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PROJECT ON

GROUP MEMBERS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

ROLL NOS. 02 04 25 29 37

USHAKIRAN BASTIKAR SWAPNIL CHAVAN CHETNA SATAM KHALID SHAIKH VIRAJ SHINDE

INDEX
1. INTRODUCTION ON HINDUISM 2. HISTORY OF HINDUISM 3. BHAGAVAD GITA AND MANAGEMENT 4. MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES FROM THE BHAGAVAD GITA 5. BHAGAVAD GITA AND MANAGERIAL EEFECTIVENESS a. UTILIZATION OF AVAILABLE RESOURCES b. ATTITUDE TOWARDS WORK c. WORK COMMITMENT d. WORK RESULTS e. MANAGERS MENTAL HEALTH f. LORD KRISHNAS ADVICE. g. MANAGEMENT NEEDS THOSE WHO PRACTICE WHAT THEY PREACH h. THE ULTIMATE MESSAGE OF BHAGAVAD GITA FOR MANAGERS 6. ROLE OF CHANAKYA IN INDIAN MANAGEMENT a. VERSUS FROM CHANAKYA b. NITISHASTRA c. ARTHASHASTA 7. HINDU CULTURE WITH RELEVANCE TO MANAGEMENT a. PRACTICES. b. HINDU FESTIVASL 8. CONCLUSIONS

INTRODUCTION ON HINDUISM
Hinduism is the worlds oldest existent religion, and has approximately a billion followers, of whom about 905 million live in India and Nepal. It is fusion of various religions, social norms and rituals of diverse beliefs and traditions which were clubbed together to turn into a unique religion in its own right Scriptures under Hinduism include Vedas and the Upanishads, Puranas and the epics Mahabharata and Ramayana and The Bhagavad Gita, a treatise excerpted from the Mahabharata. Hinduism began to be formed when the Aryans invaded the Dravidians in 2000 BCE and settled down with them. The Dravidians were farmers and their Gods were Gods of the Earth. They were Polytheistic. The Aryans were also polytheistic and their gods were of the sky. With the fusion of the both Aryans & Dravidians cultures, a new religion was formed, now known as Hinduism. One of the most fundamental ideas Of Hinduism is the idea of Karma. Karma is the concept that actions have repercussions. Hinduism focuses on Dharma (ethics/duties), Samsara ( The continuing cycle of Birth, life death and Rebirth), Karma (action and subsequent reaction), Moksha (liberation from samsara), and the various Yogas (paths or practices). Hinduism is a diverse system of thought with beliefs spanning monotheism, polytheism, pantheism, monism and even atheism. Hindus believe in many gods, though some Hindus believe the many gods to be different aspects of one God. The main Hindu deities Brahma (Creator), Vishnu (Preserver), and Shiva (Destroyer). The Sanskrit word used Meditation. According to Hinduism the purpose of Life is to evade from samsara which is full of agony and Maya and thus attaining Moksha. Regarding how to attain Moksha there are mainly three different margas: Jnana, bhakti and karma.

7. HISTORY OF HINDUISM
Hinduism is a term for a wide variety of related religious traditions native to India. Historically, it encompasses the development of Religion in India since the Iron Age traditions, which in turn hark back to prehistoric religions such as that of the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilization followed by the Iron Age Vedic religion. By the early centuries CE, Indian philosophy was divided

into Astika (orthodox) and Nastika (heterodox) depending on whether the authority of the Vedas was accepted. The Astika group was further divided into six branches, evolving from about the 2nd century BCE to the 6th century CE, viz. Samkhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa, and Vedanta. The Buddhist, Jain, Carvaka and some other schools were classified as Nastika. The different schools in this period competed for adherents and influenced each other. Meanwhile, Tantra and tantric practices emerged in both Astika and Nastika forms. Monotheistic religions like Shaivism, Shaktism and Vaishnavism developed during the same period through the Bhakti movement. Classical Hinduism emerges as a revival of Vedic traditions fused with local folk traditions, with the gradual decline starting from around the eighth century. Hinduism under the Islamic Rulers saw the increasing prominence of the Bhakti movement, which remains influential today. The colonial period saw the emergence of various Hindu reform movements partly inspired by western culture, such as spiritism (Theosophy). The Partition of India in 1947 was along religious lines, with the Republic of India emerging with a Hindu majority.

