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CHAPTER-1

Environment - Definition

Word "environment" is most commonly used describing "natural" environment and means the sum of all living and non-living things that surround an organism, or group of organisms. Environment includes all elements, factor and conditions that have some impact on growth and development of certain organism. The factors such as light, temperature, water, atmospheric gases combine with biotic factors (all surrounding living species). Environment often changes after some time and therefore many organisms have ability to adapt to these changes. However tolerance range is not the same with all species and exposure to environmental conditions at the limit range represents environmental stress.

Environmentalism is very important political and social movement with goal to protect nature environment by emphasizing importance of nature role in protection of the environment in combination with various actions and policies oriented to nature preservation. Environmentalism is movement connected with environmental scientists and many of their goals. Some of these goals include: 1. To reduce world consumption of fossil fuels 2. To reduce and clean up all sorts of pollution (air, sea, river...) with future goal of zero pollution

3. Emphasis on clean, alternative energy sources that have low carbon emissions 4. Sustainable use of water, land, and other scarce resources 5. Preservation of existing endangered species First goal reducing the world consumption of fossil fuels is very important to fight against climate change and global warming phenomenon. Fossil (non renewable) fuels are mainly responsible for global warming as during the combustion of fossil fuels carbon dioxide (one of the greenhouse gases) gets released into the atmosphere. In fact reducing the emission of carbon dioxide is the most important thing if we want to successfully fight global warming. Reducing and cleaning up pollution is also very important task. Every day we hear the news about tremendous pollution of our air, seas, and river. Pollution creates unhealthy environment, and often causes many health problems and different diseases. Third goal is very obvious. World needs a lot of energy and if we want to reduce the use of fossil fuels then we should have some other alternative energy sources to satisfy world energetic needs. These alternative energy sources such as wind energy, solar power have all great potential, and are also ecologically acceptable. However their use is still negligent on global scale and fossil fuels are still dominant energy sources. Water is precious but also scarce resource that needs to be preserved for future

generations. Sustainable use of water, land and other resources is therefore vital to enable future life of our planet. The number of endangered species is lately increasing rapidly and many species have become extinct in the last 50 years or so. Preservation of endangered species is important to save number of ecosystems and to protect biodiversity of our planet. Biodiversity is very important in enabling the life on earth since all species are connected in perfectly balanced circle, each with their very own role. Humans are not owners of this circle but only one small part that needs even the smallest parts of this circle for its proper functioning. However we seem to be forgetting this more often than not.

Natural environment

The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally on Earth or some region thereof. It is an environment that encompasses the interaction of all living species.[1] The concept of the natural environment can be distinguished by components: Complete ecological units that function as natural systems without massive human intervention, including all vegetation, microorganisms, soil, rocks atmosphere and natural phenomena that occur within their boundaries. Universal natural resources and physical phenomena that lack clear-cut boundaries, such as air, water, and climate, as well

as energy, radiation, charge, and magnetism, not originating from human activity. The natural environment is contrasted with the built environment, which comprises the areas and components that are strongly influenced by humans. A geographical area is regarded as a natural environment

MANMADE from February 12th 2011 in Danish Architecture Centre Through projects from the Nordic countries, the exhibition, MANMADE ENVIRONMENT demonstrates that landscape architecture is about so much more than aesthetics. Used strategically it can supply sustainable solutions, promote health and improve living conditions for people in both urban and rural areas. It brings attention to the importance of finding alternative, interdisciplinary planning methods; strategies that emphasize conscious use of natural resources and combine new expertise and technology with awareness of local conditions, culture and identity. MANMADE ENVIRONMENT highlights the important role of landscape architecture in sustainable urban development and large scale planning. It brings attention to the importance of finding alternative, interdisciplinary planning methods; strategies that emphasize conscious use of natural

resources and combine new expertise and technology with awareness of local conditions, culture and identity. Todays landscape architects work with everything from major regional projects to urban developments that include industrialized, commercial, institutional, recreational and residential environments. The holistic, gradual and strategic methods and processes of the field are based on the understanding of natural systems and their interactions with human activities. Contemporary landscapes are responsive to the environment and regenerative. They lower carbon emissions, clean the air and water, increase energy efficiency, restore habitats, promote solutions that utilize or protect inherent potentials and create value through significant economic, social improvements. The exhibition showcases examples that illustrate these important developments and emerging tendencies in the landscape architecture discourse. A long-term and close collaboration between the Nordic institutions and their respective curators has resulted in a diverse collection of projects. Dealing with both common and locally specific Nordic challenges such as large-scale urban transformations, user involvement, rehabilitation of areas with changed function, development of new infrastructure and resetting or preservation of natural landscapes, the 26 selected projects integrate political thinking with ecological reality and put governmental decision-making into practice. MANMADE ENVIRONMENT is collaboration between Danish Architecture Centres (DAC) based on an original idea by DAC. The Swedish Museum of Architecture, the

Museum of Finnish Architecture and the Nordic House in Reykjavik have contributed of the exhibition content.

