function Generator Icon in Interactive WorkStation window

IX.2 Opening the Qmax Function Generator


There are two ways you can open the Function Generator program in windows environment. You can select the Interactive Application program from your Programs menu and click the Function Generator icon in the Interactive Application window. Alternatively, you can double click the Interactive Application shortcut icon in your desktop and click the Function Generator icon in the Interactive WorkStation Application window.

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Figure 9.2 Function Generator Window

IX.3 Functional description Channels


To set up the trigger condition like positive edge or negative edge, with respect to channel, the Trigger button is used.

Figure 9.3 Function Generator Channel Window

Trace ON / OFF
This group helps in switching the channels. These button controls are toggling type with ON and OFF functionality.

Figure 9.4 Trace ON / OFF

IX.4

Function Generator

Select Channel
Multiplexed control for channel settings. This select control sets the channel that is selected.

Figure 9.5 Select Channel

Function Generator Icons

Figure 9.6 Function Generator Icons


The above icon window shows the possible options given for Oscilloscope Usage. BUT Power On Used to control the BUT power supply for Switching On and Off. Graphical Scale display Used to show the Graphical display of Scale in the Oscilloscope Screen. Measurement Used to select the measurement points in the waveform for display of measured values like voltage, time Period and frequency.

Define Patterns

Figure 9.7 Define Patterns


This feature is provided to select the required waveform to be edited and used for driving into the respective point for the application. Define Patterns button selection will open Waveform Details pop up menu for selecting any pattern from the Qmax patterns stored in the system. Else you can define new waveform by the parameters given in the popup menu.

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You have to select the Amplitude, source Impedance and times per tick from their respective Drop box values. Choose the amplitude, source impedance and time per tick values given in the individual drop boxes and select 'Next'. Otherwise click on 'Abort' icon to enter a new pattern name and fresh set of values.

Next it will take you to Define pattern with Ticks per cycle and number of cycles for the waveform to be driven. The polarity of the waveform to be driven is to be selected in the checkbox provided for Unipolar or Bipolar. Now the amplitude of the waveform defined can be changed or edited if required or same value can be maintained. It is now ready to select the waveform type to be defined.

IX.4 Measurement procedure


Function Generator uses mouse cursor for its measurements. It is possible to get different readings like Voltage and time elapsed from the start of the sample. Placing the mouse cursor to the required position on the screen can do this. The voltage and time displayed corresponds to the channel selected. When the signals are triggered, the triggered delay point refers to a time of 0, points preceding this are measured as negative time base with respect to delay point. Points succeeding this are measured as positive time base. It is possible to do mathematical operations over this received waveform like measuring the voltage and time lapsed between two-cursor selections. If the received waveform is not triggered the reference is taken as the start point of the scope.

IX.6

Chapter X

Boundary Scan Test

Test Director II Users Manual Vol1

A Brief Introduction to Boundary Scan Test Concepts


Since its introduction as an industry standard in 1990, boundary-scan (also known as JTAG) has enjoyed growing popularity for board level manufacturing test applications. Boundary-scan has rapidly become the technology of choice for building reliable high technology electronic products with a high degree of testability. Due to the low-cost and IC level access capabilities of boundary-scan, its use has expanded beyond traditional board test applications into product design and service.

X.1 What is Boundary Scan?


Boundary-scan, as defined by the IEEE Std. 1149.1 standard, is an integrated method for testing interconnects on printed circuit boards that are implemented at the IC level. This capability enables in-circuit testing without the need of bed-of-nails and custom fixtures .

Why should I use Boundary Scan?


Recent marketing drive for reduced product size, such as portable phones and digital cameras, higher functional integration, faster clock rates, shorter product life-cycle with dramatically faster time to market, has created new technology trends. These new technology trends include increased device complexity, fine pitch components such as SMTs and BGAs, increased IC-pin count, and smaller PCB traces. This has created the following problems in product development: Many boards include components that are assembled on both sides of the board. Most of the through-holes and traces are buried and inaccessible. Loss of Physical Access to fine pitch components such as SMTs and BGAs makes it difficult to probe the pins and distinguish between manufacturing and design problems. When the In-Circuit- Tester (ICT) is not available and therefore manufacturing defects cannot be easily detected and isolated. Small-size products do not have test points, which make it difficult, or impossible to probe suspected nodes. High pin count devices and Flash devices (in BGA packages) are not socketed and are soldered directly to the board. Every time an engineer selects a new processor or a different flash device, he has to learn from scratch how to program the Flash memory When a design includes CPLDs from different vendors, the engineer must use different in-circuit programmers to program the CPLDs. Boundary-scan technology is the only cost effective solution that can deal with the above problems. In the last few years, the number of devices that include boundary-scan has grown exponentially. Almost every new microprocessor that is being introduced includes boundary-scan circuitry for testing and in-circuit emulation. Most of the CPLDs and FPGAs manufacturers such as Altera, Lattice, and Xilinx, to mention a few, have incorporated boundary-scan logic into their components including additional circuitry that uses the boundary-scan 4-wire interface to program their devices in-system. As the acceptance of boundary-scan as the main technology for interconnect testing and in-circuit programming has increased, the various boundary-scan test and in-system programming tools have matured as well. The increased number of boundary-scan components and mature boundary-scan tools provide engineers with the following benefits:

