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15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.


Bachalar of commerce is popular as the students have a realized that has good chances to progress in business word. It related awareness about the industrial and economic environmental and business practices by developing practical knowledge throat study of management In 1st year of a student is supposed to undergo practical training. Period for summer internship program in 1 month and student has to prepare a detailed report for the topic assigned To aim in the field of elective subject of the student. It tries to bridge the gap between theoretical and practical studies of management. Thus for formularize or understanding appropriate business strategies, it is necessary to have a proper knowledge of the corporate world. The project helps the student to better understand that no matter which industry; the low of survival of the fittest applies in all walks of

life. It helps to students of to get a better understanding of low the practical corporate world function and thus helps them to become better & more competitive in future. Advertising is above all a drives product and services towards the consumer advertising help to drive the consumer towards product at the point of sales. Unless this happens there can be no hope of making a profit from the product or achieving success for the business. Advertising parts of the progress of society. New product and techniques for reaching and motivating consumers and constantly emerging and developing. This project report is based on advertising sales, promotion and sales management as my newspaper subject. Chandres advertising company had been selected me for the purpose of summer training program. In Industrial training, I put my all work with great sincerely as per requirement of the subject. I take up the challenge with this field has placed before me and hope sucked with guidance and faculties.

I heartily thank to Mr.satyentra vyas the executive director of chandreshad advertising. who give me a chance to complete my project work in time. I am also thankful to Mr.Ramanbhai shah (chief accountant) and also thankful to Mr.Yashwant talati (media manager) who helped me to complete my project report and I ma very much thankful to them as they have give me full response and help. I am a student of the B.J.V.M.commerce College also thankful to our principal N.L.shanghvi. Who was provided an opportunity to get a practical training. Lastly, thankful to my prof. Miss.Bhumika madam who have brought up to this stage and have given enough knowledge to get practical training.


The word advertising comes from the Latin word advetere used in the warring. By meaning bible 1660 it to turn the mind to word the word advertisement first appeared around 1665, A.D. it . To indicate notification or was used as a heading for

commercial information by store keepers Advertising is a purchased publicity directed according to a definite plan to secure, maintain and increase the distribution and the consumption of the production. -P.WHITE Advertising is a salesmanship in print - LASKER The most community used and accepted definition of the advertising is given by the mericon .

Marketing association it as defined as

any paid

form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or service by an identified sponsor.


Advertising is a form of message communication and presentation. There are two types of selling oral selling and printed selling oral salesmanship deals ordinarily with one person at a time; printed salesmanship deals with many people at one time.








letter is mass selling, under salesmanship we have dealt with personal selling and now shall turn our attention to consider printed salesmanship which, in other words, means advertising.

The word advertising is derived from let in word averter which means to turn (the mind) to broadly Speaking, advertising does turn the attention of the public to s commodity or service and in the broad sense it might he said that anything that turns attention to an article or anything that turns attention to an article or service might be called advertising.

Newspapers are considered to be the most authentic means of communicating facts and vital information to a large number of people. The newspapers in India since a long time have been synonymous with the morning tea. In fact the beginning of the day in India seems incomplete without a flip through the newspaper. The first newspaper in India was published in 1605. Since then there has been no looking back of the newspapers. Even in the time of television, Internet, radio and mobile phones....newspapers have not lost their significance and still remain the most sought after means of communication for the masses. The newspapers consist of current news related to political events, crime, business, sports, entertainment, culture and opinions. Newspapers
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Daily Newspapers Weekly Newspapers National Newspapers International Newspapers Local Newspapers

English Newspapers in India

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Hindustan Times The Times of India The Asian Age Deccan Chronicle Deccan Herald The Hindu The Pioneer The Telegraph

The Indian Express

This is a list of the top 30 newspapers in India by daily circulation. These figures are mainly compiled by the Audit Bureau of Circulations. Some newspapers whose circulation figures are under dispute do not appear on this list. Figures in Millions[2] Sr. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Newspaper The Times of India Dainik Bhaskar Dainik Jagran Malayala Manorama The Hindu Eenadu Language English Hindi Hindi Malayalam English Telugu City, State Various cities and states Various cities and states Various cities and states Various cities in Kerala and a few other cities Various cities and states Various cities in Andhra Pradesh and few other cities Various cities and states Kolkata, West Bengal Various cities and states Various cities and states Various cities and states Various cities in Andhra Pradesh and major cities in India Various cities in Kerala and a few other cities Ahmadabad, Gujarat Daily Circulation 3.146 2.547 2.168 1.514 1.360 1.350 1.349 1.277 1.230 1.143 1.142 1.256

Deccan Chronicle English Ananda Bazar Patrika Amar Ujala Hindustan Times Hindustan Sakshi Bengali Hindi English Hindi Telugu

13 14



1.077 1.051

Gujarat Samachar Gujarati

15 16

Punjab Kesari Dinakaran

Hindi Tamil

States of Punjab, Haryana Various cities in Tamil Nadu and a few other cities Various cities in Maharashtra Various cities in Tamil Nadu and a few other cities Ahmadabad, Gujarat Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh Various cities and states Various cities and states Various cities and states Karnataka Various cities and states Various cities and states Karnataka Various cities and states Various cities and states Various cities and states

.902 .901





18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Dina Thanthi Divya Bhaskar Aaj The Economic Times The Telegraph DNA Prajavani The New Indian Express Deccan Herald Udayavani The Statesman The Hindu Business Line Business Standard

Tamil Gujarati Hindi English English English Kannada English English Kannada English English English

.854 .840 .748 .651 .465 .400 .364 .309 .214 .185 .172 .163 .144


After passing you examination, suppose you want to start a small restaurant in your locality. You have sufficient space and required funds and skill to run it. But, how will people come to know about your restaurant? Unless people know about it who is going to come to your restaurant? Are you able to think what you should be doing to make people aware that there is a restaurant? Actually, if the quality of food and cleanliness of the restaurant is good, it can attract some people. But you must also take some measures on a continuous basis to make people aware about the location of your restaurant, the quality and variety of food available there, so that you can get customers regularly. In fact, every businessman engages in this activity of making people Aware about his products and services so as to increase his sales. Let us learn more about this Activity in this lesson.

After studying this lesson, you will be able to: explain the meaning of advertising; describe the objectives of advertising; identify various media of advertising; and suggest the suitability of each media of advertising.

Meaning of Advertising
In a newspaper you not only read news on current affairs, sports, etc., but you also come across

several information or message about some products or services like air conditioners, cycles, hair oils, transporters, builders, etc. You also come across such information in journals, magazines, roadside hoardings, radio, television, etc. These informations make you aware about the products or services in terms of their availability, price and features. So, whenever you feel a requirement for such products or services you try to go to the place of their availability, look at the quality and features and buy them if they meet your requirement. For example, while listening to radio you come across a product called Bajaj Almond hair oil . Then while going to buy a hair oil you ask the shopkeeper to show you that product. You like the fragrance and find the price reasonable and purchase it for your use. There can be many such examples of different nature, like a builder selling flats on installment basis, a shopkeeper giving discounts, a new product being launched by a manufacturer, so on and so forth. It is obvious that the very purpose of giving such information is to make the customers aware about any product or service and induce them to buy it. Therefore, it is always the manufacturer, the trader or the service provider who wants to give such information to attract customers for promoting his sales. This entire promotional activity is called advertising, where the manufacturer or the trader or the service provider is called a sponsor or advertiser; the message or the information supplied is called advertisement and the medium through which such Information is supplied like journal; magazines, hoardings, television etc. are called the media of

Advertising. Definition of Advertising The American Marketing Association defines advertising as any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsor. Advertising Is non-personal as it is not directed to any single individual. Secondly, the sponsor i.e. the manufacturer or producer is identified as his name and address is always contained in an Advertisement and he also bears all the cost involved in the process. Thirdly, the producer can also promote an idea regarding quality, design, packing and pricing, etc. of any product or service. Thus, we can say, advertising consists of all activities involved in presenting a sponsored message regarding a product, service or an idea. Features of Advertising By looking into the meaning and definition of advertising we can sum up the following features of Advertising. (i) Non-personal presentation of message In advertising there is no face-to-face or direct Contact with the customers. It is directed to the prospective buyers in general. (ii) Paid form of communication-In advertising the manufacturer communicates with prospective Customers through different media like, newspapers, hoardings, magazines, radio, television, etc. He has to pay certain amount for using some space or time in those media. (iii) Promotion of product, service or idea contains any message regarding Advertisement

any particular product, service or even an idea. It makes people aware about the product and induces them to buy it. (iv) Sponsor is always identified The identity of the manufacturer, the trader or the service provider who issues advertisement is always disclosed. (v) Communicated through some media- Advertisements are always communicated through use of certain media. It is not necessary that there will be just one medium. All the media may also be used. Objectives of Advertising You have learnt that the main purpose of advertising is to communicate massage or information to the customers. But while communicating such message or information it also serves purposes beneficial for the sponsor or advertiser. Let us look into the various objectives of advertising. i. To educate customers Can you remember the advertisement of Dandi Namak on television? In this advertisement it is said that Dandi Namak is good for health as it contains Iodine. This message educates you that iodine is good for health and Dandi Namak contains iodine. ii. To create demand for new product You read in newspaper that a new type of pen called Gel pen is introduced in the market, which is very economical and convenient in writing. This motivates you to buy the said pen. Similarly, many students like you shall also buy gel pen after coming to know about it through advertisement. This will create a demand for the new product launched in the market. iii. To retain existing customers

You might remember that Nirma washing powder was a very popular detergent. But, after Wheel powder came to the market the sale of Nirma suddenly decreased. Then the manufacturers of Nirma improved the product and advertised about the same in different media. After knowing this the persons who were earlier using Nirma did not switch over to Wheel and continued using Nirma. In this manner Nirma sustained its existing demand. Thus, advertising helps the manufacturers not only to create a demand for a new product but also to retain the existing customers. iv. To increase sales We have learnt that advertising creates demands for new products and sustains the demand of old one. Thus, with increase in demand, the sale of the product also increases. v. To assist salesman In most advertisements the salient features of a product, its qualities and its uses are expressed in detail. This assists a salesman to sell the product quickly without spending time in explaining and convining the customer. Media of Advertising So far, you have learnt that advertisements are communicated by using some media like, newspaper, journals, radio, television, etc. The following diagram shows some commonly used media of advertising : Print Media Electronic Media Other Media 1. Newspapers 1. Radio 1. Hoardings 2. Periodicals 2. Television 2. Posters 3. Internet 3. Vehicular Displays Let us learn in details about these media.