The Aims of Environmental Education


Environmental Education is: A multi-disciplinary approach to learning that develops the knowledge, awareness, attitudes, values and skills that will enable individuals and the community to contribute towards maintaining and improving the quality of the environment. Learning to Care for Our Environment: a National Strategy for Environmental Education, page 9 The aims of Environmental Education are for students to develop:

Aim 1: awareness and sensitivity to the environment and related issues;

Aim 2: knowledge and understanding of the environment and the impact of people on it;

Aim 3: attitudes and values that reflect feelings of concern for the environment; Aim 4: skills involved in identifying, investigating, and problem solving associated with environmental issues;

Aim 5: a sense of responsibility through participation and action as individuals, or members of groups, in addressing environmental issues.

Environmental issues related to a sustainable future are often complex. Multidisciplinary holistic teaching and learning approaches are therefore appropriate for meeting the aims of environmental education. The aims and their interactive nature are illustrated below.

CHAPTER-2

From Wikipedia, the free

Guindy National Park's entrance

Guindy National Park


Coordinates 130009N 801351ECoordinates: 1351E 130009N 80

Guindy National Park is a 2.82 km2 (1.09 sq mi) Protected area of Tamil Nadu, located in Chennai, South India, is the 8th smallest National Park of India and one of the very few national parks situated inside a city. The park is an extension of the grounds surrounding Raj Bhavan, formerly known as the 'Guindy Lodge', the official residence of the Governor of Tamilnadu, India. It extends deep inside the governor's estate, enclosing beautiful forests, scrub lands, lakes and streams. The park has a role in both ex-situ and in-situ conservation and is home to 400 blackbucks, 2,000 spotted deers, 24 jackals, a wide variety of snakes, geckos, tortoises and over 130 species of birds, 14 species of mammals, over 60 species of butterflies and spiders each, a wealth of different invertebrates grasshoppers, ants, termites, crabs, snails, slugs,scorpions, mites, earthworms, milliped es, and the like. These are free-ranging fauna and live with the minimal of interference from human beings. The only major management activity is protection as in any other in-situ conservation area. The park attracts more than 700,000 visitors every year.

Country State District(s) Established Nearest city Time zone Area Elevation Climate Precipitation Temperature Summer Winter Visitation/year website

India Tamil Nadu Chennai 1977 Chennai (Madras) IST (UTC+05:30)


2.7057 square kilometres (1.0447 sq mi)

6 metres (20 ft)

1,200 mm (47 in)

38 C (100 F) 20 C (68 F)

700,000/2006[1] Guindy National Park

Guindy National Park is a 2.82 km2 (1.09 sq mi) Protected area of Tamil Nadu, located in Chennai, South India, is the 8th smallest National Park of India and one of the very few national parks situated inside a city. The park is an extension of the grounds surrounding Raj Bhavan formerly known as the 'Guindy Lodge', the official residence of the Governor of Tamilnadu, India. It extends deep inside the governor's estate, enclosing beautiful forests, scrub lands, lakes and streams.

The park has a role in both ex-situ and in-situ conservation and is home to 400 blackbucks, 2,000 spotted deers, 24 jackals, a wide variety of snakes, geckos, tortoises and over 130 species of birds, 14 species of mammals, over 60 species of butterflies and spiders each, a wealth of different invertebrates grasshoppers, ants, termites, crabs, snails, slugs,scorpions, mites, earthwo rms, millipedes, and the like. These are free-ranging fauna and live with the minimal of interference from human beings. The only major management activity is protection as in any other in-situ conservation area. The park attracts more than 700,000 visitors every year
History Once covering an area of 5 km2 (1.93 sq mi) of one of the last remnants of tropical dry evergreen forest of the Coromandel Coast, Guindy Park was originally a game reserve. It was owned by a British citizen named Gilbert Rodericks from whom it was purchased by the government in 1821 for a sum of 35,000. It was established as a Reserve Forest in 1910.Chital (Spotted Deer) were introduced into the park probably after 1945. It was transferred to the Tamil Nadu Forest Department in 1958, and in 1978 the entire forest was declared a national park. It was walled off from the adjacent Raj Bhavan and Indian Institute of Technology Madras Campus in the late 1980s.[2] []Habitats The Guindy National Park, Raj Bhavan and IIT-Madras habitat complex has historically enjoyed a certain degree of protection and has continued to support some of the last remnants of the natural habitats that typify the natural range of plant and animal biodiversity of northeastern Tamil Nadu.[3][4] The ecosystem consists of the rare tropical dry every green scrub and thorn forests receiving about 1200 mm of rainfall annually. The park also has a lake known as the 'Tangal Eri'. The presence of the park