X.2

Boundary Scan Test

Easy to implement Design For Testability (DFT) Rules. Testability report prior to PCB layout enhances DFT. Find packaging problems prior to PCB layout. Little need for test points. No need for test fixtures. More control over the test process Quickly diagnose (with high resolution) interconnect problems without writing any functional test code. Program code in flash devices. JTAG emulation and source-level debugging. Applying Boundary-Scan for Production Test Production test is an obvious area in which the use of boundary-scan yields tremendous returns. Automatic test program generation and fault diagnostics using Boundary-Scan (JTAG) software products and the lack of expensive fixturing requirements can make the entire test process very economical. For products that contain edge connectors and digital interfaces that are not visible from the boundary-scan chain, boundary-scan vendors offer a family of boundary-scan controllable I/Os that provide a low cost alternative to expensive digital pin electronics.

X.2 Requirements for Boundary Scan Test Data


The data required for generating a test of a UUT designed with boundary scan is very similar to that required for testing any other digital UUT. There needs to be a physical description of the UUT in sufficient detail to support the generation of test patterns and the diagnosis of failures detected by those patterns. Then there is the definition of the test patterns themselves. Looking first at the physical design, there is the requirement for a description of all boundary scan devices on the UUT. This information is contained in the BSDL (Boundary Scan Description Language) model of each device. BSDL models are typically available directly from the device vendor, or can be obtained from synthesis tools in the case of custom ASICs. Boundary scan device chains are formed when the TDO lead of one boundary scan device is connected to the TDI lead of another. Chains can consist of several devices thereby forming a continuous path extending from the TDO lead of the first device to the TDI lead of the last device. A critical requirement is that the positions of scan cells in the chain and their functionality be captured so that faulty circuit activity can be accurately diagnosed. Test patterns serve two functions in a boundary scan test. Before any test can be applied, the instruction register of the boundary scan device must be programmed to put the device into the desired state, e.g., EXTEST, HIGHZ. Serial patterns representing the appropriate instruction must be clocked into the devices TDI port. In addition to stimulus data, there is the requirement for expected response data, which is used to determine a go/no go condition, and provides valuable information for pin level diagnosis. The TDO output will be coming from LSB to MSB. Boundary scan test patterns can be expressed in many formats, but SVF (Serial Vector Format) is the most prevalent in the industry. Test Patterns is defined in Serial Vector Format schema.

X.3

Test Director II Users Manual Vol1

X.3 Procedure for Boundary Scan Test


Add the boundary scan devices present in the PCB in the scan path order. Compile the BSD files in order to validate the input BSD files. Collect the BSD information for further testing. It has been made fully automatic to identify the components in the PCB as Boundary Scan devices and the list of components will be added to the Board Database. The BOM list and Net list entry is made to enter the same manually. The files if similar to the one available in Library the type and package can be selected by the Programmer. The selected devices will be checked for any connectivity failure and Open Shorts during Learn mode. Once the learnt device data is from a Known Good Board the other PCBs can be compared and the comparison should show Pass for the PCB under test. Thus the testing in Boundary Scan Devices is made fully automatic and easy to follow up.

X.4 How To: Starting the Boundary Scan Test


Click on the Inter Active Application icon on your Desktop

Open the Interactive Workstation window. On the top of the Interactive Workstation window, click on Boundary Scan Test icon.

Click on BST opens up the Configuration Popup to select the Boundary Scan file to test the chip on Board. This menu is having BOM list and Net list of the PCB to be entered. If these are available in files , the corresponding files may be open up. The files of Boundary Scan devices in a PCB stored in the location can be included now in the Detect Scan Path menu.

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Boundary Scan Test

The items selected may be asked to run for all the possible tests and detect Scan path. Using this Boundary Scan the JTAG may be connected with the Boundary Scan Pod and the chips are tested for the Static characteristics. Select Learn now to test the PCB components, which are Boundary Scan compliant. The possible tests will run and the result window will be updated accordingly.

