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User manual

A9155



V6.2.1




3DF 01955 6283 PCZZA Edition 01

























Copyright 2004 by ALCATEL SEL AG.
All rights reserved. Passing on and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted
without written authorisation from ALCATEL.

ALCATEL SEL AG acknowledges all trademarks mentioned in this document.























Notice
The A9155 software and the program documentation are intended for use by experienced personnel in the fields of transmission engineering and
communication system design. Additional reference material, in particular the referenced CCIR, ETSI, and 3GPP recommendations and reports may be
required for a complete understanding of some aspects of the program.

Restrictions to the License
The software and materials delivered with the A9155 system contain copyrighted material, trade secrets, and other proprietary material and in order to
protect them you may not decompile, reverse engineer, disassemble or otherwise reduce the A9155 software to a human-perceivable form. You may not
modify, network, rent, lease, loan, distribute or create derivative works based upon the software and materials in whole or in part. You may not
electronically transmit the A9155 software from one computer to another or over a network.

Limited Warranty
Use of the A9155 software acknowledges this statement of limited warranty. With respect to the physical disks and physical documentation, ALCATEL SEL
AG warrants these to be free of defects in material and workmanship for a period of ninety days from the date of delivery. ALCATEL SEL AG disclaims all
other warranties, expressed or implied including the fitness of the program for any purpose. ALCATEL SEL AG assumes no liability for damages, direct or
consequential, loss of profit or other similar claims.




