CHAPTER-3

Introduction
Parrot is a language-neutral virtual machine for dynamic languages such as Ruby, Python, PHP, and Perl. It hosts a powerful suite of compiler tools tailored to dynamic languages and a next generation regular expression

engine. Its architecture is fundamentally different than existing virtual machines such as the JVM or CLR, with optimizations for dynamic languages included, a register-based system rather than stack-based, and the use of continuations as the core means of flow control. The name "Parrot" was inspired by Monty Python's Parrot sketch. As an April Fools' Day joke in 2001, Simon Cozens published "Programming Parrot", a fictional interview between Guido van Rossum and Larry Wall detailing their plans to merge Python and Perl into a new language called Parrot (1) Parrot - Introduction. The Parrot in History. PARROT, According to Prof. Skeat from the French Perrot or Parrot, a proper name and the diminutive of Pierre, (Footnote 321-1) the name given generally to a large and very natural group of Birds, which for more than a score of centuries have attracted attention, not only from their gaudy plumage, but, at first and chiefly, it would seem, from the readiness with which many of them learn to imitate the sounds they hear, repeating the words and even phrases of human speech with a fidelity that is often astonishing. The Parrot in History It is said that no representation of any Parrot appears in Egyptian art, nor does any references to a bird of the kind occur in the Bible, whence it has been concluded that neither painters nor writers had any knowledge of it. Aristotle is commonly supposed to be the first author who mentions a Parrot; but this is an error, for nearly a century earlier Ctesias in his Indica (cap. 3), (Footnote 321-2) under the name of Bittacus, so neatly described a bird which could speak an "Indian" language -- naturally, as he seems to have thought -- or Greek -- if it had been taught so to do -- about a big as a Sparrow-Hawk (Hierax), with a purple face and a black beard, otherwise blue-green (cyaneus) and vermilion in colour, so that there cannot be much risk in declaring that he must have had before him a male example of what is now commonly known as the Blossom-headed Parakeet, and to ornithologists as Palaeornis cyanocephalus, as inhabitant of many parts of India. Much ingenuity has been exercised in the endeavour to find the word

whence this, an the later form of the Greek name, was derived, but to little or no purpose. After Ctesias comes Aristotles Psittace, which Sundevall supposed him to have described only from hearsay, a view that the present writer is inclined to think insufficiently supported. But this matters little, for there can be no doubt that the Indian conquests ofAlexander were the means of making the Parrot better known in Europe, and it is in reference to this fact that another Eastern species of Palaeornis now bears the name of P. alexandri, though from the localities it inhabits it could hardly have had anything to do with the Macedonian hero. That Africa had Parrots does not seem to have been discovered by the ancients till long after, as Pliny tells us (vi. 29) that they were first met with beyond the limits of Upper Egypt by explorers employed by Nero. These birds, highly prized from the first, reprobated by the moralist, and celebrated by more than one classical poet, in the course of time were brought in great numbers to Rome, and ministered in various ways to the luxury of the age. Not only were they lodges in cages of tortoise-shell and ivory, with silver wires, but they were professedly esteemed as delicacies for the table, and one emperor is said to have fed his lions upon them! But there would be little use in dwelling longer on these topics. With the decline of the Roman empire the demand for Parrots in Europe lessened, and so the supply dwindled, yet all knowledge of them was not wholly lost, and they are occasionally mentioned by one writer or another until in the 15th century began that career of geographical discovery which has since proceeded uninterruptedly. This immediately brought with it the knowledge of many more forms of these birds than had ever before been seen, for whatever races of men, were visited by European navigators -- whatever in the East Indies or the West, whether in Africa or in the islands of the Pacific -- it was almost invariably found that even the most savage tribes had tamed some kind of Parrot; and, moreover, experience soon showed that no bird was more easily kept alive on board ship and brought home, while, if it had not the merit of "speech," it was almost certain to be beautiful plumage. Yet so numerous is the group that even now new species of Parriots are not uncommonly recognized, though, looking to the way in which the most secluded parts of the world are being ransacked, we must soon come to an end of this.

Parrot Resources
The starting point for all things related to Parrot is the main .The site lists additional resources, well as recent news and information about the project and the Parrot Foundation, which holds the copyright over Parrot and helps guide development and the community.

Documentation
Parrot includes extensive documentation in the distribution. The full documentation for the latest release is available . The primary mailing list for Parrot is parrot-dev@lists.parrot.org. If you're interested in getting involved in development, you may also want to follow the parrot-commits and parrot-tickets lists. IRC Parrot developers and users congregate on IRC at #parrot on the irc://irc.parrot.org server. It's a good place to get real-time answers to questions or see how things are progressing. Issue Tracking & Wiki Parrot developers track issues with a Tracsite at https://trac.parrot.org/. Users can submit new tickets and track the status of existing tickets. The site also includes a wiki used in project development, a source code browser, and the project roadmap. Parrot Development Parrot's first release occurred in September 2001. It reached 1.0 in March 2009. The Parrot project makes releases on the third Tuesday of each month. Two releases a year occuring every January and July are "supported" releases intended for production use. The other ten releases are development releases for language implementers and testers. Development proceeds in cycles around releases. Activity just before a release focuses on closing tickets changes have sufficient testing time before the next release. Releases also encourage feedback as casual users and testers explore the newest versions. The Parrot Team Parrot developers fulfill several rules according to their skills and interests.

Architect The architect has primary responsibility for setting the overall direction of the project, facilitating team communication, and explaining and evaluating architectural issues. The architect makes design decisions and documents them in Parrot Design Documents, and oversees design and documentation work delegated to other members of the team to provide a coherent vision across the project. The architect also works with the release managers to develop and maintain the release schedule. Allison Randal currently leads the Parrot project as architect. , fixing bugs, reviewing documentation, and preparing for the release. Immediately after the release, larger changes occur, such as merging branches, adding large features, or removing deprecated features. This allows developers to ensure that

Release Managers Release managers manage and produce monthly releases according to the release schedule. Parrot has multiple release managers who rotate the responsibility for each monthly release. The release managers develop and maintain the release schedule jointly with the project architect.