(A) Print Media Print media is a very commonly used medium of advertising by businessman. It includes advertising through newspaper, magazines, journals, etc. and is also called press advertising. 1. Newspapers You must have read Newspapers. In our country newspapers are published in English, Hindi and in other regional languages. These are the sources of news, opinions and current events. In addition, Newspapers are also a very common medium of advertising. The advertiser communicates his message through newspaper which reaches to crores of people. Advantages Media of Advertising Advantages of Newspaper Advertising are as below: i. Newspapers normally have wide circulation and a single advertisement in the newspaper can quickly reach to a large number of people. ii. The cost of advertising is relatively low because of wide publication. iii. Generally newspapers are published daily. Thus, the same advertisement can be repeated frequently and remind reader everyday. iv. The matter of advertisement can be given to newspapers at a very short notice. Even last minute changes in the content is also possible. This makes advertising quite flexible. v. Newspapers are published from different regions and in different languages. Hence, they provide greater choice to advertisers to approach the desired market, region and readers through local or regional language Limitations

Newspaper advertising also suffers from some limitations as mentioned below: i. Newspapers are read soon after they are received and then are kept generally in some corner of the houses. After 24 hours we get a fresh newspaper and this makes the life of the newspaper short. ii. People read newspapers mainly for news and pay casual attention to advertisement. iii. Illiterate persons can not read and thus, newspapers advertising does not benefit them. 2. Periodicals Periodicals are publications which come out regularly but not on a daily basis. These may be published on a weekly, fortnightly, monthly, bimonthly, quarterly or even yearly basis. For example you must have come across magazines and journals like Onlooker, India Today, Frontline, Yojana, Swagat, Femina, etc. published regularly in English, Grihasobha, Nandan and Champak in Hindi. Similarly there are also periodicals in Hindi and other regional languages. All these periodicals have a large number of readers and thus, advertisements published in them reach a number of people. Advantages i. Periodicals have a much longer life than newspapers. These are preserved for a long period to be referred in future or read at leisure or read again, whenever required. ii. Periodicals have a selected readership and so advertisers can know about their target

customers and accordingly selective advertisements are given. For example, in a periodical like Femina, which is a magazine for women, advertisements related to products to be used only by males are rarely published. However, manufacturers of products and services to be used by females prefer to give advertisement in this magazine. Limitations i. Advertising in periodicals are costlier. ii. The number of people to whom the advertisements reach are small in comparison to newspapers. iii. The advertisement materials are given much in advance, hence last minute change is not possible. This reduces flexibility. (B) Electronic Media This is a very popular form of advertising in the modern day marketing. This includes Radio, Television and Internet. Let us look into detail about these. 1. Radio Advertising All of us are aware about a radio and must have heard advertisements for various products in it. In radio there are short breaks during transmission of any programme which is filled by advertisements of products and services. There are also popular programmes sponsored by advertisers. (One of the longest run programme in Radio was a sponsored programme started as Binaca Geetmala and later renamed as Cibaca Geetmala . It was sponsored by Hindustan Ciba-Geigy Limited for its products like toothpastes, toothpowders and tooth brushes and it continued for a period of 30 years on a weekly basis).

Advantages (i) It is more effective as people hear it on a regular basis. (ii) It is also useful to illiterates, who can not read and write. (iii) There are places where newspapers reading may not possible, but you can hear radio. For example, you can hear radio while traveling on road or working at home; but you can not read newspaper. Similarly, while driving you can hear a radio but cannot read a newspaper. Limitations (i) A regular listener may remember what he has heard. But, occasional listeners tend to forget what they have heard in Radio. (ii) The message that any advertisement wants to communicate may not be proper as there is no chance to hear it again immediately. There may be some other disturbances that distort communication. (iii) In comparison to Television, Radio is less effective as it lacks visual impact. 2. Television Advertising With rapid growth of information technology and electronic media, television has topped the list among the media of advertising. TV has the most effective impact as it appeals to both eye and the ear. Products can be shown, their uses can be demonstrated and their utilities can be told over television. Just like radio, advertisements are shown in TV during short breaks and there are also sponsored programmes by advertisers.

Advantages (i) It is most effective as it has an audio-visual impact. (ii) With catchy slogans, song and dance sequences, famous personalities exhibiting products, TV advertising has a lasting impact. For example, who can forget Aamir Khan saying Thanda Matlab Cocacola or Sachin Tendulkar in Pepsi advertisement. (iii) With varieties of channels and programmes advertisers have a lot of choice to select the channel and time to advertise. (iv) With regional channels coming up any person even illiterates can watch the advertisements and understood it by seeing and hearing. Limitations (i) TV advertisements are usually expensive to prepare as well as to telecast. (ii) With almost every manufacturer trying to communicate their message through TV advertising the impact among the viewers is also reducing. Now-a-days people are switching on channels whenever there is a commercial break. 3. Internet Are you aware about internet? Infact it is the latest method of communication and gathering information. If you have a computer and with an access to internet you can have information from all over the world within a fraction of second. Through internet you can go to the website of any manufacturer or service provider and gather information. Sometimes when you do not have

website addresses you take help of search engines or portals. In almost all the search engines or portals different manufactures or service providers advertise their products. Advantages (i) Information from all over the world is made available at the doorsteps. (ii) User can see the advertisement at their own time and as per their requirement. Limitations (i) It is not accessible without a computer. (ii) It is not very suitable for general public. (iii) It is not suitable for illeterate and those having no knowledge about the operation of Internet. (C) Other Media All the media of advertising discussed above are mostly used by consumers while they are at home or inside any room, except radio and newspapers or magazines to some extent. Moreover in all these media, the consumer has also to spend some money to access the advertisement. However, there are other media available, where the consumer has to spend nothing and he can see such advertisements while moving outside. Some of such advertising are hoardings, posters, vehicular displays, gift items, etc. 1. Hoardings While moving on roads you must have seen large hoardings placed on iron frames or roof tops or walls. These are normally boards on which advertisements are painted or electronically designed

so that they are visible during day or night. The advertisers have to pay an amount to the owners of the space, where the hoardings are placed. 2. Posters Poster are printed and posted on walls, buildings, bridges etc to attract the attention of customers. Posters of films which are screened on cinema halls are a common sight in our country. 3. Vehicular displays You must have seen advertisements on the public transport like buses, trains, etc. Unlike hoardings these vehicles give mobility to advertisements and cover a large number of people. Advertising 4. Gift Items from manufacturers When you buy a cycle, the shopkeeper sometimes gives you a key ring to hold the cycle key. Some jewelers give small purse or boxes when you buy a jewellery. Sometimes manufacturers gives diaries, calenders, purse, etc. to buyers and prospective customers. In all these items the name, address and telephone number of the manufacturer, or trader or service provider as well as descriptions of the products in which they deal in are printed. These items are normally items of daily use given freely to the customers. While using, the user remembers the products as well as the producer.

Suitability of Media of Advertising The advertisers must look into the suitability of each medium of advertising in relation to their product. For this purpose, they must look into the nature of the product or service to be advertised, the target customers for such product, the amount of allocated funds for such advertising and the availability of space and time in each medium. However, in general, the suitability of each medium of advertising can be summarized as follows: 1. Newspapers These are suitable for consumer goods designed for general public. In case of new products to be launched, newspaper advertising is very useful as the same space can be occupied on a regular basis. Newspapers are also suitable for advertisements regarding clearance sale, exchange offers, etc. 2. Periodicals These are suitable for products required by the target customers of the periodicals. For example, advertisement of any books can be given in journals like Readers Digest as the target customers of this periodical is assumed to be a reader, Similarly, interior decorators, architects, builders can advertise in magazines specifically containing items of design and decoration. Consumer goods products can be advertised in any periodical having wide circulation. 3. Radio Radio is suitable for advertising different varieties of products. However, the timing is important for radio advertising. For example, after farmers come back from field they normally listen to

radio and during this time any firm producing agricultural products can advertise or sponsor their programmes. 4. Television Choice of channels and programmes is important for the advertisers to advertise their product in TV. For example, in Cartoon Network channel, products for use of children can be advertised. Similarly, during any serials or films, consumer goods required by the family can be advertised. This medium is also suitable for products those require live demonstration while selling those to the consumers. What You Have Learnt Advertising includes all the activities involved in presenting any product or service or idea by any producer, trader or service provider to prospective customers. Advertising incurs some cost and it is borne by the producer, trader or service provider known as sponsor or advertiser. The inherent message about the product or service or idea is called the advertisement. In every advertisement the identity of the sponsor is disclosed. The basic purpose of advertising is to educate the customers regarding the utility of the product/service and thereby to induce them to buy it. Advertisement also serves the purpose of creating a demand for any new product as well as maintaining and improving the existing demand for any product. Ultimately every advertising helps in increasing sales. There are various medium of advertising like newspaper and periodicals (print media);

radio, television and internet (electronic media) and hoardings, posters, vehicular displays and gift items by manufacturer (other media). Each medium has its own advantages and disadvantages and suitability for specific products.