Table of contents
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

I GETTING STARTED.............................................................................23
I.1 GENERAL PRESENTATION.............................................................................................23
I.2 WHAT'S NEW IN A9155 V6.2.1.....................................................................................23
I.3 INSTALLING AND REMOVING A9155...............................................................................26
I.3.1 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS.................................................................................................................................. 26
I.3.2 WHAT'S INSTALLED WITH A9155 ...................................................................................................................... 26
I.3.3 INSTALLING A9155......................................................................................................................................... 26
I.3.4 REMOVING A9155.......................................................................................................................................... 26
I.3.5 INSTALLING DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SERVER................................................................................................... 27
I.3.6 REMOVING DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SERVER.................................................................................................... 27
I.3.7 TROUBLESHOOTINGS AFTER INSTALLATION........................................................................................................ 28
I.4 GETTING HELP ............................................................................................................28
I.4.1 WAYS TO GET ASSISTANCE .............................................................................................................................. 28
I.4.2 TECHNICAL SUPPORT ...................................................................................................................................... 29
I.5 RUNNING PROJECT TEMPLATES ....................................................................................29
I.5.1 STARTING A NEW PROJECT .............................................................................................................................. 29
I.5.2 TEMPLATES PROVIDED .................................................................................................................................... 29
I.5.3 CREATING YOUR OWN TEMPLATE...................................................................................................................... 30
I.5.4 BUILDING A PROJECT STEP BY STEP.................................................................................................................. 31
II THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT .........................................................35
II.1 USER INTERFACE BASICS : OVERVIEW ......................................................................35
II.2 WORKING WITH MENUS AND WINDOWS ......................................................................35
II.2.1 WORKING WITH DOCUMENT WINDOW................................................................................................................. 35
II.2.2 WORKING WITH DOCKING OR FLOATING WINDOW................................................................................................ 35
II.2.3 PRINTING THE ACTIVE WINDOW......................................................................................................................... 36
II.3 WORKING WITH MAPS ..............................................................................................36
II.3.1 ZOOMING AND PANNING................................................................................................................................... 36
II.3.2 USING THE PANORAMIC WINDOW ...................................................................................................................... 37
II.3.3 CENTRING THE MAP ........................................................................................................................................ 37
II.3.4 CHOOSING A SCALE ........................................................................................................................................ 38
II.3.5 DEFINING VISIBILITY RANGES ON OBJECTS ......................................................................................................... 38
II.3.6 DISPLAYING RULERS AROUND THE MAP ............................................................................................................. 38
II.3.7 GETTING DISTANCES ON THE MAP..................................................................................................................... 38
II.3.8 DISPLAYED CURSORS...................................................................................................................................... 39
II.3.9 PRINTING A MAP ............................................................................................................................................. 40
II.3.10 EXPORTING MAPS TO EXTERNAL FILES............................................................................................................... 40
II.3.11 EXPORTING MAPS TO OTHER APPLICATIONS....................................................................................................... 41
II.4 WORKING WITH THE EXPLORER.................................................................................41
II.4.1 WORKING WITH THE EXPLORER : OVERVIEW...................................................................................................... 41
II.4.2 RENAMING AN OBJECT..................................................................................................................................... 42
II.4.3 DISPLAYING THE OBJECT PROPERTIES............................................................................................................... 42
II.4.4 DELETING AN OBJECT...................................................................................................................................... 42
II.4.5 MANAGING OBJECT VISIBILITY........................................................................................................................... 43
II.5 WORKING WITH DATA TABLES...................................................................................44
II.5.1 ACCESSING DATA TABLE ................................................................................................................................. 44
II.5.2 MANAGING CONTENTS IN TABLES...................................................................................................................... 44
II.5.3 EDITING CONTENTS IN TABLES.......................................................................................................................... 45
II.5.4 OPENING DIALOGS FROM TABLES...................................................................................................................... 45
II.5.5 MANAGING TABLE DISPLAY............................................................................................................................... 46
II.5.6 COPYING AND PASTING IN TABLES..................................................................................................................... 47
II.5.7 PRINTING DATA TABLES................................................................................................................................... 48
II.6 FILTERING/GROUPING/SORTING DATA........................................................................48
II.6.1 SORTING AND FILTERING IN TABLES................................................................................................................... 48
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II.6.2 EXAMPLES OF FILTER IN TABLES ....................................................................................................................... 50
II.6.3 FILTERING RADIO DATA.................................................................................................................................... 50
II.6.4 ADVANCED FILTERING : EXAMPLE..................................................................................................................... 51
II.6.5 ADVANCED FILTERING : COUNTER EXAMPLE 1.................................................................................................... 52
II.6.6 ADVANCED FILTERING : COUNTER EXAMPLE 2.................................................................................................... 52
II.6.7 SORTING A FOLDER......................................................................................................................................... 53
II.6.8 ARRANGING ITEMS IN GROUPS.......................................................................................................................... 53
II.6.9 EXAMPLES OF GROUPING BY ............................................................................................................................ 54
II.6.10 USING A GROUP BY/SORT/FILTER CONFIGURATION.............................................................................................. 55
II.6.11 CREATING SUBFOLDERS .................................................................................................................................. 55
II.6.12 REORGANIZING DATA AFTER MODIFICATIONS...................................................................................................... 55
II.6.13 FILTERING DATA IN A POLYGON......................................................................................................................... 56
II.6.14 REMOVING THE POLYGON FILTER...................................................................................................................... 56
II.7 MANAGING DISPLAY IN A9155..................................................................................56
II.7.1 DEFINING THE DISPLAY PROPERTIES OF ANY ITEM FOLDER................................................................................... 56
II.7.2 MANAGING AND DISPLAYING LEGENDS............................................................................................................... 57
II.7.3 THRESHOLDS, COLOURS AND LEGENDS............................................................................................................. 57
II.7.4 DISPLAYING OBJECT LABELS ON THE MAP .......................................................................................................... 58
II.7.5 USING THE TIPS TOOL TO GET INFORMATION ...................................................................................................... 58
II.8 USING HANDY TOOLS ...............................................................................................59
II.8.1 USING THE UNDO/REDO COMMAND .................................................................................................................. 59
II.8.2 REFRESHING MAPS AND FOLDERS..................................................................................................................... 59
II.8.3 SETTING DOCUMENT PRINTS ............................................................................................................................ 59
II.8.4 LOCATING ANY POINT ON THE MAP .................................................................................................................... 60
II.8.5 LOCATING ANY SITE ON THE MAP ...................................................................................................................... 60
II.8.6 LOCATING ANY VECTOR ON THE MAP ................................................................................................................. 61
II.8.7 SYNCHRONIZING VECTOR SELECTION AND DATA TABLE........................................................................................ 61
II.8.8 USING THE STATUS BAR TO GET INFORMATION ................................................................................................... 61
II.8.9 USING ICONS FROM THE TOOL BAR.................................................................................................................... 62
II.8.10 USING SHORTCUTS IN A9155........................................................................................................................... 63
II.9 TIPS AND TRICKS.....................................................................................................64
II.9.1 HOW TO IMPORT GEO DATA EASILY ................................................................................................................... 64
II.9.2 HOW TO CHANGE GLOBALLY A VALUE FOR ALL THE TRANSMITTER......................................................................... 64
II.9.3 HOW TO FIND EASILY A SITE ON THE MAP ........................................................................................................... 64
II.9.4 HOW TO BE AUTOMATICALLY PLACED IN THE FIND SITE BOX ................................................................................. 64
II.9.5 HOW TO DELETE ALL SITES AND THEIR TRANSMITTERS IN ONE SHOT...................................................................... 64
II.9.6 HOW TO ACCESS THE PROPERTIES OF ANY OBJECT OR GROUP OF OBJECTS .......................................................... 64
II.9.7 HOW TO FILTER DATA RAPIDLY ......................................................................................................................... 65
II.9.8 HOW TO WORK ONLY ON "LIVE" SITES................................................................................................................ 65
II.9.9 HOW TO USE WILDCARD CHARACTERS TO FILTER TEXT-FORMAT FIELDS ................................................................ 65
II.9.10 HOW TO CHANGE GLOBALLY THE NAMES OF ALL THE SITES .................................................................................. 65
II.9.11 HOW TO FIND EASILY AN OBJECT BY ITS NAME IN A FOLDER.................................................................................. 65
II.9.12 HOW TO OPEN OR CLOSE RAPIDLY A FOLDER...................................................................................................... 65
II.9.13 HOW TO FIND EASILY AN OBJECT IN A TABLE....................................................................................................... 66
II.9.14 HOW TO FIND EASILY AN OBJECT ON THE MAP .................................................................................................... 66
II.9.15 HOW TO CUSTOMISE THE COLUMNS DISPLAYED IN A TABLE .................................................................................. 66
II.9.16 HOW TO CUSTOMISE THE TABLE STYLE.............................................................................................................. 66
II.9.17 HOW TO CHANGE GLOBALLY DISPLAY PROPERTIES OF OBJECTS ........................................................................... 66
II.9.18 HOW TO PREDICT SIGNAL LEVEL ON A ROAD....................................................................................................... 66
II.9.19 HOW TO WORK ON A SET OF SITES SELECTED BY A POLYGON............................................................................... 66
II.9.20 HOW TO OBTAIN A LINK BUDGET........................................................................................................................ 67
II.9.21 HOW TO DISPLAY CITY POINTS AND THEIR NAMES ON THE MAP ............................................................................. 67
II.9.22 HOW TO DISPLAY SCRAMBLING CODES ON THE MAP ............................................................................................ 67
II.9.23 HOW TO DEFINE THE DEFAULT SERVER FOR DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING.................................................................. 67
III MANAGING GEOGRAPHIC DATA ......................................................71
III.1 MANAGING GEOGRAPHIC DATA : OVERVIEW..............................................................71
III.2 GEO DATA TYPE SUPPORTED....................................................................................71
III.3 LENGTH/HEIGHT/OFFSET UNITS AND COORDINATE SYSTEMS........................................73
III.3.1 SETTING DEFAULT LENGTH/HEIGHT/OFFSET UNITS .............................................................................................. 73
III.3.2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS : BASIC CONCEPTS ........................................................................................................ 73
III.3.3 DEFINING THE PROJECTION COORDINATE SYSTEM .............................................................................................. 74
III.3.4 DEFINING THE DISPLAY COORDINATE SYSTEM .................................................................................................... 74
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III.3.5 CREATING YOUR OWN COORDINATE SYSTEM...................................................................................................... 75
III.4 GEO DATA FORMAT SUPPORTED ...............................................................................76
III.4.1 SUPPORTED GEO DATA FORMATS : OVERVIEW................................................................................................... 76
III.4.2 BIL DATA FORMAT .......................................................................................................................................... 77
III.4.3 TIFF DATA FORMAT ........................................................................................................................................ 77
III.4.4 DXF DATA FORMAT......................................................................................................................................... 78
III.4.5 SHP DATA FORMAT ........................................................................................................................................ 79
III.4.6 MIF DATA FORMAT.......................................................................................................................................... 79
III.4.7 ERDAS IMAGINE DATA FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... 79
III.4.8 OTHER SUPPORTED FORMATS.......................................................................................................................... 79
III.5 MANAGING CLUTTER CLASSES..................................................................................80
III.5.1 IMPORTING A CLUTTER CLASS FILE.................................................................................................................... 80
III.5.2 OPTIMISING THE LOADING OF CLUTTER CLASS FILES ........................................................................................... 80
III.5.3 DESCRIPTION OF MNU FILES........................................................................................................................... 80
III.5.4 MANAGING THE CLUTTER CLASSES ................................................................................................................... 80
III.5.5 ADDING A CLUTTER CLASS ............................................................................................................................... 82
III.5.6 DISPLAYING STATISTICS ON CLUTTER CLASSES .................................................................................................. 82
III.6 MANAGING CLUTTER HEIGHTS ..................................................................................82
III.6.1 IMPORTING A CLUTTER HEIGHT FILE................................................................................................................... 82
III.6.2 MANAGING CLUTTER HEIGHT MAPS ................................................................................................................... 83
III.7 MANAGING DTM MAPS............................................................................................83
III.7.1 IMPORTING A DTM MAP................................................................................................................................... 83
III.7.2 MANAGING DTM MAPS ................................................................................................................................... 84
III.8 MANAGING VECTOR MAPS ........................................................................................84
III.8.1 IMPORTING A VECTOR FILE ............................................................................................................................... 84
III.8.2 MANAGING VECTOR OBJECTS........................................................................................................................... 85
III.8.3 DISPLAYING VECTOR LAYERS OVER PREDICTIONS............................................................................................... 85
III.9 MANAGING SCANNED IMAGES...................................................................................85
III.9.1 IMPORTING SCANNED IMAGES........................................................................................................................... 85
III.9.2 MANAGING SCANNED IMAGES........................................................................................................................... 86
III.10 MANAGING POPULATION MAPS .................................................................................86
III.10.1 IMPORTING A POPULATION MAP......................................................................................................................... 86
III.10.2 MANAGING POPULATION MAPS.......................................................................................................................... 87
III.10.3 DISPLAYING STATISTICS ON POPULATION........................................................................................................... 88
III.10.4 USING POPULATION DATA IN PREDICTION REPORTS............................................................................................. 88
III.11 MANAGING GENERIC MAPS.......................................................................................88
III.11.1 GENERIC MAPS : OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................ 88
III.11.2 CREATE AN ADVANCED GEO DATA FOLDER......................................................................................................... 89
III.11.3 MANAGING GENERIC MAPS............................................................................................................................... 90
III.11.4 DISPLAYING STATISTICS ON GENERIC DATA........................................................................................................ 90
III.11.5 USING GENERIC MAP DATA IN PREDICTION REPORTS ........................................................................................... 90
III.12 MANAGING GEO DATA FILES AND FOLDERS................................................................91
III.12.1 EMBEDDING - LINKING COMPARISON ................................................................................................................. 91
III.12.2 EMBEDDING GEOGRAPHIC DATA ....................................................................................................................... 91
III.12.3 REPAIRING A BROKEN LINK............................................................................................................................... 92
III.12.4 GROUPING GEO DATA FILES IN DISPLAY FOLDER ................................................................................................. 93
III.12.5 CHECKING THE MAP GEOCODING ...................................................................................................................... 93
III.12.6 SETTING GEO DATA PRIORITY........................................................................................................................... 94
III.13 EDITING GEOGRAPHIC DATA .....................................................................................95
III.13.1 RASTER OBJECTS ........................................................................................................................................... 95
III.13.1.a Creating a clutter or traffic raster polygon........................................................................................ 95
III.13.1.b Editing clutter or traffic raster polygons............................................................................................ 95
III.13.1.c Modifying clutter or traffic raster polygons ....................................................................................... 96
III.13.1.d Deleting clutter or traffic raster polygons.......................................................................................... 96
III.13.1.e Displaying information about raster polygons .................................................................................. 96
III.13.2 VECTOR OBJECTS........................................................................................................................................... 97
III.13.2.a Creating a vector layer..................................................................................................................... 97
III.13.2.b Editing a vector object...................................................................................................................... 97
III.13.2.c Managing vector object shapes ....................................................................................................... 98
III.13.2.d Managing vector object properties................................................................................................... 99
III.14 MANAGING GEOGRAPHIC DATA EXPORT...................................................................100
III.14.1 EXPORTING A CLUTTER CLASS MAP................................................................................................................. 100
III.14.2 SAVING THE EDITED RASTER POLYGONS.......................................................................................................... 101
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III.14.3 EXPORTING A CLUTTER HEIGHT MAP ............................................................................................................... 102
III.14.4 EXPORTING A DTM MAP................................................................................................................................ 102
III.14.5 EXPORTING A VECTOR OBJECT ....................................................................................................................... 103
IV MANAGING RADIO NETWORK DATA..............................................107
IV.1 MANAGING RADIO NETWORK DATA : OVERVIEW.......................................................107
IV.2 SETTING DEFAULT RADIO UNITS ..............................................................................107
IV.3 SITES ...................................................................................................................107
IV.3.1 SITE PROPERTIES ......................................................................................................................................... 107
IV.3.1.a Creating a site................................................................................................................................ 107
IV.3.1.b Naming automatically sites ............................................................................................................ 108
IV.3.1.c Managing site properties................................................................................................................ 108
IV.3.1.d Changing a site position................................................................................................................. 109
IV.3.1.e Managing site altitudes .................................................................................................................. 109
IV.3.1.f Getting distances around sites....................................................................................................... 110
IV.3.1.g Displaying the line of sight area..................................................................................................... 111
IV.3.1.h Setting the display properties of a site........................................................................................... 111
IV.3.1.i Deleting built sites.......................................................................................................................... 111
IV.3.2 SITE LISTS ................................................................................................................................................... 112
IV.3.2.a Creating a site list .......................................................................................................................... 112
IV.3.2.b Managing a site list ........................................................................................................................ 112
IV.3.2.c Exporting a site list......................................................................................................................... 112
IV.3.2.d Importing a site list ......................................................................................................................... 113
IV.3.2.e Displaying site lists......................................................................................................................... 113
IV.3.2.f Filtering site lists ............................................................................................................................ 113
IV.4 ANTENNAS............................................................................................................114
IV.4.1 CREATING AN ANTENNA................................................................................................................................. 114
IV.4.2 MANAGING THE ANTENNA PROPERTIES............................................................................................................ 114
IV.4.3 MODIFYING ANTENNA PARAMETERS IN TABLES ................................................................................................. 115
IV.4.4 COPYING ANTENNA PATTERNS TO THE CLIPBOARD............................................................................................ 116
IV.4.5 IMPORTING ANTENNA PATTERNS ..................................................................................................................... 116
IV.4.6 PRINTING ANTENNA PATTERNS ....................................................................................................................... 117
IV.5 TRANSMITTERS .....................................................................................................117
IV.5.1 TRANSMITTERS : OVERVIEW.......................................................................................................................... 117
IV.5.2 TRANSMITTERS PROPERTIES.......................................................................................................................... 118
IV.5.2.a Creating a transmitter .................................................................................................................... 118
IV.5.2.b Naming automatically transmitters................................................................................................. 118
IV.5.2.c Managing transmitter properties .................................................................................................... 119
IV.5.2.d Moving a transmitter on the map.................................................................................................... 120
IV.5.2.e Adjusting transmitter azimuths....................................................................................................... 120
IV.5.2.f Installing several antennas on a transmitter................................................................................... 121
IV.5.2.g Setting transmitter activity.............................................................................................................. 121
IV.5.2.h Deleting a transmitter..................................................................................................................... 121
IV.5.3 STATION TEMPLATES..................................................................................................................................... 122
IV.5.3.a Creating a station template............................................................................................................ 122
IV.5.3.b Defining station template properties............................................................................................... 122
IV.5.3.c Deleting a station template ............................................................................................................ 123
IV.5.3.d Dropping a station from a template................................................................................................ 123
IV.5.3.e Dropping a station on an existing site............................................................................................ 124
IV.5.3.f Managing a multi-sectored station................................................................................................. 124
IV.5.3.g Merging hexagonal groups of base stations .................................................................................. 124
IV.6 REPEATERS ..........................................................................................................125
IV.6.1 REPEATERS : OVERVIEW............................................................................................................................... 125
IV.6.2 CREATING A REPEATER ................................................................................................................................. 125
IV.6.3 MANAGING REPEATER PROPERTIES ................................................................................................................ 125
IV.6.4 SETTING DONOR PROPERTIES OF A REPEATER ................................................................................................. 126
IV.6.5 SETTING COVERAGE PROPERTIES OF A REPEATER............................................................................................ 126
IV.6.6 UPDATING REPEATER PARAMETERS................................................................................................................ 127
IV.6.7 USING REPEATERS IN CALCULATIONS.............................................................................................................. 127
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IV.7 RADIO EQUIPMENT.................................................................................................128
IV.7.1 RADIO EQUIPMENT : OVERVIEW...................................................................................................................... 128
IV.7.2 MANAGING TMA EQUIPMENT ......................................................................................................................... 128
IV.7.3 MANAGING FEEDER EQUIPMENT...................................................................................................................... 128
IV.7.4 MANAGING BTS EQUIPMENT.......................................................................................................................... 129
IV.7.5 ASSIGNING RADIO EQUIPMENT TO TRANSMITTER............................................................................................... 129
IV.7.6 USING EQUIPMENT TO COMPUTE TRANSMITTER LOSSES .................................................................................... 130
IV.7.7 MANAGING RADIO EQUIPMENT IN A DATABASE STRUCTURE ................................................................................ 130
V MANAGING COMPUTATIONS IN A9155...........................................135
V.1 COMPUTATIONS IN A9155 : OVERVIEW...................................................................135
V.2 COMPUTING IN POLYGONAL AREAS .........................................................................135
V.2.1 COMPUTATION AND FOCUS ZONES : OVERVIEW................................................................................................ 135
V.2.2 COMPUTATION AND FOCUS ZONES : EFFECTS................................................................................................... 136
V.2.3 DRAWING A COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE.......................................................................................................... 137
V.2.4 CREATING A COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE FROM POLYGONS ............................................................................... 137
V.2.5 IMPORTING THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE FROM A FILE.................................................................................. 138
V.2.6 EXPORTING THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE TO A FILE ..................................................................................... 138
V.2.7 DELETING THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE ..................................................................................................... 138
V.2.8 RESIZING THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE ...................................................................................................... 139
V.2.9 MOVING A POINT OF THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE ....................................................................................... 139
V.2.10 ADDING A POINT IN THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE......................................................................................... 139
V.2.11 REMOVING A POINT IN THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE..................................................................................... 139
V.2.12 DISPLAYING THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE SIZE............................................................................................ 139
V.2.13 DISPLAYING THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE COORDINATES ............................................................................. 139
V.3 PROPAGATION MODELS..........................................................................................140
V.3.1 PROPAGATION MODELS : OVERVIEW............................................................................................................... 140
V.3.2 PROPAGATION MODEL GENERAL INFORMATION................................................................................................. 140
V.3.2.a Selecting propagation models........................................................................................................ 140
V.3.2.b Setting propagation model priority ................................................................................................. 141
V.3.2.c Displaying general information on propagation model ................................................................... 142
V.3.2.d Choosing the appropriate propagation model ................................................................................ 142
V.3.2.e Managing propagation model folders............................................................................................. 143
V.3.3 PROPAGATION MODELS AVAILABLE IN A9155................................................................................................... 143
V.3.3.a Working with Longley-Rice model.................................................................................................. 143
V.3.3.b Working with ITU 526-5 model....................................................................................................... 143
V.3.3.c Working with ITU 370-7 model (Vienna 93) ................................................................................... 144
V.3.3.d Working with WLL (Wireless Local Loop) model............................................................................ 144
V.3.3.e Working with Okumura-Hata model ............................................................................................... 145
V.3.3.e.i Working with Okumura-Hata model : Overview........................................................................................... 145
V.3.3.e.ii Considering losses due to diffraction (Okumura-Hata) ................................................................................ 145
V.3.3.e.iii Defining an environment default formula (Okumura-Hata)........................................................................... 145
V.3.3.e.iv Assigning environment formulas to clutter types (Okumura-Hata) ............................................................... 146
V.3.3.e.v Creating/Modifying environment formulas (Okumura-Hata)......................................................................... 146
V.3.3.f Working with Cost-Hata model ...................................................................................................... 146
V.3.3.f.i Working with Cost-Hata model : Overview.................................................................................................. 146
V.3.3.f.ii Considering losses due to diffraction (Cost-Hata)........................................................................................ 147
V.3.3.f.iii Defining an environment default formula (Cost-Hata).................................................................................. 147
V.3.3.f.iv Assigning environment formulas to clutter types (Cost-Hata) ...................................................................... 147
V.3.3.f.v Creating/Modifying environment formulas (Cost-Hata) ................................................................................ 148
V.3.3.g Working with Standard Propagation model .................................................................................... 148
V.3.3.g.i Working with Standard Propagation model : Overview................................................................................ 148
V.3.3.g.ii Accessing Standard Propagation Model properties..................................................................................... 149
V.3.3.g.iii Adjusting Standard Propagation Model parameters .................................................................................... 149
V.3.3.g.iv SPM General tab window............................................................................................................................ 149
V.3.3.g.v SPM Parameters tab window...................................................................................................................... 150
V.3.3.g.v.i Transmitter effective antenna height SPM........................................................................................... 151
V.3.3.g.v.ii Diffraction computation in SPM........................................................................................................... 154
V.3.3.g.v.iii Deygout .............................................................................................................................................. 155
V.3.3.g.v.iv Epstein-Peterson ................................................................................................................................ 156
V.3.3.g.v.v Millington ............................................................................................................................................ 157
V.3.3.g.v.vi Receiver effective antenna height ....................................................................................................... 157
V.3.3.g.v.vii Sample values for SPM formula parameters ....................................................................................... 157
V.3.3.g.v.viii Correction for hilly regions................................................................................................................... 158
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V.3.3.g.vi SPM Clutter tab window.............................................................................................................................. 158
V.3.3.g.vi.i SPM Clutter tab window...................................................................................................................... 158
V.3.3.g.vi.ii Typical values or losses per clutter class (SPM).................................................................................. 159
V.3.3.g.vii SPM Calibration tab window ....................................................................................................................... 160
V.3.3.g.vii.i SPM Calibration tab window ............................................................................................................... 160
V.3.3.g.vii.ii Displaying statistics before calibration (SPM)...................................................................................... 160
V.3.3.g.vii.iii Calibrating the Standard Propagation Model ....................................................................................... 161
V.3.3.g.vii.iv To calibrate one variable..................................................................................................................... 162
V.3.3.g.vii.v To calibrate several variables.............................................................................................................. 163
V.3.3.h Working with WinProp-ProMan model ........................................................................................... 163
V.3.3.h.i Working with WinProp-ProMan model: Overview........................................................................................ 163
V.3.3.h.ii Working with WinProp-ProMan model: Physical background on Urban Propagation Models....................... 163
V.3.3.h.iii Working with WinProp-ProMan model: Required databases ....................................................................... 164
V.3.3.h.iv Working with WinProp-ProMan model: COST 231 Walfisch-Ikegami .......................................................... 164
V.3.3.h.v Working with WinProp-ProMan model: Intelligent Ray Tracing.................................................................... 164
V.3.3.h.v.i Specular reflection .............................................................................................................................. 165
V.3.3.h.v.ii Diffraction............................................................................................................................................ 165
V.3.3.h.v.iii Multiple diffraction............................................................................................................................... 165
V.3.3.h.v.iv Scattering............................................................................................................................................ 165
V.3.3.h.v.v Penetration ......................................................................................................................................... 165
V.3.3.h.v.vi Ray tracing.......................................................................................................................................... 166
V.3.3.h.vi Working with WinProp-ProMan model: Quick Start ..................................................................................... 166
V.3.3.h.vii Working with WinProp-ProMan model: Important hints................................................................................ 170
V.4 TUNING RECEPTION PARAMETERS...........................................................................170
V.4.1 SETTING THE RECEIVER PROPERTIES .............................................................................................................. 170
V.4.2 COMPUTING SHADOWING MARGINS PER CLUTTER CLASS ................................................................................... 171
V.4.3 USING RELIABILITY LEVEL IN PREDICTIONS ....................................................................................................... 172
V.5 COVERAGE STUDIES ..............................................................................................173
V.5.1 COVERAGE STUDIES : OVERVIEW................................................................................................................... 173
V.5.2 COVERAGE PREDICTION GENERAL SETTINGS.................................................................................................... 173
V.5.2.a Setting calculation areas................................................................................................................ 173
V.5.2.b Setting calculation resolutions ....................................................................................................... 174
V.5.2.c Creating coverage calculations...................................................................................................... 175
V.5.2.d Creating coverage studies per group of transmitter ....................................................................... 175
V.5.2.e Accessing coverage prediction properties ..................................................................................... 176
V.5.2.f Setting coverage resolutions.......................................................................................................... 176
V.5.2.g Organising result outputs of a coverage study............................................................................... 177
V.5.2.h Defining the coverage conditions................................................................................................... 177
V.5.2.i Managing prediction display .......................................................................................................... 178
V.5.2.j Running coverage calculations...................................................................................................... 179
V.5.2.k Locking coverage studies .............................................................................................................. 180
V.5.3 PREDICTION STUDY TEMPLATES ..................................................................................................................... 180
V.5.3.a Calculating a coverage by transmitter............................................................................................ 180
V.5.3.b Calculating a coverage by signal level ........................................................................................... 181
V.5.3.c Calculating overlapping areas........................................................................................................ 181
V.5.3.d Creating a coverage study template .............................................................................................. 182
V.5.3.e Deleting a coverage study template............................................................................................... 182
V.5.4 PATH LOSS MANAGEMENT.............................................................................................................................. 182
V.5.4.a Storage of path loss matrices ........................................................................................................ 182
V.5.4.b Locking path loss results................................................................................................................ 183
V.5.4.c Checking path loss results validity ................................................................................................. 184
V.5.4.d Exporting main path loss matrices ................................................................................................. 184
V.5.5 PREDICTION COVERAGE OUTPUTS .................................................................................................................. 185
V.5.5.a Managing prediction results : Overview......................................................................................... 185
V.5.5.b Displaying prediction reports.......................................................................................................... 186
V.5.5.c Exporting prediction reports........................................................................................................... 186
V.5.5.d Printing prediction reports.............................................................................................................. 186
V.5.5.e Exporting prediction coverages...................................................................................................... 186
V.5.5.f Coverage prediction available exports........................................................................................... 187
V.6 POINT ANALYSIS PREDICTIONS................................................................................187
V.6.1 POINT ANALYSIS PREDICTIONS : OVERVIEW..................................................................................................... 187
V.6.2 DISPLAYING POINT ANALYSIS RESULTS ............................................................................................................ 188
V.6.2.a Using the receiver .......................................................................................................................... 188
V.6.2.b Studying the profile from a transmitter ........................................................................................... 188
V.6.2.c Displaying predicted signal levels at a point .................................................................................. 189
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V.6.2.d Listing all signal and C/I levels at a point ....................................................................................... 189
V.6.3 MANAGING POINT ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................................... 190
V.6.3.a Selecting a transmitter in point analysis......................................................................................... 190
V.6.3.b Selecting the power definition item in point analysis...................................................................... 190
V.6.3.c Adjusting reliability level in a point analysis ................................................................................... 190
V.6.3.d Displaying signal levels or losses in point analysis ........................................................................ 191
V.6.3.e Displaying link budget at a receiver ............................................................................................... 191
V.6.3.f Using a site as a target for point analysis ...................................................................................... 191
V.6.3.g Displaying SPM parameters over a profile analysis....................................................................... 191
V.6.3.h Exporting a point analysis study .................................................................................................... 192
V.6.3.i Printing a point analysis study ....................................................................................................... 192
V.7 CALCULATION TOOLS IN A9155..............................................................................193
V.7.1 A9155 FEATURES FOR COMPUTING................................................................................................................ 193
V.7.2 DISTRIBUTING CALCULATIONS ON SEVERAL PCS............................................................................................... 193
V.7.3 DISPLAYING CALCULATION EVENTS IN A LOG WINDOW ....................................................................................... 194
V.7.4 EXPORTING CALCULATION EVENTS IN A LOG FILE .............................................................................................. 194
VI GSM/GPRS/EDGE/TDMA PROJECT MANAGEMENT ......................197
VI.1 GSM/GPRS/EDGE PROJECTS : OVERVIEW...........................................................197
VI.2 GSM/GPRS/EDGE PROJECTS PROTOCOL.............................................................198
VI.3 DEFINING GSM/GPRS/EDGE RESOURCES............................................................199
VI.3.1 DEFINING GSM/GPRS/EDGE RESOURCES : OVERVIEW................................................................................. 199
VI.3.2 FREQUENCIES .............................................................................................................................................. 199
VI.3.2.a Frequencies : Overview................................................................................................................. 199
VI.3.2.b Managing frequency bands............................................................................................................ 199
VI.3.2.c Managing frequency domains and groups..................................................................................... 200
VI.3.3 HSNS ......................................................................................................................................................... 201
VI.3.3.a HSNs : Overview............................................................................................................................ 201
VI.3.3.b Managing HSN domains and groups ............................................................................................. 201
VI.3.4 BSICS ........................................................................................................................................................ 202
VI.3.4.a BSICs : Overview........................................................................................................................... 202
VI.3.4.b Defining BSIC format ..................................................................................................................... 202
VI.3.4.c Managing BSIC domains and groups ............................................................................................ 203
VI.4 MANAGING GSM/GPRS/EDGE RADIO DATA..........................................................203
VI.4.1 MANAGING GSM/GPRS/EDGE RADIO DATA : OVERVIEW ............................................................................... 203
VI.4.2 HCS LAYERS ............................................................................................................................................... 204
VI.4.2.a Hierarchical cells : Overview.......................................................................................................... 204
VI.4.2.b Managing HCS layers.................................................................................................................... 204
VI.4.2.c Assigning HCS layers to transmitters............................................................................................. 204
VI.4.3 TIMESLOT CONFIGURATIONS .......................................................................................................................... 205
VI.4.3.a Timeslot configurations : Overview................................................................................................ 205
VI.4.3.b Managing timeslot configurations................................................................................................... 205
VI.4.4 CELL TYPES ................................................................................................................................................. 205
VI.4.4.a Cell types : Overview..................................................................................................................... 205
VI.4.4.b TRX types : definition..................................................................................................................... 205
VI.4.4.c Managing cell types ....................................................................................................................... 206
VI.4.4.d Cell type parameters...................................................................................................................... 206
VI.4.4.e Examples of cell types ................................................................................................................... 208
VI.4.4.f Assigning cell types to transmitters................................................................................................ 210
VI.4.5 SUBCELLS.................................................................................................................................................... 210
VI.4.5.a Managing subcells in transmitters.................................................................................................. 210
VI.4.5.b Displaying the subcell list............................................................................................................... 211
VI.4.5.c Subcell property details.................................................................................................................. 211
VI.4.6 GPRS/EDGE EQUIPMENT ........................................................................................................................... 214
VI.4.6.a Creating a GPRS/EDGE equipment .............................................................................................. 214
VI.4.6.b Managing GPRS/EDGE equipment properties .............................................................................. 214
VI.4.6.c Setting coding schemes parameters.............................................................................................. 214
VI.4.6.d Displaying rate graphs ................................................................................................................... 215
VI.4.6.e Setting GPRS/EDGE transmitters.................................................................................................. 215
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VI.5 GSM/GPRS/EDGE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT...........................................................216
VI.5.1 GSM/GPRS/EDGE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT : OVERVIEW................................................................................. 216
VI.5.2 GSM/GPRS/EDGE MULTI-SERVICE TRAFFIC DATA......................................................................................... 216
VI.5.2.a GSM/GPRS/EDGE services .......................................................................................................... 216
VI.5.2.a.i Creating GSM/GPRS/EDGE services ......................................................................................................... 216
VI.5.2.a.ii Setting GSM/GPRS/EDGE service parameters........................................................................................... 217
VI.5.2.a.iii Managing globally GSM/GPRS/EDGE services .......................................................................................... 217
VI.5.2.b GSM/GPRS/EDGE mobility types.................................................................................................. 218
VI.5.2.b.i Creating a GSM/GPRS/EDGE mobility type................................................................................................ 218
VI.5.2.b.ii Setting a GSM/GPRS/EDGE mobility type.................................................................................................. 218
VI.5.2.b.iii Managing globally GSM/GPRS/EDGE mobility types.................................................................................. 219
VI.5.2.c GSM/GPRS/EDGE terminals......................................................................................................... 219
VI.5.2.c.i Creating a GSM/GPRS/EDGE terminal....................................................................................................... 219
VI.5.2.c.ii Setting GSM/GPRS/EDGE terminal parameters ......................................................................................... 220
VI.5.2.c.iii Managing globally GSM/GPRS/EDGE terminals......................................................................................... 220
VI.5.2.d GSM/GPRS/EDGE user profiles.................................................................................................... 220
VI.5.2.d.i Creating a GSM/GPRS/EDGE user profile.................................................................................................. 220
VI.5.2.d.ii Adjusting GSM/GPRS/EDGE user profile properties................................................................................... 221
VI.5.2.d.iii Managing globally GSM/GPRS/EDGE user profiles.................................................................................... 221
VI.5.2.e GSM/GPRS/EDGE environments.................................................................................................. 222
VI.5.2.e.i Creating a type of GSM/GPRS/EDGE environment .................................................................................... 222
VI.5.2.e.ii Setting GSM/GPRS/EDGE environment parameters .................................................................................. 222
VI.5.2.e.iii Managing globally GSM/GPRS/EDGE environment types .......................................................................... 223
VI.5.2.e.iv Subscriber clutter weighting in GSM/GPRS/EDGE environments................................................................ 223
VI.5.3 GSM/GPRS/EDGE MULTI-SERVICE TRAFFIC CARTOGRAPHY........................................................................... 223
VI.5.3.a GSM/GPRS/EDGE multi-service traffic cartography : Overview.................................................... 223
VI.5.3.b GSM/GPRS/EDGE environment traffic maps ................................................................................ 224
VI.5.3.b.i Creating a GSM/GPRS/EDGE environment traffic map............................................................................... 224
VI.5.3.b.ii Importing a GSM/GPRS/EDGE environment traffic map ............................................................................. 224
VI.5.3.b.iii Managing GSM/GPRS/EDGE environment traffic maps.............................................................................. 224
VI.5.3.b.iv Exporting a GSM/GPRS/EDGE environment traffic map............................................................................. 225
VI.5.3.b.v Displaying statistics on GSM/GPRS/EDGE environment traffic maps.......................................................... 226
VI.5.3.c GSM/GPRS/EDGE user profile traffic maps .................................................................................. 226
VI.5.3.c.i Creating a GSM/GPRS/EDGE user profile traffic map................................................................................. 226
VI.5.3.c.ii Importing a GSM/GPRS/EDGE user profile traffic map............................................................................... 226
VI.5.3.c.iii Managing GSM/GPRS/EDGE user profile traffic maps................................................................................ 227
VI.5.3.c.iv Examples of GSM/GPRS/EDGE user profile traffic data ............................................................................. 228
VI.5.3.c.v Exporting a GSM/GPRS/EDGE user profile traffic map............................................................................... 229
VI.5.3.d GSM/GPRS/EDGE live traffic maps............................................................................................... 229
VI.5.3.d.i Creating a GSM/GPRS/EDGE live traffic map............................................................................................. 229
VI.5.3.d.ii Importing a GSM/GPRS/EDGE live traffic map ........................................................................................... 230
VI.5.3.d.iii Managing GSM/GPRS/EDGE live traffic maps............................................................................................ 230
VI.5.3.d.iv Exporting a GSM/GPRS/EDGE live traffic map........................................................................................... 231
VI.5.3.e GSM/GPRS/EDGE user density traffic maps................................................................................. 231
VI.5.3.e.i Creating a GSM/GPRS/EDGE user density traffic map............................................................................... 231
VI.5.3.e.ii Importing a GSM/GPRS/EDGE user density traffic map.............................................................................. 232
VI.5.3.e.iii Managing GSM/GPRS/EDGE user density traffic maps.............................................................................. 232
VI.5.3.e.iv Exporting a GSM/GPRS/EDGE user density traffic map ............................................................................. 233
VI.5.3.f GSM/GPRS/EDGE cumulated traffic ............................................................................................. 233
VI.5.3.f.i Displaying the GSM/GPRS/EDGE cumulated traffic.................................................................................... 233
VI.5.3.f.ii Exporting the GSM/GPRS/EDGE cumulated traffic..................................................................................... 233
VI.5.4 GSM/GPRS/EDGE TRAFFIC ANALYSIS ......................................................................................................... 234
VI.5.4.a GSM/GPRS/EDGE traffic analysis : Overview............................................................................... 234
VI.5.4.b Creating a GSM/GPRS/EDGE traffic capture ................................................................................ 234
VI.5.4.c GSM/GPRS/EDGE traffic capture outputs..................................................................................... 235
VI.5.4.d Using a GSM/GPRS/EDGE traffic analysis.................................................................................... 235
VI.6 GSM/GPRS/EDGE NETWORK DIMENSIONING........................................................235
VI.6.1 SETTING GSM/GPRS/EDGE DIMENSIONING MODELS..................................................................................... 235
VI.6.2 DIMENSIONING GSM/GPRS/EDGE TRANSMITTERS........................................................................................ 236
VI.6.3 COMMITING DIMENSIONING OUTPUTS IN GSM/GPRS/EDGE............................................................................ 237
VI.7 GSM/GPRS/EDGE RESOURCES ALLOCATION.......................................................238
VI.7.1 GSM/GPRS/EDGE RESOURCES ALLOCATION : OVERVIEW ............................................................................ 238
VI.7.2 GSM/GPRS/EDGE NEIGHBOURS................................................................................................................. 239
VI.7.2.a Allocating GSM/GPRS/EDGE transmitter neighbours manually.................................................... 239
VI.7.2.b Allocating GSM/GPRS/EDGE transmitter neighbours automatically ............................................. 239
VI.7.2.c Displaying current GSM/GPRS/EDGE neighbour list..................................................................... 241
VI.7.2.d Deleting allocated GSM/GPRS/EDGE neighbours ........................................................................ 241
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VI.7.2.e Displaying GSM/GPRS/EDGE neighbours on the map ................................................................. 241
VI.7.3 ALLOCATING GSM/GPRS/EGPRS RESOURCES MANUALLY IN A9155.............................................................. 242
VI.7.3.a Assigning BSIC domains to transmitters........................................................................................ 242
VI.7.3.b Assigning manually BSICs to transmitters ..................................................................................... 242
VI.7.3.c Allocating manually a BCCH to transmitters .................................................................................. 243
VI.7.3.d Creating TRXs in transmitters........................................................................................................ 243
VI.7.3.e Managing TRXs in transmitters...................................................................................................... 243
VI.7.3.f Displaying the TRX list................................................................................................................... 244
VI.7.3.g TRX property details ...................................................................................................................... 244
VI.7.4 USING AN AFP TO ALLOCATE RESOURCES IN A9155........................................................................................ 245
VI.7.4.a Adjusting AFP parameters from the data model ............................................................................ 245
VI.7.4.b Defining exceptional separations for frequency allocation............................................................. 245
VI.7.4.c Using the generic AFP interface .................................................................................................... 246
VI.7.4.d AFP Step 1 : generic inputs ........................................................................................................... 247
VI.7.4.e AFP Step 2 : loading and checking the network ............................................................................ 248
VI.7.4.f AFP Step 3 : generic AFP settings................................................................................................. 248
VI.7.4.g AFP Step 4 : generic outputs......................................................................................................... 250
VI.7.5 FREQUENCY PLAN ANALYSIS .......................................................................................................................... 251
VI.7.5.a Checking the frequency plan consistency...................................................................................... 251
VI.7.5.b Checking consistency between transmitters and subcells ............................................................. 252
VI.7.5.c Using the channel search tool in GSM/GPRS/EDGE..................................................................... 253
VI.7.5.d Computing KPIs in GSM/GPRS/EDGE.......................................................................................... 253
VI.8 SPECIFIC GSM/GPRS/EDGE PREDICTION STUDIES................................................254
VI.8.1 SETTING SPECIFIC COVERAGE CONDITIONS IN GSM/GPRS/EDGE STUDIES...................................................... 254
VI.8.2 STUDYING INTERFERED ZONE PREDICTIONS..................................................................................................... 256
VI.8.3 COMPUTING A COVERAGE STUDY BY C/I LEVEL ................................................................................................ 257
VI.8.4 STUDYING INTERFERENCES WITH THE POINT ANALYSIS...................................................................................... 257
VI.8.5 CREATING A COVERAGE BY GPRS/EDGE CODING SCHEMES ........................................................................... 259
VI.8.6 COMPUTING A COVERAGE BY GPRS/EDGE RATE PER TIMESLOT...................................................................... 259
VII WCDMA/UMTS PROJECT MANAGEMENT.......................................263
VII.1 UMTS PROJECTS : OVERVIEW...............................................................................263
VII.2 UMTS SPECIFIC CONCEPTS ...................................................................................263
VII.3 UMTS PROJECTS PROTOCOL.................................................................................264
VII.4 MANAGING UMTS RADIO DATA..............................................................................264
VII.4.1 MANAGING UMTS RADIO DATA : OVERVIEW.................................................................................................... 264
VII.4.2 UMTS SITE EQUIPMENT................................................................................................................................ 264
VII.4.2.a Creating UMTS site equipment ...................................................................................................... 264
VII.4.2.b Managing UMTS site equipment.................................................................................................... 265
VII.4.2.c Managing channel element consumption per UMTS site equipment ............................................. 265
VII.4.2.d Assigning UMTS site equipment to sites........................................................................................ 266
VII.4.3 TRANSMITTER UMTS SPECIFIC PARAMETERS.................................................................................................. 266
VII.4.3.a Defining the transmitter UMTS global parameters ......................................................................... 266
VII.4.4 UMTS CELLS .............................................................................................................................................. 267
VII.4.4.a UMTS Cells : definition .................................................................................................................. 267
VII.4.4.b Creating a UMTS Cell .................................................................................................................... 267
VII.4.4.c Managing UMTS Cell properties.................................................................................................... 267
VII.4.4.d Power parameters in UMTS........................................................................................................... 268
VII.4.4.e Active set parameters in UMTS ..................................................................................................... 268
VII.5 WCDMA/UMTS TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT ................................................................268
VII.5.1 WCDMA/UMTS TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT : OVERVIEW...................................................................................... 268
VII.5.2 WCDMA/UMTS MULTI-SERVICE TRAFFIC DATA .............................................................................................. 269
VII.5.2.a UMTS services............................................................................................................................... 269
VII.5.2.a.i Creating UMTS services ............................................................................................................................. 269
VII.5.2.a.ii Setting UMTS service parameters............................................................................................................... 270
VII.5.2.a.iii Managing globally UMTS services .............................................................................................................. 270
VII.5.2.b UMTS mobility types...................................................................................................................... 271
VII.5.2.b.i Creating a UMTS mobility type.................................................................................................................... 271
VII.5.2.b.ii UMTS active set conditions......................................................................................................................... 271
VII.5.2.b.iii Setting a UMTS mobility type...................................................................................................................... 271
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VII.5.2.b.iv Managing globally UMTS mobility types...................................................................................................... 271
VII.5.2.c UMTS terminal equipment ............................................................................................................. 272
VII.5.2.c.i Creating a UMTS terminal........................................................................................................................... 272
VII.5.2.c.ii Setting UMTS terminal parameters ............................................................................................................. 272
VII.5.2.c.iii Managing globally UMTS terminals............................................................................................................. 273
VII.5.2.d UMTS user profiles ........................................................................................................................ 273
VII.5.2.d.i Creating a UMTS user profile...................................................................................................................... 273
VII.5.2.d.ii Adjusting UMTS user profile properties....................................................................................................... 274
VII.5.2.d.iii Managing globally UMTS user profiles........................................................................................................ 274
VII.5.2.e UMTS environments ...................................................................................................................... 275
VII.5.2.e.i Creating a type of UMTS environment ........................................................................................................ 275
VII.5.2.e.ii Setting UMTS environment parameters ...................................................................................................... 275
VII.5.2.e.iii Managing globally UMTS environment types .............................................................................................. 276
VII.5.2.e.iv Displaying statistics per UMTS environment type........................................................................................ 276
VII.5.2.e.v Subscriber clutter weighting in UMTS environment ..................................................................................... 277
VII.5.3 WCDMA/UMTS MULTI-SERVICE TRAFFIC CARTOGRAPHY ................................................................................ 277
VII.5.3.a WCDMA/UMTS multi-service traffic cartography : Overview......................................................... 277
VII.5.3.b WCDMA/UMTS environment traffic maps...................................................................................... 277
VII.5.3.b.i Creating a UMTS environment traffic map .................................................................................................. 277
VII.5.3.b.ii Importing a UMTS environment traffic map................................................................................................. 278
VII.5.3.b.iii Managing UMTS environment traffic maps ................................................................................................. 278
VII.5.3.b.iv Exporting a UMTS environment traffic map................................................................................................. 279
VII.5.3.b.v Displaying statistics on UMTS environment traffic maps ............................................................................. 279
VII.5.3.c WCDMA/UMTS user profile traffic maps........................................................................................ 280
VII.5.3.c.i Creating a UMTS user profile traffic map .................................................................................................... 280
VII.5.3.c.ii Importing a UMTS user profile traffic map................................................................................................... 280
VII.5.3.c.iii Managing UMTS user profile traffic maps ................................................................................................... 281
VII.5.3.c.iv Examples of UMTS user profile traffic data ................................................................................................. 281
VII.5.3.c.v Exporting a UMTS user profile traffic map................................................................................................... 282
VII.5.3.d WCDMA/UMTS live traffic maps.................................................................................................... 282
VII.5.3.d.i Creating a UMTS live traffic map................................................................................................................. 282
VII.5.3.d.ii Importing a UMTS live traffic map............................................................................................................... 283
VII.5.3.d.iii Managing UMTS live traffic maps................................................................................................................ 284
VII.5.3.d.iv Exporting a UMTS live traffic map............................................................................................................... 284
VII.6 UMTS SIMULATIONS .............................................................................................284
VII.6.1 UMTS SIMULATIONS : OVERVIEW .................................................................................................................. 284
VII.6.2 MANAGING UMTS SIMULATIONS.................................................................................................................... 285
VII.6.2.a Creating UMTS power control simulations..................................................................................... 285
VII.6.2.b Managing UMTS simulation properties.......................................................................................... 285
VII.6.2.c UMTS power control simulation inputs........................................................................................... 286
VII.6.2.d Replaying a UMTS simulation........................................................................................................ 287
VII.6.2.e Generator initialisation - Replay differences (UMTS) ..................................................................... 288
VII.6.2.f Averaging UMTS simulations......................................................................................................... 288
VII.6.2.g Adding a simulation to an existing group of UMTS simulations ..................................................... 288
VII.6.3 UMTS SIMULATION PROCESS........................................................................................................................ 288
VII.6.3.a Power control UMTS simulation concepts ..................................................................................... 288
VII.6.3.b UMTS simulation convergence method ......................................................................................... 290
VII.6.3.c Admission control in UMTS simulations......................................................................................... 291
VII.6.3.d Channel element management in UMTS simulations .................................................................... 291
VII.6.3.e OVSF codes management............................................................................................................. 291
VII.6.3.f OVSF codes availability................................................................................................................. 292
VII.6.3.g Modelling shadowing in UMTS simulations.................................................................................... 292
VII.6.4 UMTS SIMULATION RESULTS SUMMARY.......................................................................................................... 294
VII.6.4.a Displaying UMTS simulation requirements and results.................................................................. 294
VII.6.4.b Displaying input parameters of an existing UMTS simulation ........................................................ 294
VII.6.4.c Summarising results per site (UMTS projects)............................................................................... 295
VII.6.4.d Summarising results per cell (UMTS projects)............................................................................... 296
VII.6.4.e Committing simulated loads to cells (UMTS projects).................................................................... 296
VII.6.4.f Summarising results per mobile (UMTS projects).......................................................................... 297
VII.6.4.g Displaying shadowing values of a UMTS simulation...................................................................... 298
VII.6.4.h Managing UMTS simulation results on the map ............................................................................ 298
VII.6.5 UMTS SIMULATION OUTPUTS ........................................................................................................................ 299
VII.6.5.a UMTS Simulation outputs on sites................................................................................................. 299
VII.6.5.b UMTS Simulation outputs on cells ................................................................................................. 300
VII.6.5.c UMTS Average simulation outputs on cells ................................................................................... 300
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VII.6.5.d UMTS Standard deviation of simulation outputs on cells............................................................... 300
VII.6.5.e UMTS Simulation outputs on cell components .............................................................................. 300
VII.6.5.f UMTS Simulation outputs on mobiles............................................................................................ 301
VII.6.5.g UMTS Simulation outputs on mobile components ......................................................................... 301
VII.7 SPECIFIC WCDMA/UMTS PREDICTION STUDIES.....................................................302
VII.7.1 UMTS PREDICTION STUDIES : OVERVIEW ....................................................................................................... 302
VII.7.2 UMTS PREDICTION PROCESS........................................................................................................................ 303
VII.7.2.a Predicting on given UMTS carriers ................................................................................................ 303
VII.7.2.b Modelling shadowing in UMTS predictions .................................................................................... 303
VII.7.3 MANAGING UMTS PREDICTIONS.................................................................................................................... 304
VII.7.3.a Creating predictions from modified UMTS simulations .................................................................. 304
VII.7.3.b Managing UMTS prediction display ............................................................................................... 304
VII.7.4 UMTS PREDICTION STUDIES.......................................................................................................................... 305
VII.7.4.a Analysing pilot reception (UMTS)................................................................................................... 305
VII.7.4.b Studying service area (Eb/Nt) downlink (UMTS)............................................................................ 306
VII.7.4.c Studying service area (Eb/Nt) uplink (UMTS) ................................................................................ 307
VII.7.4.d Studying effective service area (UMTS)......................................................................................... 308
VII.7.4.e Defining handoff status (UMTS)..................................................................................................... 309
VII.7.4.f Studying downlink total noise (UMTS) ........................................................................................... 310
VII.7.4.g Calculating pilot pollution (UMTS).................................................................................................. 311
VII.7.4.h Analysing a scenario at a point in UMTS projects.......................................................................... 312
VII.8 WCDMA/UMTS RESOURCES ALLOCATION............................................................313
VII.8.1 WCDMA/UMTS RESOURCES ALLOCATION : OVERVIEW.................................................................................. 313
VII.8.2 UMTS NEIGHBOURS..................................................................................................................................... 314
VII.8.2.a Allocating UMTS cell neighbours manually.................................................................................... 314
VII.8.2.b Allocating UMTS cell neighbours automatically ............................................................................. 314
VII.8.2.c Displaying current UMTS neighbour list......................................................................................... 315
VII.8.2.d Deleting allocated UMTS neighbours............................................................................................. 315
VII.8.2.e Displaying UMTS neighbours on the map...................................................................................... 316
VII.8.3 SCRAMBLING CODES ..................................................................................................................................... 316
VII.8.3.a Scrambling codes : Overview ........................................................................................................ 316
VII.8.3.b Creating scrambling code domains and groups............................................................................. 317
VII.8.3.c Assigning a scrambling code domain to a cell ............................................................................... 317
VII.8.3.d Allocating scrambling codes to UMTS cells manually.................................................................... 317
VII.8.3.e Defining exceptional pairs for scrambling code allocation.............................................................. 318
VII.8.3.f Allocating scrambling codes to UMTS cells automatically ............................................................. 318
VII.8.3.g Scrambling code allocation process............................................................................................... 319
VII.8.3.h Checking the consistency of the scrambling code assignments .................................................... 320
VIII CDMA/CDMA2000 PROJECT MANAGEMENT..................................323
VIII.1 CDMA/CDMA2000 PROJECTS : OVERVIEW...........................................................323
VIII.2 CDMA/CDMA2000 SPECIFIC CONCEPTS...............................................................323
VIII.3 CDMA/CDMA2000 PROJECTS PROTOCOL.............................................................324
VIII.4 MANAGING CDMA/CDMA2000 RADIO DATA..........................................................324
VIII.4.1 MANAGING CDMA/CDMA2000 RADIO DATA : OVERVIEW............................................................................ 324
VIII.4.2 CDMA/CDMA2000 SITE EQUIPMENT ........................................................................................................ 325
VIII.4.2.a Creating CDMA/CDMA2000 site equipment .................................................................................. 325
VIII.4.2.b Managing CDMA/CDMA2000 site equipment................................................................................ 325
VIII.4.2.c Managing channel element consumption per CDMA/CDMA2000 site equipment ......................... 326
VIII.4.2.d Assigning CDMA/CDMA2000 site equipment to sites.................................................................... 326
VIII.4.3 TRANSMITTER CDMA/CDMA2000 SPECIFIC PARAMETERS .......................................................................... 326
VIII.4.3.a Setting the transmitter CDMA/CDMA2000 global parameters ....................................................... 326
VIII.4.4 CDMA/CDMA2000 CELLS....................................................................................................................... 327
VIII.4.4.a CDMA/CDMA2000 Cells : definition............................................................................................... 327
VIII.4.4.b Creating a CDMA/CDMA2000 Cell ................................................................................................ 327
VIII.4.4.c Managing CDMA/CDMA2000 Cell properties................................................................................ 327
VIII.4.4.d Power parameters in CDMA/CDMA2000....................................................................................... 328
VIII.4.4.e Active set parameters in CDMA/CDMA2000 ................................................................................. 328
VIII.5 CDMA/CDMA2000 TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT ...........................................................328
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VIII.5.1 CDMA/CDMA2000 TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT : OVERVIEW ............................................................................. 328
VIII.5.2 CDMA/CDMA2000 MULTI-SERVICE TRAFFIC DATA...................................................................................... 329
VIII.5.2.a CDMA/CDMA2000 Services.......................................................................................................... 329
VIII.5.2.a.i Creating CDMA/CDMA2000 Services ......................................................................................................... 329
VIII.5.2.a.ii Data service creation CDMA/CDMA2000.................................................................................................... 330
VIII.5.2.a.iii Setting CDMA/CDMA2000 services parameters ......................................................................................... 330
VIII.5.2.a.iv Managing globally CDMA/CDMA2000 services........................................................................................... 330
VIII.5.2.b CDMA/CDMA2000 Radio Configurations ...................................................................................... 331
VIII.5.2.b.i Creating a CDMA/CDMA2000 Radio Configuration..................................................................................... 331
VIII.5.2.b.ii CDMA/CDMA2000 active set conditions ..................................................................................................... 331
VIII.5.2.b.iii Setting a CDMA/CDMA2000 Radio Configuration....................................................................................... 332
VIII.5.2.b.iv Managing globally CDMA/CDMA2000 Radio Configurations....................................................................... 332
VIII.5.2.c CDMA/CDMA2000 user profiles .................................................................................................... 333
VIII.5.2.c.i Creating a CDMA/CDMA2000 user profile .................................................................................................. 333
VIII.5.2.c.ii Adjusting CDMA/CDMA2000 user profile properties ................................................................................... 333
VIII.5.2.c.iii Managing globally CDMA/CDMA2000 user profiles .................................................................................... 334
VIII.5.2.d CDMA/CDMA2000 environments .................................................................................................. 334
VIII.5.2.d.i Creating a type of CDMA/CDMA2000 environment..................................................................................... 334
VIII.5.2.d.ii Setting CDMA/CDMA2000 environment parameters................................................................................... 335
VIII.5.2.d.iii Managing globally CDMA/CDMA2000 environment types........................................................................... 335
VIII.5.2.d.iv Displaying statistics per CDMA/CDMA2000 environment type .................................................................... 336
VIII.5.2.d.v Subscriber clutter weighting in CDMA/CDMA2000 environment.................................................................. 336
VIII.5.3 CDMA/CDMA2000 MULTI-SERVICE TRAFFIC CARTOGRAPHY........................................................................ 336
VIII.5.3.a CDMA/CDMA2000 multi-service traffic cartography : Overview.................................................... 336
VIII.5.3.b CDMA/CDMA2000 environment traffic maps................................................................................. 337
VIII.5.3.b.i Creating a CDMA/CDMA2000 environment traffic map............................................................................... 337
VIII.5.3.b.ii Importing a CDMA/CDMA2000 environment traffic map.............................................................................. 337
VIII.5.3.b.iii Managing CDMA/CDMA2000 environment traffic maps.............................................................................. 337
VIII.5.3.b.iv Exporting a CDMA/CDMA2000 environment traffic map ............................................................................. 338
VIII.5.3.b.v Displaying statistics on CDMA/CDMA2000 environment traffic maps.......................................................... 339
VIII.5.3.c CDMA/CDMA2000 user profile traffic maps................................................................................... 339
VIII.5.3.c.i Creating a CDMA/CDMA2000 user profile traffic map................................................................................. 339
VIII.5.3.c.ii Importing a CDMA/CDMA2000 user profile traffic map................................................................................ 339
VIII.5.3.c.iii Managing CDMA/CDMA2000 user profile traffic maps................................................................................ 340
VIII.5.3.c.iv Examples of CDMA/CDMA2000 user profile traffic data.............................................................................. 341
VIII.5.3.c.v Exporting a CDMA/CDMA2000 user profile traffic map ............................................................................... 341
VIII.5.3.d CDMA/CDMA2000 live traffic maps............................................................................................... 342
VIII.5.3.d.i Creating a CDMA/CDMA2000 live traffic map............................................................................................. 342
VIII.5.3.d.ii Importing a CDMA/CDMA2000 live traffic map............................................................................................ 342
VIII.5.3.d.iii Managing CDMA/CDMA2000 live traffic maps............................................................................................ 343
VIII.5.3.d.iv Exporting a CDMA/CDMA2000 live traffic map ........................................................................................... 343
VIII.6 CDMA/CDMA2000 SIMULATIONS .........................................................................344
VIII.6.1 CDMA/CDMA2000 SIMULATIONS : OVERVIEW........................................................................................... 344
VIII.6.2 MANAGING CDMA/CDMA2000 SIMULATIONS ............................................................................................ 344
VIII.6.2.a Creating CDMA/CDMA2000 power control simulations................................................................. 344
VIII.6.2.b Managing CDMA/CDMA2000 simulation properties ...................................................................... 345
VIII.6.2.c CDMA/CDMA2000 power control simulation inputs....................................................................... 345
VIII.6.2.d Replaying a CDMA/CDMA2000 simulation.................................................................................... 347
VIII.6.2.e Generator initialisation - Replay differences (CDMA/CDMA2000) ................................................. 347
VIII.6.2.f Averaging CDMA/CDMA2000 simulations..................................................................................... 347
VIII.6.2.g Adding a simulation to an existing group of CDMA/CDMA2000 simulations.................................. 348
VIII.6.3 CDMA/CDMA2000 SIMULATION PROCESS................................................................................................. 348
VIII.6.3.a Power control CDMA/CDMA2000 simulation concepts.................................................................. 348
VIII.6.3.b CDMA/CDMA2000 simulation convergence method ..................................................................... 350
VIII.6.3.c Admission control in CDMA/CDMA2000 simulations..................................................................... 350
VIII.6.3.d Channel element management in CDMA/CDMA2000 simulations ................................................ 351
VIII.6.3.e Walsh codes management ............................................................................................................ 351
VIII.6.3.f Walsh codes availability................................................................................................................. 352
VIII.6.3.g Modelling shadowing in CDMA/CDMA2000 simulations................................................................ 352
VIII.6.4 CDMA/CDMA2000 SIMULATION RESULTS SUMMARY................................................................................... 354
VIII.6.4.a Displaying CDMA/CDMA2000 simulation requirements and results.............................................. 354
VIII.6.4.b Displaying input parameters of an existing CDMA/CDMA2000 simulation .................................... 354
VIII.6.4.c Summarising results per site (CDMA/CDMA2000 projects)........................................................... 355
VIII.6.4.d Summarising results per cell (CDMA/CDMA2000 projects) ........................................................... 355
VIII.6.4.e Committing simulated loads to cells (CDMA/CDMA2000 projects)................................................ 356
VIII.6.4.f Summarising results per mobile (CDMA/CDMA2000 projects)...................................................... 357
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VIII.6.4.g Displaying shadowing values of a CDMA/CDMA2000 simulation.................................................. 357
VIII.6.4.h Managing CDMA/CDMA2000 simulation results on the map......................................................... 358
VIII.6.5 CDMA/CDMA2000 SIMULATION OUTPUTS................................................................................................. 359
VIII.6.5.a CDMA/CDMA2000 Simulation outputs on sites ............................................................................. 359
VIII.6.5.b CDMA/CDMA2000 Simulation outputs on cells ............................................................................. 359
VIII.6.5.c CDMA/CDMA2000 Average simulation outputs on cells................................................................ 360
VIII.6.5.d CDMA/CDMA2000 Standard deviation of simulation outputs on cells ........................................... 360
VIII.6.5.e CDMA/CDMA2000 Simulation outputs on cell components........................................................... 360
VIII.6.5.f CDMA/CDMA2000 Simulation outputs on mobiles ........................................................................ 361
VIII.6.5.g CDMA/CDMA2000 Simulation outputs on mobile components ..................................................... 361
VIII.7 SPECIFIC CDMA/CDMA2000 PREDICTION STUDIES................................................362
VIII.7.1 CDMA/CDMA2000 PREDICTION STUDIES : OVERVIEW................................................................................ 362
VIII.7.2 CDMA/CDMA2000 PREDICTION PROCESS................................................................................................. 363
VIII.7.2.a Predicting on given CDMA/CDMA2000 carriers ............................................................................ 363
VIII.7.2.b Modelling shadowing in CDMA/CDMA2000 predictions ................................................................ 363
VIII.7.3 MANAGING CDMA/CDMA2000 PREDICTIONS............................................................................................. 364
VIII.7.3.a Creating predictions from modified CDMA/CDMA2000 simulations............................................... 364
VIII.7.3.b Managing CDMA/CDMA2000 prediction display ........................................................................... 364
VIII.7.4 CDMA/CDMA2000 PREDICTION STUDIES .................................................................................................. 365
VIII.7.4.a Analysing pilot reception (CDMA/CDMA2000)............................................................................... 365
VIII.7.4.b Studying service area (Eb/Nt) downlink (CDMA/CDMA2000)........................................................ 366
VIII.7.4.c Studying service area (Eb/Nt) uplink (CDMA/CDMA2000) ............................................................ 367
VIII.7.4.d Studying effective service area (CDMA/CDMA2000)..................................................................... 368
VIII.7.4.e Defining handoff status (CDMA/CDMA2000)................................................................................. 369
VIII.7.4.f Studying downlink total noise (CDMA/CDMA2000) ....................................................................... 370
VIII.7.4.g Calculating pilot pollution (CDMA/CDMA2000).............................................................................. 371
VIII.7.4.h Analysing a scenario at a point in CDMA/CDMA2000 projects...................................................... 372
VIII.8 SPECIFIC 1XEV-DO FEATURES ..............................................................................374
VIII.8.1 DEFINING A (EB/NT <-> MAX RATE) LOOK-UP TABLE..................................................................................... 374
VIII.8.2 CREATING 1XEV-DO SPECIFIC PREDICTIONS............................................................................................... 375
VIII.9 CDMA/CDMA2000 RESOURCES ALLOCATION.......................................................376
VIII.9.1 CDMA/CDMA2000 RESOURCES ALLOCATION : OVERVIEW......................................................................... 376
VIII.9.2 CDMA/CDMA2000 NEIGHBOURS ............................................................................................................. 376
VIII.9.2.a Allocating CDMA/CDMA2000 cell neighbours manually................................................................ 376
VIII.9.2.b Allocating CDMA/CDMA2000 cell neighbours automatically ......................................................... 377
VIII.9.2.c Displaying current CDMA/CDMA2000 neighbour list ..................................................................... 378
VIII.9.2.d Deleting allocated CDMA/CDMA2000 neighbours......................................................................... 378
VIII.9.2.e Displaying CDMA/CDMA2000 neighbours on the map.................................................................. 378
VIII.9.3 PN OFFSETS............................................................................................................................................ 379
VIII.9.3.a PN Offsets : Overview.................................................................................................................... 379
VIII.9.3.b Creating PN Offsets domains and groups...................................................................................... 379
VIII.9.3.c Assigning a PN Offset domain to a cell .......................................................................................... 380
VIII.9.3.d Allocating PN offsets to CDMA/CDMA2000 cells manually ........................................................... 380
VIII.9.3.e Defining exceptional pairs for PN Offset allocation........................................................................ 380
VIII.9.3.f Allocating PN Offsets to CDMA/CDMA2000 cells automatically.................................................... 381
VIII.9.3.g PN Offset allocation process.......................................................................................................... 382
VIII.9.3.h Checking the consistency of the PN Offset assignments............................................................... 382
IX MANAGING MEASUREMENTS .........................................................387
IX.1 MANAGING MEASUREMENTS : OVERVIEW................................................................387
IX.2 CW MEASUREMENT DATA PATHS............................................................................387
IX.2.1 CREATION OF A CW MEASUREMENT PATH....................................................................................................... 387
IX.2.1.a Creating a CW measurement session ........................................................................................... 387
IX.2.1.b Pasting a CW measurement path.................................................................................................. 388
IX.2.1.c Drawing a CW measurement path................................................................................................. 388
IX.2.1.d Importing a CW measurement path............................................................................................... 389
IX.2.1.e Importing several CW measurement paths.................................................................................... 390
IX.2.1.f Adding predictions on existing CW measurement paths................................................................ 391
IX.2.1.g Creating an import CW measurement configuration...................................................................... 392
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IX.2.1.h Deleting an import CW measurement configuration....................................................................... 392
IX.2.2 MANAGEMENT OF A CW MEASUREMENT PATH ................................................................................................. 393
IX.2.2.a Defining CW measurement path properties................................................................................... 393
IX.2.2.b Opening a CW measurement table................................................................................................ 393
IX.2.2.c Predicting signal levels on a CW measurement path..................................................................... 394
IX.2.2.d Filtering points along CW measurement paths .............................................................................. 394
IX.2.2.e Displaying statistics between CW measurements and predictions ................................................ 395
IX.2.2.f Managing display on a CW measurement path ............................................................................. 395
IX.2.2.g Exporting CW measurement paths ................................................................................................ 396
IX.2.3 USING THE CW MEASUREMENT WINDOW......................................................................................................... 396
IX.2.3.a CW Measurement window : activation........................................................................................... 396
IX.2.3.b Defining the display properties of the CW measurement window.................................................. 397
IX.2.3.c Synchronising display in table/map/CW measurement window..................................................... 397
IX.2.3.d Analysing additional fields along CW measurement paths ............................................................ 397
IX.2.3.e Zooming in the CW measurement window .................................................................................... 398
IX.2.3.f Exporting the CW measurement window....................................................................................... 398
IX.2.3.g Printing the CW measurement window.......................................................................................... 398
IX.2.3.h Combining CW measurement and point analysis windows............................................................ 399
IX.3 TEST MOBILE DATA PATHS......................................................................................399
IX.3.1 CREATION OF A TEST MOBILE DATA PATH......................................................................................................... 399
IX.3.1.a Importing a test mobile data path................................................................................................... 399
IX.3.1.b Importing several test mobile data paths ....................................................................................... 400
IX.3.1.c Creating an import test mobile data path configuration.................................................................. 400
IX.3.1.d Deleting an import test mobile data path configuration.................................................................. 402
IX.3.2 MANAGEMENT OF A TEST MOBILE DATA PATH ................................................................................................... 402
IX.3.2.a Defining test mobile data path properties....................................................................................... 402
IX.3.2.b Opening a test mobile data table ................................................................................................... 403
IX.3.2.c Predicting signal levels on a test mobile data path ........................................................................ 403
IX.3.2.d Filtering points along test mobile data paths.................................................................................. 404
IX.3.2.e Focusing on a specific field along a test mobile data path............................................................. 404
IX.3.2.f Managing display on a test mobile data path................................................................................. 404
IX.3.2.g Exporting test mobile data paths.................................................................................................... 405
IX.3.3 USING THE TEST MOBILE DATA WINDOW........................................................................................................... 406
IX.3.3.a Test mobile data window : activation ............................................................................................. 406
IX.3.3.b Defining the display properties of the test mobile data window...................................................... 406
IX.3.3.c Synchronising display in table/map/Test mobile data window ....................................................... 406
IX.3.3.d Zooming in the test mobile data window........................................................................................ 407
IX.3.3.e Exporting the test mobile data window........................................................................................... 407
IX.3.3.f Printing the test mobile data window.............................................................................................. 407
X CO-PLANNING FEATURES...............................................................411
X.1 CO-PLANNING FEATURES : OVERVIEW....................................................................411
X.2 CO-PLANNING USING A9155..................................................................................411
X.2.1 DISPLAYING EXTERNAL OBJECTS IN A CURRENT A9155 PROJECT....................................................................... 411
X.2.2 ALLOCATING EXTERNAL NEIGHBOURS MANUALLY (CO-PLANNING) ...................................................................... 411
X.2.3 ALLOCATING CDMA NEIGHBOURS TO GSM TRANSMITTERS ............................................................................. 412
X.2.4 ALLOCATING GSM NEIGHBOURS TO CDMA TRANSMITTERS ............................................................................. 413
X.3 CO-PLANNING USING DATABASES...........................................................................414
X.3.1 WORKING IN CO-PLANNING WITH A MS ACCESS DATABASE ............................................................................... 414
X.3.2 WORKING IN CO-PLANNING WITH A SQL SERVER DATABASE.............................................................................. 414
X.3.3 WORKING IN CO-PLANNING WITH AN ORACLE DATABASE ................................................................................... 414
X.3.4 WORKING IN CO-PLANNING WITH A SYBASE DATABASE...................................................................................... 415
XI IMPORT/EXPORT SPECIFIC ALCATEL DATA.................................419
XI.1 IMPORT/EXPORT SPECIFIC ALCATEL DATA : OVERVIEW............................................419
XI.2 MEASUREMENT FILES ............................................................................................419
XI.2.1 IMPORTING ANALOGUE MEASUREMENT FILES.................................................................................................... 419
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XI.2.2 IMPORTING DIGITAL MEASUREMENT FILES ........................................................................................................ 419
XI.3 ANTENNA DATA.....................................................................................................420
XI.3.1 IMPORTING NEW ALCATEL ANTENNAS IN AN EXISTING NETWORK......................................................................... 420
XI.4 CAE DATA............................................................................................................420
XI.4.1 CAE DATA : OVERVIEW................................................................................................................................. 420
XI.4.2 IMPORTING CAE DATA IN AN EXISTING PROJECT .............................................................................................. 421
XI.4.3 EXPORTING CAE DATA FROM THE CURRENT PROJECT...................................................................................... 422
XII IMPORT MSI PLANET DATA...........................................................425
XII.1 IMPORT MSI PLANET DATA : OVERVIEW.............................................................425
XII.2 PLANET GEO DATA FILES ...................................................................................425
XII.2.1 PLANET GEO DATA FORMAT ....................................................................................................................... 425
XII.2.2 IMPORTING MSI PLANET GEOGRAPHIC DATA............................................................................................... 428
XII.2.3 IMPORTING MSI PLANET TEXT DATA FILES .................................................................................................. 428
XII.3 IMPORTING A MSI PLANET DATABASE ................................................................429
XII.3.1 IMPORTING A MSI PLANET ANTENNA DATABASE........................................................................................... 429
XII.3.2 IMPORTING A MSI PLANET NETWORK ......................................................................................................... 429
XII.3.3 IMPORTING A MSI PLANET CARRIER DATABASE ........................................................................................... 430
XII.3.4 IMPORTING A MSI PLANET NEIGHBOUR DATABASE....................................................................................... 430
XII.3.5 IMPORTING MSI PLANET PROPAGATION MODEL PARAMETERS ....................................................................... 431
XII.3.6 IMPORTING MSI PLANET PATH LOSS MATRICES ........................................................................................... 431
XII.4 IMPORTING MSI PLANET CW MEASUREMENT DATA.............................................432
XII.4.1 IMPORTING MSI PLANET CW MEASUREMENT ............................................................................................. 432
XIII MULTI-USER FEATURES ..................................................................435
XIII.1 MULTI-USER PROJECTS : OVERVIEW.......................................................................435
XIII.2 CREATING/STARTING DATABASE PROJECTS ............................................................435
XIII.2.1 OPERATING PRINCIPLES............................................................................................................................. 435
XIII.2.2 CREATING A NEW DATABASE FROM A DOCUMENT .......................................................................................... 436
XIII.2.3 CREATING A NEW DOCUMENT FROM A DATABASE .......................................................................................... 436
XIII.2.4 STARTING A9155 FROM THE COMMAND LINE ............................................................................................... 437
XIII.2.5 EXPORTING USER CONFIGURATION TO AN EXTERNAL FILE .............................................................................. 437
XIII.2.6 IMPORTING USER CONFIGURATION FROM AN EXTERNAL FILE........................................................................... 438
XIII.3 SUPPORTED DATABASES........................................................................................439
XIII.3.1 SUPPORTED DATABASES : OVERVIEW ......................................................................................................... 439
XIII.3.2 EXPORTING A PROJECT IN A MS ACCESS DATABASE..................................................................................... 439
XIII.3.3 EXPORTING A PROJECT IN A MS SQL SERVER DATABASE ............................................................................. 440
XIII.3.4 EXPORTING A PROJECT IN AN ORACLE DATABASE ......................................................................................... 441
XIII.3.5 EXPORTING A PROJECT IN A SYBASE DATABASE............................................................................................ 442
XIII.4 DATA EXCHANGE...................................................................................................443
XIII.4.1 CHECKING DATABASE CONNECTION PROPERTIES .......................................................................................... 443
XIII.4.2 LOADING DATA FROM A DATABASE............................................................................................................... 443
XIII.4.3 ARCHIVING DATA IN A DATABASE ................................................................................................................. 443
XIII.5 DATA CONFLICTS MANAGEMENT .............................................................................444
XIII.5.1 SOLVING A CONFLICT ON A MODIFIED RECORD .............................................................................................. 444
XIII.5.2 SOLVING A CONFLICT ON A DELETED RECORD............................................................................................... 446
XIII.5.3 MANAGEMENT OF MULTI-USERS MATRICES................................................................................................... 446
XIII.5.4 SHARING PATH LOSS MATRICES BETWEEN USERS.......................................................................................... 446
XIII.5.5 COMPUTING PATH LOSS MATRICES ONLY...................................................................................................... 447
XIV MICROWAVE LINKS..........................................................................451
XIV.1 MICROWAVE LINKS : OVERVIEW .............................................................................451
XIV.2 CREATING AND MANAGING A MICROWAVE LINK ........................................................451
XIV.2.1 CREATING A MICROWAVE LINK : OVERVIEW.................................................................................................. 451
XIV.2.2 CREATING A LINK USING THE MOUSE............................................................................................................ 451
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XIV.2.3 CREATING A LINK USING THE WIZARD........................................................................................................... 451
XIV.2.4 LISTING ALL MICROWAVE LINKS OF A NETWORK............................................................................................. 452
XIV.2.5 SETTING MICROWAVE LINK PROPERTIES....................................................................................................... 452
XIV.2.6 MANAGING RADIO EQUIPMENT IN MICROWAVE LINKS...................................................................................... 453
XIV.3 ANALYSIS OF A MICROWAVE LINK............................................................................454
XIV.3.1 PATH PROFILE AND LINK RELIABILITY ANALYSIS ............................................................................................. 454
XIV.3.1.a Adjusting computation parameters in link analysis......................................................................... 454
XIV.3.1.b Displaying profile along a microwave link ...................................................................................... 454
XIV.3.1.c Displaying analysis results on a microwave link ............................................................................ 455
XIV.3.1.d Managing the display of a microwave link profile........................................................................... 455
XIV.3.1.e Editing profile values (microwave links) ......................................................................................... 456
XIV.3.2 INTERFERENCE ANALYSIS........................................................................................................................... 456
XIV.3.2.a Interference analysis in microwave links : definitions..................................................................... 456
XIV.3.2.b Finding interferers of a given receiver (microwave links) ............................................................... 456
XIV.3.2.c Finding receivers interfered by a transmitter (microwave links) ..................................................... 457
XIV.3.2.d Calculating interferences in a global microwave network............................................................... 457
XIV.3.2.e Interference analysis on microwave links....................................................................................... 457
XIV.3.2.f Using IRF in microwave links......................................................................................................... 458
XIV.3.2.g Displaying microwave link budgets ................................................................................................ 459
XIV.4 ITU MAPS .............................................................................................................459
XIV.4.1 ITU VAPOUR DENSITY ON EARTH ................................................................................................................ 459
XIV.4.2 ITU ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION : FEBRUARY .............................................................................................. 460
XIV.4.3 ITU ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION : MAY ....................................................................................................... 460
XIV.4.4 ITU ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION : AUGUST.................................................................................................. 461
XIV.4.5 ITU ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION : NOVEMBER ............................................................................................. 461
XIV.4.6 ITU RAIN ZONES : AMERICA....................................................................................................................... 462
XIV.4.7 ITU RAIN ZONES : EUROPE AND AFRICA...................................................................................................... 463
XIV.4.8 ITU RAIN ZONES : ASIA ............................................................................................................................. 464