Metacommitter Metacommitters manage commit access to the Parrot repository. Once a contributor is selected for commit access, a Meta committer gives the new committer access to the repository and the bugtracker. The architect is a metacommitter, but other team members also hold this role. Committer Contributors who submit numerous, high-quality patches may be considered to become a committer. Committers have commit access to

the full Parrot repository, though they often specialize on particular parts of the project. Contributors may be considered for commit access either by being nominated by another committer, or by requesting it. Core Developer Core developers develop and maintain core subsystems such as the I/O subsystem, the exceptions system, or the concurrency scheduler. Compiler Developer Compiler developers develop and maintain one or more Parrot front-end compilers such as IMCC, PGE and TGE. High-Level Language Developer Developers who work on any of the high-level languages that target Parrotsuch as Lua, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, or Tclare high-level language developers. The Parrot repository includes a few example languages. A full list of languages is available at https://trac.parrot.org/parrot/wiki/Languages. Build Manager Build managers maintain and extend configuration and build subsystems. They review smoke reports and attempt to extend platform support.

Tester
Testers develop, maintain, and extend the core test suite coverage and testing tools. Testers are also responsible for testing goals, including complete coverage of core components on targeted platforms.

Patch Monsters
Hackers and developers submit patches to Parrot every day, and it takes a keen eye and a steady hand to review and apply them all. Patch

monsters check patches for conformance with coding standards and desirability of features, rework them as necessary, verify that the patches work as desired, and apply them.

Cage Cleaners
The cage cleaners ensure that development follows the project's coding standards, documentation is complete and accurate, all tests function properly, and new users have accurate and comprehensive coding examples. A special class of Trtickets available for these tasks. Cage cleaning tasks run the gamut from entry-level to advanced; this is a good entry point for new users to work on Parrot. General Contributor Contributors write code or documentation, report bugs, take part in email or online conversations, or contribute to the project in other ways. All volunteer contributions are appreciated. Licensing The Parrot foundation supports the Parrot development community and holds trademarks and copyrights to Parrot. The project is available under the Artistic License 2.0, allowing free use in commercial and open source/free software contexts.

An Australian king parrot Photograph by Nicole Duplaix Map

Parrot Range Audio Fast Facts Type: Bird

Diet: Omnivore Average life span in the wild: Up to 80 years Size: 3.5 in (8.7cm) to 40 in (100 cm) Weight: 2.25 oz (65 g) to 3.5 lbs (1.6 kg) Size relative to a tea cup:

The parrots are a broad order of more than 350 birds. Macaws, Amazons, lorikeets, lovebirds, cockatoos and many others are all considered parrots. Though there is great diversity among these birds, there are similarities as well. All parrots have curved beaks and all are zygodactyls, meaning they have four toes on each foot, two pointing forward and two projecting backward. Most parrots eat fruit, flowers, buds, nuts, seeds, and some small creatures such as insects. Parrots are found in warm climates all over most of the world. The greatest diversities exist in Australasia, Central America, and South America. Many parrots are kept as pets, especially macaws, Amazon parrots, cockatiels, parakeets, and cockatoos. These birds have been popular companions throughout history because they are intelligent, charismatic, colorful, and musical. Some birds can imitate many nonavian sounds, including human speech. The male African gray parrot (Psittacus erithacus) is the most accomplished user of human speech in the animal world; this rain forest-dweller is an uncanny mimic. Currently the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) bans the sale of any wild-caught species, yet the parrots' popularity continues to drive illegal trade. Some parrot species are highly endangered. In other cases, once tame birds have reproduced in the wild and established thriving feral populations in foreign ecosystems. The monk (green) parakeet, for example, now lives in several U.S. states.

Parrot Species Popular Searches : species of parrots, info about parrots, types of parrots Interested in parrots? Welcome to the world of the numerous parrot species. All parrot speciesare brightly colored with a few exceptions. Some parrot species are small, cuddly and cute. Others are bigger and grander than their smaller relations. The most common parrot species are green in color and make wonderful pets. They are usually small in size and have amazing talking abilities. MACAWS : Macaws are flamboyant, colorful, intelligent and captivating birds. However, like ill-trained children, macaws can be a major embarrassment if they are not well trained. CONURES : In the wild conures are friendly, peaceful birds and seldom fight with each other. Conures are known for their sweet dispositions and playfulness. They definitely have a mind of their own. COCKATOOS : Cockatoos make wonderful pets because of their sweet nature. Cockatoos love to be cuddled and bond very easily with their human owners. PARAKEETS : "Parakeets have as many variations of their breed as there are varieties of their color. 'Parakeets' means "small parrots". LOVEBIRDS : Lovebirds are meant to be, well you know what, loved and loved hard. In fact, it is very difficult to resist falling in love with them. PARROTLETS : Parrotlets, as is evident from the name itself, are bigger personalities in even smaller packages. Parrotlets win you over simply by their size and amenable disposition. COCKATIELS : Cockatiels are ideal for the first time pet owner. They are characteristically happy and cheerful birds, never moody or demanding. BUDGIES : The word "budgie" is short for budgerigar which is a native green and yellow bird in Australia. They make wonderful pets because of their relatively gentle, gregarious and entertaining personalities.