<:History of Advertising in India:>

Indian Advertising starts with the hawkers calling out their wares right from the days when cities and markets first began. Concrete advertising history begins with classified advertising. Ads appear for the first time in print in Hickey s Bengal Gazette, India s first newspaper (weekly) . To advertise meant merely to inform until the end of the eighteenth century, and the early newspapers and periodicals announced births, deaths, arrivals of ships from England, sale of household furniture, etc. some journals like the Bengal Journal (first published in 1785) even offered to print government advertisements free. The front page of most such journals carried only advertisements. But before long persuasive copy began to replace mere information. This is evident from the appearance of punch lines such as superior to anything of the kind hitherto imported and warranted to the first quality . Discounts and special services also began to be offered by the beginning of the nineteenth century. Later, new products and services established themselves on the market through the advertisement columns of the newspapers and periodicals. The power of advertising increased rapidly with the growth in trade and commerce. With the increasing impact of the industrial revolution on our country, the number of advertisements from British business houses rose sharply. Agents flourished at the time as space contractors, obtaining advertisements for newspapers and periodicals on a commission basis. Leading newspapers like The Statement and The Times of India , which had their own advertising departments, offered their own facilities to agents . This was of great advantage to both the advertiser and the publisher, for the advertiser, it saved the bother of preparing a suitable layout for the advertisements, for the publisher, it assured a certain

uniformity of standard in the advertisements appearing in its column. This practice was responsible for turning advertising into a distinct profession. These agents were forerunners of the advertising agencies .
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Advertising in the early 20th century Two main events responsible for growth of Indian advertising agencies were: the Swadeshi Movement (1907-1911), which gave rise to indigenous industries, and the second, was the installation of first rotary linotype machine by the Statesman of Calcutta in 1907. In few years, other papers too installed the new machine, which made it possible to produce a cheap newspaper with a large national circulation. The first Indian Ad Agency, the Indian Advertising Agency, was launched around this time, and is still going strong. The main functions of these agencies were to secure advertisements and to get them published in the press. The major British agencies during this time were: Alliance Advertising Associates, Publicity Society of India, L.A. Stronach and Co, and others. They catered to the need of the affluent British and Indian elites living in the metropolitan cities. They rarely advertised Mass consumer items like tea and cigarettes. During the war, press advertising was exploited to raise funds for the war effort. Ad Agencies established during this period-included Alliance Advertising Association Ltd, at Bombay, started by the British India Cooperation of Kanpur, to sell its manufactured goods. Mr. L.A.Stronach, the manager of Alliance, bought up the Bombay branch of the agency and started in 1922 his own agency, with a branch in London. It provided production and media services to advertisers (unlike the space-selling agencies) and so even manufacturers of competing products or brands had to use these services.

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The Inter-War Years During the inter-war years a few Indian agencies too sprang up, the most notable being the modern Publicity Co. in Madras, the Calcutta Publicity, and the Oriental Advertising Agency in Tiruchirapalli. The Vasudevea Publicity Service was started in Delhi to carry out outdoor publicity campaigns in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Delhi. In 1931, the first fullfledged Indian Ad Agency, the National Advertising Service, was established. Among the other Indian Agencies to be launched during this period were: New India Publicity Co. 1930, Paradise Advertising Agency of Calcutta (1928), the Indian and Eastern Newspapers Society (IENS), and others. The IENS was set up as a central organization of the newspaper owners of India, Burma and Ceylon. The society looked after the interests of newspaper publishing houses; an indirect effect of the formation of the IENS was the standardization of Ad agency practices. The IENS also sought to foster better publisher agency relationship. The establishment of the Advertising Agencies Association of India (AAAI) in 1945, and the Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC) in 1948 helped to bring some order to the competitive field. The AAAI came to be recognized as a representative body of the profession, with the authority to represent its interests and problems. The ABC gave some credibility to the claims of newspapers regarding their circulation.

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Post-Independence Advertising Following World War II and the Indian Independence, the British-owned agencies were sold to Indian business. Several agencies, however, retained an affiliate status with the main branches of the agencies in London. They continue to enjoy this status even today, though American multinational agencies have replaced affiliation with British agencies. At independence the advertising business was well on its way to growth and expansion. Partition did not touch the business at all. The introduction of multi-color printing, improved printing machines (like offset and web offset), and the development of commercial art gave the Ad business a further leap. Agencies began to offer, besides space selling, many more services, such as artwork, organization of fairs and exhibitions, market research, public relations consultancies. The phenomenal growth in the media, especially television and cable has given a boost to Indian advertising. Market research and readership surveys have led to the further professionalization of the business. Individual publishing houses like The Hindu and The Times of India first conducted readership surveys. Now, National Readership Surveys (NRS) and Indian Readership Surveys (IRS) as well as regular Television Rating Points (TRP) measurements provide advertisers with statistical data on which to base their media plans.

<:Types of Advertising Agencies:>

Advertising Agencies can be classified by the range of services that they offer. Also, advertising agencies range in size from one man shows to large firms that employ thousands of people. Accordingly, different types of advertising agencies are:
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Full service agencies Creative boutiques In-house agencies Specialized agencies Media buying services

Full-service agencies- as the name implies, a full service agency is one that handles all phases of advertising process for its clients: it plan, creates, produces and places advertisements for its clients. In addition, it might provide other marketing services such as sales promotion, trade shows, exhibits, newsletters and annual reports. In short a full service agency will provide four major functions: 1. account management, 2. creative development and production, 3. media planning and 4. buying and research services. One major point that differentiates a full service agency from other is that the personal work full time and the services provide are extensive. The services usually provided by a full service agency include collecting and analyzing market data, proposing strategy, preparing and producing the ads, placing the ads in approved media, verifying the advertisements appearance (publication, broadcasting, etc), invoice the client, collect the bills and pay the media and other suppliers.

Creative boutiques- it is an organization that specializes in the actual creation of advertisements. In general, boutiques create imaginative and interesting advertising themes and produce innovative and original advertisements. A company that uses a creative boutique would have to employ another agency to perform the planning, buying and administrative functions connected with advertising. Full service ad agency studies the product or service and determines its marketable characteristic and how it relates to the competition. At the same time the agency studies the potential market, possible distribution plans and likely advertising media. Following this, the agency makes a formal presentation to the client deadlines, it s finding about the product and its recommendation for an advertising strategy. Creative boutiques are different from freelancers. Freelancers are individuals who work on their own with out any formal attachment with any agency. Clients or agencies hire these from time to time. The clients also hire creative boutiques. In-house agencies- such agencies are owned and supervised by advertisers or the client organizations. The organizational structure and functioning of in-house agencies are similar to full service agencies in most cases. The advertising director of the company usually heads an in-house agency. In house agencies are organized according to the needs and requirements 9of the company and are staffed accordingly. Some companies solely depend on their in-house agencies for their advertising needs. Others depend both on their in-house agency and outside agencies. Some other companies allow their agencies to take outside jobs. Specialized agencies- there are many agencies, which take up only specialized advertising jobs. Certain fields like medicine, finance, outdoor advertising, social advertising, etc. require specialized knowledge. So there are agencies, which concentrate

only on areas and employ people with the required talents. These agencies are usually small in size. Media buying agencies-it is an organization that specializes in buying radio and television time and reselling it to advertisers and advertising agencies. The services sells time to the advertisers, orders the spots on the various stations involved and monitors the stations to see if the ads actually run. This trend for special media buying agencies started in the 1970s. Such agencies have a lot of contacts in the media and offer very low commission on media rates. Media buying agencies complement the creative boutiques. Also large companies use their specialized negotiating talents for buying media space and time.

 Media Commercial
advertising media can include wall paintings, billboards , street furniture components, printed flyers, radio, cinema and television ads, web banners, web popup, skywriting, bus stop benches, magazines, newspapers, town criers, sides of buses, taxicab doors and roof mounts, musical stage shows, subway platforms and trains, elastic bands on disposable diapers, stickers on apples in supermarkets, the opening section of streaming audio and video, and the backs of event tickets and supermarket receipts. Any place an "identified" sponsor pays to deliver their message through a medium is advertising. Covert advertising embedded in other entertainment media is known as product placement. A more recent version of this is advertising in film, by having a main character use an item or other of a definite

brand - an example is in the movie. Minority Report, where Tom Cruise's character Tom Anderton owns a computer with The Nokia logo clearly written in the top corner, or his watch engraved with the Bulgarilogo. The TV commercial is generally considered the most effective mass-market advertising format and this is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for commercial airtime during popular TV events. Virtual advertisements may be inserted into regular television programming through computer graphics. It is typically inserted into otherwise blank backdrops or used to replace local billboards that are not relevant to the remote broadcast audience. More controversially, virtual billboards may be inserted into the background where none existing in real-life. Virtual product placement is also possible. Increasingly, other mediums such as those discussed below are overtaking television due to a shift towards consumer's usage of the Internet. Advertising on the World Wide Web is a recent phenomenon. Prices of Web- based advertising space are dependent on the "relevance" of the surrounding web content and the traffic that the website receives. E-mail advertising is another recent phenomenon. Unsolicited bulk E-mail advertising is known as "spam".  Newspaper Flexibility; timeliness; good local market coverage; broad acceptance; high believability. Short life; poor reproduction quality; small pass along audience. Television Combines

sight, sound and motion; appealing to the senses; high attention; high reach. High absolute cost, high clutter, fleeting exposure, less audience selectivity Direct mailAudience selectivity, flexibility, no ad competition within the same medium, personalization. Relatively high cost, junk mail image.  Radio Mass use, high geographical and demographic selectivity; low cost. Audio presentation only; lower attention than television; non standardized rate structure; fleeting exposure. Magazines high geographical and demographic selectivity; credibility and prestige; high quality reproduction, long life; good pass-along readership. Long ad purchase lead time; some waste circulation; no guarantee of position.  Outdoor Flexibility; high repeat exposure; low cost; low competition. Limited audience selectivity; creative limitation. Broachers Flexibility; full control;


can dramatize message. Overproduction could lead to run away costs.

<:Role of Advertising Agency:>

The major role as advertising agency is to work alongside the clients to develop and sustain the brands that they mutually serve, through consumer understanding and insight and through creative and media delivery skills to provide best advice and the best execution thereof to those clients for the advertising of those brands. Buildings age and become dilapidated. Machines wear out. People die. But what live on are the brands. Brands are much more than mere products and services. Brands, if successful, are clearly differentiated entities with which consumers can and do form a mutually beneficial relationship over time, because of the values rational and emotional, physical and aesthetic that consumers derive from them. The importance can be summed up as follows: A product is something that is made, in a factory: a brand is something that is bought, by a customer. A competitor can copy a product; a brand is unique. A product can be quickly out-dated; a successful brand is timeless. The role of advertising and the advertising agency is to help effect this transformation from product or service to brand by clearly positioning the offering to the consumer its role and its benefits and by communicating the brand s own personality. In short its role is to provide meaningful differentiation via the consumer connection.