X.5 Test Options


The possible tests in the PCB will run and study the Id code of the chip. Automatically the results will be displayed and it is the actual output from Device. When the learn mode of the PCB is run the final result will declare the serviceability of the chip on Board. As per the result window message the faults to be rectified or a spare components be replaced and hence we can check the serviceability of the circuit under test.

X.5.0 Opening Boundary Scan path


As soon as the Boundary Scan Pod is connected to the PCB , select the button to open the window as shown below:

Figure 10.1 BST Main Screen Click Detect Scan path button to learn and identify the devices on Board. All the Boundary Scan devices will be detected and listed out as shown. Even the devices on BYPASS also will be listed out. Select the Location and the devices listed out will be in terms of the sequence the Board is learnt. Enter the locations of the device as per the PCB layout. Thus in the locations enter the location label accordingly for all the devices in the Board.

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Figure 10.2 Detect Scan Path Screen When the Board is learnt the Interface Pod and the connector in the front panel ATE integrity check is carried out internally. When the check fails the following pop up window will display the failure of cable, Power supply, Scan chain in the PCB.

Figure 10.3 Power Cable Problem As shown below the locations column will be filled up with the exact label like U1, U2 etc.,

Figure 10.4 Location Edit Screen

X.5.1 Selecting Device Name


When the Board is learnt for the identification of Boundary Scan devices the list of devices in the Library will also be included in the device name column as shown below.

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Boundary Scan Test

Select the appropriate device on board. Double click on the device column for each the BSDL file location will be popped up. Select the correct file and open.

Figure 10.5 Selecting Device Name

Figure 10.6 Including BSDL files The file-opening menu for the BSDL loaded in the system is shown above.

X.5.2 Selecting Package details


Though the device from the Board is studied there are other packages available in the market for the same device number. Hence select the proper device package, which is under test for learning the connectivity. The dropped out list of packages available is as shown below:

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Figure 10.7 Package Selecting When the selection and entering the details for all the components studied is completed click Load button so as to load the programs compiled using all the above entered devices. The process of making the drive pattern is made fully automatic. No process running can be seen in the front end. As soon as the Load is pressed the file generated in the software will be ready to be driven into the Board under test.

Figure 10.8 Window After Load is pressed Once the program is ready select the Learn button to see the connectivitys in the Board Under Test. The Learnt data will be displayed with the Nets information and the Stuck at One and Zero nodes total number. If the Net list of the Board Under Test is available the analysis can be done.

X.8

Boundary Scan Test

Figure 10.9 Learn Completed Screen The list of Nets with the interconnectivity will be displayed and the details can be stored in the database for further reference.

Figure 10.10 Result Window Once the learnt data is correct then the same database will be used to compare for any number of boards. When testing the Board click compare button and the result will be displayed in no time with the list of Open/short Nodes in the PCB.

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Figure 10.11 Comparison Passed Screen

X.5.3 BOM List entry


Bill of material of the Board under test is to be entered as shown below for any board. One by one using the locations the device can be selected from the Library and the same will be entered in the column.

Figure10.12 Empty BoM List Screen

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Boundary Scan Test

Device List and the details are shown for the items in the library as shown below.

Figure 10.13 Device List Window Some components entered in the BOM list and the sample is shown below.

Figure 10.14 Some Devices Entered in BoM List

X.5.4 Net List Details


Net list of the PCB components and their interconnectivity can be entered manually if there is no Net List available for the PCB under development of test programs. Net list for the components covered in the BOM details may be covered fully so as to take the full coverage of components under test. The Net list including Power Pins is also entered to identify the Power Nets. The interconnectivity entered is summarized and displayed for ready reference. The entered Nets are marked with * mark and it can be selected for all the components or components wise. Statistics window provides all the information entered through this interface. The Defined nets can be renamed or net names can be given at any point of time for edit and use.

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All the marked pins can be cleared by selecting Clear mark Button for all pins. Filtering of nodes by component and all components including Edge connector details is easy to complete the net information of the PCB under program development.

Figure 10.15 Net List Window This net list names and numbers used in the BOM and Net List only will be displayed in the Guided Probe Technique to display the faulty area and components. Hence care must be given to give the correct name and numbers so as to avoid confusion in the later stages. Open the Project When the file is to be opened for BSDL files the list can be attached in a selected file as shown below for example.

Figure 10.16

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Boundary Scan Test

X.5.5 Saving the Learnt Database


Learnt database can be stored in the system under the same project where the files are available and the name of the files is also to be unique for quick reference. A sample saving is shown below.

