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ENTE PER LE NUOVE TECNOLOGIE

L'ENERGIA E L'AMBIENTE

VALUTAZIONE
DEL COSTO ENERGETICO
DEGLI SPORT
DI COMBATTIMENTO IN
.REMOTE SENSINGm
PROGRESS REPORT 8
New trends in the judo and wrestling
Biomechanics research

A. SACRIPANTI
-
E.N.E.A. Direzione centrale Sicurezza e Protezione Sanitaria
Coordinatore Federazione Italiana Lotta, Pesi, Judo

M. FAINA, G. GUIDI
-
C.O.N.I. Istituto Scienze dello Sport
Dipartimertto di Fisiologia e biomeccanica
-
(Direttore Scientifico A. DAL MONTE)

M. FABBRI, R. MASO, L. ROSSI


-
ENEA Area Energia e Innovazione
Centro Ricerche Energia Casaccia, Roma

Paper presented at the


*%

EIGHTH MEETING OF THE EUROPEAN


SOCIETY OF BIOMECHANICS
June 21-24, 1992
Rome Italy -
Testo pervenuto nel luglio 1992

Gli autori ringraziano i gruppi sportivi della


GUARDIA FORESTALE
e
GUARDIA DI FINANZA
per la gentile e fattiva collaborazione prestata,
nel corso della ricerca

I contenuti tecnico-scientifici dei rapporti tecnici dell'ENEA


rispecchiano l'opinione degli autori e non necessariamente quella dell'ente.
ABSTRACT

In this report the aim of a CONI (Italian Olimpic


Commitee) - ENEA (Italian Commitee for Technology Innovation,
Energy and Environment) - FILPJ (Italian Federation of
Wrestling, Weigthlifting and Judo) joint research is
presented.
The main goal is to obtain quantitative data on energy
consumption of Judo and Wrestling actual competition, by
athletesf thernial emission.
In the text the first results and the future trends of
this very complex experienke performed in Italy are
presented.
In the appendix it is explained the first mathematical
theory for 'both the problems:
- analysis of competition on the basis of statistica1 physics
- interaction between athletes on the basis of variational
analysis.

RIASSUNTO

In questo rapporto viene presentata una ricerca


congiunta fra CONI (Comitato Olimpico Italiano), ENEA (Ente
per le Nuove tecnologie, l'Energia e l'Ambiente) ed il FILPJ
(Federazione Italiana Lotta, Pesi e Judo).
Lo scopo principale della ricerca è quello di ottenere
dati quantitativi sul consumo energetico di atleti in
competizione tramite rilevamento di emissione termica.
E' Nell'appendice viene ililustrata la prima teorka
matematica per entrambi i problemi di analisi della
competizione su basi di fisica statistica e di interazioni
fra atleti su base di analisi variazionale.
INDEX

1. - INTRODUCTION

2. - HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

3. - DESCRIPTIQN OF EXPERIENCES
4. - APPENDIX
5. - B.IBLIOGRAPHY
1. INTRODUCTION

Knowledge remains partial in every field of Science,


even thogh it records steady increase thanks to the advanced
thecnologies and the theoretical and experimental
researchers; thus the advanced thecnologies and the
theoretical intuitions enabled us to perfect scientific
knowledge in the field o£ macrothermophysiology.
A joint research carried out by CONI, ENEA and FILPJ
started at the end of 1989 designed to assess the athletefs
energy cost in effettive competition.
Considering the high complexity of this issue, it was
recognized the need to tackle it through an integrated multi-
I disciplinary approach, by resprting to the knowledge in the
physiological biomechanics and to the related specific
equipment provided by CONI laboratories, to the sophisticated

~l
l
l
processing methods and instruments provided by ENEA and
finally to athletes and to the technical and specialized
knowledge in the physical biomechanics by FILPJ.
1 i/ The "simple" idea is td consider athletes as complex
I I thermal machines. The joint application of the principles of
I

l
thermodynamics must allows us consequently to statistically
i assess the average work carried out by athletes during
i! competition.
Obviosly, from a theoretical point of view, the
problem could be rapidly solved if it was possible to
i evaluate the athletesf direct calorimetry during their
performance. Since this is technically impossible, it is
f