RING NECK PARROT

Overview ... Global Names (scroll down) Distribution / Range ... Description Ringnecks as Pets ...Understanding & Training Your Ringneck

Diet / Feeding ... Common Health Problems Nesting / Breeding ... Aviculture / Captive Breeding

The Indian Ringneck Parrot or Parakeet (Psittacula krameri manillensis - Bechstein, 1800) - is also sometimes referred to as Rose-ringed Parakeet or, simply, Ring-necked Parakeet. Their average lifespan is 15 years. However, some live as long as 25 - 30 years.

Global Names Afrikaans: Ringnekparkiet ... Dutch: Halsbandparkiet ... Estonian:kaeluspapagoi ... Fi nnish: kauluskaija ... French:Perruche collier, Perruche de Kramer, Perruche verte collier ... German: Halsbandsittich ...... Slovak:Ladniak Kramerov ...Slovenian: ovratniki papagaj, ovratniki papagajcek ... Spanish: Cotorra de Kramer, Cotorra Verde de Collar, Periquito de Collar, Periquito de Kramer ... Swedish: Halsbandsparakit ...Turkish: Yeil papaan, Yeilpapaan ... Vietnamese: Vat c hng

Overview The Indian Ring-necked Parakeet originates from southern India. Its closest cousin the African Ringneck Parakeet - is found in West Africa to Southern Sudan. It is one of four recognized subspecies of Ring-necked Parakeets - and is the most commonly kept in captivity. These elegant and beautiful birds can make good pets for pet owners who are willing to provide ongoing obedience training. If not given sufficient attention, the Indian Ring Neck may become unfriendly and disobedient. In order to maintain their friendly personalities and tameness, regular handling and socialization are a must for these birds. The plumage of the Indian Ring Neck is apple green, although mutations in a range

of other colors also exist. This includes buttercup yellow and the increasingly popular powder blue.

(The above information has kindly been provided by Dr. Rob Marshall, Avian Vet -http://www.birdhealth.com.au) - with some additional information added by Avianweb. Talking Ability (compared to other species)

Distribution / Range Indian Ringnecks originated in Sri Lanka. Their extensive native range now includes Pamban or Rameswaram Island (an island located between India and Sri Lanka), the Indian sub-continent, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, as well as the Burmese region to Cochinchina (the southern third of Vietnam. They are common throughout most of their natural range Introduced (feral) populations exist worldwide:

United States: Florida, California and Hawaii South America Europe:

United Kingdom - the largest numbers are found around south London, with populations occurring in or around Battersea Park, Richmond Park, and Hampstead Heath. Smaller flocks occur in Esher (South East England in the Greater London Urban Area), and Berkshire (South England); as well as Margate, Broadstairs and Ramsgate, Kent. Small groups are occasionally seen in Dorset, Kensington Gardens (London), South Manchester and Stud land).

Belgium, Spain, Canary Islands, etc. Netherlands: Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Utrecht and The Hague

Belgium: Brussels Germany: Occur along the Rhine in major urban areas, such as Cologne, Bonn, Ludwigshafen, and Heidelberg and Wiesbaden. Also in northeastern Hamburg France: Around Paris Italy: Rome (in the gardens of the Palatine Hill and at Villa Borghese) Spain: Barcelona

Africa: Tunis - the capital of Tunisia (the northernmost country in Africa); South Africa Middle East: Iran (mostly in northern Tehran); Lebanon, Israel, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Bahrain, Qatar, and Oman Japan: Hundreds of escaped pets established themselves in southwestern Tokyo, Chiba, Kanagawa, Aichi, Kyoto, Hiroshima Prefecture, Niigata, Tochigi, Saitama, Shizuoka, Gifu, Osaka, Ehime, Saga and Miyazaki Prefecture Australia

They originally lived in semi-desert, wooded or forested areas; but have also adapted well to human-modified habitats, such as farmlands, cultivated agricultural areas and parks and gardens in villages and towns. The social Indian Ringnecks often congregate in large, noisy flocks at favorite roosting sites. Like all parrots, they are noisiest in the mornings and evenings.