Figure 10.17

Summary
The Boundary Scan test is done for the entire boundary scans chips on board using scan path and the identification of faults in the chips is resulted.

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Chapter XI

Test Sequencer

Test Director II Users Manual Vol1

Test Sequencer
Introduction
Test Sequencer is used for sequencing of multiple tests with conditional branching, messaging, user prompting, external triggering and external handshake. Board level testing using combination of ICFT, QSM-VI, Measurements, Card edge test, Boundary Scan Test etc., can be done in one test program through this Sequencer. The main purpose of test Sequencer is to guide for effective sequencing of Operations to be performed in the PCB/module to repair and rectify the fault at ease of use. It has been simplified to greater extent to make the sequences through User Interface and hence the data entry is easy. Test Sequencer is used to generate a sequence of tests such as: Open/short Testing. Device In-Circuit /Out-Circuit testing. In-Circuit measurements for Inductance, Capacitance, Resistance, Voltage & Frequency. Functional Testing of PCB/Module through Card Edge connectors. Boundary Scan Testing of Boundary Scan compliant devices on Board. User Prompting while repairing the Boards. External Inputs, in port and out port facilities for easy transferability. Delay in programming of execution for testing specific modules. Etc., One time sequencing of tests to be performed for Lifetime running on similar Boards for effective repair and maintenance. Tagging of components in PCB and Schematic made through mouse click Tagging of Layout for component identity through testing Association of all documents like data files etc., in one folder for ease of reference

XI.1 How to: Starting the Test Sequencer Opening the Test Sequencer Program
There are two ways you can open the Test Sequencer programs in windows environment. You can select the Test Sequencer program from your Programs menu. Or, you can double click the Test Sequencer shortcut icon in your desktop. To open the Test sequencer 1. To start the Test sequencer program, click on the Start button, and point to Programs.

XI.2

Test Sequencer

2. Point to the folder named Qmax and then click on the Test Sequencer icon in the Test Director II sub-folder.

Figure 11- 1 Starting the Test Sequencer program window 3. Alternatively, to start the Test Sequencer program you can double-click on the Test Sequencer icon shown below, on your desktop after installing the required Qmax Test Director II software.

Figure 11- 2 Test Sequencer Shortcut Icon 4. Click the Test Sequencer icon. The Test Sequencer window opens as shown in the figure below.

Figure 11- 3 Test Sequencer Window

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5. Click on the Open button. A new sub-window called List of Programs opens, which prompts you to select the Project under which the program for unit under test (UUT) is to be sequenced. List of boards available in each category of Project is displayed under for selection. Select any Board program is to be edited and click open to enter the details. If it is required to create new Programs for any PCB under test select New and it will open the list of stages of entering the Board details including the associated files and documents.

Figure 11- 4 List of Programs Window

6. Clicking on New or Open button in the List of Programs sub-window opens a new subwindow called Board Sequencing stages window.

7. Select the stages one by one from the Board details and enter the relevant details as
required through User Interface.

Figure 11- 5 Sequencer Stages Window

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Test Sequencer

The stages are explained sequentially for entering the details.

XI.2 Board Details


The selection of Board Details will open up the new window to enter the required details of the PCB under test and development. Name of the PCB under programming can be entered for quick reference. Description is to be entered in short and brief manner to explain the type of the PCB. Any Associated Documents related to the PCB under programming can be selected and included in this folder for each search. If Net List of the PCB is available it can be selected and entered through Import Net list button. There is a facility provided to include the PCB image for clear verification of the PCB under programming The PCB preview file can be selected and included in this. Preview of the image is displayed for quick reference

Figure 11- 6 Board Details Window

Figure 11- 7 Attaching documents window

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PCB Layout file is also included to tag the components for testing and reference if available. Schematic diagram of the PCB can also be included to tag the node under test of reference to guide. This will give the full details of the PCB under program development.

XI.3 BOM List Details


Bill of material of the PCB under program development for testing is to be entered for learning the signature of the component. Generally all components in the PCB are to be entered with the other details as known. However the components covered for testing only need to be entered for easy reference. The window displays the component count on the right side for easy reference Simple procedure to follow for entering the devices list in the Sequencer is as follows: Enter the device name such as IC7474, Tr2N1169, IC8251 etc

Figure 11- 8 BoM List Details Window Enter the package type whether it is a DIP, SIP, PLCC, and SOIC etc. and also enter the device family TTL, CMOS, EIA, ECL etc., Any pins of the component to be customized also can be done through this window

XI.6

Test Sequencer

The customizing pins window is illustrated below:

Figure 11- 9 Customize Pin Window For the pins, which required to be customized for testing or for reference, the Edit pin Aliases is provided. The details of the pin and aliases will be referred as entered here thereafter.