1
common practice in sport to assess the athletefs work by
means o,$ the "simpler" indirect calorimetry.
i
i r' This means that through an appropriate mechanical
I equivalent o£ the oxygen we can trace back - through the fuel
i
t
kinetics - the work carried out in laboratory which, for many
sports, is made day by day more similar to the efiective
f competitive load. In our time, in the case of fighting sports
I the few experimental data are indeed limited and it is
virtually impossible to extrapolate reliable data from these
laboratory results which can allow an adequate training based
on scientific principles.
The retracing of direct calorimetry by means of the
r
energy equations of the man-environment heat exchange is
therefore possible. Doing so the athletefs body superficial
average temperature needs to be directly reckoned, because
al1 heat transfers are regulated by it.
On the basis of the athletesl heat-energy emission recorded
by remote sensing techniques, or retraced by energy exchange
equations, more reliable quantitative data can be obtained on
the competition without affecting the performace.
1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND . .

The neapolitan Alfonso Borelli was 'one of the


first scientists who conceptually associated the oxygen
consumption with the muscolar activity. Indeed, in the
chapter entitled "De usu respirationis" of his book "De Motu
Animalium" (1680), he describes his own individual experience
made some years before on the Etna. The following titles of
paragraphs. show that such a mechanism was already clear in
his mind: "Through breathing, air particles mix with blood",
"The mixture of air introduced in blood throug breathing
produces and preserves anima1 life", "This is t& reason why
breathing is more difficult and rapid during pressing motion
and muscolar activity", "That is why muscolar activity in
rarefied air causes difficultygin breathing"..
However, the first scientists who developed laboratory
experiments in the fieid of thermophysiology were Lavoisier,
Laplace and Sequin between 1775 and 1785.
They detected on Guinea pigs at first and then on men
that - under confortable temperature conditions - the oxygen
consumption was at its lowest before eating; sligthly
increased when the environment temperature decreased; sharply
increased after food intake and ever more when working.
In mid-XIX century the chemical-physical studies by
Regnault and Reiset were developed. They sought to de.mostrate
that oxydation was the main source of anima1 heat by using
the oxygen consumption as the simple measure of heat
production.
Hoping to relate life processes to the well-known
physical laws, Reubner, Helmholtz and other verifed the
principle of energy conservation both for biosystems and
inanimated systems, defined the basal metabolic temperatu~e
and discovered that the hot blood biosystems were basically
homoiothermic.
Mayer was the first physicist to develop the idea of
equating an anima1 with a sort of thermal machine where the
breathing hèat is partially turned into muscolar activity.
M. Hirn sought to experimentally demonstrate this
hypothesis for man by locking an individual in a thermal
chamber and placing two rubber pipes in his mouth - the
former for air int-ake and the latter for emission gases -
which'
i1
.li
werp thén 'm~rasukea'in te'rms-Q£ oxygen consumed and
carbon ' h?bxide produced. The breathing chemical and thermal
effects were thus evaluated both under basal and working
conditions - that is by lifting his own weight on the
circumference of a mobile wheel.
Indeed the temperature increase in the chamber was
measured unti1 when - becoming constant - the radiation
emission of the walls was equivalent to the heat produced by
the body within it. Afterwards, the individua1 was replaced
by a burner (Bunsen jet) regulated in such a way to keep air
in the chamber at the same constant temperature. From the
volume of the gas burnt it was then possible to infer the
heat produced by the combustion and, by way of analogy, the
quantity of heat produced by the human body in that given
time.
This interesting experience led to the result that 30
grams of oxygen consumed corresponded to 150 calories.
Considering the time element,'it is appropriate to think over
the remarkable accuracy Of the results obtained, since this
value of the mechanical equivalent is still used to make
rapid calculations in the field of Industria1 Medicine.
11