As one wise head in advertising once said, nothing kills a bad product faster than good advertising . Typically advertising is playing this role, along with other parts of what we call the marketing mix, in highly competitive market places. Most advertisers assign this job of informing the target audience and creating images to advertising agencies. Thus, the advertising agencies plan, prepare and place ads in the media. But even an advertiser can do all these things. The management can do planning of ad campaigns. For preparing ads, creative personal can be hires. And the advertiser for placing the ads can buy media space or time. So, why hire an advertising agency? The reason can be enlisted as follows:

Expertise and experience- An advertising agency brings together people with the required expertise and experience of the various sub-disciplines of advertising. Thus, it has the copywriters, visualizes, researchers, photographers, directors, planners and people who get business and deal with clients working in ad agencies. An agency moulds all these people into a team and gives them a highly conducive work atmosphere. The agency makes the best use of their talents and experience to deliver rapidly, efficiently and in greater depth than a company or organization could do on its own. Objectivity and professionalism- Advertising agencies are highly professional. Objectivity is a major virtue of ad agency. They operate in a strange way. While they take up advertising for others, agencies hardly advertise themselves. Ad agencies being outside intermediaries can be objective. They thus will offer independent and detached viewpoints and suggestions based on objective analysis. Cost effective- If an organization wants to hire people to do its advertising, it can not provide them work all through the year. Also most experts in the fields of advertising like directors, musicians, photographers, charge huge amounts and

are often not affordable. Moreover, hiring, organizing and managing all talents required to produce advertising campaigns is not an easy thing. And the fact that 98% of advertisers the worlds over hire as agencies is proof enough about the cost effectiveness of the agencies. Also the kind of consistent, powerful and compelling advertising that can be created by using the expertise, experience, objectivity and professionalism of ad agencies cannot be measured economically.

<:Functions of Advertising Agencies:>

Today advertising agencies are found in virtually every major city on the world and their role in stimulating economic growth is solidly established. To understand advertising, we need to examine the functions of an Ad Agency. These are: y

Talent & Creative productions: The basic function of an Ad Agency is providing talent. The creative efforts of the art director, the detailed analysis of the research director and the political understanding of the campaign director, are just a few examples of the many abilities of Ad Agency personal have to offer. A business organization or person will contract the services of an ad agency to help market a product. This function involves processing the information collected from the client and through research and designing communication material in the form of advertisements and other publicity material. This also includes planning creative strategies, copy or script writing, visualization, designing, layout, shooting of films, editing, giving music, etc. Research: The second function of an Ad agency is research. In order to distribute the message to the public successfully, the agency must first know all that it can about the product. One of the first jobs is to research the product and the company, one must learn, one possibly can about both. The research must even take one close to the heart of the firm s inner operations. Ad agencies use research as a tool to test consumer reactions to products and services.

Distribution & Media planning: The third important function of an ad agency is distribution. Here you decide what type of message you will create for the company and what media will be most helpful in sending this message to the public. On the basis of the media habits (access and exposure) of the target audience, agency people prepare a media plan. This plan includes which media to be used, which part of the media to be used, when to place the ads and for how long to place the ads, etc. media planners keep track of the viewer ship, listener ship and readership of all kinds of media. Monitoring Feedback: By monitoring consumer feedback, a decision on whether to revise the message, the medium, the target audience or all of them can be made. Ad agencies are developing to reach the target audience. As information is the backbone of all advertising, to prepare ads, one requires information about the product, its competitors, the market situation and trends, information about the audiences (their likes and dislikes and media habits) also need to be collected. Some of the most effective advertising includes advertisement written in their native language. All of these specialized campaigns are creating new demands on agencies and are requiring new talents for people who work in advertising. also offer a variety of allied

In addition, many agencies services. These include:

y y y y y y

Merchandising Public relations Organizing exhibitions and fairs Preparing all kinds of publicity material Planning and organizing special events (event management) Direct marketing

<:Steps Involved in Advertisement Planning:>

Advertisers and advertising agencies believe that customers have needs and desires, which can be fulfilled through the purchase and use of products and services. Advertising works largely through appeal of emotions of envy, fear, anxiety, about one s appearance and lack of status. It is widely assumed that advertising works if the AIDCA formulas are followed. The formula sums up the principles of advertising. The name of the formula is derived from the initial letters of the words: Attention, Interest, Desire, Conviction and Action. The formula suggests that the att3ention and interests of the customers must be gained first before the process of stimulating desire, imparting conviction and urging action in advertisements can bring about a change in the buying behaviors. Steps Involved in Advertisement Planning The Attention part is the banner or headline that makes an impressive benefit promise. Interest builds information in an interesting way, usually meaning that this must relate closely to the way that the reader thinks about the issues concerned. If you seek a response you must move then to create Desire, which relates benefits to the reader so that they will want them. Finally you must prompt an Action, which may be to call a telephone number or to complete and send of a reply coupon. Advertising that does not prompt action is a wasted opportunity. Offer a single impressive benefit, quickly and simply

Research proves that where responses are required, the best adverts are those, which offer an impressive, relevant benefit to the reader. This promise should ideally contain the business brand name, take no longer to read than is normal for the media and be clearly the most striking part of the advert. This point cannot be stressed enough; you must keep it quick, simple and to the point. Younger generations are extremely visually literate. They have been brought up on computer games, so they couldn t deal with a lot of polished copy, even if they wanted to. Think about the vocabulary and language you use; know your target audience: a simple test is to avoid any words or grammar that would not be found in the newspaper that the target group would read. Your message must be quick and easy to absorb. Use a clear layout, clear fonts and clear language. Do not distract the reader from the text by overlaying images or using fancy fonts. Use simple language, avoid complicated words, and keep enough space around the text to attract attention to it. Use simple traditional typestyles: serif fonts are quicker to read than sans serif. Use ten, eleven or twelve point-size for the main text; smaller or larger are actually more difficult to read and therefore less likely to be read. Avoid cluttering the advert with fancy images, colors and backgrounds. Make it easy to read. For the same reason avoids italics, shadows, light colors reversed out of dark, weird and wonderful colors. None of these improve readability, they all reduce it. Use simple black (or dark colored) text on a white (or light colored) background for maximum readability. Involve the reader in your writing style Refer to the reader as your and yours you and use the second person ( you , etc) in the description of what your

business does for the customer to get them visualizing their own personal involvement. Describe the service as it affects them in a way that they will easily relate to it. Incorporate something new People respond better and are more easily attracted initially to a concept that is new or original. If they ve heard or seen it all before it will be no surprise that they take no notice at all. People must believe there s something in it for them right from the start. Develop a proposition that is special or unique Why should people be interested if your proposition is no different to your competition? You must try to emphasize what makes your service special. Unless your code of practice prevents you from claiming superiority over your competitors, you should put as much emphasis as you can behind your USP (unique selling point), and either imply or state directly that you are the only company to offer these things. Proposition or offer must be credible and believable The Advertising Standards Authority or equivalent would prevent you from making overly extravagant claims anyway, but you should still attempt to make your offer seem perfectly credible. This is usually best accomplished by explaining why and how you are able to do the things you are offering, in support of your claims; you can also increase credibility by showing references or testimonial quotes from satisfied customers. For example, if you claim particularly good customer service, this can be reinforced with an outline of your policy on seeking customer feedback and carrying out satisfaction surveys.

Advertising is often referred to as a Black Art because it is mysterious, and is rarely a precise science. Things sometimes work, which you imagine, wouldn t, and plenty of things you think should work, don t. An advertisement campaign determines what the advertiser wants to say. It also determines how, when, where, and to whom the advertiser wants to say it. The Planning process of Advertisements following activities: Campaigns include the

1. Situation Appraisal- before planning any activity, one requires relevant information regarding the situation. For planning an Ad campaign, we require information about the target market or consumer, the company or product and the competition. The three important research areas are:
y y y

Consumer research and market research Product and company research Competitive research

2. Situation Analysis(analyzing strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats) From all the information collected, campaigns planners find out the strengths of the product. These strengths could be in any area. The strength often leads to new opportunities to be explored. Weaknesses make the product vulnerable to threats from others. 3. Structural or Strategic Planning- Advertising is an art and a science. While the art comes from writing, designing and producing exciting advertisements, the science comes from scientific methods of research and strategic planning. Strategic planning is the process of making intelligent decisions. It starts with finding out what to do, deciding how to accomplish the objectives. It also decides whom to address (the target audience), how to distinguish the product, how much to spend (budgeting), and how long to run the campaign.

4. Creative Planning- it includes developing a theme, the creative strategy and finally deciding the creative tactics. The theme needs to be a strong concept to be able to hold all there different and diverse ads together. A powerful theme brings about synergy to the campaign. A theme must always relate to and reflect the campaign objectives. Another step of creative planning is finding the creative strategy. The creative strategy outlines the impressions the campaign wants to create. Some common creative strategies are:

Generic Strategy- this is used by market leaders who ignore the presence of competitors Pre-emptive claim strategy- here the brand is the first to pick up a particular feature. In the minds of the people, it becomes associated with that brand. Unique selling proposition (USP) strategy- here the campaign talks about some features, which is unique to that advertised brand and is not available in others. Brand image strategy: when there are no strong differentiating features among the competitors, then branding try and create images. Product Positioning- some times products or brands are positioned different from competing brands.

5. Media Planning- the ultimate goal of advertising is to reach the target audience with the advertising message. Thus, the major decisions in media planning, which needs to be taken, are:
y y y y

Which media to be used? Where to advertise (geographic region)? When to advertise (timing and scheduling)? How intense the exposure should be (frequency)?

Media planning is a behind the scene part of advertising. It plays an integral role in merging the science of marketing with the art of advertising. A media planner has to find out about the

availability of various media, the media rates, their reaches and also analyze their effectiveness.