BHAGAVAD GITA AND MANAGEMENT


The BHAGAVAD GITA (Sanskrit: ) also more simply known as Gita, is a 700-verse Hindu scripture that is part of the ancient Sanskrit epic the Mahabharata. Since the Gita is drawn from the Mahabharata, it is classified

as a Smriti text. However, those branches of Hinduism that give it the status of an Upanishad also consider it a Sruti or "revealed" text. As it is taken to represent a summary of the Upanishadic teachings, it is also called "the Upanishad of the Upanishads".

The context of the Gita is a conversation between Lord Krishna and the Pandava prince Arjuna taking place in the middle of the battlefield before the start of the Kurukshetra War with armies on both sides ready to battle. Responding to Arjuna's confusion and moral dilemma about fighting his own cousins who command a tyranny imposed on a disputed empire, Lord Krishna explains to Arjuna his duties as a warrior and prince, and elaborates on yoga, Samkhya,reincarnation, moksha, karma yoga and jhana yoga among other topics. This has led to the Gita often being described as a concise guide to Hindu theology and also as a practical, self-contained guide to life. During the discourse, Lord Krishna reveals his identity as the Supreme Being himself (Svayam Bhagavan), blessing Arjuna with an awe-inspiring vision of his divine universal form.

MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES FROM THE BHAGAVAD GITA


There is an important distinction between effectiveness and efficiency in managing. Effectiveness is doing the right things and Efficiency is doing things right. The general principles of effective management can be applied in every fields the differences being mainly in the application than in principles. Again, effective management is not limited in its application only to business or industrial enterprises but to all organizations where the aim is to reach a given goal through a Chief Executive or a Manager with the help of a group of workers. The Manager's functions can be briefly summed up as under: Forming a vision and planning the strategy to realize such vision.

Cultivating the art of leadership. Establishing the institutional excellence and building an innovative organization. Delegation, motivation, and communication and Reviewing performance and taking corrective steps whenever called for. Developing human resources. Team building and teamwork. Thus Management is a process in search of excellence to align people and get them committed to work for a common goal to the maximum social benefit.

BHAGAVAD GITA AND MANAGERIAL EFFECTIVENESS


Some of the modern management concepts in the light of the Bhagavad Gita which is a primer of management by values are as follows:

UTILIZATION OF AVAILABLE RESOURCES:

The first lesson in the management science is to choose wisely and utilize optimally the scarce resources if one has to succeed in his venture. During the curtain raiser before the Mahabharata War Duryodhana chose Sri Krishna's large army for his help while Arjuna selected Sri Krishna's wisdom for his support. This episode gives us a clue as to who is an Effective Manager.

ATTITUDE TOWARDS WORK:

Three stone-cutters were engaged in erecting a temple. As usual at H.R.D. Consultant asked them what they were doing. The response of the three workers to this innocent-looking question is illuminating. 'I am a poor man. I have to maintain my family. I am making a living here,' said the first stone-cutter with a dejected face. 'Well, I work because I want to show that I am the best stone-cutter in the country,' said the second one with a sense of pride. 'Oh, I want to build the most beautiful temple in the country,' said the third one with a visionary gleam. Their jobs were identical but their perspectives were different. What Gita tells us is to develop the visionary perspective in the work we do. It tells us to develop a sense of larger vision in one's work for the common good.