3. DESCRIPTION OF EXPERIENCES

The aim of the research is to make possible actual-


competition experimental study by means of thermovision
cameras. Ti11 now a TV cameia AGA 782 (fig. l ) recorded the
athletesf heat emission in the infrared band on a magnetic
tape, but it is foreseen a more modern device as the HUGRES
PROBEY SYSTEM that display in rea1 time a thermal map in 256
different colours (fig. 2). We can thus obtain quantitative
data related to the athletest thermo-energy dispersion which
accounts for 75-80 % 'of the overall c~nsumptionof the
metabolic energy produced.
The data on heat recorded by - 4 photograms a minute -
are analyzed by a highly specialized system for Image
Processing, tha E.D.I. (ENEA ~ I G I T A LI M G E R Y ) system , (fig.
3 ) . This one by means of appropriate programs and procedures
is capable of provtding processing-factors as:
- the statistica1 survey on the "grey tones" such as maximum,
minimum, average and standard deviation,
- the construction o£ appropiate histograms,
- the cumulative integral of the images in term o£ energy,
- the "inverse area" integral of the images,
- the "smoothing treatment" of the phenomenon kinetic,
- the kinetic trend of the phenomenon,
- the electronic "cleaning" of the images,
- the electronic "colouringl' of the images.
In order to abtain more reliable data, images are
subjected to the "electronic" cleaning system, thereby
eliminating al1 the interferences o£ the environmen-t
background which distorts and downgrades the obtained
P results. A further possibility of the system, already
mentioned, is that o£ providing images trough the electronk
pseudo-color technique. This allows to obtain heat maps of
the athletesf bodies on high definition screen (fig. 4).
These maps enable us to identify the most used muscles in
performance, that is "the moast warmed upw one. ThiS
knowledge is useful £or technical-related physical
preparation, but also £or averting some possible traumatisms
in contest situation. In thic field the CONI-ENEA-FILPJ
research was awarded the second prize, in the "GRIFO D'ORO"
annua1 competition £or the benefits minimizing risks in human
activities.
The initial stage of the research allowed to-consider
the gauged thermal emission as a function of the oxygen
LW 782 AGA SCANNER