XI.4 Net List Details


Net list of the PCB components and their interconnectivity can be entered manually if there is no Net List available for the PCB under development of test programs. Net list for the components covered in the BOM details may be covered fully so as to take the full coverage of components under test. The Net list including Power Pins is also entered to identify the Power Nets. The interconnectivity entered is summarized and displayed for ready reference. The entered Nets are marked with * mark and it can be selected for all the components or components wise.

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Figure 11- 10 Net List Details Window Statistics window provides all the information entered through this interface. The Defined nets can be renamed or net names can be given at any point of time for edit and use. All the marked pins can be cleared by selecting Clear mark Button for all pins. Filtering of nodes by component and all components including Edge connector details is easy to complete the net information of the PCB under program development. This net list names and numbers used in the BOM and Net List only will be displayed in the Guided Probe Technique to display the faulty area and components. Hence care must be given to give the correct name and numbers so as to avoid confusion in the later stages.

XI.5 Edge connector


Edge connector details are the basically the main inputs and outputs of the PCB to be tested. The Card Edge testing is done using this connector information and the signals defined there in. The Programmer can add or remove any signals which is to be used for covering in the test under development.

XI.8

Test Sequencer

Figure 11- 11 Edge Connector Details Window The input or output type and the related net information is to be added for the nets under consideration.

Fixture definition
A fixture is used to connect the PCB under test and the Tester channels for carrying out the testing. Any fixtures can be defined and be made available to the user at the time of testing. These fixtures can be named as per the design and simple descriptions can be entered for easy identification for future reference. Click Select Fixture button. A new window called Fixture list opens which lists the name and a brief description of the fixture to be defined.

Figure 11- 12 Fixture List Window

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To enter a new fixture into the Fixture List table, click New button in the Fixture List window. A window opens which prompts you to enter the name and description of the new fixture. The description entered can be simple and unique to identify the fixture in future use.

Figure 11- 13 Fixture Details Window Click the OK button after you have entered the relevant details. After you have entered the fixture name and its brief description, select the given fixture from the fixture list and click Edit button. Clicking Edit button opens a new window called (Fixture) Unit Information, which lists Unit Details, Channel Map Mode and Direction.

Figure 11- 14 Unit Information Window

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Test Sequencer

Figure 11- 15 Unit Information Window

Unit Details
Select from the drop down the connector related to the program under development. All test ports available as per the connector definition entered in the BOM list will be dropped out. Select all pins or required pins and you can select the channel to start with for mapping with ATE channels. Also automap channels facility may be used to map all the channels of the test port to the ATE channels. Assign button is used to map any alternative channel to any of the test ports to specific ATE channels. Automap channels will select and assign the channels in sequence as per the number of channels available in the ATE machine. Using Rename button any channel mapped can be reassigned and renamed for the programmer use.

XI.6 Channel map Mode


Continuous
This checkbox assigns continuous channel number running from the start channel number selected in the Unit Details window.

Alternate
This checkbox assigns alternate channels to the test port pin numbers from the start channel number.

Package Specific This is used to assign the channels as per the custom package designed and used for selective PCBs for assigning channel mapping. Direction
Forward This assigns the channels running in forward mode from the start channel number selected. Reverse This assigns the channels running in reverse mode from the start channel number selected.

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Import
If any fixture already available in the list and it can be reused here in programming for other PCBs the same can be selected and imported to this program.

Cancel
If this channel map is to be cancelled and to be redone click Cancel and select edit to comeback to this window.

OK
Select OK to complete channel mapping for the desired fixture . Again here as in the case of Clips and Probes the user can select auto-map channels or assign the channels in the Fixture as per the requirement to the channels in the Tester. With the entry of the all the details required for Fixture identification and database the Fixture entry data is completed

Clip Definition
For in-circuit testing of components /devices on board, clips and probes are to be selected and used for testing. Standard Clips and its definitions are already loaded in the software. Only for creating any new clip to be used is to be edited and entered in the new name as required. Click the clip Definition button. This is to introduce any new clip patterns are to be entered in the Library or the default clips and probes supplied along with the equipment will be selected.

Figure 11- 16 List of available clips window Click on the New button in List of Available clips sub-window. A new sub-window called New Package opens which prompts you to enter the name and a brief description of the new clip to be included in the database. This name and description is for the user to identify and follow up for future reference. Hence simple name and descriptions may be entered.