WORK COMMITMEN:T

The popular verse 2.47 of the Gita cited above advises non-attachment to the fruits or results of actions performed in the course of one's duty. Dedicated work has to mean 'work for the sake of work'. If we are always calculating the date of promotion for putting in our efforts, then such work cannot be commitment-oriented causing excellence in the results but it will be promotionoriented resulting in inevitable disappointments. By tilting the performance towards the anticipated benefits, the quality of performance of the present duty suffers on account of the mental agitations caused by the anxieties of the future. Another reason for non-attachment to results is the fact that workings of the world are not designed to positively respond to our calculations and hence expected fruits may not always be forthcoming.

WORK RESULTS:
The Gita further explains the theory of non- attachment to the results of work in Ch.18 Verses 13-15 the import of which is as under: If the result of sincere effort is a success, the entire credit should not be appropriated by the doer alone. If the result of sincere effort is a failure, then too the entire blame does not accrue to the doer.

MANAGER'S MENTAL HEALTH:

The ideas mentioned above have a close bearing on the end-state of a manager which is his mental health. Sound mental health is the very goal of any human activity more so management. An expert describes sound mental health as that state of mind which can maintain a calm, positive poise or regain it when unsettled in the midst of all the external vagaries of work life and social existence.

Gita tells us how to get out of this universal phenomenon by prescribing the following capsules: Cultivate sound philosophy of life. Identify with inner core of self-sufficiency. Get out of the habitual mindset towards the pairs of opposites. Strive for excellence through work is worship. Build up an internal integrated reference point to face contrary impulses, and emotions. Pursue ethico-moral rectitude

BHAGAWAN'S ADVICE:

"Tasmaat sarveshu kaaleshu mamanusmarah yuddha cha" 'Therefore under all circumstances remember Me and then fight' (Fight means perform your duties)

MANAGEMENT NEEDS THOSE WHO PRACTICE WHAT THEY PREACH:

Whatever the excellent and best ones do, the commoners follow, so says Sri Krishna in the Gita. This is the leadership quality prescribed in the Gita. The visionary leader must also be a missionary, extremely practical, intensively dynamic and capable of translating dreams into reality. This dynamism and strength of a true leader flows from an inspired and spontaneous motivation to help others. "I am the strength of those who are devoid of personal desire and attachment. O Arjuna, I am the legitimate desire in those, who are not opposed to righteousness" says Sri Krishna in the 10th Chapter of the Gita.

THE ULTIMATE MESSAGE OF BHAGAVAD GITA FOR MANAGERS:

In conclusion the claim of this essay is not to suggest discarding of the Western model of efficiency, dynamism and striving for excellence but to make these ideals tuned to the India's holistic attitude of lokasangraha -for the welfare of many, for the good of many. The idea is that these management skills should be India-centric and not America-centric. Swami Vivekananda says a combination of both these approaches will certainly create future leaders of India who will be far superior to any that have ever been in the world. Modern management techniques are heavily borrowed from Western practices. Despite the exhaustive training managers get in business schools and in their own organizations, there have been many instances of greed and fraud even in famous companies. Lets take a u-turn and check what the ancient tome, the Bhagavad Gita, has to offer for modern managers.

ROLE OF CHANAKYA IN INDIAN MANAGEMENT

Chanakya was a shrewd state person and diplomat during the reign of Chandra Gupta Maurya around the 3rd Century BC. He was a visionary and most eminent strategist for all time to come. He was an outspoken personality. Chanakya is considered to be the pioneer economist of the world. He was a connoisseur of persuasion, enticement, sowing conflict and disagreement. The other name of Chanakya was Kautilya.

VERSES FROM CHANAKYA:

A pigeon today is better than a peacock tomorrow. The union of even small people can become irresistible. The elephant is tied up with rope made of grass. As the gardener plucks each flower without destroying its root, so should the ruler collect revenue without harming its source. Excessive courtesy should never be trusted. Flies go after open wounds, bees after flowers, good people after good qualities, mean people after faults.