BLOCK SCHE?JIE OF T H E THERMOGFIAPHIC SYSTE?A

Fig. 1
I

I Brobeyea Thermal Video Systems


* subsdiary 01
GM Hughes Ektronrs

FOV istantaneo ,(

II O 2m :m I Om 100m
Distanza I , I

Processore Telecamera Relazione tra FOV e distanza ,,


l

Sistema Videotermografico
Fig. 3
intake, detected telemetrically by a sophisticated CONI
instrument (Cosmed K2 system - fig. 9 ) , by means of an
athlete placed on an engine conveyor belt running at costant
speed for a given time period (fig. 10.). This was possible
through the application of the thermodyfidimic principle of the
energy conservation which states,~ for athletes under
conditions of vitually neglegible "physicaln work and aerobic
"steady-state", that the oxygen uptake and thermal emissiop
were roughly equal. Alledgedly, the used technologies
allowed, for the first time, to follow the evolution of
kinetics of both phenomena (oxygen input and radiation
output), thereby enabling us to try to find the functional
relation linking them. Considering the biochemical origin of
the athleters metabolic *energy - for the aerobic
"steady-state" conditions - it was possible to associate -
with a good degree of approximation - the oxygen ineut and
the heat output by means of a simple relation; whereas the
relation connecting the anaerobic-lactacid energy sources
with the heat output is more complex and still unknown. In
this respect, the first functional links are being attempted
during experiments.
A further step was to provide the attempt to measure
the kinetics of the "athletets superficial average
temperature" by direct methods. For this purpose a set of 16
thermocouples, with special calibration, was used and
suitably placed on the athletefs body (fig. 11 ) ; the data
mesured in rea1 time were recorded on magnetic tape HP data
logger 3497A and the average temperature was computed by
HP-9816A computer, with the Hardy, du ~ o i s and Soderstrom
formula:
Tp = (0.07 T1 + 0.14 T2 + 0.05 T3 + 0.07 T4 + 0.13 T5 +
. + 0.19 T6 + 0.35 T7)
where T1 trough T7 are head, arms, hands, feet, legs, thigs
and trunk average temperatures and the coefficients (which
sum is one) are 'the mean weighted surfaces bodyts parts. The
knowledge of kinetics of the average superf icial temperature
let us intercalibrate them, with oxygen input and thermal
infrared output, to obtain the first gross intercomparison of
instruments.
The next two steps (fig.12) were related first to the
rough extimation of Judogi shielding 'ef fect, against thermal
long-wave infrared emission (in the CONI laboratories in
ROME) and afterwards to the quantitative evaluation of this
efect (performing the experiment in a climatic chamber,
assembled in theSENEA-CASACCIA laboratories - fig. 13 ), to
have more reliable data from a better controlleà experimental
situation.
At the same time the theoretical knowled'ge about
competition was improved with the first physical-mathemat.ica1
theory of Judo contest to state and carry out the most
important physical parameters and to have a first rough
extimation of average energy expenditure in competition. For
the mean kinetic energy of couple of athletest system,
related to-the absolute velocity, changing the Einsteints
relation the result was 0.2 of overall oxygen consumption.
This problem is discussed in the appendix.
The last but one experiment carried out was the fiist
of the larger series in pragress and was related to study the
oxygen input partition in heat emission and physical work.
The physical work, lifting up and down 40 Kg, was separate in
two phases: "negativen (pulling down) ,and "positive" (lifting
_.
up) against the gravity force - fig.6 This differentia3ion
is necessary because, if the total physical work, being
cyclic, in conservative field will be zero, 'the athletes'
rating perforwnces are different in eaqh of the two paths.
The last one experiment m s connected to study
different kind of work (a predefined physical work'of 150 J/s
using a cycloergometers with two definite numbers of thrusts
on pedals - fig. I - ) and, in the same session by two
thermocameras, to define the work related to some throwing
techniques (one technique of couple and one-of physical lever
at frequence of 20 throwings a minute - fig.3).
The theoretical approch is concerned with equdfions ..
describing, in forecasting form, the sweating kinetics of
athletes. These thermodynamical equations, not c&npletely
known or tested, are very important for studying energy
exchanges between athletes and external environment.
The problem is to modelize simultaneously heat and
mass transier as evaporation by natura1 convection and mass
. tranfer by diffusion, throbgh integuments, in transient heat
balance during exercise as function of free atmosphere
temperature, vapor pressure, atmspheric pressur,bodyfs
dimensions and equivalent temperature.
At the present time the problem is not completely
solved, but some approximative solutions are ready and will
be used in the condictions of negligible physical work,
during which energy input is equa1 to &nergy output, unless
higher rank negligible factors, The use is in an iterative
Fig. 4
Athlete's Thermografhic Image
Fig. 6
Experience with Phisical Work
Fig. 7 A-B
Experience with Cycloergometer
Fig. 8
Judo Throwing Techniques
Fig. 9
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SCHEMA SITUAZIONE SPERIMENTALE

Fig. 10
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A
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capo
Avambracc-io

T --
5 = Braccio
Torace

G
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Ginocchio
Stinco

APPLICATION POINTS OF THE THERMOCOUPLES


Fig. 11
Exptricncc semplified prbiocol
lo define the kimono screcning eifecl ..

rccoràimg :
-Nane
-Fmily nune
-Agc .
-PnclUed sporls

I Functional con trol


1
I
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I
1
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~ I - ~ I Encrgy. recovery - ~

1
I Technical parainelers recording
II
I Syncronizalion I
I
I
Second expericnce rilh kirnono 1
1

Basai Work Energy recovery

IAthlele weighling Kimono undrcssing


Kimono weighting
l

Fig. 12
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\
> I

C
BLACK BACKGROUND
. .. % i'
ROLLING I?LATFORM

COSMFn RECEIVER

TEMPERATURE
RECORDER

TAPE RECORDER

EXPERIENCE SCHEME

Fig. 13
program running on VAX 8800 computer to obtain the best
approximation of the main parameters.
4. APPENDIX