<:The Benefits and Harms of Advertising:>

The Benefits of Advertising Enormous human and material resources are devoted to advertising. Advertising is everywhere in today s world, so that, as Pope Paul VI remarked, No one now can escape the influence of advertising. Even people who are not themselves exposed to particular forms of advertising confront a society, a culture other people affected for good or ill by advertising messages and techniques of every sort. Some critics view this state of affairs in unrelieved negative terms. They condemn advertising as a waste of time, talent and money an essentially parasitic activity. In this view, not only does advertising have no value of its own, but also its influence is entirely harmful and corrupting for individuals and society. But advertising also has significant potential for good, and sometimes it is realized. Here are some of the ways that happens. a) Economic Benefits of Advertising Advertising can play an important role in the process by which an economic system guided by moral norms and responsive to the common good contributes to human development. It is a necessary part of the functioning of modern market economies, which today either exist or are emerging in many parts of the world and which

provided they conform to moral standards based upon integral human development. In such a system, advertising can be a useful tool for sustaining honest and ethically responsible competition that contributes to economic growth in the service of authentic human development. Advertising does this, by informing people about the availability of rationally desirable new products and services and improvements in existing ones, helping them to make informed, prudent consumer decisions, contributing to efficiency and the lowering of prices, and stimulating economic progress through the expansion of business and trade. All of these can contribute to the creation of new jobs, higher incomes and a more decent and humane way of life for all. b) Benefits of Political Advertising Political advertising can make a contribution to democracy, to its contribution to economic well being in a market system guided by moral norms. Political advertising can make its contribution by informing people about the ideas and policy proposals of parties and candidates, including new candidates not previously known to the public. c) Cultural Benefits of Advertising Because of the impact advertising has on media that depend on it for revenue, advertisers have an opportunity to exert a positive influence on decisions about media content. This they do by supporting material of excellent intellectual, aesthetic and moral quality presented with the public interest in view, and particularly by encouraging and making possible media presentations which are oriented to minorities whose needs might otherwise go unserved. Moreover, advertising can itself contribute to the betterment of society by uplifting and inspiring people and motivating them to

act in ways that benefit themselves and others. Advertising can brighten lives simply by being witty, tasteful and entertaining. d) Moral and Religious Benefits of Advertising In many cases, too, benevolent social institutions, including those of a religious nature, use advertising to communicate their messages messages of faith, of patriotism, of tolerance, compassion and neighborly service, of charity toward the needy, messages concerning health and education, constructive and helpful messages that educate and motivate people in a variety of beneficial ways. The harm done by Advertising There is nothing intrinsically good or intrinsically evil about advertising. It is a tool, an instrument: it can be used well, and it can be used badly. If it can have, and sometimes does have, beneficial results such as those just described, it also can, and often does, have a negative, harmful impact on individuals and society. a) Economic Harms of Advertising Advertising can betray its role as a source of information by misrepresentation and by withholding relevant facts. Sometimes, too, the information function of media can be subverted by advertisers pressure upon publications or programs not to treat of questions that might prove embarrassing or inconvenient. More often, though, advertising is used not simply to inform but to persuade and motivate to convince people to act in certain ways: buy certain products or services, patronize certain institutions, and the like. This is where particular abuses can occur.

The practice of brand -related advertising can raise serious problems. Often there are only negligible differences among similar products of different brands, and advertising may attempt to move people to act on the basis of irrational motives ( brand loyalty, status, fashion, sex appeal, etc.) instead of presenting differences in product quality and price as bases for rational choice. b) Harms of Political Advertising Political advertising can support and assist the working of the democratic process, but it also can obstruct it. This happens when, for example, the costs of advertising limit political competition to wealthy candidates or groups, or require that office-seekers compromise their integrity and independence by over-dependence on special interests for funds. Such obstruction of the democratic process also happens when, instead of being a vehicle for honest expositions of candidates views and records, political advertising seeks to distort the views and records of opponents and unjustly attacks their reputations. It happens when advertising appeals more to people s emotions and base instincts to selfishness, bias and hostility toward others, to racial and ethnic prejudice and the like rather than to a reasoned sense of justice and the good of all. c) Cultural Harms of Advertising Advertising also can have a corrupting influence upon culture and cultural values. We have spoken of the economic harm that can be done to developing nations by advertising that fosters consumerism and destructive patterns of consumption. The indirect but powerful influence exerted by advertising upon the media of social communications that depend on revenues from this source points to another sort of cultural concern. In the competition to attract ever-larger audiences and deliver them to

advertisers, communicators can find themselves tempted in fact pressured, subtly or not so subtly to set aside high artistic and moral standards and lapse into superficiality. All too often, advertising contributes to the invidious stereotyping of particular groups that places them at a disadvantage in relation to others. This often is true of the way advertising treats women; and the exploitation of women, both in and by advertising, is a frequent, deplorable abuse. d) Moral and Religious Harms of Advertising Advertising can be tasteful and in conformity with high moral standards, and occasionally even morally uplifting, but it also can be vulgar and morally degrading. Frequently it deliberately appeals to such motives as envy, status seeking and lust. Today, too, some advertisers consciously seek to shock and titillate by exploiting content of a morbid, perverse, pornographic nature. We note, too, certain special problems relating to advertising that treats of religion or pertains to specific issues with a moral dimension. In cases of the first sort, commercial advertisers sometimes include religious themes or use religious images or personages to sell products. It is possible to do this in tasteful, acceptable ways, but the practice is obnoxious and offensive when it involves exploiting religion or treating it flippantly. In cases of the second sort, advertising sometimes is used to promote products and inculcate attitudes and forms of behavior contrary to moral norms. Within this very general framework, we can identify several moral principles that are particularly relevant to advertising. We shall speak briefly of three: truthfulness, the dignity of the human person, and social responsibility. 1. Truthfulness in Advertising

Even today, some advertising is simply and deliberately untrue. Generally speaking, though, the problem of truth in advertising is somewhat more subtle: it is not that advertising says what is overtly false, but that it can distort the truth by implying things that are not so or withholding relevant facts. To be sure, advertising, like other forms of expression, has its own conventions and forms of stylization, and these must be taken into account when discussing truthfulness. People take for granted some rhetorical and symbolic exaggeration in advertising; within the limits of recognized and accepted practice, this can be allowable. 2. The Dignity of the Human Person There is an imperative requirement that advertising respect the human person, his right duty to make a responsible choice, his interior freedom; all these goods would be violated if man s lower inclinations were to be exploited, or his capacity to reflect and decide compromised. Advertising can violate the dignity of the human person both through its content what is advertised, the manner in which it is advertised and through the impact it seeks to make upon its audience. This problem is especially acute where particularly vulnerable groups or classes of persons are concerned: children and young people, the elderly, the poor, and the culturally disadvantaged. Much advertising directed at children apparently tries to exploit their credulity and suggestibility, in the hope that they will put pressure on their parents to buy products of no real benefit to them. Advertising like this offends against the dignity and rights of both children and parents; it intrudes upon the parent-child relationship and seeks to manipulate it to its own base ends. Also, some of the comparatively little advertising directed

specifically to the elderly or culturally disadvantaged seems designed to play upon their fears so as to persuade them to allocate some of their limited resources to goods or services of dubious value. 3. Advertising and Social Responsibility Advertising that fosters a lavish life style which wastes resources and despoils the environment offends against important ecological concerns. In his desire to have and to enjoy rather than to be and grow, man consumes the resources of the earth and his own life in an excessive and disordered way. Man thinks that he can make arbitrary use of the earth Advertising that reduces human progress to acquiring material goods and cultivating a lavish life style expresses a false, destructive vision of the human person harmful to individuals and society alike. When people fail to practice a rigorous respect for the moral, cultural and spiritual requirements, based on the dignity of the person and on the proper identity of each community, beginning with the family and religious societies, then even material abundance and the conveniences that technology makes available will prove unsatisfying and in the end contemptible.

<:Social Criticism of Advertising:>

Advertising is often criticized as a wasteful activity and an unnecessary evil. Its critics offer the following arguments to prove their contention.

Multiplies the needs. Advertising multiplies the needs of the people by inducing them to buy even those things which are not required by them. Since an advertisement is continuously repeated, it creates a desire in the mind of the public to buy the advertised product. Makes the product more costly. The amount of money spent by an advertiser on his product s advertisement is added to the distribution cost of the product. Thus, the customers have to pay more for the product advertised. Increase in demand at the cost of another manufacturer. Advertising does not always increase the demand of the product. When the demand is inelastic, advertising shifts demand from one producer to another. That means a large amount of money spent on advertising by the manufacturers goes waste. Creates brand monopoly. Advertising may lead to monopoly of a brand. It is argued that big manufacturers who can afford large amount of money on advertising can create brand monopoly and eliminate the small producers. Every advertisement is not creative A large number of advertisements either escape the attention of the people or are ignored by them. This leads to waste of money spent on advertisement. Undermines moral values. Sometimes, advertising undermines ethical and aesthetic values. It may make the people start bothering for appearance and design of the product rather

than the physical utility. Some advertisers also use indecent language and photographs to advertise their products which is highly objectionable from the society s point of view. Corrupt the minds of youngsters. It is felt that advertisement can corrupt the minds of youngsters. Young minds run the risk of being carried away by the advertisements promoting smoking, wine, etc. In some cases, advertisements have promoted the youths to commit crimes and undertake ventures at the risk of their lives

Despite its drawbacks, advertising is a necessary marketing activity in the present business environment. It is not a social waste. It enables a manufacturer to introduce his products in the market and sell them. Advertising helps in educating the people regarding new uses of various products. It also strengthens the freedom of choice of the people. It sustains the press and gives employment to people. Advertising increases the standard of living of the people by informing them about the availabiiity of new products. Thus, we can say that advertising is a useful marketing activity. Its drawback: could be removed if the people and the Government keep a, watch on the advertisers. People should satisfy themselves about the claims made by a producer before they purchase his products. The manufacturers or the advertisers should also avoid wasteful advertising and keep advertising expenditure within limits. They should also follow the ethical standards while advertising their products.