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Test Sequencer

Figure 11- 17 New Package Window On entering the Name and Description of the Clip, click ok. This new clip is now entered in the Clips database to select for further testing and editing at any time. If any clip information is to be edited for corrected usage selection of the Edit button will guide the programmer further. Click the Edit Button. The complete details of the clip to be used for testing the Board Under test will be prompted. Enter all the relevant data in each check box and the Tester channels are to be mapped with the clip to be used.

Clip Type
Select the clip type to be used from the drop down list.

Count
The total number of channels used in the selected clip is displayed. For New clips the number of channels required to be entered.

Start Channel
Start channel number is to be selected using drop down list to map the channel for the ATE channels. Mapping Channels For this the options given are Automap or Assign by yourself for the pins in the clip and the channels in the Tester are to be mapped. AutoMap Automap assigns the channels as per the Clip Type is entered. Default all the clip types provided are in the List and it will be selected and channels will be auto- mapped. It will be displayed for your confirmation. Remove If any required clip pins are to be removed or if the mapping is not correct the user can select Remove and remove the contents.

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Figure 11- 18 Clip Information Window Assign If any required type of channel mapping is to be done, user has his choice of selecting Assign Button and each pin in the clip can be mapped to the tester. If it is correct and confirmed as per the wiring in the clip, click OK and the clip information is stored in the Database. After entering the clip type, count number and start channel, click on OK button In the List of available clips sub-window, select the device, which you would like to remove by clicking on Delete button. You will be alerted by the question asking you to delete the particular Clip in question. Click Yes to delete otherwise click on No button.

Figure 11- 19 Clip Delete Window After choosing all the relevant values for the particular Clip, click OK button to select the Clip for further testing.

Learn
Sequence Table will be opened with empty label and list. The Screen of the same is shown below.

XI.14

Test Sequencer

On the right hand side New button is meant for any new sequence to begin with. Click New button, Opens up Test Steps window for further programming.

Figure 11- 20 Sequence Window for Testing Sequence. The Test Steps window is shown above in figure. The Test Label is the first entry. This test label can be followed with the user definable identifications or simply 1,2,3, etc., Even more precise user can type T1 meant for Test 1 T2 for Test2 etc., Once the sequence started with this label it follows the numbers automatically. Next is Location of the components/devices in the board under test. As per the data already entered the components will be dropped out in the check box and the user can select the required item as the first or second etc., and the corresponding device name can be checked then and there. Associated data total pins of the component selected also can be checked here for correctness.

Figure 11- 21 Test Steps window

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Next, the type of test is selected from the Test Type Check box. All the possible test types available in the Test Director II will be dropped out on selection of the test box. The appropriate test can be selected and the dropped and the device are now sequenced for this test type. Now the conditional branching is exhibited to the user for On Pass what to test or On Fail what to test. On Pass check box On Fail Check box is provided for this purpose. As per the number of components entered so far, the Steps will be automatically generated and the user has to select the step what is required to be positioned at what test. Default the number goes in sequence. It is recommended that the other entries are made first and the total steps involved is seen then finally the conditional branching may be selected for finalizing the program. Next is the Property / Value table for important messaging on testing the components. The simple messages like Pass Fail and repeat and confirm action may be typed for each component/device and for each test. On testing of these devices these messages will be popped out for ease of use and confirming the correct device is tested. Likewise all the tests for the components in the Board are to be selected and entered in the Sequence. Finally the sequence is default one after another number wise and it can be changed if required to do so. Now the table is looking like with all the data entered and the PCB is about to be learned for the tests declared. The Software will automatically select the type of tests selected and the respective application will be opened by the Software and will guide the operator to learn the device/component using the clips and probes selected earlier. The user has to go as per the sequence follows up or as per his requirement as Setup Options are given to select the Sequencing as Manual or as the case may be. However it is to cross verify the tests performed on the component and devices are correct then and there by doing verification. For this verify options are given in each application. On getting the Device Verification Same display in the Result Window, it is confirmed the test for Learn performed by the Programmer is correct. If it varies please check for once again the connectivity between the device and clip and the tester that is getting the input from the device. On confirmation the signature from the device is stored in the program. Next to select any other device or the sequence, the next application is displayed readily and the programmer is to be ready for learning the next device.

Figure 11-22 Test Steps Location of component Likewise all the tests are carried out and the Status column in the Test Sequence Table is to be filled with Learnt data from the earlier Unlearnt data. This ensures the PCB is learned

XI.16

Test Sequencer

for all the components/devices as per the sequencing. Now the sequencing is ready to run for years at any time. Once the sequence is completed the user can think about the change of steps as per the requirement and the corresponding steps can be moved up or down using the Move Up and Move Down Buttons provided.