Description The Indian Ringneck Parakeet is a medium-sized parrot that measures between 14 - 17 inches (36 - 43 cm) in length - about half of which are the long tail feathers alone. The wings are 6 - 7 inches (153 - 180 mm) long. They weigh between 4 - 5 oz (115 - 140 grams). This parakeet has a long tail and a hooked beak. The upper beak is orangey-red with a black tip; the lower bill is blackish with a paler tip. The irises are pale yellow. The legs and feet are ashy-slate to greenish-slate. The original plumage coloration (and the color mostly found in the wild within

their natural range) is green with a yellowish or bluish-grey hue to the lighter-colored under plumage. The nape (back of a bird's neck) shows a blue suffusion that can at times extend to the back of the head. The outer tail feathers are green. The blue central tail feathers have yellowish-green tips. There is a black stripe running through the chin area. Thirty or more striking and beautiful color varieties have been bred in captivity, such as lutino (yellow) and blue varieties, albinos, violets, olives and pieds. . Gender ID: Males and females look mostly alike; however, mature males (excepting some of the color mutations) can be identified by the ring around the neck, which consists of a thin black band that runs from the above the bill to the eyes and a wider black band that extends from the lower bill, getting thinner on the sides of the neck where it combines with the rose-pink collar that stretches over the back of the neck. In Bluemutation males, the rose-pink collar is replaced by white. The female generally doesn't have the black line on the chin or throat, or the rose-colored band; however, a very pale ring might occur. Surgical or DNA gender testing is recommended for younger birds or mutation birds that don't show the telltale ring around the male's head (such as albinos). Juveniles Juveniles look like females, but the plumage is generally duller. They lack the black ring, pink collar, or blue tint on the back of the head that can be seen in the adult male. Juveniles attain the adult plumage when they are about 2 - 3 years old (usually in the spring of the third year). However, some males show traces of the ring when they are as young as one year old. Similar Bird Species Resembles the related African Ringneck Parakeet, but is larger in size. The face is a stronger green. The Indian male's collar is less prominent on the African male. The African Ringneck has a longer tail.

Indian Ringnecks as Pets Personality / Pet Potential The Ringneck is highly intelligent and, for the right owner, can make an excellent pet. They must be handled consistently in order to remain tame. If not sufficient interaction is provided, they will quickly revert to their wild behavior. However, well socialized Indian Ringnecks generally have pleasant personalities. They learn concepts quickly and like to perform tricks, such as untying knots, ringing a bell, picking up objects and even stringing beads, These energetic parakeets love to fly and explore; and are very playful. They need lots of toys to keep them entertain. They particularly like chew toys. The toys that should be provided to them are wood chews, perches, swings and assorted bird-safe toys that you can get hold of that is appropriate for their size. Small toys that they can easily hold in their claws are good choices.

Besides flying, which is important for all parakeets, these birds love to chew! Be sure you provide them with lots of assorted toys and wood chews, perches and swings. Although mimicking speech is not their strongest point, they can be taught to speak, whistle and mimic other sounds. They can be very vocal and noisy -- rivaling their noisy larger cousins. They can also develop screaming habits, if teased. Their piercing, highpitched calls can annoy intolerant family members or even close neighbors. There is a general misconception that males are friendlier than females, but there is no real basis for this. However, we have noticed in the past that some more than other parrot species - tend to pick their favorites amongst genders. Some bond more easily with males and others with females - and often it appears that they are showing a preference for the opposite sex (male ring necks favoring female caretakers, and vice versa). In summary, Indian Ringnecks are enjoyed for their amazing beauty and fun personalities; but they are not the easiest parrots to keep. We only recommend them to people who have had experience with larger parrots and are willing to put in the time and effort to keep them well socialized and entertained. Housing / Set-up Indian Ringnecks require a roomy cage with room for lots of toys and several perches. The general rule is that the more time they have to spend in the cage, the larger it needs to be. Ideally, have a "toy box" with toys for your pet and rotate those in the cage frequently.

Nesting / Breeding Within their natural range, Indian Ringnecks mostly breed between February and March, although some breeding activities have been observed in April. Most parrot species mate for life; however, this is not the case with the Indian Ringnecks. They nest in tree cavities - either natural or excavated by the birds themselves using their beaks and claws. If they excavated the nest cavity themselves, the entrance hole is usually a circular, ~2 inch + opening. They may use the deserted nests of Woodpeckers and Barbets. They may even take advantage of holes in old walls and buildings to make their nests in. The average clutch consists of 2 - 6 whitish eggs. These eggs are incubated for about 22 - 24 days. The young fledge when they are about 6 - 7 weeks old.

Aviculture Indian Ringnecks reach reproductive maturity when they are about 1 - 1 1/2 years old. However, they may not breed until they are 2 to 4 years old. Females may successfully start breeding as early as 1 year and males at 2 years. These beautiful parakeets are generally hardy once established in an aviary. They are generally good parents and can be a good choices for those wishing to start breeding larger birds. Since they don't form close pair bonds, they are easy to pair up, split up and re-pair, if necessary. The fact that they come in a wide array of beautiful mutation colors is also a big draw for breeders. Mutation Breeding: The "Green" plumage is the original color of this bird species; although some mutations have occurred in the wild. Most colors, however, have been produced in captivity, and breeders are eager to produce the rarer color or even new mutations, for which buyers are willing to pay more. Sex linked colors Sex-linked colors are Lutino, Cinnamon, and Albino. Only the male carries two color genes. The female only carries one. If you breed a Lutino male to a female of a different