C H A P T E R 1

























Getting started
1
Getting started


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C H A P T E R 1


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I GETTING STARTED
I.1 GENERAL PRESENTATION
A9155 is a comprehensive Window-based multi-technology and user-friendly radio-planning environment that supports
wireless telecom operators during the whole network lifetime, from initial design to densification and optimisation.

More than an engineering tool, A9155 is an open, scalable and flexible technical information system that integrates
easily with other IT systems, increases productivity and shortens lead times.

A9155 supports a full range of implementation scenarios, from stand-alone to enterprise-wide server-based
configurations using distributed and parallel computing.

The highlights of A9155 are definitely:

Advanced network design features: high-performance propagation calculation engine, multi-layered and hierarchical
networks supported, traffic modelling, automatic frequency/code planning and network optimisation. Full support of
GSM/GPRS/EDGE, CDMA IS-95, WCDMA / UMTS, CDMA2000 technologies. Planning of integrated multi-
technology network (GSM/UMTS, GSM/GPRS, CDMA/CDMA2000...).

Open and flexible architecture: support of multi-user environments through an innovative database architecture that
provides data sharing, data integrity management and easy integration with other IT systems. Integration of 3
rd
party
or proprietary modules (propagation models and AFP) through a set of programming interfaces (API). The integration
of add-ins and macros is also available.

Distributed and parallel computing: A9155 allows for the distribution of calculations over multiple workstations and
supports parallel computing on multi-processor servers, thus dramatically reducing prediction and simulation times
and getting the most out of your hardware.

State-of-the-art GIS features: A9155 supports both multi-format and multi-resolution geographic data and integration
with GIS tools. Large, dense urban and countrywide databases are supported and displayed interactively with
multiple layers including engineering and prediction studies. It features an integrated raster and vector editor.

A9155 is made of a main module to which you can add optional modules such as the UMTS module (allowing
CDMA/CDMA2000 projects) dedicated to WCDMA/UMTS network analysis and planning, the Measurements module
which allows the importation and management of concrete CW measurement or test mobile data paths, the Automatic
Frequency Planning module for the optimisation of GSM/GPRS/EDGE frequency plans and the Microwave planning
module. This module allow the user to plan and analyse microwave links.
I.2 WHAT'S NEW IN A9155 V6.2.1
Several improvements and changes have been made since the previous A9155 version. These new features are divided
into several parts: some general features which are available on the A9155 platform for any project, those dedicated to
GSM/GPRS/EDGE, WCDMA/UMTS, CDMA/CDMA2000 (IS95, 1xRTT) studies. Improvements have also been
performed on microwave links and measurements.


General features

Generic geographic layers
In addition to the standard raster layers (DEM, clutter classes, images...) A9155 V6.2.1 allows users to import and
display additional raster layers (e.g. population files, income density maps...), which are then taken into account in
reports.

Geographic display folder
It is now possible to group any type of geo data within a unique group in order to make them used for display only.

Clutter heights files
A new "Clutter heights" folder has been created. The clutter height can be now defined at the pixel level and taken
into account in calculations (Propagation models, measurements).

Tiff Geo files
For Tiff files, an option has been added to modify the colour palette convention used by A9155.

Getting started


24/476 3DF 01955 6283 PCZZA Ed. 01



Import of PlaNET text data files
It is now possible to import PlaNET text data in .atl documents.

User configurations
A new option is available during the import of a cfg file with a view to delete all existing maps.
It is now possible to include macro file paths in user configurations

Unit systems
New units are available for lengths, heights and offsets.

Site lists
In addition to the dynamic filtering features already available in A9155 V6.1, the version V6.2.1 allows users to define
static lists of sites names, either graphically or by using analytic criteria. Site lists are stored in the database and can
be imported and exported as ASCII files.

Repeaters
Repeaters are modelled and considered in the prediction studies and interference analysis.

Site and transmitter namings
When changing the name of a site, A9155 automatically renames transmitters and cells related to the site which
names contain the site name.
The sector numbering has changed. It starts from 1 instead of 0 and can be set by the user.

Object search tool
A new dialog is available in order to locate on the map any vector from its attribute, any point or any site.

Enhancement of the neighbour allocation algorithm
An additional option enables the user to force adjacent cells as neighbours (GSM/GPRS/EDGE, WCDMA/UMTS,
CDMA/CDMA2000)

Multi-resolution in predictions
It is now possible to define a main and an extended resolution (for low resolution) linked with main and extended
matrices, main and extended calculation radii

Definition of the resolution at the prediction level
The resolution of the prediction studies are independent from the pathloss calculation resolution

Prediction studies
It is now possible to select the 2nd best server for the service zone definition in prediction studies
A new display type is available in coverage predictions. You can now colour the service zones depending on the best
reliability level and on the reliability level.
It is now possible to calculate path loss matrices independently from any coverage study

Point analysis
A9155 now provides the angle between the profile and the north in the status bar, at the bottom left of the window.
In the Profile window, a green line shows the line of sight (LOS) from the studied transmitter.
In the Profile window, A9155 also displays the angle of the LOS read in the antenna vertical pattern.

CW Measurement
A new filter related to the angle between the reference transmitter and CW measurement points has been introduced
for the statistical comparisons between CW measurements and predictions.

Test mobile analysis (measurement module)
In addition to the CW measurement layer, a new layer allows to import, display and analyse test mobile data.
Measurements points can now be coloured by best server or best signal level
Additional generic and proprietary test mobile/CW survey file formats are supported, including TEMS FICS-Planet
export (.pln) and TEMS Text export (.fmt). Decoding and display of the serving cell ID and neighbour IDs from the
BSIC/BCCH fields (GSM), scrambling codes (UMTS) or PN Offsets (CDMA/CDMA2000).
It is possible to create a specific field related to a fixed attribute all along a single test mobile data path

Co-Planning
A new algorithm based on coverage overlapping allows to automatically calculate and allocate neighbours between
GSM and CDMA (including UMTS) networks. The simple algorithm, based on distance, provided in the previous
versions is still available.

Batch mode
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Calculations can be launched in batch mode.

New 'general interface' in the developer's toolkit
A new programming interface provides a generic access to network data and pathloss matrices in A9155 projects,
and allows developers to add their own functions into A9155 user interface.
It enables the integration of a wide range of applications such as optimisation tools, interface with other applications
and configuration tools. Customisation is performed using external VBA scripting tools or the A9155 Visual C++
Software Development Kit.
It is now possible to access antenna patterns through the propagation model API.
The toolkit enables to run macros from an A9155 session.

Database management
All reserved keywords have been removed from database structure


Features for GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects

Data model
All the TRX type parameters have been introduced in the subcells
It is now possible to exclude channels from the allocation at the subcell level
The separations are now imposed between subcells

BSIC notation
It is now possible to manage the BSIC (NCC-BCC) in octal or decimal (as before) format.

Improvements in traffic modelling
New data traffic layer allowing the modelling of the GPRS traffic demand, in addition to the existing voice traffic
layer.
Combined GPRS/voice traffic dimensioning and analysis.

New GPRS features
Enhanced time slot dimensioning.
Calculation of Quality of Service indicators

AFP tool
An Erlang based cost function replaces the pair-wise sum-up of interferences with a more precise modelling of the
interfered traffic.
When the constraints are too important for the planning algorithm, it is possible to access to information giving the list
of cells for which the constraints are not fulfilled.
Predefined MAL are supported (SFH TRX)
Multiple reuse pattern constraints
Grouping constraints may be taken into account in non-hopping TRX
Minimal change optimisation (cost of changing already assigned TRX higher than new assignments)
Staggered MAIO allocation ( MAIO equally spaced for one sector)
Local quality target (ability to improve plan only where minimal quality is not achieved)

Consistency checking tool
The consistency checking tool has been enhanced. Additional tests are automatically provided.


Features for CDMA/WCDMA technologies

Coverage predictions
Two new display types are available for the service area (Eb/Nt) study : Required Power and Required Power margin

Simulations
A comment has been added for simulations (as for prediction studies)


Features for WCDMA/UMTS projects

Global parameters
Two methods are available in order to calculate the total noise NT.

Scrambling code allocation
It is possible to define neighbourhood constraints during the scrambling code allocation. Neighbourhood constraints
can be imposed not only on the current defined neighbours.
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The scrambling code allocation is compatible with the bi-thread computation process.

Features for CDMA/CDMA2000 projects

PN Offset allocation
PN offsets are now supported by A9155
An automatic PN Offset allocation tool is available
The PN Offset allocation is compatible with the bi-thread computation process.
I.3 INSTALLING AND REMOVING A9155
I.3.1 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
A9155 application runs on PC work stations under Windows NT 4.0, 2000 or XP. The recommended configuration for the
workstation is as following:

CPU Pentium III (800 Mhz at least)

Memory 256 Mb recommended

Disk 2 Gb free on disk recommended (or more according to the used geographic database)

Operating system Windows NT 4.0, 2000 or XP

Graphics card 1280*1024 64000 colours

Application environment Microsoft Office >95 advised (Excel, Word, Access)

I.3.2 WHAT'S INSTALLED WITH A9155
During A9155 installation, other components may also have been added from the executable files com32upd and
dcom95 (both designed for windows 95 - not recommended). Furthermore, A9155 must be installed with an appropriate
version of Microsoft Data Access Components (MDAC - in order to work with databases). The recommended version is
2.7. This one can be downloaded from the support site.

If you choose to install the calculation server, it is installed as a service on your local machine. To make it unavailable,
you will need to stop it in the Services (Administrative tools) dialog of your operating system.

Moreover, from the installation CD, you may find several versions of Adobe Acrobat Reader (German, English, French,
Italian and Spanish versions) as well as the updates (from the last A9155 version) and usermanual pdf files.

I.3.3 INSTALLING A9155

Please refer to the external installation guide


Notes :
Help files are automatically installed during Setup,
The User manual (in pdf format) is on the CD-ROM, and can be downloaded from the support site,
Install the dongle driver only if necessary (not available or old version). It the option is checked, it will be necessary to
reboot after installation.

I.3.4 REMOVING A9155
To remove A9155, proceed as follows :
Quit all programs,
Click the Windows Start button, point to Settings, and then click Control Panel,
Double click the Add/Remove Programs icon,
In the Install/Uninstall tab, select A9155 in the list, and then click Add/Remove,
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Follow the instructions on the screen.

I.3.5 INSTALLING DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SERVER
A9155 provides a feature on distributed computations of propagation calculations and CDMA/WCDMA simulations. The
A9155 package provides a computing server application (AtollSvr) which can be installed either on workstations or
servers and which can be used by A9155 sessions installed on other stations.

This computing server application (used only for path loss computations) supports dual-processor configuration (2
processors are used on multi-processor stations).

To install the distributed computing server, check the A9155 calculation server option in the Select components box
during the setup process. The application will then be installed as a service on the local machine, i.e. will run as far as
the local pc is on, even with no user connected.

Service management like the distributed computing server application can be accessed from the Administrative tools
icon in the Control Panel. Then choose the Services application.

Notes
Like for A9155 installation, you must be connected with administrative rights when installing the application.
In order to be able to access some potential centralized geo data for computation, check that the account on which is
"installed" the service has enough rights (which is not always the case by default). If not, access the properties of the
Service and assign it to an appropriate account (e.g. in the Log on window for Windows 2000 OS).

I.3.6 REMOVING DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SERVER
The distributed computing server application is installed as a service on stations, i.e. runs as far as the local PC is on,
even with no user connected.

The first step of uninstalling is to stop the corresponding service. To do that, proceed as follows :

Check that you are connected on an account with rights allowing you to stop Services,

Under Windows NT4 :

Access the Control Panel,
Click on the Services Icon,
Select the A9155 server item,
Click the STOP button.