Figure 11- 23 Test Steps Test type selection Once it is done for all the components and devices the program can be saved in the PC. Now the program is ready for testing.

Figure 11- 24 Test Steps Sequencing Learning mode

Figure 11- 25 Test Sequencer Learn command Configuration.

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This saves the board under preparation for Sequencer and now is ready for sequencing the components for test.

Figure 11- 26 Test Sequencer Test run and tested It is experienced by many that while testing the PCB/Unit/Module the location of the components/devices are really cumbersome to identify quickly. Even experienced personnel find it difficult at times to identify the devices on board due to many reasons like non-availability of Legend, Legend is not clear, Legend is beneath the component etc., It is felt by Qmax to introduce the Physical view of the PCB under test to avoid confusion while testing. With the available Layout diagram or digital Camera, the photograph of the PCB is taken and converted to JPG format with 1000/800 pixels resolution the image can be tagged for the components /devices for ease of use. Not only is the facility that is required here but also the advantage is to reduce human errors on testing similar components like three numbers of same IC s on a same board but on different locations. Last but not the least it is bringing out the functionality differences as per the locations of components on board.

In the tagging view, the node level list components may be double clicked and confirm the locations of the components tagged for the entire board. It is recommended to have the image of the PCB under the folder Test Director II for future reference. Also when copying the Board Programs the image also will be copied otherwise the user has to copy the image file once again when the program is transferred to another PC or platform. After selecting the file of the PCB image, click Open. Include other images like Layout , Schematic or Board Preview Photo image of the PCB under programming. Finally click Done button. The software takes you to the tagging window whereby the components /devices are to be tagged for easy reference and identification while testing. Component entity Node level window opens to select each component.

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Test Sequencer

Figure 11- 27 Components in the PCB tagged For tagging follow the steps for each device: Keep the cursor onto the component, which is to be tagged. Drag the cursor so as to cover the entire component. A new window Entity Name will be popped up. Select the component, which is under tagging now. All the components, which are entered in the Devices List, will be dropped out for selection. On selecting the correct component, click OK This completes the tagging of one component. Likewise all the components or the required components are to be tagged. Once all the components are selected further tagging is not possible since no entity will be left out. The software will not allow further for any tagging. Under the entity the selected components nodes will be displayed in the Pins column. Select the appropriate pins required to be tagged in the component tagged already. This will enhance the help of identifying the pins during testing . Once the tagging is over press save icon.

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Figure 11- 28 Entity Name Sub-window

Figure 11- 29 Results of Tagging the components The components entered so far are the ones to be sequenced for various tests to be performed.

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Test Sequencer

Figure 11- 30 component node tagged view Select Close icon to proceed further. Thus Sequence of the tests to be performed in the PCB under test is ready now for learning. One by one learn the results of each tests and the database is automatically stored and the status will be seemed as learnt from Unlearnt. The key point to be remembered is that the learnt responses only will be compared in Testing the PCB and hence the learning is to be proper.

Test
On closing the learn mode the software will take the programmer to the front screen to select Test mode for testing the PCB under programming. Now it is to be understood that the data cannot be altered. Only the tests will run as per the sequence ordered and Pass Fail results will be displayed for each test. It is customary to have one or two tests for each device/component and confirm that they are passing before finalizing the program. When all the tests in the Sequence in the Board Program are completed and the result is Pass for the entire Board the PCB is assumed to be OK. In the Result analysis, Pie chart is provided for declaring the status of the Board under test instantaneously. Pie chart will get updated after the test is carried out and as per the result. Generally for Pass, Fail and Untested conditions the Pie chart is made. This gives the overall status of Board as per the component list and how many devices or components are tested and found Pass/Fail.

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Figure 11- 31 Resistance Measurement

Figure 11- 32 Voltage Measurements

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Test Sequencer

Figure 11- 33 Test Sequencer all tests run and results of Pie chart

XI.7 Special Options Test Types:


User Prompt: This option is used to caution while testing the Board under test for any important requirements. This is selected before or after any tests and the corresponding messages are to be entered so that while the sequence is running the messages will be popped out in right time. The positioning of these prompts is left to the choice of the user while programming. The messages can be entered in the Value column and the same will be prompted to the user while the appropriate test begins and ends. A sample screen for the same is shown below.