colors, all the female chicks will Lutinos. If both parents are Lutino, all the young (male or female) will be Lutinos. Recessive / Dominant Colors: Dominant Colors are those that only ONE parent needs to carry for the young to visibly show this color. Dominant colors are Green and Grey (Grey can occur in single factor and double factor forms). Recessive genes require BOTH parents to carry the mutation gene in order for this color to show up in the young. Recessive plumage colors are Blues and Pieds. Split Genes Most Ringnecks in captivity are split to a mutation and even though they may not show a color, may be able to produce mutation-colored young. Pairing / Mating / Set-up The actual act of mating is preceded by a long and involved courtship that involves the male feeding the female, "dancing" and bowing. Indian Ringnecks will hybridize with related parrot species, such as the Alexandrine Parakeet and theMoustached Parakeet. They are unsuitable, however, as "starter birds," and should not be placed in mixed species collections due to aggressive tendencies. Although they are being kept successfully with larger species . The aviary construction should be a steel frame with heavy duty wire netting (i.e., 16g welded mesh). As they like to chew, wood construction is unsuitable for them. For adjacent flights, double wired partitions are needed, as they will attack those that hang on to the wide of the aviary, causing damage to their feet and beaks. For better breeding results, consider visual barriers. Indian Ringnecks are active birds that do best in large flights or aviaries that allow them to fly and exercise. A good size flight would be 10'x 10' x 15' (3 x 3 x 5 meters). The minimum length of a flight should be 7 feet (2 meters).They should be provided a suitable sheltered area that protects them from draft, cold weather and rain. In warmer areas, this can be achieved by covering part of the aviary (both the sides and the roof) with clear or opaque corrugated roofing material. The rest should be kept open to give access to sun and rain. Those kept in colder climates may need a heated sheltered area as they are susceptible to chilling and frost bitten toes. Non-toxic leafy branches make excellent perches and should be placed at both ends of the flight for them to chew and perch on. The Ringnecks will chew any leaves, flowers

and fruiting bodies off, as well as gnaw on the wood, which provides entertainment and good beak exercise. These branches will need to be replaced regularly. If the birds are kept in a communal / aviary setting, it is best to separate breeding pairs for the breeding season, as they will be more aggressive during this time. Best results are achieved if each breeding pair has its own flight, ensuring that the pairs can't see each other. As these birds don't form strong pair bonds, they may "flirt" with birds in other aviaries which could potentially interfere with breeding successes for both pairs. This being said, it is possible to keep two pairs in a large flight - however, both pairs need to be introduced into the flight at the same time to prevent territorial aggression. Breeding usually starts in spring - April or May (in the Northern Hemisphere); although if the environmental conditions are favorable enough, they may start as early as December and as late as June. In colder climates, Indian Ringnecks usually only raise one brood a season - although if one clutch is removed for artificial incubation or lost for whatever reason, the female will usually lay another clutch to replace the previous one. In warmer areas of the world (such as southern USA, South Africa and Austalia), they regularly produce two clutches. It is important to discourage breeding when temperatures are still chilly as this increases the chance of problems, such as egg binding, chilled eggs or chicks, or dead or crippled chicks. Breeders may remove the nesting boxes or seal the entrance holes to the boxes until weather warms up to discourage early nesting. for more tips on discouraging hormonal behavior. It is best to provide two nesting boxes for each pair to choose from. The nesting birds may show a preference for a nest box of the type and size they themselves were hatched and raised in. If this information is not available, providing nest boxes or logs of various sizes and types, and placed in various locations within the aviary, may make it easier for the parents to make their choice. It is important to place the nest box in a sheltered part of the aviary - at a height of about 5 - 6 feet (1.5 - 1.8 meters) above the ground. However, don't place it too close to the roof as this could cause heat problems in the summer. Once they have chosen a nest box, the other one can be removed. Their preferred nest box should be kept for their exclusive use. The nest box should be removed and thoroughly cleaned at the end of the breeding season, to prevent contamination of mites, parasites and disease pathogens. Nest box options / considerations:

A solid deep log - mostly used for wild-caught birds that were raised in natural tree cavities. Appropriate Size: 8 - 10 inches (~200 - 250 mm) Nest box: An appropriate nest box size would be 7 10 wide x 7 - 10 deep x 18 - 30 high. As RIngnecks are heavy chewers, the nest box should

be made of a thick timber or 3/4-1 inch thick exterior quality plywood. Depending on the depth of the nest box may require a climbing structure inside the box just below the entrance hole. A removable top / lid is needed to allow for nest inspections.

The entrance hole can be square or round and should have a diameter of about 3 inches (75 mm) diameter. It should be located about 4 - 6 inches (~100 -150 mm) from the top. Nesting material at the bottom of the nest box can consist of soft sieved sand, non-toxic saw dust, wood / pine shavings, dried plant material or other suitable materials.

The average clutch size consists of 3 to 5 white eggs - although sometimes as few as 2 or as many as 6 eggs are laid. The female lays one egg every other day and incubates the eggs alone, while the male feeds her. Incubation may not start until several of the eggs have been laid. The incubation usually lasts between 21 - 24 days. The hatchlings are blind and naked, and completely dependent on their parents for warmth and nutrition. When caring for chicks, the parents will need to have access to ample supply of food to feed the chicks with. Indian Ringneck Parrots usually tolerate nest inspections by the care taker; and they should be performed daily to check on the wellbeing of the chicks. Breeders will usually place closed metal leg ring on one of the chick's legs for accurate record keeping or as proof of captive-bred stock, if required. Those chicks that will enter the pet market should be handraised to ensure tameness and good pet qualities. The young usually fledge when they are about 6 - 8 weeks old, but they still depend on their parents for another 3 - 4 weeks. The young can be left with their parents 6 months or longer. As the parents get ready for their next breeding session, aggression towards their previous young may occur, at which time they will need to be removed.