Under Windows 2000 or XP :

Access the Control Panel,
Open the Administrative Tools,
Click on the Services Icon,
Select the A9155 server item,
Either,
Right click on the item to open the context menu,
Click the STOP command,
Or,
Open its property dialog box,
Click the STOP button in the Service status part.

Once the service is stopped, to uninstall, proceed as follows :

Left click the button of your operating system,
Choose the command in the open menu,
Enter the following syntax :"<A9155 installation path>\AtollSvr.exe" /UnregServer in the open box,
The computing server application is then removed from the station.

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I.3.7 TROUBLESHOOTINGS AFTER INSTALLATION
After having installed A9155, you may encounter some running problems that are easy to fix.

Firstly, please be sure to have installed A9155 on an administrator account, to have rebooted your computer and logged
in again on an account with administrator rights in order to complete installation with libraries that were in use during the
first installation step (including mdac - optionally - and the sentinel driver).

Please also check the validity of the folder in which you installed A9155. Because A9155 is installed by default in an
A9155 folder, be sure that you didn't put yours in that way, for example : C:\Program Files\Alcatel\XXX\A9155\..., where
XXX was the name of the main folder in which you wanted to install A9155.

If the MDAC version of your PC is too old, you might install a newer version of mdac (downloadable from the support
site) in order to allow communications with databases. The recommended MDAC version is 2.7.

In case of the message "Protection key error", please check your connection and the key validity. If you use a hardware
Superpro dongle, try first to reboot your computer after installation on an administrator account. Then, install again the
sentinel driver (by using the setupx86.exe file in the setup folder from your current A9155 main folder).

If any problem persists, please contact our technical support at A9155.support@alcatel.de.

Caution:
It is advised to switch off your computer before unplugging or plugging hardware key into it.
Do not change the PC date.
When the Superpro dongle is temporary:
- Do not reprogram it even if you plug it into another computer.
- Do not put the time bomb off without the Alcatel support help.
Nethasp key (Multi-user licence) is supported under Windows 2000 Server only using from Licence manager 8.09.

I.4 GETTING HELP
I.4.1 WAYS TO GET ASSISTANCE
To get help from the Help menu
Just select the Help Topic command in the Help menu. The Help window is then open on the screen.

Several approaches are available to search information:

Click on the Content tab to scroll through a table of content. When you have found in the list the topic you
are interested in, simply double click on it. A window containing the information about the subject will then
be open on your screen. You will notice in the text some words or sentences in green, these are links to
other topics relating to the word or sentence.
or
Click on the Index tab to refer to the index inputs. Choose in the list the input you are interested in, double
click on it. A window containing the information about the subject will be displayed.
or
Click on the Find tab to search for specific words or sentences that might be in a help topic. Type the word
or the sentence you search, choose in the list a subject and then press Display to open the window
containing information.

Note : for any external modules like propagation models, automatic planning tool or any other one developed with the
API, the online help can be reached by clicking the button of each tab. A related topic will be open.


To get an explanation about dialog box options
Just click the What's this button located at the top right corner of teach dialog window and then, click on
the field you want to be informed of. An help window will be displayed.


To see the name of a toolbar button
Rest the pointer on the button until the name appears.


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To get a short explanation about a menu command or a toolbar button
Position the pointer on the command or the button. A short explanation is displayed in the status bar
located at the bottom left of the A9155 window.


To get information about the A9155 application (version number, copyrights)
Click the about tool on the toolbar.
or
Select the About A9155... command in the Help menu.

I.4.2 TECHNICAL SUPPORT
The technical support team is available Monday through Friday, from 9 am to 5 pm CET; you may contact it by sending
an e-mail to A9155.support@alcatel.de.
I.5 RUNNING PROJECT TEMPLATES
I.5.1 STARTING A NEW PROJECT
Several project types based on different technologies are available in : GSM 900, GSM dual band 900-1800, GPRS, and,
by use of an optional module UMTS, CDMA-IS95 and CDMA2000 (1xRTT) . Each project has its own data and folder
structure. For example, tabs in the transmitter properties dialog box and radio parameters change according to the
project. In the same way, availability of some specific objects depends on the chosen project, such as, for example,
UMTS cells (UMTS projects) or TRX (GSM-TDMA projects). Moreover, A9155 modular and scalable architecture
enables the user to match the configuration to customer needs.


To choose a project type
Either
Select in the File menu the New command.
or
Click on the new tool in the toolbar.
In the project type dialog box, choose a project and then, click on OK to validate.


A9155 allows you to define a personal template from any existing project.

I.5.2 TEMPLATES PROVIDED
A9155 supports, in its standard version, the following project types :
GSM900(850) (Global System for Mobile communications) : 2nd generation of numeric telephony norm working
around the 900 (850) MHz band, using the TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) technology. This technology is
supported using the GSM_EGPRS project template.
DCS1800/1900 (Digital Communications System) : 2nd generation of numeric telephony norm working around the
1800/1900 MHz band, using the TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) technology. This technology is supported
using the GSM_EGPRS project template.
GSM dual-band 900-1800 (GSM900 and DCS1800) : 2nd generation of numeric telephony norm working both around
the 900 MHz and 1800 MHz bands, using the TDMA technology. This technology is supported using the
GSM_EGPRS project template.
GPRS (Global Packet Radio Service) and EDGE (Enhanced Data-rates for GSM - or Global - Evolution) : 2.5th
generation of numeric telephony norms working around the 900-1800 MHz bands, using the TDMA (Time Division
Multiple Access) technology. This technology is supported using the GSM_EGPRS project template.

The optional UMTS module permits to build projects for :
UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) : 3rd generation of numeric telephony norm working around the
2 GHz band, using the WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) technology. This technology is supported
using the UMTS project template.
1xRTT (1st eXpansion Radio Telephone Technology) : 2.5th generation of numeric telephony norm working around
the 900 MHz band, using the CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) technology. This technology is supported using
the CDMA2000 project template.
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IS95-CDMA (Interim Standard 95) : 2th generation of numeric telephony norm working around the 800 MHz band,
using the CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) technology, also known as CDMAOne. 95 refers to an accepted
industry protocol. This technology is supported using the IS95-CDMA project template.


Moreover, microwave link technology is available in any project type.
I.5.3 CREATING YOUR OWN TEMPLATE
By using the database structure provided by A9155 by default, it is possible to create your personal template with a view
to start each new project with your own tables, parameters, user-defined flags...

There are 2 ways to do so, proceed as follows :
1.
In an open A9155 project, select Database: Export... command in the File menu,
Export the project as a template in the A9155 templates directory (by default C:\Program
Files\Alcatel\A9155\Templates).


File/Database/Export - Export in a database

When this is done, your personal template is available in the Project type dialog box.



2.
Open an A9155 project template (located in C:\Program Files\Alcatel\A9155\Templates by default) in MS
Access as a model,
You can modify the databases as you want in order to obtain your customized template. For example, you
can import your own table of antennas,
Use the Save as... command in the File menu, to save this template in the A9155 template subfolder.
When this is done, your personal template is available in the Project type dialog box.

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I.5.4 BUILDING A PROJECT STEP BY STEP
To build an A9155 basic project, follow the basic steps described below:

Step 1 : Choose a project template

Step 2 : Define the projection and display coordinate systems, the length, reception and transmission units

Step 3 : Import geographic data files (clutter classes and heights, DTM, vector data, population data, generic data...)

Step 4 : Create the network by using station templates or by retrieving the data of an existing one. Adjust the
parameters of sites, transmitters, repeaters, and specific GSM/GPRS or UMTS/CDMA/CDMA2000 radio data

Step 5 : Calibrate propagation models by the use of CW measurements

Step 6 : Define the computation zone and the calculation settings (resolutions, calculation radius, propagation
models, reception properties)

Step 7 : Create and calculate standard coverage studies (per transmitter, by signal level, overlapping zones)


GSM/GPRS projects

Step 8 : Define multi-service traffic parameters (services, mobility types, terminals, user profiles, environments)

Step 9 : Define the traffic through the import or the creation of maps
Traffic maps per environment
Traffic maps per user profile
Live traffic maps
User density traffic maps

Step 10 : Capture the traffic to analyse the demand

Step 11 : Set the dimensioning models

Step 12 : Dimension the network (required number of shared, circuit and packet timeslots, traffic loads)

Step 13 : Define the neighbours manually or automatically

Step 14 : Allocate frequencies, BSIC and frequency hopping parameters, to match the demand (user-defined of
coming from dimensioning part)

Step 15 : Check the allocations through interference studies, the audit tool, KPI calculation

Step 16 : Compute specific GPRS/EDGE studies

Step 17 : Check and validate of the network by the import of test mobile data



UMTS projects

Step 8 : Define multi-service traffic parameters (services, mobility types, terminals, user profiles, environments)

Step 9 : Define the traffic through the import or the creation of maps
Traffic maps per environment
Traffic maps per user profile
Live traffic maps

Step 10 : Define neighbours manually or automatically

Step 11 : Make instant pictures of the network by the use of monte-carlo simulations. This also provides dimensioning
results.

Step 12 : Calculate specific UMTS studies based on network load (user-defined of coming from simulations)

Step 13 : Allocate primary scrambling codes to cells and check the allocation with the audit tool
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Step 14 : Check and validate the network by the import of test mobile data



CDMA/CDMA2000 projects

Step 8 : Define multi-service traffic parameters (services, mobility types, radio configurations, environments)

Step 9 : Define the traffic through the import or the creation of maps
Traffic maps per environment
Traffic maps per user profile
Live traffic maps

Step 10 : Define neighbours manually or automatically

Step 11 : Make instant pictures of the network by the use of monte-carlo simulations. This provides also dimensioning
results.

Step 12 : Calculate specific CDMA/CDMA2000 studies based on network load (user-defined of coming from
simulations)

Step 13 : Allocate PN Offsets to cells and check the allocation with the audit tool

Step 14 : Check and validate the network by the import of test mobile data



C H A P T E R 2

























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2
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II THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT
II.1 USER INTERFACE BASICS : OVERVIEW
The A9155 user interface consists of an integrated set of cursors, windows, tools, menus, toolbars and other elements
that allow you to create, and define your project in one place.

The user interface uses standard Windows interface functionalities along with a few additional features to make your
environment easy to use. Moreover, the drag and drop feature can be commonly used between any folder explorer and
A9155 in order to import or open any objects with a compatible format.

The two common window types are document windows and docking windows. The position and size of document
windows can be changed within the A9155 window. They can be maximized and minimized. Docking windows, however,
can be attached to the borders of the application window, or float anywhere on your screen.

You can have more than one document file open in A9155. Document windows are attached to a single document. You
can have many document windows attached to a single document. Examples of document windows are maps,
datasheets or studies reports. When you close the last document window attached to a document, this document is
closed.

Docking windows are shared among open documents. They reflect the content of the active document. The active
document is the one attached to the active window. Examples of docking windows are the Explorer window, the
Panoramic window, the Legend window, or the Event viewer window.

A9155 provides many features dealing with the use of the map. Hence, you can easily move , zoom in and out, changing
scales, and choosing visibility range for objects displayable on the map. Several ways of exporting the current
environment are also possible.

In A9155, most of the items are organized in folders in the Explorer window. This folders can be displayed in tables in
order to make easy the management of large data in the same time. Hence, filters, groups and sorts are easily made
either in folders, tables and on the map (filtering only), and can be saved in configurations.

This generic organization method is also applied to the display of objects in A9155. A generic display dialog is available
when working on the properties of radio data (sites, transmitters, microwave links), prediction studies, measurements,
simulations and some geo data objects (DTM map or vector objects).

A9155 provides several handy tools, like a Undo/Redo function, Windows classical and specific shortcuts, the use of
icons and several types of cursors related to working processes. Furthermore, A9155 provides different search tools in
order to easily locate either a site, a point, or a vector (even from its attributes only). It is also possible to synchronize a
selected vector and the related displayed data (or any CW measurement or Test mobile data) in the corresponding data
table.

II.2 WORKING WITH MENUS AND WINDOWS
II.2.1 WORKING WITH DOCUMENT WINDOW
To tile the document windows, proceed as follows :
Select in the Window menu the Tile command.


To cascade the document windows, proceed as follows :
Select in the Window menu the Cascade command.

II.2.2 WORKING WITH DOCKING OR FLOATING WINDOW
To show or hide a docking window, proceed as follows :
To show a docking window, click the name of the window on the View menu.
To hide the window, click the Hide button in the corner of the window. This button may be at the top-left
or top-right corner, depending on the position of the window.

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To expand or contract a docking window in its docking area, proceed as follows :
Click the Expand or Contract button near the corner of the window. This button may be near the top-
left or top-right corner, depending on the position of the window. This is a dual-purpose button. When the
window is fully expanded, the function of this button is Contract; otherwise, the function is Expand


To change a docked window to a floating window, proceed as follows :
Double click in the window border.


To dock a floating window, proceed as follows :
Double click the window title bar to return the window to its previous docked location, or point to the title bar
and drag the window to a different dock area.


To position a floating window over a dock (without docking it), proceed as follows :
Point to the title bar of the window.
Hold down the CTRL key and drag the window over any dock area of the application window.


Note : The window positions for docking windows are not associated with the current project; they remain the same no
matter which project you open.

II.2.3 PRINTING THE ACTIVE WINDOW
A9155 provides powerful features in order to import/export any data. On this consideration, A9155 provides also the
possibility to print any type of active window (table, legend, map, antenna pattern, point analysis window...).

In order to print the active window, once the print is set, select the Print command in the File menu (or use the Ctrl+P
shortcut) in the case of maps or tables.

For other objects like antenna patterns, legend or point analysis windows (for example), just select the Print... command
from the related context menu (right click in the window).

II.3 WORKING WITH MAPS
II.3.1 ZOOMING AND PANNING
A9155 provides powerful tools in order to zoom and to move the currently displayed map.

To zoom in, proceed as follows :
Either
Click the zoom-in tool on the zoom toolbar
or
On the View menu select the Zoom in command
or
Press Ctrl+A

The map is displayed with the previous scale in the scale listbox.


To zoom out, proceed as follows :
Either
Click the zoom-out tool on the zoom toolbar
or
On the View menu select the Zoom out command
or
Press Ctrl+R

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The map is displayed with the next scale in the scale listbox.
To zoom on a specific area of the map, proceed as follows :
Either
Click the zoom area tool on the zoom toolbar
or
On the View menu select the Zoom Area command
On the map press and hold the left mouse button at the north-west corner of the area.
Drag the pointer to the south-east corner.
Release the mouse button


To move the map area, proceed as follows :
Click the Mover tool on the zoom toolbar.
Hold down the left mouse button on the map area and drag the pointer.
Release the mouse button


Note : in case of refresh problems on the map, use the icon from the zoom toolbar (or the F5 shortcut).

II.3.2 USING THE PANORAMIC WINDOW
The Panoramic window offers a whole view of the imported geographic data and allows to locate the map area you want
to display in the workspace. A darker rectangle characterizes the map area selected in the Panoramic window and
displayed in the workspace.

Several operations may be performed from the Panoramic window; they are detailed below.


To zoom on a specific area of the map, proceed as follows :
Position the pointer on the map. The pointer becomes a dotted rectangle.
Press and hold the left mouse button at the north-west corner of the area.
Drag the pointer to the south-east corner.
Release the mouse button.


To move the map area, proceed as follows :
Position the pointer on the zoom area (darker rectangle). The pointer becomes a cross.
Press the left mouse button.
Slide the pointer.
Release the mouse button.


To resize the map area, proceed as follows :
Position the pointer at the corner (or any border) of the zoom area (darker rectangle). The pointer becomes
a double arrow.
Press the left mouse button.
Slide the pointer.
Release the mouse button.

II.3.3 CENTRING THE MAP
The centre map function enables you to display the selected objects like transmitters, sites, hexagonal design... at the
centre of the workspace and the central area of imported geographical data like clutter, DTM, vector data or scanned
images. In both cases, the displayed area is moved conserving the current scale.

To centre an object, proceed as follows :
Right click the object.
Select the Centre map command in the context menu.

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II.3.4 CHOOSING A SCALE
To choose a scale, proceed as follows :
Click the arrow next to the scale box on the zoom toolbar.
In the list click the scale value you want.


If the scale value you want is not in the list:
Click in the scale box.
Type the scale value you want.
Press Enter. The value you entered is added to the scale list.


Note : If you drag the icon band containing the scale scrolling box from the toolbar to a side of your environment, you
may find it again by clicking on the zoom area button

Use the What's this help to get further description about the fields available

II.3.5 DEFINING VISIBILITY RANGES ON OBJECTS
Since the version V6.1, for any object with settable display (sites, transmitters, coverage studies, CW measurement,
maps), it is possible to specify a visibility range. The object will be visible only if the zoom level defined in the
workspace (in the scale box) is within the object visibility range.

This feature enables you to display in the workspace an object depending on the zoom level.

To define an object visibility range, proceed as follows :
Right click the folder related to the considered object to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Properties command from the open scrolling menu,
In the Display tab, enter minimum and maximum zoom levels.

Notes :
In case of sites and transmitters, the visibility range is globally specified in the folder Properties window.
This feature is an add-on, like visibility boxes or layer order, to manage object visibility in the workspace; the defined
visibility ranges have no influence on the objects taken into account in calculations.
Visibility scales defined for objects are taken into account during printings or print previews. Objects will appear only if
the printing scale is within their respective visibility range.

II.3.6 DISPLAYING RULERS AROUND THE MAP
It is possible to make visible rulers along the displayed map. A distance measurement tool is also available.

To display rulers in the current environment, proceed as follows :
Select in the Tools menu, the Options... command.
In the Options dialog box, click on the Coordinates tab.
In the Display rulers part, check the rulers you want to display in the workspace.
Click OK to validate.

Use the What's this help to get further description about the fields available in the window.

II.3.7 GETTING DISTANCES ON THE MAP
A9155 allows the user to get distances on the map easily by the use of the Distance measurement button. This tool
allows you also to determine the azimuth of the current measurement segment.


To display distances on the map, proceed as follows :
Make displayed the map of your current project,
Left click on the Distance measurement button from the toolbar,
Left click once in the map to put the start point,
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Click on the map at each point you want to know the distance from the previous point,
The distance from the first point, the distance from the previous point, and the azimuth angle of the current
measurement segment are displayed in the extreme lower left corner of your current environment,
Double click on the map to finish the current distance measurement session.


Notes :
Selected points are linked to each other by straight lines,
A9155 reads azimuth in a clockwise direction.

II.3.8 DISPLAYED CURSORS
In A9155, cursors will appear in different forms according to the current position or command. The meaning of each
possible shapes is described below :

Appearance Meaning


Wait The hourglass tells you to wait. When it disappears, you can enter another
command.

Arrow Use the arrow mainly to select objects or commands. It will remain as long as a new
command has not been activated



Selection arrow
Use the zone selection arrow to define a selection region. You can use it inside a
map to define a zone to print or copy and in the panoramic view to define the zone to
be displayed on the map. You must define a window on the active map or
panoramic view by left clicking (1st corner of the window top left) and Sliding.

Polygonal selection
arrow
Use the polygonal zone selection arrow to define a non-rectangular selection region.
You can use it inside a map to define a zone to filter either sites or transmitters, to
define computation and focus zones, to draw vector or raster polygons. You must
define a "closed polygonal zone" on the active map by left clicking several times.
Close the polygon by clicking twice.



Hand

Only active on maps, use the hand to move the visible part of the displayed map.

Zoom area The magnifying glass tells you that A9155 is waiting for a zoom window to be
defined on the active map by left clicking (1st corner of the window top left) and
Sliding.


New transmitter
The transmitter symbol tells you that A9155 is waiting for you to place a transmitter
on the active map by left clicking. You can place as many transmitters as you want
by holding down the button while you move the mouse and pressing down the Ctrl
key at the same time.

Sights The sight symbol will appear as soon as you have activated the point analysis tool.
This informs you that A9155 is waiting for you to left click on a point of the active
map.

Sights placed
(Receiver)
The sight placed symbolizes the Receiver and indicate the point on the map used
for calculations displayed in the Measurements or Point analysis window (Profile /
Reception / Interference/Results/AS analysis). You can access menu by right
clicking on the point analysis window.

Pencil The pencil indicates that you can define polygonal zones without the clutter. A9155
is waiting for you to left click on various points on the active map. Double clicking will
close the polygon.

Deletion A9155 is waiting for you to select by left clicking a newly created polygonal zone.


Position indicator A9155 is waiting for you to select an edge of the newly created polygon by left
clicking. When you click, the cursor changes into the Select/create points on
polygons cursor (below). Right clicking will open a context-sensitive dialog box
allowing you to add a point, delete the polygon and centre the map on the polygon.


Select/create
points on polygons
Left clicking followed by dragging one of the polygon edges, will add a new point to
the polygon and modify its contour. Left clicking on a point that already exists on the
polygon, followed by dragging allows you to move the point. Right clicking opens a
context-sensitive dialog box allowing you to delete a point, delete the polygon and
centre the map on the polygon.

Placing a CW
measurement point
A9155 is waiting for you to left click on a point on the active map so it can place a
CW measurement point there.

Placing points in a
CW measurement
path
A9155 is waiting for you to left click on a point on the active map so it can start a CW
measurement path. Once you have made your first click, the cursor will change
shape and A9155 will wait for you to left click on various points on the active map.
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Double clicking will end the path.


Microwave link
start
End
A9155 is waiting for you to left click on a point on the active map (1
st
point in the
microwave link). Once you have made your first click, the cursor will change shape
and A9155 will wait for you to left click on a second point on the active map to end
the link (2
nd
point in the microwave link)

Measurements on
the map
Use the measurement tool to display projected distances and azimuths in the status
bar .


II.3.9 PRINTING A MAP
To print a map area, proceed as follows :
Click on the select an area tool in the zoom toolbar,
Define the area to be printed: Position the pointer on the map. Press and hold the left mouse button at the
north-west corner of the area, drag the pointer to the south-east corner and then release the mouse button,
Select the Print area: Set command in the File menu. The selected area is lighter,
Select the Page setup command in the File menu to configure your print layout. The Page setup dialog box
is displayed,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Select the appropriate options on the available fields you want for your print,
When your configuration is achieved, press OK to validate.


To visualize your print sheet, proceed as follows :
Select the Print preview command in the File menu to visualize your print sheet.


To remove the selected area, proceed as follows :
Select the Print area: Remove command in the File menu.


Use the What's this help to get further description about the fields available in windows


Note : Visibility scales defined for objects are taken into account during printings or print previews. Objects will appear
only if the printing scale is within their respective visibility range.

Caution : When using the Fit to page option, it is not possible to know the printing scale in advance.

II.3.10 EXPORTING MAPS TO EXTERNAL FILES
To export a map as an external file, proceed as follows :
Click on the Select an area tool in the zoom toolbar.
Define the area to be exported: Position the pointer on the map. Press and hold the left mouse button at the
north-west corner of the area, drag the pointer to the south-east corner and then, release the mouse button.
Select the Export image... command in the File menu. In the Save as dialog box, define the directory where
you want to locate your file, the file name and the file format. Press OK.
In the Size of created file dialog box, specify either the scale and the resolution (dot/inch) to display the
image with this resolution or the pixel size (m) to use image as a georeferenced raster file. The minimum
resolution is set to 1 metre.
Press OK to validate.

Note : Three file formats, *.tif, *.bil and *.bmp are supported. The *.bmp format is rather dedicated to images and the *.tif
and *.bil format to georeferenced images. Thus, to use the exported map as an image, choose *.bmp format and define a
scale and a resolution; this last one will be written in the file. On the other hand, if you want to use the exported map as
geographic data, prefer the *.tif or *.bil format and specify the pixel size. A georeferencement file will be created. For
additional information see Supported data formats.

Use the What's this help to get further description about the fields available in the dialog box

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II.3.11 EXPORTING MAPS TO OTHER APPLICATIONS
To copy an image to another application as a linked object, proceed as follows :
Click on the Select an area tool in the zoom toolbar.
Define the area to be exported: Position the pointer on the map. Press and hold the left mouse button at the
north-west corner of the area, drag the pointer to the south-east corner and then release the mouse button.
Select the Copy command in the Edit menu,
Open another application.
Select the Paste special... command in the Edit menu. In the Paste special dialog box, choose the Paste
link option and select A9155 document object in the scrolling list box. Press OK to validate. A shortcut to
the source file is created and thus, the image may be updated by left clicking on it and selecting the A9155
linked object: Convert... command.

Note : if the A9155 file is modified and saved, the linked image is automatically updated.


To copy an image to another application as a screen shot, proceed as follows :
Click on the Select an area tool in the zoom toolbar.
Define the area to be exported: Position the pointer on the map. Press and hold the left mouse button at the
north-west corner of the area, drag the pointer to the south-east corner and then release the mouse button.
Select the Copy Image... command in the Edit menu. In the Copy image dialog box, choose the screen
resolution option or define the pixel size (m) and then, press OK to validate.
Open another application.
Select the Paste special... command in the Edit menu. In the Paste special dialog box, choose the Paste
option and select Bitmap in the scrolling list box. Press OK to validate.


To copy the north-west and south-east point coordinates of the image to another application, proceed as follows :
Click on the Select an area tool in the zoom toolbar.
Define the area to be exported: Position the pointer on the map. Press and hold the left mouse button at the
north-west corner of the area, drag the pointer to the south-east corner and then release the mouse button.
Select the Copy Image... command in the Edit menu. In the Copy image dialog box, choose the screen
resolution option or define the pixel size (m) and then, press OK to validate.
Open another application.
Select the Paste command in the Edit menu (or the Unformatted text option when choosing the Paste
Special... command).

Note : The point coordinates vary according to the chosen option (screen resolution or pixel size).

II.4 WORKING WITH THE EXPLORER
II.4.1 WORKING WITH THE EXPLORER : OVERVIEW
The Explorer window has three tabs:

The Data tab allows the radio data and calculation management; it consists of diverse folders depending on the modules
included in the A9155 application:

Sites
Antennas
Transmitters
Predictions
UMTS Parameters, CDMA/CDMA2000 Parameters, or GSM/GPRS Parameters
UMTS Simulations or CDMA/CDMA2000 Simulations
Traffic analysis (GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects only)
Hexagonal design
Microwave links
CW Measurements and Test mobile data

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The Geo tab allows to handle geographical data; it initially contains three folders and more when you import other
geographical data types (vector data, scanned images) such as :

Clutter classes
Clutter heights
Digital Terrain Model
Population data
Any generic geo data map
Traffic (GSM/GPRS/EDGE/TDMA, WCDMA/UMTS, CDMA/CDMA2000)


The Modules tab offers the propagation model management. It contains :

A Propagation models folder where the following propagation models are listed :
Longley-Rice
Okumura-Hata
Costa-Hata
Standard Propagation Model
ITU 526-5
ITU 370-7 (Vienna 93)
WLL

The list of the different AFP models available in your current A9155 version.

Any additional module created via the Api

In each tab, the created or imported objects are listed in corresponding folders using a tree-structure presentation. Each
object and folder offer a context menu available by left clicking on it.

II.4.2 RENAMING AN OBJECT
To rename an object, proceed as follows :
Either
Left click the object.
Press the F2 key.
Or
Right click the object
Select the Rename command in the context menu.

II.4.3 DISPLAYING THE OBJECT PROPERTIES
To Open the property dialog of any object, proceed as follows :

Right click the object to open the associated context menu,
Select the Properties... command in the context menu.

Note : depending on the object type, properties can be accessed by just double clicking on it. Double clicking as the
same function than the one in bold in the associated context menu (left click on the object).

II.4.4 DELETING AN OBJECT
To delete an object, proceed as follows :

Either
Right click the object either in the explorer window or on the map (radio data),
Select the Delete command in the context menu,
or
Click on the object in the explorer window,
Press the Suppr key.
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II.4.5 MANAGING OBJECT VISIBILITY
The and buttons are located in front of folders containing at least one object.

To open or close a folder, proceed as follows :
Click respectively on the or buttons.

In the example below, the Antennas folder is open, and the Sites folder is closed. A check box is displayed next to
each object visible in the workspace.





To show or hide an object in the workspace, proceed as follows :
When a check box is checked, the corresponding object is visible in the workspace. If you want to make the
object invisible, simply uncheck the check box by clicking on it.

The folders with grey check box contain both visible and invisible objects.
In the example, the sites are not displayed in the workspace unlike the transmitters. Moreover, some prediction studies
listed in the Prediction folder are not visible.


The different folders composing any environment can be ordered in layers with a view to manage their display priority on
the map. For example, in the example above, the layer associated with the predictions is displayed over the layer
associated with the UMTS simulations. Indeed, in the tree above, the Predictions folder is located higher than the UMTS
simulations one. This feature is particularly useful for the display managing of geo data objects.

To manage several objects display priority, proceed as follows :
Select the object you want to change the display priority on the map,
Drag it through the Explorer window,
Put it at the location that gives him the display priority order you want to assign to it.

Note : Putting over layers may get invisible under layers. To avoid that, do not forget to adjust the transparency level of
objects located over the others.

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II.5 WORKING WITH DATA TABLES
II.5.1 ACCESSING DATA TABLE
In A9155, many radio data objects (sites, transmitters, repeaters, antennas, UMTS or CDMA/CDMA2000 Cells, UMTS or
CDMA/CDMA2000 parameters, microwave links...) can be stored in a table, summarising all their characteristics, and
allowing you to use filters, groups and sorts on contained data. Table can also be used to display prediction reports.


To access a Data table, proceed as follows :
Click on the appropriate tab from the explorer window,
Either
Double click on the data folder (not available for prediction reports),
Or
Right click on the data folder to open the associated context menu,
Choose Open in the scrolling menu.

II.5.2 MANAGING CONTENTS IN TABLES
To check displayed table data, proceed as follows :
Either,
Click the Data tab from the explorer window,
Right click on the data folder in order to display the associated context menu,
Select the data folder properties,
Choose the table tab from the window.
Or,
Open the table you want to manage the contents,
Either,
Right click in any cell of the table,
Choose the Fields... command from the open context menu,
Or
Choose the Fields... command from the Records menu in the main menu bar.


It is possible to check and to manage (addition and deletion of new types) the data stored in the table. In this window, are
displayed the names, types, allocated lengths, and default value (if existing) of the data available. Some objects are
custom objects of A9155 and cannot be removed and other are user-definable.

Use the What's this help to get further description about the fields available in the window.

Notes
When creating a new column (Add... button from any table tab window), you can fill a choice list associated with the
new variable (only with text format). Hence, when assigning a value to this variable in the associated cell, you will be
able to choose one of the items from the scrolling choice list. Moreover, the cell can be also edited, and any value can
be assigned to it.
It is possible to define a default value to any user-defined field. This default value is automatically reported to the
choice list box (only in text format).
Even if tables summarise the characteristics of each item, it is possible to edit, individually, most of them by two ways
(See Editing contents in tables)
Even if A9155 is case-sensitive, be aware that this could lead to some troubles when connected to some database
formats (e.g. Access)

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II.5.3 EDITING CONTENTS IN TABLES
Two ways are available in order to edit Data table cells :

either by choosing in a scrolling box (if a choice list has been defined in the field definition):


Data/Table of transmitters

or by editing and changing the value or the text directly in the box :


Data/Table of transmitters

II.5.4 OPENING DIALOGS FROM TABLES
Since most of the tuneable objects can be listed in tables, it is also possible to open the properties dialog box of any site,
antenna, transmitter or cell from the corresponding table.