<:Measuring Advertising Effectiveness:>

All advertising efforts are directed mainly towards the achievement of business, marketing and advertising objectives i.e., to increase the sales turnover and thus to market the maximum profit. The advertiser spends lakhs of rupees in to this advertising activity. In the background of all these efforts, is an attempt to attract the customer towards the product through advertising. As soon as the advertising campaign is over, a need is generally arisen to measure the effectiveness of the campaign. Whether, it has achieved the desired results i.e. desired sales profitability or results in terms the change in customer behaviour in favour of the company s product which will naturally, affect the future sale of the product. In order to measure the effectiveness of advertising copy, two types of tests pre tests and post tests- can be undertaken. Pre tests are generally conducted in the beginning of the creation process or at the end of creation process or production stage. There are several pre and post tests techniques to measure the effectiveness of the advertising copy. The effectiveness of advertising in a particular media may also be measured in any of the following ways;
y y

By giving different addresses to different media, Different newspapers may be selected for advertisements of different departments, Coupon blank etc. May be provided with the advertisement or

Enquiry from consumers should mention the name of the source of information.

The technique is known as keying the advertising. Thus in measuring the effectiveness of advertising we include measuring of the effectiveness of advertising campaign, advertising copy and the effectiveness of individual media. This chapter deals these three problems.

Importance of

the Effectiveness of Advertising

It acts as a Safety measure: Testing effectiveness of advertising helps in finding out ineffective advertisement and advertising campaigns. It facilitates timely adjustments in advertising to make advertising consumer oriented and result oriented. Thus waste of money in faulty advertising can be avoided. Provides feedback for remedial measures: Testing effectiveness of advertising provides useful information to the advertisers to take remedial steps against ineffective advertisements. Avoids possible failure: Advertisers are not sure of results of advertising from a particular advertising campaign. Evaluating advertising effectives helps in estimating the results in order to avoid complete loss. To justify the Investment in Advertising: The expenditure on advertisement is considered to be an investment. The investment in advertising is a marketing investment and its objectives should be spelt out clearly indicating the results expected from the campaign. The rate and size of return should be determined in advance. If the expected rate of return is achieved in terms of additional profits, the advertisement can be considered as effective one. To know the communication Effect: The effectiveness of the advertisement can be measured in terms of their communication effects on the target consumers or audience. The main purpose

of advertising is communicated the general public, and existing and prospective consumers, various information about the product and the company. It is therefore desirable to seek post measurements of advertising in order to determine whether advertisement have been seen or heard or in other words whether they have communicated the theme, message or appeal of the advertising. Compare two markets: Under this procedure, advertising is published in test markets and results are contrasted with other. Markets so called control markets which have had the regular advertising program. The measurements made to determine results may be measurements of change in sales, change in consumer attitudes, changes in dealer display and so on depending upon the objectives sought by the advertiser.

Importance of Advertising

Advertisement is a mass communicating of information intended to persuade buyers to by products with a view to maximizing a company s profits. Generally, advertising is a relatively low-cost method of conveying selling messages to numerous prospective customers. It can secure leads for salesmen and middlemen by convincing readers to request more information and by identifying outlets handling the product. It can force middlemen to stock the product by building consumer interest. It can help train dealers salesmen in product uses and applications. It can build dealer and consumer confidence in the company and its products by building familiarity. Advertising is to stimulate market demand. While sometimes advertising alone may succeed in achieving buyer acceptance, preference, or even demand for the product, it is seldom solely relied upon. Advertising is efficiently used with at

least one other sales method, such as personal selling or pointof-purchase display, to directly move customers to buying action. Advertising has become increasingly important to business enterprises both large and small. Outlay on advertising certainly is the voucher. Non-business enterprises have also recognized the importance of advertising. The attempt by army recruitment is bases on a substantial advertising campaign, stressing the advantages of a military career. The health department popularizes family planning through advertising Labour organizations have also used advertising to make their viewpoints known to the public at large. Advertising assumes real economic importance too. Advertising strategies that increase the number of units sold stimulate economies in the production process. The production cost per unit of output is lowered. It in turn leads to lower prices. Lower consumer prices then allow these products to become available to more people. Similarly, the price of newspapers, professional sports, radio and TV programmes, and the like might be prohibitive without advertising. In short, advertising pays for many of the enjoyable entertainment and educational aspects of contemporary life. Advertising has become an important factor in the campaigns to achieve such societal-oriented objectives such as the discontinuance of smoking, family planning, physical fitness, and the elimination of drug abuse. Though in India, advertising was accepted as a potent and recognized means of promotion only 25 years ago, its growing productive capacity and output necessitates the finding of consumers and advertising plays an important role in this process. Advertising helps to increase mass marketing while helping the consumer to choose from amongst the variety of products offered for his selection. In India, advertising as a profession is in its infancy. Because of this fact, there is a tremendous scope for development so that it may be productively used for the benefit of producers, traders, consumers, and the country s economy.

<:Communication Effects of Advertisements:>

The management should attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of the advertising campaign if the firm s advertising goals are to be achieved and the ad effectiveness is to be increased. By regular evaluation of the effectiveness, the short comings and the plus points would be revealed and the management would be able to improve the campaign by negating the shortcomings and retaining the favorable point. For this purpose, it is very necessary to know how advertising affects the buyer s behaviors. But this is very difficult task because measurements are imperfect and imprecise. The effectiveness of advertising can be measured by the extent, it to which it achieves the objectives set for it. If it succeeds in attaining the objectives. Advertising can be said to be effective otherwise it will be a waste of money and time. In this sense, advertising can be recognized as a business activity like other activities. In a very real sense the integrity of promotional activities rests on how well those activities work. An advertising budget that is spent on some poorly defined task or on undefined tasks may be regarded as an economic waste as compared to that spent to achieve the well defined objectives for which the results can be measured. Any social institution upon which a significant portion of our total productive efforts is expanded should be able to point to

its specific accomplishment. Indeed, it is a source of discomfort that specific results of advertising activities have not always been subject to precise measurement. Both practitioners and critics feel that promotional activities should only be accepted as socio economic institution with full right and privileges when the means exist to prove that advertising super are productive rupees It is undoubtedly a source of embarrassment that we cannot exactly measure the effectiveness of advertising in definitive terms. The exact result of advertisement expenditure is very difficult to predict because;

The reaction of consumer; buyers to the advertising efforts cannot be known in advance. The reaction of competitors in the field cannot be guessed in anticipation and The unexpected events (such as change in social and economic environment and the government policies etc.) cannot be accurately anticipated. Such events may influence the results of the advertising efforts. If we take a hypothetical case of a retailer who contract to spent Rs.5000 on advertisement with a local newspaper for a special sales even. The advertisement is seen and the response is much greater than it is anticipated. What caused the success of sale? They message theme colors etc., of the advertisement or the low prices quoted during the sale of the superior quality of the product or absence of competition in the market on the day or the favorable. Weather conditions or the goodwill of the firm etc. The overwhelming success of the sale is the joint result of all the above variables and it is quite impossible to isolate the role of any one variable. It is so because the cause and effect relationship cannot be established in advance when a multitude of variable impinge upon a particular event. It is entirely possible that a poor

advertising support may push up the sale because everything else falls into its proper place or the reverse may be possible. But it does not mean that that we cannot measure the effects of particulars advertising effort. The advertising executives are much concerned about the assessment of the effectiveness of the advertising efforts. For this purpose, the management needs answers to such questions as: was the advertising campaign really successful in attaining the advertising goals? Were our T.V. commercials as good as those of our competitors? Will the print advertisement, which we have designed, make consumers aware of our new product? To get answers of these questions, various tests of effectiveness (Pre- tests and post tests ) are deeded to determine whether proposed advertisement should be used, and if they are not satisfactory how they might be improved, and whether on going campaign should be stopped continued or changed. Pre- tests are conducted before exposing target consumers to the advertisements and post tests after consumers have been exposed to them. As indicated earlier, the advertisers are interested in knowing what they are getting for their advertising rupees, So they test the proposed advertisement with pre test and measure the actual results with a post test. In the past, protesting was done by the advertising agencies but now the advertisers have been taking an increasingly active role in protesting process. Pre test may be done either before an advertisement has been designed or executed after it is ready for public distribution or at both points. During protesting questions; there is often research on three vital

1. Do consumers feel that the advertisement communicates something desirable about the product? 2. Does the message have an exclusive appeal that differentiates the product from that of the competitors?

3. Is the advertisement believable? Although a lot of money is spent on protesting yet the advertisers like to confirm the results by post testing of their promotional campaigns due to the following reasons;

There is a need produce more effective advertising by retaining the good and removing the bad. The advertising executives can prove to the satisfaction of the management that a higher advertising budget will benefit the firm. There is a need for measuring the results to determine the level of expenditure that is most promising.

Most research focuses on the communication effect rather than sales effect because it is a long run process. In the short run, however sales may be slight and important but in the long run its effects ob brands and companies may be of great importance. Indirectly it will affect the sales in the long run, by changing the consumer awareness and attitude. The advertisers are therefore, concerned with their impact on consumer awareness and attitude. The communication effect on following sequence diagram; Awareness repurchase > Attitude sales may be presented in the

> Trial


>Purchases or

Awareness builds a favorable or at least a curious attitude towards the product which leads to experimentation. If consumer is satisfied with the trial he may decide to purchase the product. There are many critical and unresolved issues in determining how to test the communication effects of advertising. Among these are:-

Exposure Conditions Should advertising be tested under realistic conditions or under more controlled laboratory conditions? Execution Protesting a finished advertisement as an expensive and time consuming. Does protesting a preliminary execution produce accurate and useful data? Quality Vs. Quantity Data- Quantitative data are the easiest and the almost precise measurement. But qualitative data collected through interviews may provide information that short answer questions never can.

