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INTRODUCTION: When and I.C. engine is designed and manufactured and, then it is tested in laboratory. The purpose of testing is: To determine the information which cannot be obtained by calculations? To confirm the data used in design. To satisfy the customer regarding performance of the engine.

Thermodynamic test: An I.C. engine is put to thermodynamic test, so as to determine the following parameters. I.H.P. Speed of engine BHP Mechanical efficiency Fuel consumption Thermal efficiency Air consumption Volumetric efficiency Various temperatures Heat balance sheet It may be noted that these parameters are measured after the engine has reached the steady conditions.

Aim: To conduct performance test on 4-stroke SINGLE cylinder diesel engine and to measure the BHP at constant speed keeping different load Fuel consumption at variable speed Air consumption Heat balance sheet Specification of engine Four stroke twin cylinder diesel engine, water cooled engine. Rated speed : Starting by Loading Stroke length : : 1500 rpm hand cranking the crank shaft EDDY CURRENT DYNAMOMEYTER 0.102 meters 0.110mtrs Rated power ; 10bhp/7.5Kw

Bore diameter


Measurements Air intake by engine the engine is connected to volumetric tank of air tight; one end of the tank is fitted with an orifice 20 mm dia, the tank is connected to indicator tube. The deflection of manometer caused due to velocity difference between the tank and atmospheric air velocity measures the velocity of air by which we can calculate quantity of air flowing into the engine cylinder. Fuel flow measurement; The control panel is fitted with a fuel tank which is mounted on load cell.. The fuel flow to the engine can be measured by fuel rate indicator. Speed: speed of the engine can be measured with a digital rpm indicator which is connected by sensor. The sensor is fitted near the rotating shaft of the prime mover, where according to the speed the pulse signals are sent to the indicator. Temperature: A multi channel digital temperature indicator is connected with sensors at various points to measure temperatures of exhaust gas, cooling water circulation and room temperature. Digital water flow meter: measurement of water flow to the engine and for calorimeter

Description of equipment The engine is 4-stroke twin cylinder diesel engine, fuel injection into compressed air type. The engine flywheel is connected to EDDY CURRENT for loading the engine. The brake power from the engine can be calculated by torque indicator. The air intake tank, fuel measuring system, cooling water flow rate and temperature measurement instrumentations, exhaust gas calorimeter, speed indicator, are provided for completeness of the test rig. All measurements instrumentations are provided on an independent panel separated from the engine. Also see the details under the measurement above, where the function of individual instrumentation is indicated.

PROCEDURE FOR OPERATION: Fill the fuel tank with clean fuel. Check the sufficient lubrication oil in the oil sump (crank case).( between minium to maximum mark Check the sufficient cooling water circulation (say about 50cc/sec to 60cc) in the water flow indicator being circulated through engine. Connect the control panel to electrical mains 230 V. Keep the engine exhaust valve to open position by operating the lever provided on engine head. Start the engine by cranking the crankshaft and simultaneously closing the exhaust valve lever provided on engine head. Load the engine by rotating the electronic controller knob in clockwise to load in steps of 5 Nm, 10Nm, up to 85% of maximum load capacity.( 50Nm safe load) Take down the manometer reading for air consumption, rpm reading, and fuel reading from respective indicator. Repeat the procedure for different loads to conduct the load test. Note down the temperature readings for final reading to calculate heat balance sheet at full load. PROCEDURE FOR LOGGING THE READING THROUGH PC open the programmed engine analysis file before engine is started After engine attains full speed go for start test and give the file name it asked. normally give the file name as date and time of trial to remember easily After engine attains steady sate at no load log only one value and cheack combustion graph , for one logged value you will get only three graphs ie PV- Diagram Heat release V/s crank angle and pressure V/s crank angle load the engine to required load by controller knob provided on box

wait for fuel consumption in your monitor to change it will slowly raise to maximum and slightly comes just bellow maximum , at this log the second value .