To do this, proceed as follows :
Open the considered table,
Select the record you want to open the property dialog box
Either
Double click on it,
Or
Right click on the record you want to open the property dialog box,
Select the Record properties... command from the open context menu (or from the Records menu).


Note : sometimes, clicking on narrow cells drives to just editing it. To avoid such a behaviour, and to open the property
dialog for sure, double click on the extreme left part of the table in the appropriate row.

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II.5.5 MANAGING TABLE DISPLAY
The table formats can be personalized in order to retain pertinent data, or for a clearer visualization. In that way, it is
possible to manage the titles, styles or fonts, to adjust the dimensions of the cells, and to hide or freeze columns.


Manage table titles
Activate the Table window,
Select the Format Title command from the Format menu in the menu bar,
A 4 tabs (Font, Colour, Borders, Alignment) font dialog box opens,
Select the title format parameters from the available tabs in the open window,
Click either the OK or Apply button to validate.


Manage table columns
Activate the Table window,
Select the Format Columns command from the Format menu in the menu bar,
A 4 tabs (Font, Colour, Borders, Alignment) font dialog box opens,
Select the table content format parameters from the available tabs in the open window,
Click either the OK or Apply button to validate.


Change width or height
Activate the Table window,
Set your cursor on the separation between lines or columns to be modified (in the title bar for widths and in
the 1st shaded column for heights)
Left Click and slide the cursor.


Changing cells widths



Changing cells height

Note : You can define a different width for each column. The height of the cells will be defined for the entire table.

Display the columns
Activate the Table window,
Select the Display columns command from the Format menu. The dialog box allows to select the various
columns which are displayed in the corresponding table.

Freeze/Unfreeze a column
In large tables where the use of scroll bars is necessary, it may be useful to keep some columns visible, by freezing them
on the screen. This feature is always possible except for tables containing reports.

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To do so, proceed as follows :
Activate the Table window,
Select the column to be frozen by left clicking on the corresponding title (to freeze several columns, slide on
the associated titles after the 1
st
click - you can only select several columns if they are adjacent to each
other - ),
Select the Freeze columns command from the Format menu

To unfreeze frozen columns, select the Unfreeze columns command from the Format menu

Hide columns
There are three ways to hide columns :
1
Activate the Table window,
Left click on the title of the column to hide (to hide several columns, hold the Ctrl key when selecting the
other columns to hide),
Select the Hide columns command on the Format menu.
2
Activate the Table window,
Do as the same way as in the resize columns method seen above, and slide the pointer on the title bar in
order to obtain a zero width column.
3
Unselect the concerned column in the Display columns command from the Format menu.

To display again the hidden columns, use the Display columns command from the Format menu.

Moving columns
In large tables it can be practical to group columns of interest, or to read data in a special order. In A9155, the column
order can be managed easily.
To do so, proceed as follows :
Activate the Table window,
Select the column to be moved by left clicking on the corresponding title (to move several columns, slide on
the associated titles after the 1
st
click - you can only move several columns if they are adjacent to each
other - ),
Click again on the selected columns zone and drag it until the required target. When this zone is dragged,
the place where the columns will be displayed is referenced by a red line.
II.5.6 COPYING AND PASTING IN TABLES
A9155 provides some powerful tools in order to use the copy and paste functions in tables. You may either copy any cell
with the copy (Ctrl+C or Copy command from the Edit menu) or cut (Ctrl+X or Cut command from the Edit menu)
functions and paste it in any available cell from any table (Ctrl+V or Paste command from the Edit menu).

Moreover, it is possible to paste several times the same cell in a table. To do so, proceed as follows :
Activate the table window,
Select the cell zone where you want to copy the data,



If you want to copy the top cell in the selected cells, either use the Fill down (Ctrl+D) shortcut or the Fill
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down command from the Edit menu,



If you want to copy the bottom cell in the selected cells, either use the Fill up (Ctrl+U) shortcut or the Fill up
command from the Edit menu,



II.5.7 PRINTING DATA TABLES
In A9155, it is as easy to print Data table as maps. To do this, make active your table, and choose the Print... command
from the File menu in the general menu bar.

Like for maps and reports, it is also possible to preview the print to be made on tables.

II.6 FILTERING/GROUPING/SORTING DATA
II.6.1 SORTING AND FILTERING IN TABLES
In A9155, data may be sorted and/or filtered in particular in tables (this is also possible in data folder or on the map).
After filtering, excluded data are not taken into account in calculations. There are many ways to use this feature.

Sorting in Tables
Data may be sorted in ascending (A to Z, 1 to 10) or descending (Z to A, 10 to 1) order. Any field except the antenna
patterns field may be sorted.
To sort data in a table, proceed as follows :
Activate the table window,
Select a title of a column. This column will be the sort reference.
When selected, right click or select the Records menu. Then select the Sort Ascending or Sort Descending
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option from the scrolling menu.


Sorting in several columns
A9155 offers to sort several table columns at the same time.
To do so, proceed as follows :
Activate the table window,
Select the columns to be sorted by selecting them in the title bar,
When selected, right click or select the Records menu. Then select the Sort Ascending or Sort Descending
option from the scrolling menu,
Sorts are successively applied to each selected column, if only these are adjacent to each other.


Filtering in Tables
To filter a type of data in a table, proceed as follows :
Activate the table window,
Select an item, a type of antenna in the transmitters table, for example,
When selected, right click or select the Records menu. Then select the Filter by selection (resp. Filter
excluding selection) option from the scrolling menu to keep only (resp. to reject) data which have the
antenna (for example) as the selected item.

See Examples of filter in tables

Filtering data in several columns is possible in the same way not only if selected items are adjacent to each other. To
select different cells, hold the Ctrl key pressed when left clicking.


Advanced data Filtering in Tables
A9155 enables to make complex filters, by combining several criteria on fields. This can be managed by using criteria
either in the Advanced filter option from the Records menu, or by choosing the general tab from the item properties which
is in consideration.
The authorized filtering criteria are :

Formula Data are kept in the table only if
=X value equal to X (X may be a number or characters)
<> X value not equal to X (X may be a number or characters)
<5 numerical value is less than 5
>7 numerical value is greater than 7
<=10 numerical value is less than or equal to 10
>=20 numerical value is greater than or equal to 20

Combinations of filters are made firstly horizontally, then vertically.

See Advanced filtering Example and counter-examples(1 2)...


Adding/modifying a data in any filtered/sorted table
When a new item is added to the project (base station, site, transmitter, ...) or when a data is modified, it is possible to
reapply a previous filter/sort configuration.
To do so, proceed as follows :
Activate the table window,
Right click on the item in the data window or select the Records menu.
Select the Apply filter/sort option from the scrolling menu.


Restoring data in Tables
To restore filtered data in tables, select the Show all records option from the Records menu.

Filtering, by any way, applies automatically to maps and data folders. As in tables, A9155 permits to manage easily data
from folders.

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II.6.2 EXAMPLES OF FILTER IN TABLES


Filter by selection (Antenna AO9209)


Filter excluding selection (Antenna AO9209)

II.6.3 FILTERING RADIO DATA
In A9155, filters may be applied to items with results displayed simultaneously in tables, in the map and in the data
folders. All data not checking the filters are not taken into account in calculations.

Filter tools are available :
1 - Either in the Advanced Filter option from the Records menu (when the Data table window is on) or from the general
tab window from the item properties (see features in Sorting and filtering in tables)
2 - by using the Filter by selection or Filter excluding selection options from either the Records menu or by right clicking
directly on the object in the table to be used as reference for the filtering (see features in Sorting and filtering in tables).
3 - from the Properties dialog box associated with the current folder.

To filter any folder from its associated Properties dialog box, proceed as follows :
Click on the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the folder you want to sort to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Select the General tab from the open window,
Click on the button,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open filtering dialog window,
Click the Filter tab and choose the filtering reference variable(s) and the associated filtering way(s).
Select a field you want to use for filtering among the discrete fields. A9155 lists the choice list if the
selected field is a text field with a choice list, or all the values of the selected field in table.
Check/uncheck boxes to keep/exclude values from tables, map and explorer. A9155 displays the defined
filter at the bottom of the dialog.
Click OK to apply filter.

Notes :
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The way the data contained in the current folder are filtered can be saved in a configuration template in order to be
used later.
It is also possible to use wildcard characters when defining advanced filter criteria on fields with the text format.

Filter criteria Function
*string* Filters objects which the chosen field contains the string of characters
string* Filters objects which the chosen field begins with the string of characters

Application: Sites may belong to several groups. In this case, let us assume that each site has an associated field such
as a list of groups (for example gr1 gr3 gr5). Therefore, by entering *gr5* as criterion, you can filter all the sites included
in gr5.

It is possible to select several values at once. To do this, click one or several values using shift and/or Ctrl button at
the same time and then, check/uncheck one of boxes.
Advanced site filters are available using the site list feature.

See Advance filtering : Example
II.6.4 ADVANCED FILTERING : EXAMPLE
Let's consider an A9155 project which contains only antenna of two types : GSMA090-12-6 and AO9209. All transmitters
using A09209 antenna have only 0 azimuth instead of 0, 120 and 240 of azimuth for transmitters using GSMA090-12-
6 antenna



Example : initial table
A goal could be, for example, to extract GSMA090-12-6 antennas whose azimuths are 0 and 240. This can be done by
using the following syntax in the window described just below :



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An example of filtering/sorting

- The type of columns to be filtered is chosen from a scrolling menu.
- The second line point out that will be kept GSMA090-12-6 antennas whose azimuth is lower than 120,
- or any type of antenna whose azimuth is greater than 120 (4th line). For this constraint, no AO9209 antenna
is concerned

II.6.5 ADVANCED FILTERING : COUNTER EXAMPLE 1
Here are a typical example which could drive an A9155 user to mistakes in filter and sort syntax. The goal stays the
same than in the example just before. The examples are shown through an advanced filter window and the
corresponding filtered and sorted Data table.



- The type of columns to be filtered is chosen from a scrolling menu.
- The second line point out that will be kept GSMA090-12-6 antennas whose azimuth is greater than 120,
- or any type of antenna whose azimuth is less than 120 (4th line), i.e. both GSMA090-12-6 and AO9209
antennas.

II.6.6 ADVANCED FILTERING : COUNTER EXAMPLE 2
Here are a typical example which could drive an A9155 user to mistakes in filter and sort syntax. The goal stays the
same than in the example just before. The examples are shown through an advanced filter window and the
corresponding filtered and sorted Data table.



- The type of columns to be filtered is chosen from a scrolling menu.
- The second line point out that will be kept any type of antenna whose azimuth is greater than 120,
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- or any type of antenna whose azimuth is less than 120 (4th line).
- GSMA090-12-6 antennas will be kept without any constraint.

The result indicates there have been no filtering. The final table is identical with the initial table.

II.6.7 SORTING A FOLDER
In the data window, items (transmitters, sites, simulations, etc...) are classified in folders. You can unfold them by left
clicking on the button associated with an item. You can fold them by left clicking on the button.

In A9155, every item folder can be sorted in the same way as in tables. Whenever a Data table is sorted, the display of
the corresponding item is automatically modified in the associated folder.

Moreover, you can sort any folder from its associated properties dialog box. To do so, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the folder you want to sort to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Select the General tab from the open window,
Click on the button,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open sorting dialog window,
Choose the sorting reference variable(s) and the associated sorting way(s),
Click OK to validate.


Note : The way the current folder is sorted can be saved in a configuration template in order to be used later.

II.6.8 ARRANGING ITEMS IN GROUPS
In A9155, it may be very practical to group data by characteristics. This can be done on the data folder or subfolder of
any item. The group corresponds to the Contents in tables. Several levels (limited by the memory of your computer) of
grouping are available.

To arrange any folder or subfolder in group(s) of variables, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the folder or subfolder you want to arrange in groups to open the associated context menu,
Either,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Select the General tab from the open window,
Click on the button,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open grouping dialog
window,
Choose the grouping reference variable(s) and the associated grouping order,
Click OK to validate,
Or,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Group by,
Choose the property you want to use as a group reference on the appeared menu on the right.


To come back to a standard display, either choose the Group by none option in the scrolling menu or use the grouping
dialog window and put back the grouping reference variables in the Available fields box.

Note : The way the data contained in the current folder are grouped can be saved in a configuration template in order to
be used later.


See examples of grouping by

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II.6.9 EXAMPLES OF GROUPING BY
In the following transmitters folder, sites in red are active, sites in white are inactive :


Data/Transmitters/Group by active sites

The obtained transmitters folder is classified in two groups, one for the active sites, one for the inactive sites :


Data/Transmitters - Transmitters grouped by activity

Note : in A9155, activity is a boolean. Active has the true value, whereas inactive has the false value.
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II.6.10 USING A GROUP BY/SORT/FILTER CONFIGURATION
In A9155, the way data contained in any folder are grouped, filtered and sorted can be saved in a configuration template
in order to be used later. Configuration templates are directly embedded to saved .atl projects. Any configuration is
erasable.


To create a configuration template (from an existing data organisation), proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the folder you want to sort to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Select the General tab from the open window,
Click on the button,
Type the configuration name in the open saving configuration dialog window. The configuration created is
listed in the configuration scrolling list in the General tab and is available for any data organisation in the
current folder only,
Click OK to validate.


Note : For transmitters, a default configuration called As Sites folder is available. Using this configuration enables you to
arrange transmitters in the Transmitters folder according to the organisation criteria defined for sites.

You can define several configurations and use them when needed. The configurations youve created are available from
the context menu associated with any folder by using the Configuration command and one of the listed objects in the
scrolling menu. To apply the configuration used to newly created objects, select the Apply current configuration
command in context menus.


Existing configurations are not saved in database. Nevertheless, in order to keep these, and potentially share them
between user, A9155 provides a feature allowing you to save user configurations (including also geo data set and
computation zone) in an external file.

See Exporting user configuration to an external file.

II.6.11 CREATING SUBFOLDERS
In A9155, you can manage your data folders in subfolders in order to display them in different ways. You can, for
example, create a subfolder for each sorting or filtering and compare it with each other.

To do so, proceed as follows :
In the data folder window, right click on the item you want to create a subfolder of,
Choose the Create a folder option from the scrolling menu,
A subfolder containing a copy of the original folder content is created.

You can manage your data in subfolders as in the original folder. Every subfolder is associated with a Data table window.
You can display each subfolder on the map, by checking ( ) or not ( ) the check box associated with each subfolder.
You can manage the visibility of the data as described in the Object visibility topic.

If you delete a subfolder, of course, data are not deleted. If you delete the last remaining subfolder, its data go directly to
the initial folder. due to refresh consideration, it may happen that data disappear. To come back to the display of all
objects of the folder, use the group by none function related to the considered folder.

II.6.12 REORGANIZING DATA AFTER MODIFICATIONS
When some data are either added or modified, their properties may not be consistent with the current folder
configuration. To make this configuration respected, just choose the apply current configuration from either the Records
menu (in case of displayed table) or from its associated context menu.

Note : the configuration is automatically applied to radio data dropped on the map. For example, let's assume that the
current configuration filters transmitters which azimuth is 240. We build a tri-sector station which azimuth are 0,120 and
240. Once dropped, 0 and 120 azimuth transmitters are automatically filtered. Only the 240 azimuth transmitter is
kept.

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II.6.13 FILTERING DATA IN A POLYGON
In large projects, it may be useful to work only on a certain number of sites and transmitters, in order to reduce the
computation cost or to make visualisation clearer either on the map, table or in the data folder.

To filter data inside a polygon, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Right click on the Sites folder to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Filter inside a polygon command from the open menu,
Either,
Select the Draw option,
Draw the filtering polygon on the map with the mouse, each left click corresponding to an angle,
Close the zone by double clicking (not displayed when closed ),
Or,
Select the computation zone option,
Only data (Sites and transmitters) contained in the considered polygon filter are kept.


The remaining objects in the polygon are displayed both in the data folders, in the Data tables and on the map.

In this zone, you may use current sorts, filters or groups or create new ones.

Notes :
You may filter sites inside a polygon even if they are grouped. The filter is applied to subfolders,
The polygon filtering can be saved in a Site folder configuration,
This filter is automatically applied to transmitters,
The filter is saved in the .atl document,
The filter is taken into account when defining a configuration,
The current computation or focus zone can also be taken as polygon filter (see their associated context menu)

II.6.14 REMOVING THE POLYGON FILTER
In A9155, radio data can be filtered in a polygon. As other filters, this can be saved in folder configuration.

To cancel the polygon filter, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Right click on the Sites folder to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Remove polygon filter command from the open menu,
All existing data from the current project are then displayed.

II.7 MANAGING DISPLAY IN A9155
II.7.1 DEFINING THE DISPLAY PROPERTIES OF ANY ITEM FOLDER
In A9155, most of the item groups (sites, transmitters, microwave links, predictions, simulations, measurements, DTM
maps,..) are managed in the same way concerning their display. For each of them, an homogenised dialog window is
available allowing you to define the type of field(s) to display, and how. Moreover, from this standard window, it is
possible to display labels related to the displayed object, and to manage the information available using the tip tool when
pointing the object on the workspace. Finally, you will be able to choose or not to display the related legend in the
Legend window.

To access the display property window of any object, proceed as follows:
Click the appropriate tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the folder related to the objects from which you want to manage the display properties,
Left click the Properties command from the open context menu,
Click on the Display tab from the open window,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Set the display parameters of the current object,
Click OK to validate.


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When working on the display of an item folder (e.g. Site or Transmitter folder), it is possible to choose among several
display types:
single: same representation for any object of the folder.
discrete values: representation according to the value of a discrete field available in the table related to the current
object(s).
values interval: representation according to the value of a numerical field available in the table related to the current
object(s).


Notes :
Whatever is the display type chosen, it is possible to change the displayed colours. To do that, select the threshold to
modify and use the commands contained in the scrolling menu when clicking the button.
You can modify globally thresholds and associated parameters using the values interval display type and the
Shading... command (Actions button).
Each individual display property (e.g. of just one site) is reachable by selecting the display tab from the item
Properties dialog.

II.7.2 MANAGING AND DISPLAYING LEGENDS
Any displayed A9155 object may have its associated legend in the Legend window.

To make displayable legend associated with any object, proceed as follows :
Click the appropriate tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the folder related to the objects from which you want to manage the legend properties,
Left click the Properties command from the open context menu,
Click on the Display tab from the open window,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Check the Add to legend box,
Click OK to validate,
The associated legend is now displayed in the Legend window.

To open the Legend window, just check the Legend command from the View menu in the menu bar. A new window is
then displayed in the current environment.

Notes :
Only displayed objects can have their legend in the Legend window,
The contents of the legend is given in the threshold window definition and is editable.
The legend window can be printed as any other active window. To do this, right click in it and select the Print..
command in the open context menu.

II.7.3 THRESHOLDS, COLOURS AND LEGENDS
The thresholds associated with colours are so many criteria making up a range of criteria (e.g. below threshold from -
45dBm to -70dBm).

You can use this association to provide a colorimetric representation of received signal levels, path losses, or any other
field displayed in values interval in A9155.

The definition of thresholds can be performed by using the button of A9155 generic display windows. The
several commands are available are listed below :
Select all : A9155 automatically selects all the representations available in the table.
Delete : A9155 removes representations selected in the table.
Insert before : This command is available only if a representation is selected in the table. A9155 adds a new
threshold in the table and places it before the selected one.
Insert after : This command is available only if a representation is selected in the table. A9155 adds a new threshold
in the table and places it after the selected one.
Properties : This command is available only after selecting one or several representations of the table. A9155 opens
the Display window where you may change colour and style.
Shading : A9155 opens the Shading window. You can define the number of value intervals and configure their
displays. Enter the highest (First break) and lowest (Last break) thresholds and an interval between thresholds.
Define the colour shading by choosing beginning and colours. Finally, you can select a coverage interior and a style
of line for coverage contour.
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You can set coverage transparency by moving the cursor on the transparency scale and specify a visibility scale.

If available, the legend associated with each threshold allows you to display a text instead of the threshold in the legend.
If no text has been entered, thresholds are displayed with associated colours.


Defining thresholds

In the example above, in the case of the signal level option, the defined thresholds mean :
Signal level >= -65 red (1st colour from top),
-65 > Signal level >= -105 shading from red to blue (9 thresholds),
Signal level < -105 not drawn on coverage.


Notes :
Shading, Insert before and Insert after features are only available in case of a value intervals display type.
When double-clicking on any representation in the table, A9155 opens the associated Display window.

II.7.4 DISPLAYING OBJECT LABELS ON THE MAP
Two solutions are generally available in order to display information related to displayed objects (e.g. sites or
transmitters) on the map within A9155. This information can be either permanently displayed or temporary reachable in
an help popup related to any pointed object on the map.

To make displayed permanently labels related to any object on the map, proceed as follows :
Click the appropriate tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the folder related to the objects you want to display related labels on the map,
Left click the Properties command from the open context menu,
Click on the Display tab from the open window,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Check the items to be displayed in the Label scrolling menu,
Click OK to validate,
The associated labels are now displayed on the map close to the referring objects.

Note : You can display as many labels than parameters related to the considered object. E.g., even if you add a new
field in the transmitter table, this field will be available to be displayed as a label for all the transmitters.

II.7.5 USING THE TIPS TOOL TO GET INFORMATION
Two solutions are generally available in order to display information related to displayed objects (e.g. sites or
transmitters) on the map within A9155. This information can be either permanently displayed or temporary reachable in
an help popup related to any pointed object on the map.

To make available information related to any pointed object on the map, proceed as follows :
Click the appropriate tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the folder related to the objects you want to display related tables on the map,
Left click the Properties command from the open context menu,
Click on the Display tab from the open window,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Check the items to be displayed in the Tips text scrolling menu,
Click OK to validate,
The associated information can be now given in help popups when pointing any item on the map with
mouse.

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To make active the tips information, click the from the toolbar. To inactive this function, click it again ( ).

Note : You can display as many information in popups than parameters related to the considered object. E.g., even if you
add a new field in the transmitter table, this field will be potentially available to be displayed in tip balloons.

II.8 USING HANDY TOOLS
II.8.1 USING THE UNDO/REDO COMMAND
Undo/Redo commands are available in A9155. It is a first step to enable users to undo and redo :
Most of modifications performed in workspace as : creating, deleting and moving a site (even moving a site to a high
point), a station or a group of stations, modifying antenna azimuth, moving a transmitter or deleting a transmitter,
Management tasks performed in Explorer window as creating and deleting any object (site, transmitter, repeater,
antenna, link, group of hexagons, measurement path, prediction study, map, propagation model) except
simulations in UMTS projects.,
Management tasks performed in tables (add or delete records, paste in tables, fill down or fill up commands).

The Undo/Redo is reachable from the Edit menu when available.

Note : the last 10 actions can be undone, unless you perform an action which is not supported by the undo feature. In
that case, the undo memory is cancelled.

II.8.2 REFRESHING MAPS AND FOLDERS
A refresh function is available in A9155. This feature allows you to reload currently displayed maps and apply the current
configurations to folders (e.g. after an addition of inconsistent data not respecting a filter).

To do this, use the button from the tool bar or the shortcut key F5.

Note : this feature allows you to cancel some potential refresh problems of the map.

II.8.3 SETTING DOCUMENT PRINTS
In A9155, many windows can be easily printed : maps, tables, legend window, CW measurement window, Test mobile
data window, point analysis window. Concerning maps and tables, a preview feature is available.

To open the print preview of any table or map, proceed as follows :
Make active the window you want to print,
Select the Print Preview command from the File menu in the general menu bar,
A preview window (in which you can zoom in or zoom out) opens,
Use the Print... or the Close command.


The way tables and maps are printed can also be managed easily in order to provide well-organized and customized
printed outputs.

To setup any table or map print, proceed as follows :
Make active the window you want to parameter the print,
Select the Page Setup... command from the File menu in the general menu bar,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
A fit representation of the print document is displayed and some options dealing with customisation are
available.
Click OK to close the dialog.

Note : the selected options (e.g. : erase outside of focus zone) are taken into account in print preview.

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II.8.4 LOCATING ANY POINT ON THE MAP
Since the version V6.2.1, A9155 provides a tool which enables you to quickly find existing sites and vectors on the map
and to locate any point on the map. It is possible to search for a site or a vector according to any of its text type
attributes.

The first step consists in opening the Map locating dialog. To open it, in the tool bar, click on the map locating icon .
The Map locating dialog consists of three parts dedicated to:
The search for site,
The search for vector,
The location of any point,
The three find options cannot be used at once. Therefore, select one of them.


To search for any point on the map, proceed as follows :
Select the Point option,
In respective boxes, enter x-coordinate and y-coordinate of the point you want to find on the map,
Keep the Draw point option selected,
Click on OK. A9155 displays a target on the map and centres the map on it.

Note : to hide the target, right click on it and select the Delete command from the context menu.

II.8.5 LOCATING ANY SITE ON THE MAP
In order to locate any site on the map, A9155 provides two different tools.

1 - A search bar is available to find the location of sites on the map. The Search bar can be open or closed by selecting
the Search bar command in the View menu.

This bar becomes a floating window by double clicking on it. In this case, it is possible to resize it.

To search an existing site in a network using the search site tool, proceed as follows :
In the Search bar, type the first characters of the site name in the Find site box. A9155 displays a scrolling
list containing all the sites, which the name begins with this string of characters.
Then, either
Select the site in the list,
Or
Go on typing the site name to reduce the number of sites in the list.
After choosing the site in the list, A9155 automatically centres the map on the selected site.

Notes :
As in advanced filters, it is possible to use the contains (*string*) and begins with (string*) criteria to search for
sites which name contains or begins with the given string. Be careful, *string is unknown.
Use the F3 shortcut to be automatically placed in the Find site box.

2 - Since the version V6.2.1, A9155 provides a tool which enables you to quickly find existing sites and vectors on the
map and to locate any point on the map. It is possible to search for a site or a vector according to any of its text type
attributes.

The first step consists in opening the Map locating dialog. To open it, in the tool bar, click on the map locating icon .
The Map locating dialog consists of three parts dedicated to:
The search for site,
The search for vector,
The location of any point,
The three find options cannot be used at once. Therefore, select one of them.

Then, this tool works like the "Find site" tool (See above). To search for any site on the map, proceed as follows :
Select the Site option,
Open the Field scrolling menu and choose in the list one text field (among the text type attributes of sites),
In the box below, type the first characters for the selected attribute (name or a comment for example).
A9155 displays a scrolling list containing all the values, which begins with this string of characters, and
gives into brackets the name of corresponding sites/vectors.
Either,
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Select a value in the list,
Or,
Go on typing to reduce the number of values,
After choosing the value in the list, click on OK. A9155 automatically centres the map on the site with the
selected value.

Notes :
As in advanced filters, it is possible to use the contains (*string*) and begins with (string*) criteria to search for
sites, which selected field contains or begins with the given string.
Be careful, *string is unknown.

II.8.6 LOCATING ANY VECTOR ON THE MAP
Since the version V6.2.1, A9155 provides a tool which enables you to quickly find existing sites and vectors on the map
and to locate any point on the map. It is possible to search for a site or a vector according to any of its text type
attributes.

The first step consists in opening the Map locating dialog. To open it, in the tool bar, click on the map locating icon .
The Map locating dialog consists of three parts dedicated to:
The search for site,
The search for vector,
The location of any point,
The three find options cannot be used at once. Therefore, select one of them.

To search for any site on the map, proceed as follows :
Select the Vector option,
Open the Field scrolling menu and choose in the list one text field (among the text type attributes of
vectors),
In the box below, type the first characters for the selected attribute. A9155 displays a scrolling list
containing all the values, which begins with this string of characters, and gives into brackets the name of
corresponding sites/vectors.
Either,
Select a value in the list,
Or,
Go on typing to reduce the number of values,
After choosing the value in the list, click on OK. A9155 automatically centres the map on the vector with the
selected value.

Notes :
As in advanced filters, it is possible to use the contains (*string*) and begins with (string*) criteria to search for
sites, which selected field contains or begins with the given string.
Be careful, *string is unknown.

II.8.7 SYNCHRONIZING VECTOR SELECTION AND DATA TABLE
Vectors are made of points containing some attributes/properties. They can be geo data vectors, CW measurement
paths, or test mobile data paths and related to a table in which is displayed the properties of each point. When selecting
a point composing a vector, if the data table is displayed in the same time, A9155 synchronize automatically both.
Indeed, the tool selects in the table the records related to the selected point on the map.

Note : when working on a measurement path, you can use the specific CW measurement window with this feature.
When moving with the pointer along the path, the selection in the table is automatically made.

II.8.8 USING THE STATUS BAR TO GET INFORMATION
The status bar is one of the different objects that can be displayed or not using the View menu. Once checked, the status
bar is located at the extreme bottom part of your A9155 environment. Two parts of the status bar are used in A9155. The
left part provides information related to the used of the measurement tool ( button in the toolbar), i.e. distances
between successive points and azimuths. The right part displays information about the location where points the mouse
on the map : X and Y coordinates (respecting the defined display coordinate system), the altitude (extracted from the
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imported DTM file) and the currently concerned clutter class (as defined in the clutter classes property dialog) and
altitude (as defined either in the clutter classes or clutter heights folder).

II.8.9 USING ICONS FROM THE TOOL BAR
A9155 provides a large number of commands that can be accessible using icons located in the tool bar. Some of them
are also linked to shortcut keys.

The different icons located in the toolbar are listed below :

In the Standard toolbar
: Open the new project dialog (like the Ctrl+N shortcut)
: Access the Open file dialog (like the Ctrl+O shortcut)
: Save the current active project (like the Ctrl+S shortcut)
: Cuts the selected data (like the Ctrl+X shortcut)
: Copy the selected data (like the Ctrl+C shortcut)
: Paste the content of the clipboard (like the Ctrl+V shortcut)
: Print the current active window (table or map) (like the Ctrl+P shortcut)
: Open the About A9155 dialog

In the Radio toolbar
: Create a new station based on the currently selected model
: Create a new group of hexagons based on the currently selected station template ( no hexagon radius
defined)
: Station model currently selected
: Create a new repeater related to the currently selected transmitter
: Visible neighbourhood for the selected transmitter
: Activate the point analysis window
: Calculate only invalid matrices, calculate all unlocked coverages and pending simulations (like the F7 shortcut)
: Force the calculation of all the matrices from scratch, calculate all unlocked coverages and pending simulations
(like the Ctrl+F7 shortcut)

In the Map toolbar
: Activate the area selection tool
: Reload map and folders (like the F5 shortcut)
: Move the map window (like the Ctrl+D shortcut)
: Map scale currently used
: Zoom in on the map (like the Ctrl+A shortcut)
: Zoom out on the map (like the Ctrl+R shortcut)
: Define a zoom area on the map (like the Ctrl+W shortcut)
: Activate the tip tool feature (inactivated :
: Get distances on the map
: Activates the map locating tool in order to locate any point, site or vector

In the Microwave link toolbar
: Create a new microwave link.
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In the Search toolbar
: Centre map around the selected site.