Many types of advertising tests are conducted (different methods of pre tests and post test are given in question number) In T.V. commercials are tested by inviting a group of people to the studio to view a program. The audience is then surveyed about the commercials. Print advertisements are tested through dummy magazine portfolio tests. Communication Effectiveness Vs Sales Effectiveness It is easier to assess the communication effect of advertising than the sales effect. Many firms try to measure the effectiveness of advertising in terms of sales results but this practice is always misleading. Since, the effect is the result of so many variables, a distinct effect of advertising on sales cannot be correctly measured, Although there may be some exceptions. For example direct mail advertising can effectively be measured by the inquiries received. But in many situations the exact relationship between advertising activity and sales cannot be established satisfactorily. We can correctly assume that some sales will occur even though there is no advertising or little advertising or conversely there will be no increase in sales after the point of saturation is reached or it may be that sales will show a decreasing trend at this point in spite of large amount of expenditure on advertising

is done. It is so because advertising is no the only variable that effect the sales. Thus, we may conduct that sales effect of advertising is difficult to measure because a number of variables affect the quantum of tales and the contribution of advertisement cannot be measured separately unless all other variables are presumed to be constant. This situation is quite hypothetical and almost nonexistent. Added to this is the fact that advertisement itself is made of a variety of variables such as media, messages, colours, page or time of the day, locations, the size of the headline and the appeals used. Thus even if the advertising variable is separated this would still not answer the question about the effectiveness of the individual components of the advertising campaign. So advertisers try to measure the communication effect of the advertising

<:Advertising Code:>

Standards Council of India


The Role and Functioning of the ASCI & its Consumer Complaints Council (CCC) in dealing with Complaints received from Consumers and Industry, against Ads which are considered as False, Misleading, Indecent, Illegal, leading to Unsafe practices, or Unfair to competition, and consequently in contravention of the ASCI Code for Self-Regulation in Advertising. The ASCI is not a Government body,but it is a voluntary self-regulatory council, registered as a not-for-profit Company under section 25 of the Indian Companies Act. The sponsors of the ASCI, who are its principal members, are firms of considerable repute within Industry in India, and comprise Advertisers, Media, and Ad Agencies and other Professional /Ancillary services connected with advertising practice. The ASCI was set up;

To ensure the truthfulness and honesty of representations and claims made by advertisements and to safeguard against misleading advertisements. To ensure that advertisements are not offensive to generally accepted standards of public decency. To safeguard against the indiscriminate use of advertising for the promotion of products which are regarded as hazardous to society or to individuals to a degree or of a type which is unacceptable to society at large. To ensure that advertisements observe fairness in competition so that the consumer s need to be informed on choices in the market-place and the canons of generally accepted competitive behaviour in business are both served.

Mission of ASCI ASCI has one overarching goal: To maintain and enhance the public s confidence in advertising .

ASCI seeks to ensure that advertisements conform to its Code for Self-Regulation which requires advertisements to be Truthful and fair to consumers and competitors. Within the bounds of generally accepted standards of public decency and propriety. Not used indiscriminately for the promotion of products, hazardous or harmful to society or to individuals. .particularly minors, to a degree unacceptable to society at large.

Objectives of ASCI

To monitor ,administer and promote standards of advertising practices in India To codify, adopt and modify the code of advertising practices in India and implement, administer and promote and publicize such a code. To give wide publicity to the Code and seek adherence to it of as many as possible of those engaged in advertising. To print and publish pamphlets, leaflets, circulars or other literature or material, that may be considered desirable for the promotion of or carrying out of the objects of the Company.

<:Significance of Advertising:>
Advertising helps in spreading information about the advertising firm, its products, qualities and place of availability of its products, and so on. It helps to create a non-personal link between the advertiser and the receiver of the message. The significance of advertising has increased in the modern era of large scale production and tough competition in the market. Advertising is needed not only by the manufacturers and traders but also for the customers and the society. The benefits of advertising to different parties are discussed in the following paragraphs. Benefits to Manufacturers and Traders It pays to advertise. Advertising has become indispensable for the manufacturers and distributors because of the following advantages:

Advertising helps in introducing new products. A business enterprise can introduce itself and its products to the public through advertising. It can create new taste among the public and stimulate them to I purchase the new product through effective advertisement. Advertising assists to increase the sale of existing products by entering into new markets and attracting new customers. Advertising helps create steady demand of the products. For in-stance, a drink may be advertised during summer as a product necessary to fight tiredness caused by heat and during winter as an essential thing to resist cold.

Advertising help in meeting the forces of competition in the market-place. If a product is not advertised continuously, the competitors may snatch its market through increased advertisementments. Therefore, in certain cases, advertising is a necessity to remain in the market and remind the customer as done by soft drink companies. Advertising is used to increase the goodwill of firm by promising good quality to the customers. Advertisements increase the morale of the employees of the firm. The salesmen feel happier because their task becomes easier if the product is advertised and known to the public Advertising facilitates direct distribution of the product through the retailers. Retailers are encouraged to purchase and sell the advertised products.

Benefits to Customers Advertising offers the following advantages to customers


Advertising helps the customers to know the the existence of various products and their prices. They can choose from the various brands to satisfy their wants. Thus they cannot be exploited by the sellers. Advertising educates the people about new products and their diverse uses. Advertising increased the utility of products for many people adds to the amount of satisfaction which they are already enjoying. Advertising induces the manufacturers to improve the quality of their products through research and development This ensures supply of the products of better quality to the consumers

Benefits to Society The society at large is also benefited because of advertisement:

Advertising provides employment to persons engaged in writing, designing and issuing advertisements. Increase in employment brings additional income with the people which stimulates more demand. Employment is further generated to meet the increased demand. Advertising promotes the standard of living of the people by increasing the variety and quality in consumption as a result of sustained research and development activities by the manufacturers. Advertising educates the people about the various uses of different products and this increases their knowledge. Advertising also helps in finding customers in the international market which is essential for earning foreign exchange. Advertising sustains the press, and other media. It provides, all important source of income to the press, radio and television network. The customers are also benefited because they get newspapers and magazines at cheaper rate. The publishers of newspapers and magazine; are benefited because of increased circulation of their publication;. Lastly advertising also encourages commercial art.

<:The Components of an Advertisement:>

We can factor an advertisement into seven important components; 1. The Headline The Headline is the most read part of an advertisement. So advertisers try to tell maximum part of the product story through the headline. A headline will introduce the product or makes the promise statement or puts a question. It basically tries to attract the attention of the readers and create curiosity so the audience or reader sees further. The major types of headlines are:
y y y y

Direct promise of benefit News about the product Curiosity or provocative, and Command headlines

Direct headlines make a direct promise about how the product will benefit the readers. Readers are often interested in what is new in the product so the words new , improved , etc. are often used in headlines. Such headlines provide some new information and are called news headline. Sometimes the promise or benefit is not offered in the headline. Instead an indirect approach is adopted by either posing a question or making a provocative statement, the headline tries to create a lot of curiosity about the product. It also forces the readers or the audience to see the copy and the promise is made in the copy of the Ad. In command headlines, the readers are urged to

buy the product by promising a reward. For example, buy one, get one free or buy for the price of two . Usually they command or ask the consumers to buy. Another type of headline is the select headline. This is directed at the headline scanners. Such a headline selects it own audience and can reach selected groups by either addressing them directly or by discussing their specific problems. 2. The Sub-Headline This is not always used in ads. However, when the advertiser wants to say a lot at the beginning but the headline cannot do the job, then the subheading is used. The headline and subheading together can contain a longer message. The subheading usually spells out or elaborates the promise made in the headline or it stresses on the product s unique features. 3. Slogan It is a phrase or a sentence that describes the benefit derived from the product or one of the product s most important attributes. The term slogan comes from the Gaelic words sluagh gairm, meaning battle cry. These days it is the battle cry in the field of sales and marketing. It consists of a single phrase by which an advertiser conveys an important idea, which will presumably lead readers or audience to remember and think favorably of this company. Slogan is thus a short and catchy phrase that gets the attention of the audience, is easy to remember and comes off the tongue easily. Slogan can of different types:

Slogan that emphasizes product or reward- every product has some reward to offer consumers. It may have some hidden quality that differentiates a product from the competitors. Slogans that emphasizes action to be taken- the slogan might urge directly that you use the product or service.

4. Body Copy When the headline usually makes a claim, the body copy elaborates upon it and provides supporting proof. When the headline poses a question, the subheading answers it. The amount of detail in an advertisement should be sufficient to answer the questions arising in the minds of a prospective buyer. And if the consumers require more details or information, then they can be requested to come back to the company for information booklets or can be invited to come to the retailer or dealer for more information or demonstration. Sometimes the consumer wants a proof or evidence of the claims made in the advertisement. So proofs about quality, performance, durability, etc. are provided through arguments, proofs by experts, testimonials by users or through demonstrations in the body copy. 5. Visualization The headline is a major attraction getting device. Another device is the visual impact of the ad. This is the combination of the visuals used in the advertisements and the visual treatment given to other elements of the ad. This visual impact becomes strong if the idea has been properly visualized. Visualization means to think in terms of visuals or pictures. And one need not be an artist or painter to be able to visualize as all it require is thinking. For example think about the picture, which comes to your mind when you think the word flower . It could be a bouquet of flower or a garden full of beautiful flowers. These kind of perceptions need to be portrayed in the advertisements. A visualizer need not draw or paint these things but can just describe these and leave the drawing to the artists.

Visuals and pictures help people dream and project themselves in to another time, place, or situation. Pictures appeal to our hidden and suppressed emotions. Also pictures communicate ideas quickly and easily and also there is no chance of misinterpretation. Visuals not only attract attention, they hold the interest and often tell maximum part of the story. Visuals also identify the product, arouse interest, create a favorable impression of the product or the advertiser, clarify claims made in the copy, make demonstrations, emphasize the unique features of the product. And finally the visuals provide continuity for all advertisements in the campaign through the use of similar visuals. 6. Layout Layout has two meanings. One means the total appearance of the advertisement, its design, the composition of the various elements. The other meaning is the act or process of placing the elements (copy, visuals, etc) together. A layout could be the first pencil sketch, which puts the idea on paper or could also be the final piece after finishing touches. Good layouts are unimaginative. The various stages of a layout are:

Thumbnail sketches- Advertising people usually work in pairs. A copywriter and a visualizer sit together and create ideas. The first thing they do is to come up with as many ideas as possible. And as they get the ideas they put them on paper, which is called thinking on paper. This helps in many ways-it records all the ideas options on paper, it gives some kind of a shape to the idea without using any expensive color, wasting much paper, etc. and without spending much time and efforts. In the thumbnail sketch the various elements of the advertisement are just schematically or diagrammatically represented. For example, a thick serrated line represents the headline. Thinner serrated lines represent the subheading

and the slogan. Straight lines or dotted lines represent body copy. Boxes crossed inside represent visuals. Also thumbnail sketches are very small in size. Only the shape is properbeing proportionately smaller. Rough sketches- in the rough stage, bigger layouts are made so that more details can be accommodated. Hand lettering is done for the headlines and other copy parts that are to be composed in bigger type sizes. A rough sketch of the visual is pasted. These rough layouts are presented to the agency creative director for approval. Then the rough layout is further polished. Comprehensive stage- the rough layout is still small in size, with no color, with no proper borders and no proper lettering and visuals. Now it is enlarged to its actual size. All the copy is lettered or composed. Proper borders and other marks are put on the layout. Photographs and other visual are cut from other places or Photostatted and pasted. Some coloringparticularly using crayons, water colors, etc is done. This stage is called the comprehensive stage. As the name suggests this layout is easy to understand. This layout is presented to the client for approval. Once the client approves the layout, it is then ready for the final finishing touches. Art work-this is the final stage of layout. Here care is taken to look into each minute detail. The copy is properly composed or lettered. Proper photographs, paintings, sketches, or graphics are used. Other elements like borders etc are properly places. Coloring is done. Finishing artists give the final touches. This stage is now ready to be printed. All these various stages of preparing the layout are beneficial in a many ways. First these stages save time, money and efforts. If you prepare a final layout without taking the approval and it gets rejected, then all the material used, efforts and time spend are wasted. Also working on only one idea curtails the various other possible options.