Repeat the procedure for different loads remember do not log repeatedly for same reading at one load you will not get smooth curve Do not load abnormally , the loading should be steadily increased or decreased Before stopping the teat unload the engine gradually ,click stop test and stop the engine, Allow the water 5 minutes for circulation for sensor colling ) close the progranmme and system

OBSERVATON: Diameter of orifice = 20 mm = 0.020mtrs, Radius of arm = 150 mm Water flow meter reading from water flow indicator = Calorific value of DIESAL fuel = 44,600 kJ/kg Atmospheric temperature = T6 Inlet water temperature to engine= T1 Outlet water temperature from engine jacket = T2 =Inlet water temperature to calorimeter = T2 Outlet water temperature from calorimeter jacket = T3 Exhaust gas temperature from engine = T4 Exhaust gas temperature after cooling = T5 Observation table for load test and Heat balance sheet Sl no. Speed in Rpm Load in Nm Fuel rate indicator Tf in Kgs/hr Water flow reading in cc/sec 1. 2. 3. 4. Air rate reading for air flow m/sec T1 T2

Cooling water temperature




FORMULAE FOR SPECIMEN CALCULATION Formulae for specimen calculation: Total fuel consumption (TFC): The mass of fuel consumed per minute, 10 60 mf = f kg / min 1000 T The fuel consumption per hour is given by, TFC = mf x 60 kg/hr Where, f = 0.82 specific gravity of DIESAL and T is the time taken in seconds for consumption of 10 cc of diesel

Maximum load calculation

BP = Torque in

BP =

Wmax N 60

in radians through one revolution 60 In case of eddy current dynamometer 2NT = watts 60 T= Torque = w x r in case of eddy current loading w= spring balance reading r= distance from pivot of spring balance to centre of shaft of rotor

N m Angle turned

Volume of free air taken in to engine

v1 = C d aorifice 2 ghair

1. Area of orifice =


d 2 0.018 2 = = 2.545 10 4 m 2 4 4

2. Head of air = Where,

ha =

1000 hm a

Density of water is w = 1000 kgs/m3 hm = head of water in manometer = h1 + h2. ha = head of air a= density of air at STP = 1.169 kgf/m3.

Air fuel ratio.

A: F =

ma Va air = mf mf

Specific fuel consumption (SFC) SFC = TFC / BP kg/kw hr.

= Total fuel consumption Brake power

Mechanical efficiency,

m = BP IP 100%
Heat input
TFC HI = C.V . KW 60 60 ,

Where, TFC is in Kg/hr, C.V. = 44600kJ/kg, calorific value of petrol (commercially)

Brake thermal efficiency,

BP = BP HI 100%

Indicated thermal efficiency,

IP = IP HI 100%

Heat balance sheet Description a Heat input to the engine,

TFC HI = C.V . KW 60 60


% 100

b Heat equivalent of brake power c Heat equivalent of friction power d Heat carried away by exhaust gas H eg = mg 60 C p ( T5 T6 ) KW


BP/HP x 100 FP/HI x 100 Heg /HI x 100

Where, mg= (mass of air + mass of fuel) kg/min. and Cp. of air= 1.05KJ/Kg or Cp of air = (Mass of water 4.18 X (T2-T3)/ mg x (T4 -T5) from calorimeter calculation where specific heat of water = 4.18 kilo Jules /Kg e Heat lost due to engine cooling =mass of water x 4.18 Hco (T2-T1) Kilo.jules/Kg oling HL/HI x 100

Procedure for checking interfacing from panel board to your PC

1) press start , in programmer file go to necessaries , you will find communication .in communications go to hyper terminal ,in connection box enter name as admn, and press ok 2) in admn country location enter 91 leave others and press ok you will enter admn hyper terminal dialog box 3) press the following capital alpha bits to check whether indicator is communicating the displaced reading to the screen of dialog box in your monitor Coding for indicator to check the interfacing Multi channel temperature indicator Fuel rate indicator Air rate indicator RPM or Speed indicator Water floe indicator Torque indicator High temperature indicator Pressure indicator I F A R P or Q T H V



1)Performance test : Load test Heat balance sheet Break Specific fuel consumption Indicated specific fuel consumption Break and indicated mean effective pressure Frictional power Volumetric efficiencies Mechanical efficiency Air fuel ratio

2) Graphs: Pressure volume PV diagram Pressure crank angle diagram P Load V/s Fuel consumption Load V/s mechanical ,volumetric, brake thermal , indicated thermal efficiency Load V/s frictional power Load V/s heat waste through jacket water, exhaust gas