In the Vector edition toolbar
: Create a new vector layer (either in the Geo or in the Data tab)
: Select the vector layer being currently edited
: Draw a new vector polygon
: Draw a new vector line
: Draw points
: Allows the user to merge several vector polygons
: Allows the user to make holes in polygons
: Permits to keep only overlapping areas in order to create the resulting polygon
: Allows the user to cut a polygon in several parts

Note : the description of each icon is given in a tip balloon when pointing the mouse on it.

II.8.10 USING SHORTCUTS IN A9155
Like many other applications working under Windows environment, A9155 provides a complete set of shortcuts in order
to make easier and quicker the way to use it.

The different available shortcuts are listed below (some of them are linked with icons of the toolbar):

Using the Ctrl key
Ctrl+A : Select all records in tables (table active) or Zoom in on the map (map active - like icon from the toolbar)
Ctrl+C : Copy the selected data (like icon from the toolbar)
Ctrl+D : Fill down selected data in tables (table active) or Move the map window (map active - like icon from the
toolbar)
Ctrl+F : Open the find in tables dialog
Ctrl+N : Open the new project dialog (like icon from the toolbar)
Ctrl+O : Access the Open file dialog (like icon from the toolbar)
Ctrl+P : Print the current active window (table or map) (like icon from the toolbar)
Ctrl+R : Zoom out on the map (like icon from the toolbar)
Ctrl+S : Save the current active project (like icon from the toolbar)
Ctrl+U : Fill down selected data in tables (table active)
Ctrl+V : Paste the content of the clipboard (like icon from the toolbar)
Ctrl+W : Define a zoom area on the map (map active) (like icon from the toolbar)
Ctrl+X : Cut the selected data (like icon from the toolbar)
Ctrl+Y : Redo the previous undone function
Ctrl+Z : Undo the last function

Using the F keys
F3 : Locate the cursor directly within the search site tool
F5 : Reload map and folders (like icon from the toolbar)
F7 : Calculate only invalid matrices, calculate all unlocked coverages and pending simulations (like icon from the
toolbar)
Ctrl+F7 : Force the calculation of all matrices from scratch, calculate all unlocked coverages and pending simulations
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(like icon from the toolbar)


Note : when a letter is underlined in a command (Use the Alt button to make underlines active in Windows 2000), press
Shift+letter to run it.

II.9 TIPS AND TRICKS
II.9.1 HOW TO IMPORT GEO DATA EASILY
Drag and drop feature is available for any geo data object to import in A9155. To do this, just select the accurate geo
data file in your file explorer and drag it to A9155. The format will be automatically detected by the tool.

This can also be made on PlaNET index data file.

II.9.2 HOW TO CHANGE GLOBALLY A VALUE FOR ALL THE TRANSMITTER
The right way to make global changes is to open the Transmitter table, modify the contents in the first cell, select all the
columns and then use the fill-down feature, available in the Edit menu or with the shortcut Ctrl+D.

To select all the cells of the column, the easiest way is to select the first one, then select the last one holding the Shift
button.

II.9.3 HOW TO FIND EASILY A SITE ON THE MAP
A search bar is available to find the location of sites on the map. The Search bar can be open or closed by selecting the
Search bar command in the View menu.

In the Search bar, type the first characters of the site name in the Find site box. A9155 displays a scrolling list containing
all the sites, which the name begins with this string of characters. Then, either select the site in the list, or go on typing
the site name to reduce the number of sites in the list. After choosing the site in the list, A9155 automatically centres the
map on the selected site. As in advanced filters, it is possible to use the contains (*string*) and begins with (string*)
criteria to search for sites which name contains or begins with the given string.

A map locating dialog is also available and provides the location of any site or vector (as function on its attributes) or any
point. To open it, select the icon in the toolbar.

II.9.4 HOW TO BE AUTOMATICALLY PLACED IN THE FIND SITE BOX
Use the F3 shortcut to be automatically placed in the Find site box of the Search bar.

II.9.5 HOW TO DELETE ALL SITES AND THEIR TRANSMITTERS IN ONE SHOT
The right way to delete all sites and their transmitters is to open the Sites table, select the first one and the last one
holding the Shift button and use Suppr keyboard button.

It is recommended to close the Sites and Transmitters folders before deleting a large number of sites and transmitters,
otherwise the refresh of the explorer could take a long time.

II.9.6 HOW TO ACCESS THE PROPERTIES OF ANY OBJECT OR GROUP OF OBJECTS
In A9155, the properties of any object (geo data, sites, transmitters, measurements, etc) can be accessed from the
associated context menu. This is reachable by right-clicking on the considered object/group and choosing the properties
command.

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II.9.7 HOW TO FILTER DATA RAPIDLY
The easiest way is to perform directly filters within the tables (popup menu available by right-clicking in the table). OR
and AND criteria can be easily handled:
Selecting cells in several columns and the option "Filtering by selection" in the popup menu performs a AND filtering
criterion
Example: keeping transmitters with azimuth 120 and pilot power equal to 33 dBm

Selecting cells in several rows and the option "Filtering by selection" in the popup menu performs a OR filtering
criterion
Example: keeping transmitters with pilot power equal to 33 dBm or 35 dBm

To check which kind of dynamic criterion has been used by A9155, you can open Transmitters/Properties/General tab
and look at the advanced filter.

II.9.8 HOW TO WORK ONLY ON "LIVE" SITES
Let's assume there is a flag (user field) in Site table dedicated to the status of the site ("live", "on-built", "planned",).

Filtering sites directly in the table with the popup menu ("Filtering by selection") allows to keep just "live" sites.

Filters on site are automatically performed on transmitters ("As site folder" is the default configuration for Transmitter
folder). Further simulations or predictions will be achieved only on "live" sites.

II.9.9 HOW TO USE WILDCARD CHARACTERS TO FILTER TEXT-FORMAT FIELDS
Wildcard characters such as * can be used when defining advanced filter criteria on fields with text format.
Entering *string* enables you to filter objects which the chosen field contains the string of characters.
Entering string* enables you filter objects which the chosen field begins with the string of characters.


Example: How to display transmitters which are allocated a channel XX?

In the Transmitter table structure, there is a field "Channels" which contains a flat list of the channels allocated to the
transmitter. It is possible to define an advanced filter as follows:

Use the Advanced filter tab of the Filter dialog (Transmitters/Properties.../General/Filter/Advanced filter):
Columns: select "Channels" in the list
Criteria: =* XX * (which means CONTAINS)

Only the transmitters with the channel XX are displayed.

Note : the same filter can be managed at the level of any study by transmitter.

II.9.10 HOW TO CHANGE GLOBALLY THE NAMES OF ALL THE SITES
There is a Find/Replace feature in the Edit menu available when a table is open. To prefix all the sites with your name for
example, select the first cell of the "name" column in the Site table and use the Edit/Replace feature.

II.9.11 HOW TO FIND EASILY AN OBJECT BY ITS NAME IN A FOLDER
Open the folder and type the first letters of the object name.

II.9.12 HOW TO OPEN OR CLOSE RAPIDLY A FOLDER
Shortcuts, available in standard Windows applications are available within A9155 to open or close the selected folder
with shortcuts.
"Right arrow" and "Left arrow" respectively open and close the selected folder just like "+" and "-" on the numeric
keyboard.
"*" on the numeric keyboard opens all the subfolders of the selected folder.
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[Alt F4] may be used to quit A9155 rapidly when no modifications were made. If there are modifications, you will be
asked to save them anyway.

II.9.13 HOW TO FIND EASILY AN OBJECT IN A TABLE
A Find feature is available in the Edit menu when a table is open. To find an object in a table, open the table and use the
Find feature.

II.9.14 HOW TO FIND EASILY AN OBJECT ON THE MAP
The Centre map feature allows the user to find on the map any object located into a folder (site, transmitter, etc).
When choosing this command in the associated context menu, the considered object is automatically displayed in the
centre of the current workspace.

II.9.15 HOW TO CUSTOMISE THE COLUMNS DISPLAYED IN A TABLE
When a table is open, you may use the "Display columns" feature available in the Format menu to choose which
columns you want to keep within the table. This is useful to customise reports on transmitters or import Excel-format data
by matching columns on both sides and copying-pasting into the table.

II.9.16 HOW TO CUSTOMISE THE TABLE STYLE
When a table is open, you may use features available in the Format menu in order to customise the table style.
To change the title style, choose the Format title feature.
To modify the column style, select a column and use the Format columns feature. You may also use the Align Left,
Centre, Align Right, Bold and Italic features.

II.9.17 HOW TO CHANGE GLOBALLY DISPLAY PROPERTIES OF OBJECTS
In the Display tab, select the whole table describing the display configuration and click on the Modify button. In the
Display window, you can choose a unique symbol for all the objects.

II.9.18 HOW TO PREDICT SIGNAL LEVEL ON A ROAD
The easiest way consists in using CW measurement features. Lets assume you have previously imported a vector file.
The procedure is divided into three steps:
Right click on a linear object and select the Element properties command. In the Geometry tab, copy the list
of coordinates (Ctrl+C).
Right click on the CW Measurement folder and select the New command. Give a name to the path, specify
CW measurement unit, transmitter and receiver properties and finally click on the Paste button. Then, click
on OK to validate the path creation.
Open the path properties window. Choose a propagation model, click on Actions and choose Calculate
predictions. The signal level calculated on the path is displayed in a related table (P(dBm) column).

You may use the CW Measurement window to visualise the signal level received from the selected transmitter on the
path.

II.9.19 HOW TO WORK ON A SET OF SITES SELECTED BY A POLYGON
Let's assume polygons are available within A9155. Right-clicking on the polygon, you can use it as the computation or
focus zone or as a filtering polygon. Sites, transmitters and future calculations are filtered with this polygon.

You can save the polygon filter as a configuration of the Site folder, and repeat this operation with as many polygons as
you wish.
Then, directly right-clicking on the Site folder, you will get all the available configurations for the folder and be able to
rapidly switch from one to another.

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Configurations are saved in the ATL file but possibly also in an external user configuration file.

II.9.20 HOW TO OBTAIN A LINK BUDGET
Right-click anywhere in the Profile window to open a context menu. This menu allows you to change receiver properties,
gives the choice between signal level, pathloss or total losses display, and offers a link budget.

If the propagation model used by the selected transmitter is a Standard Propagation Model, there is an additional feature,
useful for validation, called "Model details" providing detailed results along the profile.

II.9.21 HOW TO DISPLAY CITY POINTS AND THEIR NAMES ON THE MAP
With a vector format providing for each point an attribute containing the name (e.g. "name").

Import the vector file within A9155 and choose the field "name" as label (you can use any field or list of fields in the same
way).

II.9.22 HOW TO DISPLAY SCRAMBLING CODES ON THE MAP
Scrambling codes are managed at the cell level, e.g. for a given transmitter and a given carrier.

Coverage can be displayed using a colour code based on any cell property (scrambling code, UL load,...) on condition
that:
A UMTS study is created with the choice of a single carrier
The study Display tab is set with the required field (scrambling code, UL load,...)

Note : PN offsets can be displayed in the same way in CDMA/CDMA2000 projects

II.9.23 HOW TO DEFINE THE DEFAULT SERVER FOR DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING
in the Atoll.ini file:
[RemoteCalculation]
Servers=Workstation_1;Workstation_2
If the list is empty, computations are run locally.



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Managing Geographic Data
3
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III MANAGING GEOGRAPHIC DATA
III.1 MANAGING GEOGRAPHIC DATA : OVERVIEW
A9155 manages several geographic data types: DTM (Digital Terrain Model), clutter classes (land use), clutter heights
(over the DTM), scanned images, vector data, population data, generic data and supports several file formats in relation
to data type.

The first step is to define geographic coordinate systems then import geographic data (DTM, clutter classes and heights,
scanned images, vector data, population data) using an easy and fast procedure. Furthermore, A9155 allows you to
create your own clutter class (and traffic raster - in GSM/GPRS/EDGE, UMTS or CDMA/CDMA2000 projects - ) maps
thanks to the cartography editor. A9155 lists the imported DTM, clutter class and height or traffic objects in their
respective folder and creates a separate folder for each imported vector data and scanned image.

Once theses folder are created (Traffic description is linked with radio data - depending on the project type - even if
present in the Geo tab of the A9155 environment) , you may manage them (display, data location managing, clutter class
description...) easily. It is also possible to display vector objects over coverages by importing/transferring these objects
directly in the Data tab.

A9155 also provides some features dealing with data priority like multi-layer management and multi-resolution
management.

Some edition tools for raster or vector objects are also available. Moreover, most of the geo data objects can be exported
in external files (DTM, clutter classes, clutter heights, raster polygons, vector layers). Finally, maps can be exported as
an image in external files, or in other applications.

III.2 GEO DATA TYPE SUPPORTED
Several geographic data types: DTM (Digital Terrain Model), clutter classes (land use), clutter heights (over the DTM),
scanned images, vector data, population data and even generic data maps are supported within A9155. For all of these,
different file formats are supported.


The DTM (Digital Terrain Model)
The DTM (Digital Terrain Model) files describe the ground elevation. The DTM geographic data is a 16 bits/pixel relief
map. A9155 is able to display this raster map in different ways : single value, discrete values, values interval.

DTM/DEM are systematically taken into account in computation by propagation model.

Note : In most documents, Digital elevation model (DEM) and digital terrain model (DTM) are differentiated and do not
have the same meaning. By definition, DEM refers to altitude above sea level including both ground and clutter while
DTM just corresponds to the ground height above sea level.


Clutter classes (or land use)
The clutter class files describe the land cover (dense urban, buildings, residential, forest, open, villages....); the ground is
represented by a grid map where each bin corresponds to a code allocated to a main type of cover (a clutter class).
According to the classification, the clutter is either statistical if the number of clutter classes depends on the housing
density or determinist if the number of clutter classes depends on the cover altitude.

The altitude per class can be defined in the clutter class property dialog. In that case, only one altitude refer to each
clutter class. It is also possible to use a clutter height map (see below).

The clutter class maps are 8 bits/pixel (256 classes-raster maps). They define an image with a colour assigned to each
clutter class (by default, grey shading).

Note : clutter heights are taken into account only using the Standard Propagation Model and WLL model.


Clutter heights
Clutter height maps have been introduced in V6.2.1. They are complementary to clutter classes, in a way that they can
inform more precisely on the clutter altitudes, since it is possible to have different heights for a same class of clutter. Like
in clutter classes, clutter heights indicates, on each bin, the clutter altitude over the DTM.
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When clutter altitude is defined both in clutter class and clutter height folders, the information is taken in the second one.
Clutter heights are taken first if they exist (in measurements, computations, display).

The clutter height maps are 16 bits/pixel. They give one altitude per pixel and can be managed like DTM/DEM maps.
A9155 is able to display the clutter height map in different ways : single value, discrete values, values interval.

Note : clutter heights are taken into account only using the Standard Propagation Model and WLL model.


Vector layers
This type of data represent either polygons (regions...), or lines (roads, coastlines...) or points (important locations...).
They are used in display only and have not no effect on computations.

Polygons can be used for filtering purpose or for the creation of computation and focus zones. Whatever their shape is, it
is possible to create a vector layer by using the vector editor.

Any formation/attribute contained in the vector can be used as a display parameter (name, zip code, user profile, etc...)

Vectors can be used to generate CDMA/CDMA2000 or WCDMA/UMTS traffic maps (see below).

Note : since vector maps (like scanned images) have no effect on computation, it is possible to group all maps working
like this within a unique display folder, and to make their management easier.


Scanned images
This type of data (1-24 bits/pixel) regroups the road maps and the satellite images. Scanned images are only used for
display (no effect on computations), and help the user lo locate precisely objects in the real field.

Note : since scanned images (like vector maps) have no effect on computation, it is possible to group all maps working
like this within a unique display folder, and to make their management easier.


Population maps
Population maps are built using 8-32 bits/pixel files for which some density or value (in number of inhabitants)
information is given. It is possible to mix several types of files (8 or 16 bits raster, vectors,...) in order to extract from
them the needed information.

The interest of these maps is to use them in prediction reports with a view to display, for example, the absolute and
relative covered population.

Population maps have no effect on prediction and simulation results.


Generic maps
The generic map feature has been developed in order to import any type of geo data in term of any advanced map. For
example, it is now possible to import any raster/vector file and to use it as a revenue, rainfall or socio-demographics map.

Like for the population map, it is possible to mix several types of files (8 or 16 bits raster, vectors,...) in order to extract
from them the needed information.

It is also potentially possible to use this information in prediction reports. For example, in a revenue map, it is possible to
display the revenue value for a coverage.

Generic maps have no effect on prediction and simulation results.


The traffic data
According to the project type you start, A9155 proposes different kinds of traffic data.

In any project, you can import or create traffic 8 bits/pixel (256 classes-raster maps). For each bin of the map, a code
linked with a particular environment class is assigned (density of user profiles with associated mobility) for UMTS, CDMA
and CDMA2000 projects or a traffic density (Erlang/km2) in GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects. The raster maps are
macroscopic traffic estimation.

In the UMTS, CDMA/CDMA2000 projects, you can additionally use traffic vector maps and traffic maps per transmitter
and per service.
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- Vector maps detail traffic estimations (lines or polygons may have a specific traffic). Each polygon or line is related to a
specific user profile with associated mobility and density. They can be built from population density vector maps.
- When traffic is actual information on connections (and no longer subscriber estimation), coming from the network and
dealing with rates per transmitter and service, it is possible to create and use traffic maps based on this network
feedback. They are built from a coverage by transmitter prediction.

III.3 LENGTH/HEIGHT/OFFSET UNITS AND COORDINATE SYSTEMS
III.3.1 SETTING DEFAULT LENGTH/HEIGHT/OFFSET UNITS
In A9155, it is possible to define a default length/height/offset units, like default radio units, that will be used in some
dialog box fields (not in tables).
For example :
Lengths are used for calculation radius in transmitter and station template properties or hexagon radius in station
template properties, and when using the Distance measurement button.
Heights are used when reading the altitudes of sites, transmitters, DTM, etc...
Offset units are used to define transmitter Dx and Dy from the related site location


To define a default length/height/offset units in an already open project, proceed as follows :
Click on the Tools menu from the toolbar,
Choose the Options... command from the open scrolling menu,
Click on the Units tab,
Choose in the scrolling list the default units for the current .atl A9155 project.


Notes : We can distinguish the display unit as described above from the internal unit. The internal unit cannot be
changed by the user. In any case (.atl project connected to a database or not), the internal length unit is the metre.
When environments are connected to a database, display and internal unit systems are stored in the database:
the internal unit is used as the length (height or offset) unit in the database,
the display unit is memorised and taken into account when opening a project from the database.

III.3.2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS : BASIC CONCEPTS
A map or a geospatial database is a flat representation of data located on a curved surface. A projection is a device for
producing all or part of a round body on a flat sheet. This projection cannot be done without distortion, thus the
cartographer must choose the characteristic (distance, direction, scale, area or shape) which is to be shown
appropriately at the expense of the other characteristics, or compromise on several characteristics [1]. The projected
zones are referenced using cartographic coordinates (meter, yard...).

Two projection systems are widely used:

The Lambert Conformal-Conic projection: a portion of the earth is mathematically projected on a cone conceptually
secant at one or two standard parallels. This projection type is useful for representing countries or regions that have a
predominant east-west expanse.

The Universal Transverse Mercator projection (UTM): a portion of the earth is mathematically projected on a cylinder
tangent to a meridian (which is transverse or crosswise to the equator). This projection type is useful for mapping
large areas that are oriented north-south.

The geographic system is not a projection, but a representation of a location on the earth's surface from geographic
coordinates (degree-minute-second or grade) giving the latitude and longitude in relation to the origin meridian (Paris for
NTF system and Greenwich for ED50 system). The locations in the geographic system can be converted into other
projections.

[1] Snyder, John. P., Map Projections Used by the US Geological Survey, 2nd Edition, United States Government
Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 313 pages, 1982.

A9155 integrates two databases including more than 980 international coordinate system references, a database based
on the European Petroleum Survey Group and another one regrouping only France's coordinate systems. A9155
distinguishes the cartographic coordinate systems for projection and either cartographic or geographic coordinate
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systems for display.


The maps displayed in the workspace are referenced in a particular projection system intrinsic to the imported
geographic data files; thus, the projection system depends on the imported geographic file. By choosing a specific
display system, you may see (using the rulers or status bars) the location of sites on the map in a coordinate system
different from the projection coordinate system. You may also position on the map sites referenced in the display system:
the coordinates are automatically converted in the projection system and the site is displayed on the map.


In the example below, the French Riviera geographic data file has been imported. The map shows the French Riviera
projected using the cartographic NTF (Paris) / France II tendue system (coordinates in metres). On the other hand, site
coordinates are stated in the geographic WGS 72 system (coordinates in degrees-minutes-seconds).




Note : if all the imported geographic files are referenced in the same projection system and if you do not need to convert
coordinates in another system; it is not necessary to define projection and display systems. By default, the two systems
are the same.

III.3.3 DEFINING THE PROJECTION COORDINATE SYSTEM
To define the projection coordinate system, proceed as follows :
Select in the Tools menu, the Options... command.
Click on the Coordinates tab from the open window,
Click on the browse button right to the Projection field.
Use the What's this help to get further description about the fields available in the window
Select a catalogue and choose a coordinate system in the related table. Characteristics of the selected
system are described by clicking the Properties button.
Click OK to validate the projection system.

Notes :
You can add the selected coordinate system to a catalogue of favourite systems by using the button.
When exporting an A9155 project in a database, the currently chosen display coordinate system becomes the
internal one.
Default systems cannot be modified.

III.3.4 DEFINING THE DISPLAY COORDINATE SYSTEM
To define the display coordinate system, proceed as follows :
Select in the Tools menu, the Options... command.
Click on the Coordinates tab from the open window,
Click on the browse button right to the Display field.
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Use the What's this help to get further description about the fields available in the window
Select a catalogue and choose a coordinate system in the related table. Characteristics of the selected
system are described by clicking the Properties button.
Click OK to validate the display system.


Notes :
If the display coordinate system is cartographic, X and Y respectively correspond to abscissa and ordinate.
If the display coordinate system is geographic, X and Y respectively refer to longitude and latitude.
Cartographic systems are identified by the symbol to the left of the systems, whereas geographic ones are
symbolized by .
You can add the selected coordinate system to a catalogue of favourite systems by using the button.
Default systems cannot be modified.

III.3.5 CREATING YOUR OWN COORDINATE SYSTEM
A9155 provides a large catalogue of default coordinate systems. Nevertheless, it is possible to add the description of
geographic and cartographic coordinate systems. The new coordinate system can be created from scratch or initialised
on the basis of an existing one.

To create a new coordinate system, proceed as follows :
Select in the Tools menu, the Options... command.
Click on the Coordinates tab from the open window,
Click on the browse button right to the Projection or Display field.
Either,
Click on the New button,
Or,
Select a catalogue and choose a coordinate system in the related table,
Click on the New button.
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the window,
Choose the catalogue where you want to store the new coordinate system,

Geographic coordinate system (symbolised ) is a latitude and longitude coordinate system. The latitude and longitude
are related to an ellipsoid, a geodetic datum and a prime meridian. The geodetic datum provides the position and
orientation of the ellipsoid relative to the earth.
A cartographic coordinate system (symbolised ) is obtained thanks to a transformation method which converts a
(latitude, longitude) into an (easting, northing). Therefore, to define a projection system, you must specify the geographic
coordinate system supplying longitude and latitude and the transformation method characterised by a set of parameters.
Different methods may require different sets of parameters. For example, the parameters required to define the projected
Transverse Mercator coordinate system are:
- The longitude of the natural origin (Central meridian),
- The latitude of the natural origin,
- The False Easting value,
- The False Northing value,
- A scale factor at the natural origin (on the central meridian),

In the General part, type a name, choose a unit in the scrolling menu (to open it, select the cell and left click
on the arrow), and define the usage.
In the Category part, choose in the Type scrolling menu (to open it, select the cell and left click on the
arrow) either Long/Lat in order to create a geographic coordinate system, or a type of projection and its set
of associated parameters for cartographic coordinate systems.
In the Geo part, specify the meridian and choose an existing datum in the Datum scrolling menu (to open it,
select the cell and left click on the arrow). The associated ellipsoid is automatically selected. You can also
describe a geodetic datum by selecting in the Datum scrolling menu. In this case, you must provide
parameters (Dx, Dy, Dz, Rx, Ry, Rz and s) needed for the transformation of datum into WGS84 and an
ellipsoid.
Click OK to validate the display system.


Notes :
An identification code enables A9155 to differentiate the existing coordinate systems. In case of new created
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coordinate systems, assigned codes are integer values strictly higher than 32767.
Management in the coordinate system folder is possible. Use the Technical guide for a the process description.

Caution: For an easier management and to avoid any confusion, take care to give a unique name to the created
coordinate systems.

III.4 GEO DATA FORMAT SUPPORTED
III.4.1 SUPPORTED GEO DATA FORMATS : OVERVIEW
A9155 offers import filters for the most commonly used geographic data formats. You can use these filters to import
DTM, clutter class, traffic, vector files or scanned images.

The different filters are :

File format Can contain Georeferenced

BIL DTM (16 bits), clutter heights (16 bits), clutter classes (8
bits), traffic (8 bits), image (1-24 bits), population (8-32 bits),
Generic (8-32 bits)
Yes via .hdr files
TIFF DTM, clutter height and classes, traffic, Image, population,
generic
Yes via associated .tfw files if they exist
PlaNET DTM, clutter height and classes, traffic, Image, text and
vector data
Yes via index files
BMP DTM, clutter height and classes, traffic, Image, population,
generic
Yes after manually entering northwest
and southwest point coordinates of the
image
DXF Vector data, vector traffic, population, generic Yes
SHP Vector data, Vector traffic, population, generic Yes
MIF/MID Vector data, Vector traffic, population, generic Yes
IST DTM, clutter height and classes, traffic, Image, population,
generic
Yes via .hdr files
Erdas
Imagine
DTM, clutter height and classes, traffic, Image, population,
generic
Yes automatically embedded in the data
file


Thus, you can import:
DTM files with TIFF (16 bit), BIL (16 bit), IST (16 bit), PlaNET, BMP (16 bit) and Erdas Imagine (16 bit) formats,
Clutter heights with TIFF (16 bit), BIL (16 bit), IST (16 bit), PlaNET, BMP (16 bit) and Erdas Imagine (16 bit) formats,
Clutter classes and traffic files with TIFF (8 bit), BIL (8 bit), IST (8 bit), BMP (8 bit), PlaNET, and Erdas Imagine (8
bit) formats,
Vector data files with DXF, PlaNET, SHP and MIF formats,
Vector traffic files with DXF, PlaNET, SHP and MIF formats,
Scanned image files with TIFF (1-24 bit), BIL (1-24 bit), IST (1-24 bit), BMP (1-24 bit), PlaNET and Erdas Imagine
(1-24 bit) formats,
Population with TIFF (16 bit), BIL (16 bit), IST (16 bit), PlaNET, BMP (16 bit), Erdas Imagine (16 bit), DXF, SHP
and MIF formats
Generic data with TIFF (16 bit), BIL (16 bit), IST (16 bit), PlaNET, BMP (16 bit), Erdas Imagine (16 bit), DXF, SHP
and MIF formats


Notes : the use of compressed formats (tiff compressed or Erdas Imagine) on geo data (e.g. DTM or Clutter) can lead to
slow processes because of the decompression in real time. To avoid this effect, it is strongly recommended to inactive
the status bar which can provide geo data information in real time (Untick the Status bar option in the View menu). It is
also possible to save the produced map in a not compressed format.

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III.4.2 BIL DATA FORMAT
Band Interleaved by Line is a method of organizing image data for multiband images. it is a schema for storing the actual
pixel values of an image in a file. The pixel data is typically preceded by a file header that contains ancillary data about
image, such as the number of rows and columns in the image, a colourmap... BIL data stores pixel information band by
band for each line, or row, of the image. Although BIL is a data organization schema, it is treated as an image format. An
image description (number of rows and columns, number of bands, number of bits per pixel, byte order...) has to be
provided to be able to display the BIL file. This information is included in the header HDR file associated with the BIL file.
A HDR file has the same name as the BIL file it references, and should be located in the same directory as the source
file. The HDR structure is simple, it is an ASCII text file that contains eleven lines. You can open a HDR file using any
ASCII text editor. The parameters defined in .hdr files are detailed below:


Keywords Acceptable
values
Default Description

nrows any integer > 0 none number of rows in the image
ncols any integer > 0 none number of columns in the image
nbands any integer > 0 none number of spectral bands in the image
nbits* 1, 4, 8, 16, 32 8 number of bits per pixel per band
byteorder I = Intel same as host
machine
byte order in which image pixel values are stored
M = Motorola
layout bil bil organization of the bands in the image file
skipbytes any integer > 0 0 number of bytes of data in the image file to be skipped in order to
reach the start of the image data
ulxmap any real
number
0 x-axis map coordinate of the centre of the upper-left pixel
ulymap any real
number
nrows - 1 y-axis map coordinate of the centre of the upper-left pixel
xdim any real
number
1 x dimension of a pixel in map units
ydim any real
number
1 y dimension of a pixel in map units


*The nbits value depends on the geographic data type. Indeed, nbits are respectively 16 (16 bits) for DTM and 8 (8 bits)
for clutter or traffic.


Example: clutter.hdr file associated with clutter.bil file.

nrows 1500
ncols 1500
nbands 1
nbits 8
byteorder M
layout bil
skipbytes 0
ulxmap 975000
ulymap 1891000
xdim 20.00
ydim 20.00

III.4.3 TIFF DATA FORMAT
The Tagged Image File Format graphics filter supports all image types (monochrome, greyscale, palette colour, and
RGB full colour images) and pack bit or fax group 3-4 compressions. The TIFF files are not systematically
georeferenced. In this case, you will have to enter spatial references of the image manually during the import procedure
(x and y-axis map coordinates of the centre of the upper-left pixel, pixel size); an associated file with TFW extension will
be simultaneously created with the same name and in the same directory as the TIFF file it references. A9155 will then
use the .tfw file during the import procedure for an automatic georeferencement. TFW file contains the spatial reference
data of an associated TIFF file. The TFW file structure is simple, it is an ASCII text file that contains six lines. You can
open a TFW file using any ASCII text editor. The contents of a TFW file look something like this.
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Line Description

1 x dimension of a pixel in map units
2 amount of translation
3 amount of rotation
4 negative of the y dimension of a pixel in map units
5 x-axis map coordinate of the centre of the upper-left pixel
6 y-axis map coordinate of the centre of the upper-left pixel

Example: clutter.tfw file associated with clutter.tif file.

100.00
0.00
0.00
-100.00
60000.00
2679900.00

It is possible to import a group of tiff images as geo data.

Note : A9155 supports also TIFF files using the Packbit, FAX-CCITT3 and LZW compression modes.

For customers working out the TIFF coverage prediction files exported by A9155 with GIS tools, an option is available in
order to modify the colour palette convention used by A9155.
In the default palette, the first colour indexes represent the useful information and the remaining colour indexes represent
the background.
It is possible to export a TIFF file with a palette containing at the colour index 0, the background colour, and following, the
colour indexes necessary to represent useful information.