BIOMECHANICS QF JUDO CONTEST

Theoretical-physical-biomechanical analysis is a
powerful method of investigation which, when fully used,
allows analytically difficult problem to be sqlved with
simple and somewhat elegant means. Its basic instruments are
differential analysis and structural synthesis. The former
consists of dividing the technical performance into severa1
categories (e.9.: holds, posture, unbalance, throw, ect.); if
we are to understand in a direct way the problems relating to
the correct use of propulsive forces into space, the above
division prove to be a useful semplification. The latter
consists of the phase through which, the semplified
mechanisms or the correlated subsets of technical performance
are reinterpreted as a whole. Later, this method will be
applied to define contest and interaction in it (throwings).
The comparative study through differential analysis
and structural syntesis will be carried out on a
consecutive-phase basis (fig. 14).
In order to obtain analytical proof of the contest as
motion and interaction, reference must be made to definitions
o£ : "biomechanical athlete" and,@lcoupleof athletes" system,
they being the basic preliminary step whereby such a goal may
be reached. Therefore, with the due approximation, we shall
define the biomechanical athlete as a solid of varying
geometry and of cylindrical symmetry, that may assume
different positions, normally placed in conditions of
unstable equilibrium in the gravitational iield on a plane
area with friction, who through the articular joints is abPe
to perform only certain rotations.
The biomechanical athlete, thus defined, may assume a
wide range of positions, called,"postures": each of these
will be accomplished by the "fixation" and immobilization of
the skeletal segments in a given position expressed as
"aptitude" o£ the wole body to maintain through time such a
marked state of equilibrium. Whereas the "structure" is able
to perform only determined rotations through the articular
joints, the execution of translations is made possible only
under the condition that the sum. of the angles of the
relative articular rotations would be zero.
The "couple of athletes" system may be defined in
Sviluppo dell'analisi
biomeccanica.

Gesto sportivo:
tecnica In piedi

Analfsl differenziale Slntesi strutturala


In condizione statlea in condizione statica
I l
1 % a i
t
Scomposizione In Composizione e studio
particolari o della variazione nello
I d e n t i f l ~ i o n dei
e spazio e nel tempo
corollari sulla delle f orre.
dlrezlorm delle Identitlczulone delle
forze nello spazio traiettorie e delle
In condirlone simmetrie In
statiea condizione statlea

. Identificazione dei meccanismi


fisicl e del movimenti d i *
base:"fondarnentali"

i
l' Applica.zio-ne della . 1
relatfvita galileiana
I
l

generale

Fig. 1 4
physical terms, with' the due approximation, as an articulated
system of cylindrical symmetry, placed in the gravitational
field in stable equilibrium on a plane area with friction,
formed by the semi-rigid union of two biomechanical athletes.
The aim of the semplifications introduced in the
preceding definitions is to facilitate the mathematical
handling of this issue, it falling under the sphere of
classica1 mechanics.
It is important to note that the ncouple of athletes"
may be regarded as a whole system upon which acts only one
external force (gravity force) annuled by mat reaction, and
that it may shifts or changes its interna1 set-up, under push
and pull force only on account of the existence of friction.
Very generally, in i~teraction (throwing techiqhes),
the analysis as above may be performed under "static
conditionsn, that is at zero shifting system velocity or
"absolute velocity", since the results obtained will be, with
verry good approximation, applicable also to the condition
relating to contest, effective average velocity between
0.5-1.2 Km/h.
In fact on the basis of Galileots Principle of
Relativity, according to which the functional relations in
mechanics are equally valid both for an immobile system, and
for a system in uniform linear motion with respect to this,
the two treatment will be equivalent.
Therefore - for rather self-evident convenience-related
reasons, it is preferable to treat the mechanical problem of
the intraction (throwing techniques) in the condition of
greatest semplicity.
The mode1 and the characterization of the generic
motion of the "couple of athletes" system - developed thanks
to the specific techniques of the statical mechanics 9-