A layout starts with a blank piece of paper. What the layout artist does is to place the copy, visuals and other elements on it. This placing of elements is not just mere decoration. What is required is a good, clear vision and interpretation of the selling concept of the story. A good layout allows all its elementsvisuals, headlines, subheadings, body copy, charts, maps, logo, borders and other elements-to work together to do the job of telling the product story. A good layout takes into consideration the principles of balance, proportion, unity, contrast, harmony, rhythm, and direction. And finally a good layout must be attractive, must create an appropriated mood or feeling, must have individually to stand out fr9om the clutter of advertisements. 7. Trademark The term trademark includes any word, symbol or device or any combination there of adopted and used by a manufacturer or merchant to identify his goods and distinguish them from those manufactured or sold by others in the market. Trademarks are important because of two reasons:

It increases the credibility of the firm because the buyer buys the product only after looking at the brand name. Registration of trademarks prohibits duplication.

<:Advertising Copy:>
A copywriter is a person who writes text, or copy, for clients. Most copywriters work in advertising or marketing, producing copy that's intended to persuade a reader to buy a product or service or otherwise take action. Copywriting involves providing words, which are read or heard in advertisements. This may include slogans or jingles or detailed text for catalogues, brochures, leaflets and journals. Copywriting also takes the form of script for television and film commercial advertisement. Copywriters can contribute words and ideas to print ads, catalogs, billboards, commercials, brochures, postcards, online sites, e-mail, letters and other advertising media. Ultimately, the kinds of ads and media a copywriter will work in depend on his or her own inclination and what clients ask for. A copywriter often works as part of an advertising team. Agencies and advertising departments partner copywriters with art directors. The copywriter has ultimate responsibility for their ads verbal and textual content, the art director has ultimate responsibility for the visual look and appeal, and both are responsible for coming up with big, effective, persuasive ideas.

Copywriter and visual art work go hand in hand and this is the work which goes on in the agency s creative department. Briefs from the Account Executive outlining the target group for

the advertisement and information about the product, followed by discussions with the account planner, along with research material, and perhaps a meeting with client put the creative department to work. The essential skill of the Copywriter lies in interpreting and understanding the mind and needs of the target audience and the characteristics of the product. They must identify what it is that would make people want or need the product being promoted. The Art Director and the Copywriter together then work on an idea that should catch the attention of the public and put the selling point of the product across; many ads are discarded, reincarnated and created. The final product is a team effort of the Copywriter and Art director with each other having suggested alterations to the other. The more successful creations are then shown to the creative director who in turn may suggest further modifications. Final drawings are then produced and shown to the client. Once the client accepts the concept and layout is modified and the details filled in. The design and copy is sent to the production team for typesetting, photographs and drawings for printed advertisements or filming for television commercials. Giants in the copywriting field include David Ogilvy, William Bernbach, Robert W. Bly and Leo Burnett. Many creative artists spent some of their career as copywriters before becoming famous for other things, including Dorothy L. Sayers, Joseph Heller, Terry Gilliam, Salman Rushdie, and Don DeLillo.

Creative Department people need following attributes for this back-breaking job.

y A good psychologist.

y Willing and able to set high standards. y An efficient administrator & Research minded y Capable of strategic thinking positioning and all that.

y Equally good at package goods and other kinds of accounts y Well versed in graphics and photography y A hard worker and fast y Slow to quarrel y Prepared to share credit for good work, and accept blame for bad work y A good presenter & good recruiter right target group, at the right time, in the right place, with the right number of messages.

<:Marketing mix:>

To create the right marketing mix, businesses have to meet the following conditions:

The product has to have the right features - for example, it must look good and work well. The price must be right. Consumer will need to buy in large numbers to produce a healthy profit. The goods must be in the right place at the right time. Making sure that the goods arrive when and where they are wanted is an important operation. The target group needs to be made aware of the existence and availability of the product through promotion. Successful promotion helps a firm to spread costs over a larger output.

For example, a company like Kellogg's is constantly developing new breakfast cereals - the product element is the new product itself, getting the price right involves examining customer perceptions and rival products as well as costs of manufacture, promotion involves engaging in a range of promotional activities e.g. competitions, product tasting etc, and place involves using the

best possible channels of distribution such as leading supermarket chains. The product is the central point on which marketing energy must focus. Finding out how to make the product, setting up the production line, providing the finance and manufacturing the product are not the responsibility of the marketing function. However, it is concerned with what the product means to the customer. Marketing therefore plays a key role in determining such aspects as:

the appearance of the product - in line with the requirements of the market the function of the product - products must address the needs of customers as identified through market research.

The product range and how it is used is a function of the marketing mix. The range may be broadened or a brand may be extended for tactical reasons, such as matching competition or catering for seasonal fluctuations. Alternatively, a product may be repositioned to make it more acceptable for a new group of consumers as part of a long-term plan. The price

Of all the aspects of the marketing mix, price is the one, which creates sales revenue - all the others are costs. The price of an item is clearly an important determinant of the value of sales made. In theory, price is really determined by the discovery of what customers perceive is the value of the item on sale. Researching consumers' opinions about pricing is important as it

indicates how they value what they are looking for as well as what they want to pay. An organization s pricing policy will vary according to time and circumstances. Crudely speaking, the value of water in the Lake District will be considerably different from the value of water in the desert. The place

Although figures vary widely from product to product, roughly a fifth of the cost of a product goes on getting it to the customer. 'Place' is concerned with various methods of transporting and storing goods, and then making them available for the customer. Getting the right product to the right place at the right time involves the distribution system. The choice of distribution method will depend on a variety of circumstances. It will be more convenient for some manufacturers to sell to wholesalers who then sell to retailers, while others will prefer to sell directly to retailers or customers. The promotion

Promotion is the business of communicating with customers. It will provide information that will assist them in making a decision to purchase a product or service. The razzmatazz, pace and creativity of some promotional activities are almost alien to normal business activities. The cost associated with promotion or advertising goods and services often represents a sizeable proportion of the overall cost of producing an item. However, successful promotion increases sales so that advertising and other costs are spread over a larger output. Though increased promotional activity is often a sign of a response to a problem such as competitive activity, it enables an

organization to develop and build up a succession of messages and can be extremely cost-effective. The marketing mix of Manchester United

What are the main elements of the marketing mix of Manchester United? First of all the product includes providing an excellent football team that plays and wins in an exciting way. However, there are other ingredients of the product including merchandising such as the sale of shirts, and a range of memorabilia. The product also relates to television rights, and Manchester United's own television channel. In one respect the place is Old Trafford where home games are played, but Manchester United also plays at a range of other venues. And, of course its products are sold across the globe, through the club's website and a range of other sales media. Manchester United markets itself as a global brand. The club also engages in a range of joint promotional activities, for example with the mobile phone company Vodafone. Manchester United books, shirts, programmes, key rings and many other items are sold and promoted through its website. The club has positioned itself at the up market premier end of the market and, as a result, it tends to charge premium prices as evidenced by the high cost of a season ticket to watch home league games. Positioning or repositioning a product - refers to locating that product within a market for example presenting it is an upmarket or down-market product. Positioning it as a product for younger consumers or older consumers etc.


chandresh advertising

was establish in the year

is manage by Mr.satiyendra vyas. Who is highly skillful in field of marketing, the proprietor of this company is subhashchandra s. shah and media manager is Mr.yashwant talati, today the company has a good image in the market and superior then their competitor. Chandresh advertising is accredited with PAPER SOCIETY THE INDIA NEWS

it has contact with the daily news paper vic.

Gujarat samachar and all weekly magazines published in Rajkot, Surat, and Ahmadabad. The clients of this firm sre as follows::-NDDB, :-IRMA ANAND AGRICULTURE UNIVERSITY :-SARDAR PATEL UNIVERSITY :-RAMKRUSHNA SEMA MANDAL :-VRAJBHOOMI INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL, OR :-PROFETIONAL TUTORIALS, etc.



PH. :(02692) 254934 FAX. :(02692) 267060 Email: Website: So that, in this time chandresh advertising has all

advertising media available in field of the advertisement.


Advertising is a purposeful communication designed with a view to achieving specific objectives I had written that how marketing is important, what it means, etc. how it aware of the prospective buyers for a product. For advertisement we have assume the budget. This project report says . about what is advertising? And advertisement as a whole

Advertising effect on people good then purchase the product the advertisement are simple, clear and understand the reader than good image of product. Thus here my project report is concluded.


I would like to conclude my project report on advertising with a last thanks to Mr.satyendra vyas who is the executive director of the chandresh advertising. And also my professor Miss. Bhumika Punjabi, They have given useful guidance to me to complete this report.

Last but not the least a heartfully thanks to our principal of the B.J.vanijya mahavidhyalaya N.L.Sangvi.