To set up the new palette convention, add these lines in the Atoll.ini file:
[TiffExport]
PaletteConvention=Gis

To be taken into account, the file must be located in the A9155 installation directory. This file is read only when A9155 is
started. Therefore, it is necessary to close the A9155 session and to restart it in order to take into account any
modification performed in Atoll.ini.

Notes : the use of compressed formats (tiff compressed or Erdas Imagine) on geo data (e.g. DTM or Clutter) can lead to
slow processes because of the decompression in real time. To avoid this effect, it is strongly recommended to inactive
the status bar which can provide geo data information in real time (Untick the Status bar option in the View menu). It is
also possible to save the produced map in a not compressed format.

III.4.4 DXF DATA FORMAT
The Drawing Interchange Format (DXF) enables the interchange of drawings between AutoCAD and A9155. DXF files
can be either ASCII or binary formats, but only the first type is used in A9155.

Essentially a DXF file is composed of pairs of codes and associated values. The codes, known as group codes, indicate
the type of value that follows. Using these group code and value pairs, a DXF file is organized into sections, which are
composed of records, which in turn are composed of a group code and a data item. Each group code and value are on
their own line in the DXF file.

Each section starts with a group code 0 followed by the string, SECTION. This is followed by a group code 2 and a string
indicating the name of the section (for example, HEADER). Each section is composed of group codes and values that
define its elements. A section ends with a 0 followed by the string ENDSEC.

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III.4.5 SHP DATA FORMAT
ESRI (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc.) Arcview GIS (Geographic Information System) Shapefiles are a
simple, non-topological format for storing the geometric location and attribute information of geographic features. A
shapefile is one of the spatial data formats that you can work with in ArcExplorer. shp data file are commonly associated
with two other files with .shx and .dbf extensions.

A quick description of the 3 files are given below :
shp - the file that stores the feature geometry.
shx - the file that stores the index of the feature geometry.
dbf - the dBASE file that stores the attribute information of features. When a shapefile is added as a theme to a view,
this file is displayed as a feature table.

Note : Under A9155, shp filenames are not limited in number of characters when exporting or importing, even if the file
name is made of more than 8 characters.

III.4.6 MIF DATA FORMAT
MIF (MapInfo Interchange Format) is a format allowing generic data to be attached to a variety of graphical items. These
ASCII files are editable, relatively easy to generate, and work on all platforms supported by MapInfo. Vector objects may
be imported in A9155 with a MIF extension.

MapInfo data are contained in two files with .MIF and MID. extensions. Graphics reside in a .MIF file and textual data is
contained in a .MID file. The textual data is delimited data, with one row per record and either Carriage Return, Carriage
Return plus Line Feed, or Line Feed between lines. The MIF file has two areas -- the file header area and the data
section. The MID file is an optional file. When there is no MID file, all fields are blank

More info : http://www.mapinfo.com/community/free/library/interchange_file.pdf

III.4.7 ERDAS IMAGINE DATA FORMAT
A9155 is able to support Erdas Imagine data files in order to import DTM (16 bit/pixel), clutter (8 bit/pixel), traffic (8
bit/pixel) and image (1-24 bit/pixel) files with the .img format. These files use the Erdas Imagine Hierarchical File Format
(HFA) structure. For any type of file, if there are pyramids (storage of different resolution layers), they are used to
enhance performance when decreasing the resolution of the display.

A9155 supports uncompressed as well as compressed (or partially compressed) DTM .img files,
You can create a .mnu file to improve the clutter class map loading,
The association colour-code (raster maps) may be automatically imported from the .img file,
These files are auto-georeferenced, i.e. they do not need any extra file for georeferencement,
For image files, the number of supported bands is either 1 (colour palette is defined separately) or 3 (no colour palette
but direct RGB information for each pixel). In case of 3 bands, only 8 bit per pixel format is supported. Therefore, 8-bit
images, containing RGB information (three bands are provided: the first band is for Blue, the second one is for Green
and the third for Red), can be considered as 24 bit per pixel files. 32 bit per pixel files are not supported.


Notes : the use of compressed formats (tiff compressed or Erdas Imagine) on geo data (e.g. DTM or Clutter) can lead to
slow processes because of the decompression in real time. To avoid this effect, it is strongly recommended to inactive
the status bar which can provide geo data information in real time (Untick the Status bar option in the View menu). It is
also possible to save the produced map in a not compressed format.

III.4.8 OTHER SUPPORTED FORMATS
A9155 supports 3 other formats than the BIL, TIFF, PlaNET, DXF, SHP, MIF, and IMG ones.

The .ist and .dis formats are ASCII files used for Digital Terrain Model only. Ist images come from Istar, whereas dis
images come from IGN (Institut Gographique National). Ist format works exactly like bil format, except for DTM images,
for which ist format uses a decimetric coding for altitudes, whereas bil images uses only a metric coding.

The .bmp format is the standard Windows image format on DOS and Windows-compatible computers. The bmp format
supports RGB, colour-indexed, greyscale, and bitmap colour modes, and does not support alpha channels.
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III.5 MANAGING CLUTTER CLASSES
III.5.1 IMPORTING A CLUTTER CLASS FILE
Considering the appropriate format, clutter class type files can be imported as follows :
Select the Import command in the File menu from the menu bar,
Specify the path, the name and the format (optional) of the related file in the open dialog box,
Press OK to validate,
Select the Clutter classes option in the Data type scrolling box,
Click the Import button to complete the file import.

The imported clutter class files are listed in their appropriate folder in the Geo tab and can be managed easily
(description, modification, visibility, layer order management, etc...). Geographic data are displayed in the workspace.

Notes :
The drag and drop feature is available from any file explorer application to A9155.
.geo or .cfg (user configuration files) can be used (import-export) to share paths of the imported clutter class file paths
between users.
Imported files can be embedded during the import or afterwards

III.5.2 OPTIMISING THE LOADING OF CLUTTER CLASS FILES
The loading performance of clutter classes (and raster traffic) with .bil, .tif and .img formats is highly improved when
A9155 does not have to find by itself the list of the classes contained in the file. To benefit from this optimisation, the user
must create a text file named as the clutter classes (or GSM/GPRS/EDGE, UMTS or CDMA/CDMA2000 raster traffic
maps) file with .mnu extension, at the same location. This MNU file gives the correspondence between the code and the
class name. This optimisation is already included in the PlaNET format thanks to the menu file.

To do so, check the validity of an associated .mnu file in the map folder before achieving the import geo data procedure.

Practical advice: A9155 can be used to easily create the MNU file. Just import the clutter classes (or traffic) file (slow
loading) in A9155 and paste the class description (Description tab in the Properties window) in a text file.

III.5.3 DESCRIPTION OF MNU FILES
MNU file is useful when importing clutter class or raster traffic files with .tif, .bil and .img formats. It gives the
correspondence between the clutter (or traffic) code and the class name. It is a text file named as the clutter class (or
traffic) file with .mnu extension, which must be stored at the same location.

Field Type Description
Class code Integer > 0 Identification code for the clutter (or traffic) class
Class name String (up to 32 characters in length) Name of the clutter (or traffic) class

Separator is either a blank or a tab.


Sample : Mnu file associated to a clutter file.

0 none
1 open
2 sea
3 inland_water
4 residential
5 meanurban
III.5.4 MANAGING THE CLUTTER CLASSES
Clutter classes represent the land cover of a network. They can be used by propagation models in three ways :
Some of them use their "nature" to associate adapted formulas (Okumura-Hata, Cost-Hata)
Others use these clutter classes to associate some specific parameters such as specific losses or clearances
(Standard Propagation model, WLL),
The definition of clutter heights (either in clutter classes or clutter heights) to compute diffraction both over the DTM
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and the clutter (Standard Propagation model, WLL).

It is also possible to define, per clutter class, a model standard deviation (in order to compute shadowing margins) and
orthogonality factor (for CDMA/CDMA2000 and WCDMA/UMTS projects).


To manage the clutter classes properties, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Either
Right click on the clutter classes folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click the clutter classes folder,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the different tabs,
Click on the Description tab from the open window,
Assign colour, name and height (m) to each code. To assign a colour to a clutter class, click on the colour
box and choose a colour in the colour table. Then, manually enter name and height for all clutter classes
Optionally enter, for each clutter class, a standard deviation per clutter class (in dB) that will be used to
calculate the shadowing margins,
For CDMA/CDMA2000 and WCDMA/UMTS projects only, an orthogonality factor per clutter class
(Orthogonality factor can be modelled by a value between 0 and 1. A 0 value indicates no orthogonality at
all, instead a 1 value in the case of perfect orthogonality at mobiles).
Click on the Display tab,
Set the transparency level of the clutter class layer,
Press OK to validate.


Other common features related to either a geo data folder (Save as, Centre the map on the object) or an imported geo
data file (Embedding the file in the project afterwards) can be accessed from their related context menu.

Like in other geo data folders, you can also work on the layer order. This will have an effect on the computations taking
into account that What is seen is what is used. Layers to be considered will have to be located on the top of the other
layers.

Notes:
The description table can be fully copied and pasted (using Ctrl+C and Ctrl+V) in a new A9155 project after importing
the clutter file. To select globally the clutter class table, just left click on the top left angle of the clutter table.
If the height column is not filled in, the models using this information (WLL model for example) will consider a zero
clutter height.
The heights defined in the clutter classes are taken into account only if the Clutter height folder is not filled.
The white colour is associated with the transparent colour. Thus, the geographic layer below the clutter will be visible
in the area where the transparent colour is assigned.
Before importing the clutter file, it is important to define a reference class corresponding to zero code, white colour
and no data. Thus, the code "0" is allocated to areas without clutter.
The class names cannot exceed a length of 50 characters.
Clutter classes description (and clutter file path) is part of the contents of exported .geo or .cfg files.
In CDMA/CDMA2000 and WCDMA/UMTS projects, the default orthogonality factor (transmitter global parameters) is
taken into account only if the related values in the clutter class properties are not filled.
New clutter classes can be created manually.


The button update the resulting clutter class map by deleting all unused classes.

Advice: Use this function to keep consistency between the clutter classes described in the table and in the imported file.

Example: A9155 automatically memorizes the different clutter classes of imported file. Even after deleting the file, the
clutter classes are stored in the description table. Pressing the button will remove them.


See importing a geographic data file

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III.5.5 ADDING A CLUTTER CLASS
To add a clutter class to the current geo environment, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Either
Right click on the Clutter classes folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click on the Clutter classes folder,
Click the Description tab,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Describe each new clutter class in the appropriate cells of the bottom line,
Press OK or Apply to validate.


The added clutter class is then available to be used to create new clutter class polygons using the clutter editor.

III.5.6 DISPLAYING STATISTICS ON CLUTTER CLASSES
To display the relative occupancy of each clutter type in the current project computation zone (or focus zone if existing),
proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Clutter classes folder to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Statistics option from the scrolling menu
The surface (Si in km) of each clutter class (i) included in the computation zone (or focus zone if existing)
and its percentage (% of i) are specified:

100 of % =

k
k
i
S
S
i


Notes :
Since the statistic study is limited to the computation zone (or focus zone if existing), only the clutter area inside the
computation zone is taken into account,
Current statistical results are printable by clicking the button,
Data contained in the statistics window can be copied by selecting them (Ctrl+A) then copying them to the clipboard
(Ctrl+C).

III.6 MANAGING CLUTTER HEIGHTS
III.6.1 IMPORTING A CLUTTER HEIGHT FILE
Considering the appropriate format, clutter height type files can be imported as follows :
Select the Import command in the File menu from the menu bar,
Specify the path, the name and the format (optional) of the related file in the open dialog box,
Press OK to validate,
Select the Clutter heights option in the Data type scrolling box,
Click the Import button to complete the file import.

The imported clutter class files are listed in their appropriate folder in the Geo tab and can be managed easily
(properties, visibility, layer order management, etc...). Geographic data are displayed in the workspace.

Notes :
The drag and drop feature is available from any file explorer application to A9155.
.geo or .cfg (user configuration files) can be used (import-export) to share paths of the imported clutter height file
paths between users.
Imported files can be embedded during the import or afterwards.

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III.6.2 MANAGING CLUTTER HEIGHT MAPS
In A9155, there are two places to define clutter heights. This can be done either in the clutter class properties or in the
clutter height properties. The interest of filling the Clutter height folder is the possibility to define several heights per
clutter class. Nevertheless, the heights defined in the clutter classes are taken into account only if the Clutter height
folder is not filled (applied in display, measurements, propagation models).

Clutter height maps can be managed in the same way as the DTM map. To access the properties of the resulting clutter
height map, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Either
Right click on the clutter heights folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click the clutter heights folder,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the different tabs,
Click the Display tab to manage the appearance of the map,
Press OK to validate the settings.

The Clutter height map uses the generic A9155 display dialog and its standard tools :
Display types : Discrete or Value intervals
Shading command on value intervals
Legend management
Visibility scale

Other common features related to either a geo data folder (Save as, Centre the map on the object) or an imported geo
data file (Embedding the file in the project afterwards) can be accessed from their related context menu.

Like in other geo data folders, you can also work on the layer order. This will have an effect on the computations taking
into account that What is seen is what is used. Layers to be considered will have to be located on the top of the other
layers.

Notes :
If available in the Clutter heights folder, this information is displayed in the status bar relatively to the location of the
pointer.
Clutter height properties (and clutter height path) is part of the contents of exported .geo or .cfg files.

III.7 MANAGING DTM MAPS
III.7.1 IMPORTING A DTM MAP
Considering the appropriate format, Digital Terrain Model (or DEM) files can be imported as follows :
Select the Import command in the File menu from the menu bar,
Specify the path, the name and the format (optional) of the related file in the open dialog box,
Press OK to validate,
Select the Altitude (DTM) option in the Data type scrolling box,
Click the Import button to complete the file import.

The imported DTM files are listed in their appropriate folder in the Geo tab and can be managed easily (properties,
visibility, layer order management, etc...). Geographic data are displayed in the workspace.

Notes :
The drag and drop feature is available from any file explorer application to A9155.
.geo or .cfg (user configuration files) can be used (import-export) to share paths of the imported DTM file paths
between users.
Imported files can be embedded during the import or afterwards.

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III.7.2 MANAGING DTM MAPS
The Digital Terrain Model is a geographic data file representing ground surface elevation. DTM maps can be managed in
the same way than the Clutter height map.

To manage the DTM display, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Either
Right click on the DTM folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click the DTM folder,
Click on the Display tab from the open window.
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Set the display parameters of the current DTM,
Click OK to validate.


The DTM display uses the generic A9155 display dialog and lets you choose, in the display type scrolling menu:
single: same representation for any bin
discrete values: bin representation according to the value of a discrete field (sea level) describing the DTM object.
values interval: bin representation according to the value of a numerical field (altitude) describing the DTM object.

Whatever the display type you have chosen, you can customize the graphical representation of bins. In the table, for
each line, click on each row.

You can manage the contour line visualisation by using the relief slider.

Other common features related to either a geo data folder (Save as, Centre the map on the object) or an imported geo
data file (Embedding the file in the project afterwards) can be accessed from their related context menu.

Like in other geo data folders, you can also work on the layer order. This will have an effect on the computations taking
into account that What is seen is what is used. Layers to be considered will have to be located on the top of the other
layers.

Note : path and description are stored in the external user configuration file.

III.8 MANAGING VECTOR MAPS
III.8.1 IMPORTING A VECTOR FILE
In A9155, it is possible to create (using the vector editor) or to import vectors as geo data. In that case, vectors are only
used for display purposes, and polygons can be taken as filters, computation or focus zones. Vector files can also be
used for CDMA/CDMA2000 or WCDMA/UMTS traffic maps, population or any generic map.

In addition, it is possible to group any geo data type under a single folder that will be used for display purposes only.

The vector import process does not use the same dialog as the other geo data (clutter classes and heights, DTM,
images)

Considering the appropriate format, vector files can be imported as follows :
Select the Import command in the File menu from the menu bar,
Specify the path, the name and the format (optional) of the related file in the open dialog box,
Press OK to validate,
In the Vector Import dialog, select the Geo or Data option in the Import to scrolling list,
Select the appropriate coordinate system (if needed),
Click the Import button to complete the file import.


The imported vector files are automatically listed at the explorer root level in the Geo (or Data) tab and can be managed
easily (properties, visibility, layer order management, etc...). Geographic data are displayed in the workspace.
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Notes :
The drag and drop feature is available from any file explorer application to A9155,
Under A9155, shp filenames are not limited in the number of characters when exporting or importing, even if the file
name is made up of more than 8 characters,
.geo or .cfg (user configuration files) can be used (import-export) to share paths of imported file paths between users,
Contrary to other data types, it is possible to choose a geographic coordinate system at the import,
Imported files can be embedded during the import or afterwards,
Vectors can be shifted from one tab to another afterwards for display considerations.

III.8.2 MANAGING VECTOR OBJECTS
Vector geographic objects contain additional characteristics. Their number and their type depend on the file format.
Indeed, when dealing with .dxf or PlaNET files, a single attribute, the height, is available unlike .mif or .shp files which
can include several attributes (name, length, height). Thus, third dimension vector data can be read and additional
information relating to vectors can be used as a display parameter.


To manage the vector objects display, proceed as follows :
Click the tab (Data or Geo) in which the vector layer is currently located in the Explorer window,
Either
Right click on the vector folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click the vector folder,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the different tabs,
Click on the Display tab,
Set the vector display parameters,
Press OK to validate.


Notes :
You may manage the display of each vector individually. To do so, after having expanded the vector folder, choose
the properties option from the considered vector context menu (left click), then set the display parameters. Use the
What's this help to get description of the fields available in the open window.
Path and description are stored in the external user configuration file.
Attributes used in the vector display can be modified thanks to the vector edition features.
Vectors can be shifted from one tab to another afterwards for display considerations.

III.8.3 DISPLAYING VECTOR LAYERS OVER PREDICTIONS
It is possible to put vector layers either in the Data tab so as to display them on the top of coverage studies, or in the Geo
tab to keep them in the background, thanks to layer order.

To do so, when importing a vector file, you may select Data tab as the import destination in the Vector import dialog.

In addition, a Transfer command (either in Geo, or in Data) is available in each vector layer context menu (right click on
vector layer to open context menu); it enables you to switch vector layers from Geo to Data tabs or vice versa.

III.9 MANAGING SCANNED IMAGES
III.9.1 IMPORTING SCANNED IMAGES
Considering the appropriate format, scanned image files can be imported as follows :
Select the Import command in the File menu from the menu bar,
Specify the path, the name and the format (optional) of the related file in the open dialog box,
Press OK to validate,
Select the Image or scan option in the Data type scrolling box,
Click the Import button to complete the file import.

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The imported scanned image files are automatically listed at the explorer root level in the Geo tab and can be managed
easily (properties, visibility, layer order management, etc...). Geographic data are displayed in the workspace.

Notes :
The drag and drop feature is available from any file explorer application to A9155.
.geo or .cfg (user configuration files) can be used (import-export) to share paths of the imported scanned image file
paths between users.
Imported files can be embedded during the import or afterwards.

It is possible to import scanned image files by groups by using an index file. Once the procedure performed, A9155
creates a folder per imported index file.

The import procedure is the same as for the other geo data images (Import command from the File menu). When
obtaining the classic Open dialog box, select the All supported file or PlaNET geo data (index) format and locate the
appropriate file. When clicking the Open button, a dialog box opens in which you must indicate the image data type.

Note : The drag and drop tool is available to import such a group of Tiff/Bmp files.

Its format is:
- one line per Tiff/Bmp file : Relative name of tiff/bmp file with regard to the index file path XMIN XMAX YMIN YMAX 0
(the separator is a blank)

Where :
XMAX = XMIN + (number of horizontal bins x bin width)
YMAX = YMIN + (number of vertical bins x bin height)

Example of a two images index file located in the folder C:\TEMP. These two files are located in the same directory.
nice1.tif 984660 995380 1860900 1872280 0
nice2.tif 996240 1004900 1860980 1870700 0

III.9.2 MANAGING SCANNED IMAGES
Scanned images are geographic data files which represent the real field (road maps, satellite images) and which are
used in order to precisely locate surrounding items or other less precise maps (like statistical raster maps for example).

To manage the display of any scanned image, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Either
Right click on the scanned image folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click the scanned image folder,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the different tabs,
Click on the Display tab,
Set the scanned image display parameters,
Press OK to validate.


Notes : path and description are stored in the external user configuration file.

III.10 MANAGING POPULATION MAPS
III.10.1 IMPORTING A POPULATION MAP
It is possible to use population maps, in terms of density or value information. Several forms of files can be mixed in
order to compose a resulting population map. This type of map, like other geo data folders (clutter, DTM) works on the
principle What is seen is what is used. Data retained in the folder will be used in clutter statistics and prediction reports.

Several file formats (raster or vector) are supported in order to make their content available for population data.

Depending on the file type (vector or raster), the way to import a file as a population map component can be different.
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To import a population map, proceed as follows
In the File menu, select the Import command,

Vector format (Mif, shp)
In the Vector Import dialog, select the Population item in the Import to scrolling list,
Select the appropriate coordinate system (if needed),
Associate a numeric field/attribute of the vector to the A9155 internal field that will be used as a:


Population density (number of inhabitants/km)


Population values (number of inhabitants per item polygon/road, etc)

Click OK to validate.

Raster/Morpho format
In the File menu, select the Import command,
In the File Import dialog, select the Population density data type,
Click the Import button


A9155 fill the Population folder of the Geo tab with the imported files. Some tabs are added to the Population property
dialog :
Correspondence tab to manage vector items,
Description and Table tabs to manage raster items.

In addition, the Display tab is available for any data type item and uses the generic A9155 display dialog.

Notes:
Population values can only be imported with vector files.
The drag and drop feature is possible to import such a type of map.
.geo or .cfg (user configuration files) can be used (import-export) to share paths of the imported population file paths
between users.
It is possible to create a population vector map using the vector edition tool. To do this, right click on the Population
folder and select the Add vector layer command.
Imported files can be embedded during the import or afterwards.

III.10.2 MANAGING POPULATION MAPS
To access the properties of the resulting population map, proceed as follows
In the Geo tab, right click the Population folder,
Choose the Properties command in the context menu,
Depending on the imported file type, different tabs are available (see above) :
Description : all identified classes of the raster files are listed here. You can associate here a
different population density for each class,
Table : this tab is dedicated to manage the contents of the class table contained in the Description
tab,
Correspondence : an imported vector file is listed in each line. In the column Field, the vector field
which has to be chosen as population data has to be selected, always with the density check box
(when the relevant data is of type density). The current selection is the one made during the import.
The association can be modified afterwards
Display : A9155 generic display dialog with the possibility to tune the threshold shading. The
displayed information is the number of inhabitants/km.
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Notes:
The resulting population map is not the addition of all the maps, but the result of what is seen. Maps of interest have
to be put on the top layer. For raster maps, the no data class makes the population information operational which is
below the zones of this type.
The display by value is not permitted is the following cases :
different raster maps with different resolutions
vectors mixing lines and polygons
mix of raster and vector maps
The display by density is not permitted on vectors made of points

III.10.3 DISPLAYING STATISTICS ON POPULATION
It is possible to display the relative and absolute distributions of people depending on the thresholds defined in the
Display tab of the Population folder property dialog. To do this, select the Statistics command from the Population folder
context menu. Like other statistics windows, what is used for the results is provided by what is seen.

Note : Statistics are provided on the focus zone if it exists. Otherwise, the computation zone is considered. With neither
of them, statistics are given for the total geographic zone.

III.10.4 USING POPULATION DATA IN PREDICTION REPORTS
In prediction reports, it is possible to make displayed columns related to covered population densities (as defined in the
Display tab of the Population folder property dialog), the number of covered people, and the percentage of covered
population.

To display information about the covered population by a prediction, proceed as follows :
Right click on the Prediction of interest,
Select the Report command from the context menu,
In the [Format : Display columns] menu, check the boxes related to the information you want to display with
the prediction report..

Note : reports are possible only on displayed studies or sub-items of the studies (transmitters, thresholds, etc).

III.11 MANAGING GENERIC MAPS
III.11.1 GENERIC MAPS : OVERVIEW
This feature has been developed in order to import any type of geo data in term of any advanced map. For example, it is
possible to import any raster/vector file and to use it as a revenue, rainfall or socio-demographics map.

Several forms of files can be mixed in order to compose a resulting generic map. This type of map, like other geo data
folders (clutter, DTM) works on the principle What is seen is what is used. Data retained in the folder will be potentially
used in prediction reports.

Several file formats (raster or vector) are supported in order to make their contents available for generic maps

All types of coding may be mixed in any generic geo data folder : vector files, raster files (8, 16, 32 bits per pixel). Vector
layers can be created using the vector edition tool.

The imported data can then be interpreted in order to produce resulting maps of type :
Morpho file: map of value classes (like clutter) (8 bits integer [0255])
Raster file: map of value densities (16 bits with scaling factor integer [0.65535] or float simple precision, 32 bits
[0.16777216] or float double precision).

The creation of a new map type is made during the import of a geo data file that will be part of the resulting map. Then,
once created, and depending on the supported formats, it will be possible to import/add other data files in order to
complete the new map. Depending on the file type (vector or raster) that will be used for the initialisation of the new map,
the way to import it can be slightly different.

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III.11.2 CREATE AN ADVANCED GEO DATA FOLDER
The creation of a generic map is made via the import of a geo data file.

To do this, proceed as follows :
In the File menu, select the Import command,

Vector format (Mif, shp)
In the Vector Import dialog, select the Advanced button,

Raster/Morpho format
In the File Import dialog, select the Advanced button,


The definition of the new map type is made in the current window (New type),
Enter the name of the new map (e.g. Revenue)
Check the boxes related to the formats that you want this map to be able to support (Vector, Raster 8, 16
and 32 bits),
Indicate the type of map you want to be produced by interpreting the file data (See above)
Morpho file: map of value classes (like clutter) (8 bits integer [0255])
Raster file: map of value densities (16 bits with scaling factor integer [0.65535] or float simple
precision, 32 bits [0.16777216] or float double precision).
Check the Integrable box if you want the relevant data (contained in the files composing the resulting map)
to be potentially used in prediction reports. This data (of type surfacic density only) will be integrated on
each considered item (threshold, transmitter) in predictions to provide statistics.
Click OK to validate the creation of the advanced geo data map,


Vector format (Mif, shp)
Select the appropriate coordinate system (if needed),
In the Vector Import dialog, associate a numeric field/attribute of the vector to the A9155 internal field that
will be used as a:
Value density (number of items/km)
Absolute values (number of items per polygon/road, etc)

Raster/Morpho format
Select to use the content as a value or as a density. Density is not consistent with a data which is not
integrable.


Click the Import button


A new geo data folder is created, filled with the imported file(s). Some tabs are added to the property dialog :
Correspondence tab to manage vector items,
Description and Table tabs to manage raster items.

In addition, the Display tab is available for any data type item.

Once the folder is created, it is possible to easily import any other supported file as a part of the generic map. This is
done as a standard geo data import by selecting the appropriate target map in the import dialog.

Notes:
Value maps can be imported using vector files.
The drag and drop feature is possible to import such kinds of maps.
.geo or .cfg (user configuration files) can be used (import-export) to share paths of the imported population file paths
between users.
It is possible to add a vector map to an existing generic map using the vector edition tool. To do this, right click on the
related folder and select the Add vector layer command.
Imported files can be embedded during the import or afterwards.


Important : 8 bits maps are only code maps. So, when importing any geo data type file as a 8 bits map, bear in mind that
the values that you are importing are codes and not values like densities, for example. The values related to each pixel
will be defined for each code, each pixel referring to a code.

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III.11.3 MANAGING GENERIC MAPS
To access the properties of the resulting generic map, proceed as follows :
In the Geo tab, right click the folder of the considered generic map,
Choose the Properties command in the context menu,
Depending on the imported file type, different tabs are available (see above) :
Description : all identified classes of the raster files are listed here. You must associate here a
different value density for each class,
Table : this tab is dedicated to manage the contents of the class table contained in the Description
tab,
Correspondence : an imported vector file is listed in each line. In the column Field, the vector field
which has to be chosen as relevant data has to be selected, always with the density check box
(when the relevant data is of type density). The current selection is the one made during the import.
The association can be modified afterwards
Display : A9155 generic display dialog with the possibility to tune the threshold shading. Both
discrete value and value interval display types are available.

Notes:
The resulting population map is not the addition of all the maps, but the result of what is seen. Maps of interest have
to be put on the top layer. For raster maps, the no data class makes the population information operational which is
below the zones of this type.
The Integrable/not Integrable aspect is chosen at the creation and cannot be changed afterwards.
The display by value is not permitted is the following cases :
different raster maps with different resolutions
vectors mixing lines and polygons
mix of raster and vector maps
The display by density is not permitted on vectors made of points

III.11.4 DISPLAYING STATISTICS ON GENERIC DATA
It is possible to display the relative and absolute distributions of each item class (class defined by thresholds in the
Display tab of the Generic geo data folder property dialog). To do this, select the Statistics command from the
appropriate folder context menu. Like other statistics windows, what is used for the results is provided by what is seen.

Note : Statistics are provided on the focus zone if it exists. Otherwise, the computation zone is considered. With neither
of them, statistics are given for the total geographic zone.

III.11.5 USING GENERIC MAP DATA IN PREDICTION REPORTS
In prediction reports, it is possible to make displayed columns related to data contained in any generic map. This can be
made for any data, and is even more advanced when the relevant data is of type Integrable.

To display information about the covered classes of any generic data by a prediction, proceed as follows :
Right click on the Prediction of interest,
Select the Report command from the context menu,
In the [Format : Display columns] menu, check the boxes related to the information you want to display with
the prediction report..

Note : reports are possible only on displayed studies or sub-items of the studies (transmitters, thresholds, etc).


Integrable/Not Integrable, Density/Value : examples

Integrable data will be used in prediction reports so they can be summed over the cells characterised by the item of
interest (transmitter, threshold, etc). They can be of type value (Revenue, number of customers, ) or density
(Revenue/km, number of customer/km, ).

For example, in the case of the revenue map, a prediction report will indicate :
The percentage on how is covered each revenue class, globally, and for each single coverage cell (transmitter,
threshold, ),
The revenue of the global coverage and of each single coverage cell,
The percentage of the covered revenue map, globally, and for each single coverage cell.

Non Integrable data means that they are an information for each pixel (or polygon e.g.) which cannot be integrated over
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a coverage cell, like socio-demographic classes, rain zones, etc.

In that case, considering the example of a rain zone map, a prediction report would indicate :
The relative coverage of each rain zone class, by the global study, and for each single coverage cell (transmitter,
threshold, )

Being non Integrable, no other information is given.

III.12 MANAGING GEO DATA FILES AND FOLDERS
III.12.1 EMBEDDING - LINKING COMPARISON
A9155 offers the user the possibility to link or embed any imported geo data file. The main differences between linked
and embedded objects are the location where data are stored and how the imported data are updated after placing them
in the A9155 document.

When you import geographic data without selecting the embed in document option, A9155 just memorizes the location
where the source files are stored (directory path) and creates a link to source files: the objects are linked. If you modify
the source file, information will be automatically taken into account in the document .atl. On the other hand, some
applications as deleting or moving the source file in another directory involve the link break. In this case, A9155 offers
you solutions to repair it.