allowed to affirme that it is ruled by Langevin equation and


then that it belongs to the class of *bidimensional Brownian
motion. The experimental check could be done from a study of
dromodrams made at the Japan Judo CHANPIONSHIP IN 1971. By
applying Einstein methods - adequately modified through the
second principle of thermodynamics - it has been demonstrated
that the average kinetic energy is directly proportional to
one fifth of the athletets overall oxygen consumption, and
also that the most important parameter in contest are the
"absolute velocity" o£ the system, and the "relative
velocityn of attack speed.
On the other hand, the use of variational'amalysis -
applied to the aspect of interaction between athletes in
static conditions and extendable to contest on the basis of
Galileian relativity - enable us to identify the physical
principles on which this ' interaction (throwing techniques)
relies and to infer and define the lower energy consumption
trajectories of throwing.
From a historical point of view, the theory of
variations was born thanks to the stydy of the brachistocrone
or "smaller transit time" trajectory. This problem was
studied by Galileo, Jacobi, Bernoulli, Newton, Leibnitz and
others even though Euler, Bernoulli and Lagrange are
generally considered to be the founders of this method. It
was applied to the problem of identifying the lower transit
time*trajectory that a body.can cover between two points when
only the gravitational field acts on it.
In our case, throwing techniques, since by first
approximation, we deem correct the assumption according to
which the initial thrust.exerted by the attacking athlete on
the attacked one, acts for a neglegible lapse of time, we are
once again faced with a formally similar case.
The external field of forces to the "couple of
athletes" system is conservative and not depending on time
(gravitational field). Therefore the principle of minimal ,
action will.be true and we can demonstrate either that the
body covers a minimum lenght curve in the space or that its
trajectory coincides with a geodesic of a specific simmetry.
Considering this study, we may define the two physical
principles according to which al1 throwing techniques have
been classified:

- Techniques in which the attacker uses a physical lever to


throw down his opponent.
- Techniques in which the attacker uses a couple of forces to
throw down his opponent.

For the physical lever techniques, the impulse applied


by the attacker at the start ot throw, although its act,ion is
limited only to a short time, may be considered sufficient
both to obtain unbalance, ?hat is to shift the barycentral
projection outside the supporting area, and to simultaneously
impart a rotating momemtum on the thrown athletefs body so
that, given the mechanics of the techniques (establishment of
a stopping point, fulcrum, and rotation around the same.) they
strongly depend from the friction between ukefs feet and the
mat; the equation of motion is provided by the solution of
the classica1 problem of heavy symmetrical ro-tator that
starts falling down, in gravitational field.
These techniques are less energetically convenient
because Ukefs barycentre must be lifted and shifted for a
more long trajectory, i.e. as in standing Seoi nage, O goshi,
etc.
For the couples of forces techniques, the equation of
motion proves to be the sum of produced by the couple of
forces, parallel to the gravitational field- , called
"principal": that is a pure rotative motion independent of
the gravitational field, and those ,produced by the
composition of the movement of the perpendicular torque to
the gravitational field, called ltsecondary", plus the
component of the field itself. Such techniques therefore have
the property of being pratically non-dependent on the
'friction between ukefs feet and the mat.
They are also more energetically convenient, because
Uke's body only rotates on its own barycentre and then falls
down.
5. BIBLIOGRAPHY

BEJAN A.
"Heat Tranfer-Based Reconstruction of the Concepts and
Laws of Classica1 Thermodynaricsn
Journal of Heat Transfer vol. 110 (1988)

DAVID R. BASSETT JR., FRANCIS J. NAGLE, SWAPAN MOOKERJEE,


KEVIN C.DARR, ALEXANDER V.NG, STEPHEN G. VOSS, and JEROME P.
NAPP
nTermoregulatory responses to skin wetting during
prolonged treadmill runningn
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Copyright 1987 by American College of Spprts Medicine

CAMPBELL G.S.,. McARTHUR A.J. and MONTEITH J.L.


"Windspeed dependence of heat and mass transfer
.through coats and clothingn
Boundary-Layer Meteorology 18 (1980) 485-493

CENA K. a.nd MONTEITH J.L.


Transfer processes in animal coats
Io - Radiative transfern
11° - Conduction and convection"
'111° - Water vapour diffusionn
Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 188,413-423 (1975)

C.K. CHARNY, M.J. HAGMANN, R.L. LEVIN


"A whole body thermal model of man during hyperthemian
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
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C.K. CHARNY, R.L. LEVIN


"A whole body thermal model of man with a realistic
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IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
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KANDO KOBAYASHI, STEVEN M. HORVATH, FRANCISCO J.DIAZ,


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