Figure 11- 34 User Prompt Window

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Figure 11- 35 User Prompt Message display Window Delay Delay in switching on the BUT Power Supply can be programmed before execution of any test. This is programmable in mSecs. This enables the Power Supply delay in switching for testing

Figure 11- 36 Time Delay in test Steps window It is designed to facilitate the testing of PCB can be made selective by choosing all the tests, Untested Tests or Failed tests only using the check boxes provided. This window can be selected from the Run Button drop down list. With this the PCB testing can be proceed to carryout the selected tests. This is useful while testing the PCB with the same serial number and restarting the tests with break in operation. Previous passes tests can be bypassed and untested , Failed tests may be redone.

Figure 11 - 37 Test Sequencer Tests run command config selection window

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Test Sequencer

Close
Close will close the test or learn mode of the sequencer and will take you to the front screen to select the project for further test or edit.

Exit
Exit will close the Test Sequencer application module. Before quitting the application it is to be ensured that the all the test results are to be stored otherwise the data will be lost.

Summary
This chapter completely explained the usage of Test Sequencer package to edit and use while repairing PCB/Units.

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Chapter XII

Board Test Station

Test Director II Users Manual Vol1

Introduction
XII.1 Board Test Station
Board Test Station is used for testing the boards when once the program is made in Test Sequencer. Board level testing using combination of ICFT, QSM-VI, Measurements, Card edge test, Boundary Scan Test etc., can be done in one test program through this Station. The main purpose of test Station is to guide for effective sequencing of Operations to be performed in the PCB/module to repair and rectify the fault at ease of use. Board Test Station is used to test the following tests: Open/Short Testing Device In-circuit /Out-circuit testing In-Circuit measurements for Inductance, Capacitance, Resistance, Voltage & Frequency. Functional Testing of PCB/Module through Card Edge connectors. Boundary Scan Testing of Boundary Scan compliant devices on Board. User Prompting while repairing the Boards. External Inputs and In port and out port facilities for easy transferability. Delay in programming of execution for testing specific modules. Etc., One time sequencing of tests to be performed for Lifetime running on similar Boards for effective repair and maintenance. Once the test is over the failure report of the PCB tested for further analysis.

XII.2 How to: Starting the Board Test Station Opening the board test station Program
There are two ways you can open the Board Test Station programs in windows environment. You can select the Board Test Station program from your Programs menu. Or, you can double click the Board Test Station shortcut icon in your desktop. To open the Board Test Station 1. To start the Board Test Station program, click on the Start button, and point to Programs. 2. Point to the folder named Qmax and then click on the Board Test Station icon in the Test Director II sub-folder.

XII.2

Board Test Station

Figure 12-1 Starting Board Test Station

3. Created Shortcut Icon for Board Test Station to be placed on Desktop On clicking the icon the front screen of the Board Test Station will open up.

Figure 12-2. Board Test Window

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If programs are ready for testing available click Open. On clicking Open button, the List of programs menu will open. The List of Programs window is illustrated below:

Figure 12-3 List Of Programs Window Select the board under the selected Project, which is used to test the PCB under test. Instantaneously, Board Serial Number window will open. Enter the Serial number of the PCB under test. If the number entered is correct, click OK

Figure 12-4. Board Serial Number Window

XII.4

Board Test Station

Figure 12-5 Board finalize window When the same Board program is previously opened the software will ask for finalization of the Board before entering the Serial number of the PCB under test. The popup window of the same is illustrated above. The program runs on its own as per the sequence already programmed including the user prompts and other vital parameters. The user has to just use the proper clips and probes and other fixtures programmed in the sequence and test the devices one by one. Once the Sequence is ended the result Pie chart will display the net result of the PCB under test.

Figure 12-6. Board Tested with Pie chart window This application is used to test and repair the PCBs.

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Test Director II Users Manual Vol1

More than once if the serial number of the PCB entered is same the software will ask for to continue with the previous instance or a fresh one to begin with. Enter Yes or NO accordingly which will refresh the database of the results. The result report may be printed and be used for further analysis. While testing if any component or test fails the failure report pops up. User can select the respective status for maintaining and proceed with other tests. Once the board is tested fully these components or tests can be repeated and finalize the board status.

Figure 12-7. Results Window Pie Chart The result will get updated automatically. Pie chart will bring the results in various colors as indicated Board History can be seen by results message or in histogram component wise. The results can be seen on screen with the user comments for future use. Previous comments with the status are displayed for easy reference. Histogram for this serial number of the PCB under test can be seen on screen and the analysis can be made quickly. Thus the Board test station is made useful for testing and analyzing the results of the tested PCB for analysis and making decisions for improvement.

Figure 12-8. Board History window

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Board Test Station

Figure 12-9. Board Failure Report- Histogram component wise

Summary
This chapter explains the usage of Board Test Station package to test the boards by simple means.

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