Chanakyas two renowned books are Chanakya Niti and Kautiliyas Arthashastra

NITISHASTRA:

In his Nitishastra he discussed about how the state should be managed, how and individual should lead his life in society .He emphasized to go deep into the root of the problem and eradicate that problem once and for all. Chanakya emphasized that as we seek fragrance in a flower, oil in the sesame seed, fire in wood, ghee in milk and jiggery in sugarcane, in the same manner we should seek the spirit that is inside the body. According to him, people should be moral and ethical in their behaviour. They need to be patient, merciful, righteous and truthful. They should not indulge in sense gratification. Indian management always emphasized to look at things and situation from micro perspective .Therefore, Chanakya wrote to leave a member for the sake of the family, a family for the sake of village, A village for a country and like todays individuals he wrote to leave a country for the sake of oneself. He wrote to respect Vedic wisdom, to manage lifestyle effectively by following shastras and not to ridicule or disdain men of peaceful temperament .He emphasized that those who do not follow these principles face grief in life. Through his writing he remind individual that a man has come to the earth alone and will go back to the heaven or hell alone, and depending on his karma only he experiences good or bad consequences in life. From this it may be indicated that everyone should work thinking about the consequences although he has not mentioned that. This is the essence of Indian ethos.

Chanakya wrote that all relationship should be based on trust which is one of the principles of Indian ethos. Again he wrote that, animals desires to speak, man crave for heaven and godly person i.e. spiritual personality are interested in liberation.

He stated that a wise man should control his senses like the crane and attain his objective or purpose with due knowledge of his place, time and ability. People should not crave for material things and objects. Materialistic life is void as compared to spiritual life. Individual should be interested and take care of their spiritual development which enhances mental strength and helps to control the craving for materialistic pleasure. This is one of the basic principles of Indian ethos. He emphasizes that a person should save money against hard times, save his wife at the sacrifice of his wealth. It indicates soul is the most important assets in an individuals life and an individual should not lose his values and conscience. Indian management always emphasized that it does not matter from where one started but his decision about what he would become matters the most. Therefore, Chanakya wrote that even from poison nectar can be taken out, one can receive the highest knowledge even from a person of low caste, and in a non-reputed or even in a family which is not respectable, a girl possessing a good character should be respected and accepted.

ARTHASHASTRA:
The Arthashastra is an ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy which identifies its author by the names Kautilya & Vishnugupta, both names are traditionally identified with Chanakya.

7 Pillars of a Business by Chanakya A strong foundation is the key to any successful business. Your vision, your

commitment, your purpose - all form the basis for an organisation. They are the all-important pillars, the most essential part of any building. In his ground breaking Arthashastra, Chanakya a.k.a. Kautilya lists seven pillars for an organisation. "The king, the minister, the country, the fortified city, the treasury, the army and the ally are the constituent elements of the state". Let us now take a closer look at each of them:
1. THE KING (THE LEADER):

All great organisations have great leaders. The leader is the visionary, the captain, the man who guides the organisation. In today's corporate world we call him the Director, CEO, etc. Without him we will lose direction 2. THE MINISTER (THE MANAGER): The manager is the person who runs the show - the second-in-command of an organisation. He is also the person whom you can depend upon in the absence of the leader. He is the man who is always in action. An extra ordinary leader and an efficient manager together bring into existence a remarkable organisation.

3. THE COUNTRY (YOUR MARKET): No business can exist without its market capitalization. It is the area of your operation. The place from where you get your revenue and cash flow. You

basically dominate this territory and would like to keep your monopoly in this segment. 4. THE FORTIFID CITY (HEAD OFFICE): You need a control tower - a place from where all planning and strategies are made. It's from here that your central administrative work is done. It's the nucleus and the center of any organisation. 5. THE TREASURY: Finance is an extremely important resource. It is the backbone of any business. A strong and well-managed treasury is the heart of any organisation. Your treasury is also your financial hub. 6. THE ARMY (YOUR TEAM): When we go to war, we need a well-equipped and trained army. The army consists of your team members, those who are ready to fight for the organization. The salesmen, the accountant, the driver, the peon - all of them add to your team.