Diet / Feeding In the wild, Indian Ringnecked Parakeets mostly feed on seeds, grains, blossoms, fruits, berries, greens, vegetables, berries, nuts and even nectar. Flocks of them often forage on farmlands and orchards and are by many farmers considered "crop pests". For example, in India, they feed extensively on pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) especially - during the winter season. They also take advantage of bird feeders in urban gardens. Especially during the breeding season, the adults and their young have a higher requirement for protein and, therefore, increase their consumption of insects (including beetles), mealworm larvae and pupa. Captive Diet Indian Ringnecks should be fed a wide variety of foods. A high quality dry food mix that contains seeds, grains and nuts should be available at all times - a Small Hookbill or Cockatiel should be suitable for them. Clean, fresh water for drinking and bathing should also be provided. Their diet should also include a good amount of leafy dark greens and vegetables (i.e. chard, kale, carrots, corn, celery, squash), as well as fruits (i.e., applies, grapes, pears, persimmons, pomegranates, figs, grapes, bananas). Wild-picked green foods such as chickweed, seeding grass, dandelion (flowers, roots and leaves), shepherds-purse and sow-thistle make excellent additions to a healthy diet. Some nutritious human foods, such as cooked beans, cooked chicken, wholegrain rice also add variety to their diet. Germinated or sprouted seeds are especially important for the breeding season. They should be fed fresh making sure that it is not contaminated by bacteria or molt. It should have a sweet smell. If it smells foul or sour, discard. Frequent rinsing will help prevent spoilage. Please for more information on sprouting. Calcium supplements, such as cuttlefish, shell grit, crushed oyster shell or calcium blocks should be available - particularly during the breeding season. Millet spray makes a nutritious treat.

Training and Behavioral Guidance: Consistent training and behavioral guidance from a young age is recommended to ensure potential owners enjoy a bird free of destructive and annoying habits. Behavioral challenges that ring necks present include:

Chewing: Any parrot will chew. In nature, they use their beak to "customize" their favorite tree, to enlarge the size of their nest in a tree hollow. Doing this keeps their beaks in good condition. The problem is excessive and undesirable chewing. Undisciplined ring necks may chew on electric wiring potentially causing house fires. The owner needs to provide plenty of "healthy" chewing opportunities (bird toys, natural wood branches, etc.) and training is necessary to teach a parrot what is "off-limits."

Jealousy / Aggression: The ringneck parrots can be jealous of other family members and pets. They can develop a bond with only one human and refuse to interact with other people, even attacking them in some cases. Although this is a small bird it does not seem to believe so, and will attack larger birds and even dogs if it feels it or its human is threatened. Owners should be cautious in multiple-pet homes. Continuing to socialize the hand reared pet bird from a young age and letting many people handle and interact with it can prevent single-person bonding and allow it to become an excellent family pet. Noise: They can be noisy - albeit not as noisy as their larger cousins. Not everybody can tolerate the natural call of a ringneck parrot, and even though it can't (or should not) be entirely eliminated, there are ways to discourage screaming / screeching in your pet. The Indian Ringneck is known for its talking and whistling ability, and teaching and encouraging your pet to talk is one way to reduce undesirable screeching in your pet.

Continuous obedience training is recommended ...

AvianWeb Resources: I put together web resources for you to help you understand your pet bird and properly direct him. Please visit this websitefor valuable tips on parrot behavior and training. If you found a way to resolve a "parrot behavioral issue" please share it with others. The 3 Key Elements to Your Pet Bird's Happiness and Health Training Your Bird Bird Nutrition Parrot Products

Ringneck Parrots are generally hardy birds. However, the following diseases have been reported in this species:

Polyoma Sarcocystosis Aspergillosis (fungal disease) Bacterial infections (pneumonia).

CONCLUSION
Public awareness Environment is a complex of factor, surrounding us which affect all the organisms all the time. In broader sense environment constitutes the various physical, mental, social, spiritual, education aspects of whole humanity and when kept healthy and inspiring, it promotes the progress and development of mankind. Thoughtless exploitation is due to environment and ecosystem, lace of concern amongst planner and ecologist about the side effects of the development project; gap in information and in training personal, absence of multi disciplinary approach to development project and lack of systematic information, date and feedback system. There is need for developing environment

strategies for maintaining the ecological balance not only by making preservation of nature, an integral part of development planning, but also by adapting alternative means of livelihood for those developments upon nature for survival. AIMs To acquire knowledge of the origin and function of the nature system and its correlation with the living world. To develop an understanding that human beings, plant and animals are part of the natural phenomenon and are interdependent. To appreciate the influence of human activity and natural processes. TO develop sensitivity in personal attitudes to environment issues. To develop an understanding of hoe local environment contribute to the global environment.