7. THE ALLY (FRIEND / CONSULTANT): In life you should have a friend who is just like you. Being, in the same boat, he can identify with you and stay close. He is the one whom you can depend upon when problems arise. After all, a friend in need is a friend in deed.

Look at these seven pillars. Only when these are built into firm and strong sections can the organisation shoulder any responsibility and face all challenges. And while building them, do not forget to imbibe that vital ingredient called values, speaking about which, in his book 'Build to last', Jim Collins has said, "Values are the roots from where an organisation continuously gets its supply as well as grounding - build on them!"

HINDU CULTURE WITH RELEVANCE TO MANAGEMENT


PRACTICES:
Hindu practices generally involve seeking awareness of God and sometimes also seeking blessings from Devas. Therefore, Hinduism has developed numerous practices meant to help one think of divinity in the midst

of everyday life. Hindus can engage in Puja (worship or veneration), either at home or at a temple. At home, Hindus often create a shrine with icons dedicated to their chosen forms of God. Temples are usually dedicated to a primary deity along with associated subordinate deities though some commemorate multiple deities. Visiting temples is not obligatory, and many visit temples only during religious festivals. Hindus perform their worship through icons (Murtis). Hinduism has a developed system of symbolism and iconography to represent the sacred in art, architecture, literature and worship. These symbols gain their meaning from the scriptures, mythology, or cultural traditions. The syllable Om (which represents the Parabrahman) and the Swastika sign (which symbolizes auspiciousness) have grown to represent Hinduism itself. In Indian Corporate world, whenever a company opens a new office or start with their new business, they firstly worship their deities. When a company buys new land or building they first perform BHOOMIPUJAN to have good & peaceful start. If a company buys new machinery, electronics first they do puja, then put tilak, draw Swastika, Om or Shree on the new machine or electronic so that it can have a long life & give more profits.

HINDU FESTIVALS:
In Indian philosophy, that which is seen by a Rishi (Self-realized seer) is

the Truth, and what he or she propounds is the Truth; speculations about Truth do not fall within the scope of Indian philosophy. It was these rishis of ancient times who conceived of festivals as a means of reaching out to all sections of society and uniting the body, mind and intellect within each individual for the physical, material and spiritual uplift of humankind.

These are festivals which are primarily celebrated by specific sects or in certain regions of the Indian subcontinent. Some widely observed Hindu festivals are, Dussera, or Durga Puja, celebrates events from Hindu mythology symbolizing the triumph of good over evil; Diwali, the festival of lights; Ganesh Chaturthi, the festival celebrating Ganesha; Maha Shivaratri, the festival dedicated to Shiva; Ram Navami, celebrates the birth of Rama, the seventh incarnation of Vishnu; Krishna Janmastami, celebrates the birth of Krishna, the eighth incarnation of Vishnu; Holi, a spring festival of colors and light; Sankranti, a harvest festival of India Hindu Festivals signifies Community Development, Harmony, Unity and Co-operation among people, Team Equality, Group Bonding, Unbiased, Peace, Wealth, Health, Knowledge, etc. It leads to the destruction of all negative forces- wickedness, violence, lust, anger, envy, greed, bigotry, fear, injustice, oppression and suffering

CONCLUSION
By doing this project we all learned that teachings of Hinduism play a very important role in our life. It guides our way through all the difficulties. It teaches us to live in wisdom, love harmony, peace & joy. It tells as about Karma & Bhoga. It enriches ones life by giving them spiritual teachings such as tolerance, respect, unity, etc. Mahabharata, one of the Hindu scripture, gives the following teachings:

Turn your weaknesses into strength. Turn enemies into allies. Team work scores over individual efforts. Team interest over individual interests.

Share your responsibilities.

Right team= right set of individuals. The right man for the right job. Commitment scores over competence. Know your enemy/challenges exploit its weaknesses take calculated risk The right Manager to inspire invigorate counsel in crisis Know ground realities- Accept different ideologies Co-operate.

Empower women- The Gender Balance is required for Stability & Administration.