The embedded geographic files are totally included in the document .atl, they become a part of the document: There is
no longer a link between the document .atl and the source files. Therefore, the A9155 document is not updated if you
modify the source file.

Practical advice: Prefer the linked objects in order to limit the A9155 document size.

Note : the distributed calculations do not work in case of embedded geographic data.

III.12.2 EMBEDDING GEOGRAPHIC DATA
You may embed DTM, clutter class or height, traffic, vector, population, generic and scanned image objects you have
imported in your A9155 document. This can be done either when importing the geo data, or from the properties of an
available object.


To embed geographic data in the current .atl project during the import procedure, just check the 'Embed in document'
box in the object import dialog box.


To embed geographic data in the current .atl project from an existing data item, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,

For a raster, clutter height or DTM file :
Expand the related folder by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the file you want to embed in the current project,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click the file you want to embed in the current project,

For a scanned map or a vector file :
Either
Right click on the scanned map/vector file you want to embed in the current project,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click the scanned map/vector file you want to embed in the current project,

Click on the General tab from the open window,
Click the button from the open window,
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Click OK or Apply to validate.

III.12.3 REPAIRING A BROKEN LINK
It may happen that some source files (.atl or geo data files) have moved since the last time the current project was open.
In this case, A9155 cannot find them automatically and will display the following error message :



Click the button if you want to locate the geo data file by yourself. At the same time, A9155
automatically searches for the file with the nearest match based on size, date and type. When it has found
it, it displays the error message below.



If the file corresponds to the source file, press OK.


If the localisation is not successful, you have to link again the geo data file to the project by yourself from the geo item
properties. To do so, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,

For a clutter class, traffic or DTM file :
Expand the Clutter classes, traffic raster or DTM folder by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the Clutter classes, traffic raster or DTM file you want to fix the link problem,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click the Clutter classes, traffic raster or DTM file you want to fix the link problem,

For a scanned map or a vector file :
Either
Right click on the scanned map/vector file you want to fix the link problem,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click the scanned map/vector file you want to fix the link problem,

Click on the General tab from the open window,
Click the button from the open window,
Locate the appropriate data file
Click OK or Apply to validate.

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III.12.4 GROUPING GEO DATA FILES IN DISPLAY FOLDER
In the standard case, when importing geo data files dedicated only to display (1-24 bits images, vectors), they are listed
at the root of the Geo tab only (or possibly in the Data tab for vectors), contrary to other data files, like clutter ones, for
example, which are listed all together and within a single Clutter class folder. Listed all together, files can be
displayed/hidden or moved.

In A9155, you can also, within a single additional folder, import different types of geo data files and use them for display
only. This folder does not produce a map, like it is the case for the generic import of geo data files in order to produce, for
example, revenue or socio-demographics maps. This folder (which can be called geo display folder) just groups geo data
files and cannot be managed globally. The management (display only) of each single item is made at the item level.

It is possible to import several file formats (raster or vector) in a single folder to make them available for display only. All
types of files may be mixed in a geo display folder : vector or raster files (8, 16, 32 bits per pixel). Their information is
used only for display, i.e. that any raster file will be interpreted as an image (and also set as an image).

The creation of a geo display folder is made during the import of a first geo data file that will be located in it. Then, once
created, it will be possible to import other files within this folder.

To do this, proceed as follows :
In the File menu, select the Import command,

Vector format (Mif, shp)
In the Vector Import dialog, select the New folder in Geo or Data item in the Import to scrolling list,
Select the appropriate coordinate system (if needed),

Raster/Morpho format
In the File Import dialog, select the New folder in Geo or Data item in the Data type scrolling list,

Give a name for the newly created folder,
Click the Import button


A new geo data folder is created, filled with the imported file(s). Once the folder is created, it is easily possible to import
any other geo data file as a member of the created folder. This is made as a standard geo data import by selecting the
appropriate target item in the import dialog.

Notes:
The drag and drop feature is possible to import such a type of map.
Since it is possible to create the geo display folder either in the Geo or in the Data tab, it is as easy to transfer it from
one to another. To do this, right click on the considered folder and select the Transfer to Data/Geo
It is possible to import Packbit, FAX-CCITT3 and LZW compressed TIFF files.
Imported files can be embedded during the import or afterwards.

III.12.5 CHECKING THE MAP GEOCODING
You can check the file map geocoding (coordinates of north-west point, pixel size and additional coordinates of south
east point for .bmp files).

To check the geocoding of any data object (see above), proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,

For a clutter class, population, generic, traffic or DTM file :
Expand the folder by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the file whose geocoding you want to check,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click the file you want to check its geocoding,

For a scanned map :
Either
Right click on the file whose geocoding you want to check,
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Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click the file you want to check its geocoding,

Click on the Geocoding tab from the open window,
Check or modify the extreme northwest and southeast points,
Click OK or Apply to validate.
III.12.6 SETTING GEO DATA PRIORITY
A9155 lists the imported DTM, clutter class or traffic objects in their respective folder and creates a separate folder for
each imported vector data and each imported scanned image. Each object corresponds to a layer with a specific size.
Thus, there are as many layers as imported objects. The layers are on top of each other in the order of listed objects.


At the display level
Only the layer on top and the layers beneath area where there is no data will be visible in the workspace.

In the example below, vector data (including highways, coastline, riverlake, majorroads, majorstreets, railways and
airport), clutter classes, DTM and scanned image have been imported and a UMTS environment traffic map has been
edited inside the computation zone. In the workspace, we can see the linear objects (roads, riverlake,...) inside and
beyond the computation zone and the traffic layer (green colour) inside the computation zone. The clutter class layer is
visible in the area where no traffic data has been edited (outside the computation zone). On the other hand, the DTM
layer which is underneath the clutter class layer and the scanned map which is underneath the DTM layer are not visible.



To make a layer visible in the workspace, either uncheck the check box of the other layers (see object visibility), move
the layer on the top of the list, or adjust the transparency level of objects (clutter class, traffic and scanned image) when
available.


To move an object in the Geo tab, proceed as follows :
Click and hold on the layer you want to move,
Drag the layer in the list,
Release the layer.


At the calculation level
DTM, Clutter classes, clutter heights, and Traffic density folders can contain several objects representing different areas
of the map or common parts of the map with identical or different resolutions. A9155 takes into account in calculations,
for each folder, only the data it sees (that is to say the object on top and the objects beneath area where there is no
data). What is used is what is seen. Thus, for each folder, you must locate on top the objects with the smallest size and
the best resolution.

Note : population and generic data maps work in the same way. Their data can be used in prediction reports.

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III.13 EDITING GEOGRAPHIC DATA
III.13.1 RASTER OBJECTS
III.13.1.a CREATING A CLUTTER OR TRAFFIC RASTER POLYGON
A cartography editor is available either to modify imported clutter class (or traffic raster) map or to produce your own
clutter (or traffic) raster maps without initial clutter (or traffic) object. In the same way, it is easy to delete clutter or raster
traffic polygons. All created polygons can be easily saved in external files. These modifications are taken into account in
calculations by propagation models.


To display the editor tool bar, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Right click the Clutter classes folder (or environment traffic object) to open the associated context menu
Select the Edit command from the available scrolling menu,
The clutter (or traffic) editor window opens.


The editor tool bar consists of a selection box to choose the clutter (or traffic) class you want to edit, a polygon drawing
tool , a polygon deletion tool and a close save button.



Notes :
The clutter (or traffic) class you want to edit must be previously defined in the Description tab of Clutter classes
properties (or in the environment folder in GSM/GPRS/EDGE, UMTS or CDMA/CDMA2000) dialog box.
Like for the computation and focus zones, you can copy and paste exact coordinates (consistent with the defined
display coordinate system) of a closed polygon. To do this, select the properties command from the context menu
(right click) related to the selected polygon.

III.13.1.b EDITING CLUTTER OR TRAFFIC RASTER POLYGONS
To edit clutter or traffic (raster map) polygons, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Use either the clutter editor to add clutter data or traffic editor to produce traffic data,
Select the clutter (or traffic - raster map) class you want to edit from the selection box,

Note : to make clutter (or traffic) classes available in the selection box, these have to be previously defined :
In the Description tab of the Clutter classes properties for the clutter editor
In the Environment subfolder of the GSM/GPRS/EDGE, UMTS or CDMA/CDMA2000 parameters folder.

Select the polygonal drawing tool,
Position the pointer on the map area where you want to edit your own data,
Press the mouse left button (a first point is created),
Slide the pointer on the map and press the mouse left button to create another point,
Carry out the two last steps until you draw the polygonal area you want,
Double click to close off the polygonal area,
Press the close button.


The created polygon is displayed with the same colour as the edited clutter class (or traffic class). As long as the
cartography editor is open, the polygonal area is delimited by a thin black line rewiring the created points.

Note : The clutter or traffic layer must be visible (see multi-layer management in Setting geo data priority) if you want the
modifications to appear on the map.

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III.13.1.c MODIFYING CLUTTER OR TRAFFIC RASTER POLYGONS
To resize clutter or traffic polygons (raster map), proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Leave the cartography editor open.
Left click on the black line (limits of the polygonal area). The pointer becomes the position indicator ( ),
Press and hold the mouse left button,
Drag the pointer in the area where you want to locate the point,
Release the mouse button,
Press the close button to validate.


To add a point, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Leave the cartography editor open.
Left click on the black line (limits of the polygonal area). The pointer becomes the position indicator ( ),
Right click to open the associated context menu,
Select the Insert point command from the open scrolling menu,
Press the close button to validate.


To delete a point, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Leave the cartography editor open.
Left click on the point you want to delete. The pointer becomes the position indicator ( ),
Right click to open the associated context menu,
Select the Delete point command from the open scrolling menu,
Press the close button to validate.

III.13.1.d DELETING CLUTTER OR TRAFFIC RASTER POLYGONS
To delete clutter or traffic (raster map) polygons, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Leave the cartography editor open.
Either
Left click on the black line (limits of the polygonal area). The pointer becomes the position indicator
( ),
Right click to open the associated context menu,
Select the Delete polygon command from the open scrolling menu,
or
Select the Polygon deletion tool,
Click on the polygonal area you want to delete,
Press the Close button to validate.

III.13.1.e DISPLAYING INFORMATION ABOUT RASTER POLYGONS
By using the tips button , A9155 allows the user to read information about any polygonal area.

To know the surface and the type of edited data, proceed as follows :
Hold the pointer on the polygonal area until the associated information (code, name, etc...) appears. The
surface is given only in the case of closed polygonal areas.

Note : Information will appear only if the tips button is on.


To display the coordinates or points composing a polygonal area, proceed as follows :
Left click on the black line (limits of the polygonal area). The pointer becomes the position indicator ( ),
Right click to open the associated context menu,
Select the Properties command from the open scrolling menu,
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The coordinates (in the display system) of the point composing the polygon are then displayed in a table window.

Note : like for the focus or computation zone, the Copy-Paste feature is available in the polygon coordinates table.

III.13.2 VECTOR OBJECTS
III.13.2.a CREATING A VECTOR LAYER
A toolbar enables you to edit new vector layers and modify the imported ones. This bar can be open or closed by
selecting the Vector edition command in the View menu.

It is possible to create new vector layers containing polygons, lines and points.


To create a new vector layer, proceed as follows :
Click on the New vector layer icon .

A9155 creates a folder called Vectors in explorer, either in the Geo tab, or in the Data tab. In fact, the folder location
depends on the open tab of explorer. So, the folder will be placed in the Geo tab if this one is displayed when creating
the new layer.

The new vector layer is listed in the Vector layer scrolling menu .


Any vector object can be easily edited and modified. It is also very easy to define and modify its fields.

Note : since vectors can be used to produce GSM/GPRS/EDGE, CDMA/CDMA2000 or WCDMA/UMTS traffic maps, it is
possible to create a vector layer during the creation of the traffic map itself following the same procedure.

III.13.2.b EDITING A VECTOR OBJECT
Once the vector layer is created, it can be easily edited and managed.

To edit vector objects of the layer, proceed as follows :
Either
In the Vector edition bar, click on the arrow to open the Vector layer scrolling menu,
Select the layer to be edited in the list,
Or
In the Explorer, right click on the vector layer to be edited in order to get the context menu,
Select the Edit command from the open scrolling list,
Click on the New polygon icon to create polygons, or on the New line icon to create lines,
or on the New point icon to create points.

Then,
For polygons or lines
Position the pointer on the map,
Press the mouse left button to create the first point of polygon or line,
Move the pointer on the map and press the mouse left button to create another point,
Carry out the two last steps until you draw the polygonal area or the line you want,
Double click to close off polygonal area or to stop the line drawing.

For points
Position the pointer on the map,
Press the mouse left button to create a point,


To clear the current icon selection, press the Esc button on your keyboard or click on the selected icon.

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Note : the vector edition can be made on any vector, even working as a CDMA/CDMA2000, WCDMA/UMTS traffic,
population or generic map. The procedure is identical to the one above.

III.13.2.c MANAGING VECTOR OBJECT SHAPES
Some tools available in the Vector edition bar enable you to modify the polygon shape of a vector layer.

Indeed, it is possible:
To merge several polygons thanks to the Combine icon ,
To make a hole in a polygon by using the Erase icon ,
To keep only the overlapping area of two polygons thanks to the Intersection icon ,
To cut a polygon in two or more by using the Split icon .

The vector layer must be in edition mode in order to be able to modify the shape of its polygons.


To put a vector layer in edition mode, proceed as follows :
Either,
In the Vector edition bar, click on the arrow to open the Vector layer scrolling menu,
Select the layer to be edited in the list,
Or
In the Explorer, right click on the vector layer to be edited in order to get the context menu,
Select the Edit command from the open scrolling list.


To combine several polygons, proceed as follows :
Choose the vector layer to be edited,
On the map, select a polygon,
In the Vector edition bar, click the Combine icon ,
Draw one or several polygons on the map,

A9155 considers all the polygons as a group of polygons. If there is overlapping areas between some polygons, A9155
merges them to make a single one.

To clear the current icon selection, press the Esc button on your keyboard or click on the selected icon.


To erase areas within polygons, proceed as follows :
Choose the vector layer to be edited,
On the map, select a polygon or a group of polygons,
In the Vector edition bar, click the Erase icon ,
Draw one or several polygons on the map,

A9155 removes all the overlapping areas between polygons.

To clear the current icon selection, press the Esc button on your keyboard or click on the selected icon.


To keep intersection areas between polygons, proceed as follows :
Choose the vector layer to be edited,
On the map, select a polygon or a group of polygons,
In the Vector edition bar, click the Intersection icon ,
Draw one or several polygons on the map,

A9155 only keeps the intersection areas between polygons and erases all the areas outside.

To clear the current icon selection, press the Esc button on your keyboard or click on the selected icon.


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To split polygons, proceed as follows :
Choose the vector layer to be edited,
On the map, select a polygon or a group of polygons,
In the Vector edition bar, click the Split icon ,
Draw one or several polygons on the map,

A9155 uses each polygon side intersecting the existing polygon(s) to cut them.

To clear the current icon selection, press the Esc button on your keyboard or click on the selected icon.


Additional management features are available when right clicking on any vector object on the map (polygons, lines or
points).

When a vector layer is in Edition mode, you may select in the vector object context menu:
Delete: To remove vector objects on the map,
Convert to line: To convert a polygon into a closed line,
Convert to polygon: To convert a closed line into a polygon,
Open line: To open a closed line; A9155 removes segment between the last and the first point,
Close line: To close line; A9155 adds a segment between the last and the first point of the line,
Insert point: To add a point into the polygon contour or line; the point is created at the pointer location,
Move: To shift vector objects on the map (place the pointer where you want to locate vector object and left click to
release it),
Quit edition: In order for a vector layer to no longer be editable,
Properties: To access the vector object property dialog. The General tab sums up the vector layer name, the vector
object identification number and vector object attributes. The Geometry tab lists coordinates of points composing the
selected vector object. Coordinates are stated in the coordinate system specified in the vector layer property dialog
(General tab).

III.13.2.d MANAGING VECTOR OBJECT PROPERTIES
Vectors properties can be managed in two ways, either from a table containing all vectors and their attributes or from the
related standard property dialog.

Vector table
All the vectors (polygons, lines, points and groups of polygons) of a vector layer and their attributes are listed in the
corresponding table.

To open this table, proceed as follows :
Click the tab (Data or Geo) where the vector layer is currently located in the Explorer window,
Right click on the vector folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Open.

Standard features for managing table contents (Copy/Paste, Fill up/down, Delete, Display columns, Filter, Sort, Fields)
are available in a context menu (when right clicking on column(s) or record(s)) and in the Format, Edit and Records
menus.


Property dialog
As a classical property dialog in A9155, the vector layer property dialog consists of a General tab, a Table tab and a
Display tab.

To open the property dialog related to a vector object, proceed as follows :
Click the tab (Data or Geo) where the vector layer is currently located in the Explorer window,
Right click on the vector folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on the Properties command,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the different tabs.


In the General tab, A9155 indicates:
- The vector layer name,

- If the vector layer is embedded in the .atl document or just linked. In this case, A9155 displays the directory path used
to access the file,
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The Embed button can be used to embed the vector layer in the .atl document when this one is just linked.
The Find button enables you to redefine a new path when the file's location has changed.

- The coordinate system of the vector layer,
When the vector layer is linked, the coordinate system used is the one of the file (system specified when importing the
file). It corresponds to the projection coordinate system when the vector layer is embedded.
The coordinate system can be changed (click on the Convert button to change it). In this case, coordinates of points
composing vector objects of the layer will be converted in the selected coordinate system.

In addition, you can define, in this tab, sort and filter criteria that will be applied to vector objects of the layer contained in
the table.


The Table tab enables you to manage the vector layer table content. Therefore, you may add custom fields in the table in
order to describe vector attributes.


The Display tab enables you to manage the vector layer display; it is possible to display vectors with colour depending on
any attribute.

III.14 MANAGING GEOGRAPHIC DATA EXPORT
III.14.1 EXPORTING A CLUTTER CLASS MAP
Like for DTM, clutter height and traffic raster maps, it is possible to export the current clutter class description in either a
tiff, a bil or a bmp format. You may choose to keep the squared part of the current clutter class map that contains the
defined computation zone.

To export a part or the complete clutter class map, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Clutter classes folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click on the Save as... option from the open scrolling menu,
Define the format, the directory path and the name to give to the file to be exported,
Click the Save button when done,
In the Export dialog box, select one of the options and define the resolution (in metres) of the file :
The whole covered region option allows you to save the whole clutter class map in another file. As
soon as the file is saved, the properties (name,...) of the clutters listed in the Clutter classes folder
are updated.
The computation zone option allows you to save the clutter region inside the computation zone in
another file. As soon as the file is saved, an additional clutter object is created and listed in the
Clutter classes folder. To enable this option, you must have drawn a computation zone beforehand.
A resolution value is suggested; it is defined for clutter from the following criteria :
If one clutter object is clipped, the displayed resolution will be the object resolution.
If several objects are extracted, the suggested resolution will be the smallest resolution of the
objects.
The resolution value must be an integer
The minimum resolution is set to 1 metre.
Click OK to validate.

Notes :
When you save files using BIL and TIF formats, .hdr and .tfw files are automatically created in the same folder. The
.hdr and .tfw files are respectively associated with .bil and .tif files; they contain geocoding information and resolution.
Clutter classes file path (and clutter description) is part of the contents of exported .geo or .cfg files.

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III.14.2 SAVING THE EDITED RASTER POLYGONS
Saving the edited polygons consists either in creating a new clutter class (or traffic - raster map) file including your
modifications, or in storing your modifications in the existing clutter class (or traffic) files.


To store modifications in a new file, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Clutter classes folder (or Traffic raster object) to open the associated context menu,
Select the Save as command from the open scrolling menu,
Indicate the path, the name and the format( *.tif, *.bil and *.bmp) for the file to be exported,
Press OK to validate,

Comment: When you save files using BIL and TIF formats, .hdr and .tfw files are automatically created in the same
folder. The .hdr and .tfw files are respectively associated with .bil and .tif files; they contain geocoding information and
resolution. Saving a file with the BMP format doesn't involve the automatic creation of georeferencement file. Thus, it is
advised to associate with .bmp files a text document including the same information as the .hdr or .tfw files.

Select one of the options and define the resolution (in metres) of file in the open Export dialog box,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open dialog box,



The whole covered region option allows you to save in the file the whole clutter class map (or traffic map)
including the clutter class (or traffic) modifications made by the user. As soon as the modifications are
saved, the properties of the clutter (or traffic) object listed in the Clutter classes (or Traffic) folder are
updated.
The only pending changes option allows you just to save in the file the created clutter class (or traffic)
polygonal area. As soon as the modifications are saved, an additional clutter class (or traffic) object is
created and listed in the Clutter classes (or Traffic) folder.
The computation zone option allows you to save in the file the rectangular clutter region (or traffic region)
containing the computation zone encompassing the clutter class (or traffic) modifications made by the user.
As soon as the modifications are saved, an additional clutter class (or traffic) object is created and listed in
the Clutter classes (or Traffic) folder.

A resolution value is suggested; it is defined for clutter from the following criteria:
If one clutter object is modified, the displayed resolution will be the object resolution.
If several objects are modified, the suggested resolution will be the smallest resolution of the altered
clutter class objects.
If there is no initial clutter class object, the resolution will equal the resolution of DTM object which
the modifications are made on or the smallest resolution of the merged DTM objects if the
modifications are performed on several DTM objects.
If you draw your own clutter data without initial DTM, clutter class or traffic object, a 100 m default
resolution will be suggested.
For any raster object, the resolution value must be an integer.
The minimum resolution is set to 1 metre.
The same criteria are used to define the resolution of traffic objects: firstly, A9155 looks for resolution in the
modified traffic objects, secondly in the clutter class objects if there is no imported traffic objects, then in
DTM objects in case neither traffic nor clutter class data is available and finally give the 100 m default
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resolution if there is no traffic, no clutter class and no DTM data.

Click OK to validate.

Caution : once the modifications are saved, the polygon dimensions are fixed and cannot be modified.


To store modifications in an existing file, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Clutter classes folder (or Traffic folder - raster map) to open the associated context menu,
Select the Save command from the open scrolling menu,
A message is displayed warning the user that some current clutter class (or traffic) files will be updated,
Press OK to validate

Note : the existing file is made of a fixed size matrix. Hence, changes made outside this matrix will not be taken into
account.

III.14.3 EXPORTING A CLUTTER HEIGHT MAP
Like for DTM, clutter class and traffic raster maps, it is possible to export the current clutter height map in either a tif or a
bil format. You may choose to keep the squared part of the current clutter height map that contains the defined
computation zone.

To export a part or the complete clutter height map, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Clutter height folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click on the Save as... option from the open scrolling menu,
Define the format, the directory path and the name to give to the file to be exported,
Click the Save button when done,
In the Export dialog box, select one of the options and define the resolution (in metres) of the file :
The whole covered region option allows you to save the whole clutter height map in another file. As
soon as the file is saved, the properties (name,...) of clutter height object listed in the Clutter height
folder are updated.
The computation zone option allows you to save the clutter height region inside the computation
zone in another file. As soon as the file is saved, an additional clutter height object is created and
listed in the Clutter height folder. To enable this option, you must have drawn a computation zone
beforehand.
A resolution value is suggested; it is defined for clutter height from the following criteria :
If one clutter height object is clipped, the displayed resolution will be the object resolution.
If several objects are extracted, the suggested resolution will be the smallest resolution of the
objects.
The resolution value must be an integer.
The minimum resolution is set to 1 metre.
Click OK to validate.

Notes :
When you save files using BIL and TIF formats, .hdr and .tfw files are automatically created in the same folder. The
.hdr and .tfw files are respectively associated with .bil and .tif files; they contain geocoding information and resolution,
Clutter height file path is part of the contents of exported .geo or .cfg files.

III.14.4 EXPORTING A DTM MAP
Like for clutter class, clutter height and traffic raster maps, it is possible to export the current DTM map in either a tif or a
bil format. You may choose to keep the squared part of the current DTM that contains the defined computation zone.

To export a part or the complete DTM map, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the DTM folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click on the Save as... option from the open scrolling menu,
Define the format, the directory path and the name to give to the file to be exported,
Click the Save button when done,
In the Export dialog box, select one of the options and define the resolution (in metres) of the file :
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The whole covered region option allows you to save the whole DTM map in another file. As soon as
the file is saved, the properties (name,...) of DTM object listed in the DTM folder are updated.
The computation zone option allows you to save the DTM region inside the computation zone in
another file. As soon as the file is saved, an additional DTM object is created and listed in the DTM
folder. To enable this option, you must have drawn a computation zone beforehand.
A resolution value is suggested; it is defined for DTM from the following criteria :
If one DTM object is clipped, the displayed resolution will be the object resolution.
If several objects are extracted, the suggested resolution will be the smallest resolution of the
objects.
The resolution value must be an integer.
The minimum resolution is set to 1 metre.
Click OK to validate.

Notes :
When you save files using BIL and TIF formats, .hdr and .tfw files are automatically created in the same folder. The
.hdr and .tfw files are respectively associated with .bil and .tif files; they contain geocoding information and resolution,
DTM file path is part of the contents of exported .geo or .cfg files.

III.14.5 EXPORTING A VECTOR OBJECT
You can save any edited vector layer in a vector format file. In this case, the vector layer is no longer embedded in the
.atl document; it is a linked file. It can be embedded afterwards.

To export a vector layer, proceed as follows :
Click the tab (Data or Geo) where the vector layer is currently located in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Vector layer to be exported in order to open the associated context menu,
Select the Save as command from the open scrolling menu,
Indicate the path, the name and the format for the file to be exported. Possible formats are Arcview (.shp),
MapInfo (.mif) and an A9155 internal format (.agd),
Press OK to validate,

Notes :
Only polygons can be saved in the Arcview (.shp) format. Therefore, a vector layer mixing polygons and lines,
polygons and points, or containing just points or lines can only be saved in MapInfo (.mif) or A9155 internal format
(.agd).
The A9155 internal format (.agd) is a new format only supported by A9155. Reading of .agd files is faster than other
vector files with classical supported formats (MapInfo, Arcview, Autocad).


In addition, in case of a linked file, it is possible to save modifications performed on the vector layer.

To save modifications on a vector layer, proceed as follows :
Click the tab (Data or Geo) where the vector layer is currently located in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Vector layer to be saved in order to open the associated context menu,
Select the Save command from the open scrolling menu,

A9155 displays a warning to inform you that the source file will be modified,

Click OK to update the source file.

Note : the Save command is available only if there are some pending changes on the vector layer.



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Managing Radio Network Data
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IV MANAGING RADIO NETWORK DATA
IV.1 MANAGING RADIO NETWORK DATA : OVERVIEW
As a reference radio planning tool, A9155 is able to work on several technologies. This feature indicates that there may
be a large amount of data in any project. Nevertheless, A9155 has been developed in order to maximize the number of
common features for any type of project, either dealing with geo data management or radio data management. Of
course, several specific items dealing with the management of radio data are introduced depending on the considered
technology (e.g. TRXs and Subcells in GSM/GPRS/EDGE, Cell level in UMTS or CDMA/CDMA2000 projects, etc...).

All the organisation tools (filters, sorts, groups, etc...) described in the user interface basics can be applied on the radio
data, working in the explorer, tables or on the map. That way, working on sites, antennas, transmitters (including multi-
sectored stations and multi-antennas transmitters) and repeaters always remains easy. Moreover, it is also possible to
easily define, and in the same way in any technology, radio equipment, that will be assigned to each transmitter of any
network.

Specific parts dealing with radio data on GSM/GPRS/EDGE, WCDMA/UMTS and CDMA/CDMA2000 will be seen next.
Optimisations on networks will also be described on specific parts dealing with each of these project templates.

IV.2 SETTING DEFAULT RADIO UNITS
To build your network, like the projection or display coordinate systems or default length unit used in any A9155 project,
you must define reception and transmission units as they have to be taken into account in the working environment.

A9155 allows you to define the units of measurement for transmission and reception of signal levels, in your working
environment. The options for units are as follows :
Signal transmission units : dBmilliwatts (dBm), Watts or kiloWatts;
Signal reception units : dBmilliwatts (dBm), dBmicroVolts (dBV) or
dBmicroVolts/meter (dBV/m).


To define reception and transmission units in the current project, proceed as follows :
From the menu bar, select the options... command in the Tools menu,
Left click on the Units tab from the open window,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available and the way to use them,
Choose in the scrolling lists the default reception/transmission units for the current .atl A9155 project.
Click OK to validate.


The default unit length can be defined in the same dialog box.

IV.3 SITES
IV.3.1 SITE PROPERTIES
IV.3.1.a CREATING A SITE
In A9155, a site is a geographical point where one or several transmitters (multi-sector site or station) equipped with
antennas with particular characteristics are located.

Proceed as follows to create a site :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Sites folder to open the context menu,
Left click the New command from the open scrolling menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the new site dialog window.

Notes :
If the new site seems to not appear on the map, expand the Site folder by left clicking on the associated button.
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Right click on the site you want to see in order to open a menu from which you select the centre map option.
Site is automatically created when dropping a base station on the map.

From the Display tab window, you can display sites with colours depending on their attributes. The attributes of the sites
can be displayed as labels in the workspace or in help popups using the tip tool.

In UMTS and CDMA/CDMA2000 projects, in addition to the geographic information, the definition of site equipment and
their use has to be tuned.

IV.3.1.b NAMING AUTOMATICALLY SITES
A9155 integrates, by default, a prefix to site names : "Site". In addition to this prefix, a number is added and is
incremented automatically. Nevertheless, you can force A9155 not to use this default prefix and to prefer user-defined
prefixes. You can customise it by adding the syntax described below in an Atoll.ini file. You must create this file and
place it in the A9155 installation directory.

The syntax in order to define a new prefix to site names in the Atoll.ini file is the following :
[Site]
Prefix=newprefix
Each new site will be named newprefixN instead of SiteN.

Notes :
This file is read only when A9155 is started. Therefore, it is necessary to close the A9155 session and to restart it in
order to take into account any modification performed in Atoll.ini.
When changing the name of a site, A9155 automatically renames transmitters and cells related to the site which
names contain the site name. In the same way, if you rename a transmitter, the corresponding cells are automatically
renamed.
Naming automatically transmitters is also possible, either from a fixed prefix or based on the site name with which the
considered transmitter refers.

IV.3.1.c MANAGING SITE PROPERTIES
Like for all objects organised in folders (Sites, transmitters, Antennas, Predictions, Simulations, measurements, etc...)
within A9155, sites can be managed either individually or globally. Global setting is applied to all the filtered sites.

Global properties management
In A9155, you may manage globally the properties associated with existing sites of your network :
To do so, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the Sites folder,
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the open dialog window.

The displayed window contains 3 tabs (General, Table, Display). The General tab allows you to use the advanced
filter/sort/group by features. The Table tab manages the contents of the Site table. The Display tab is designed to assign
colours, labels and tips to sites. An additional Other Properties tab is possible if some user defined fields are added to
the Site table.


Individual property management
There are two ways to edit properties of each existing site in the current network.
To do so,
Either :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Expand the Sites folder by clicking on the button in front of it
Right click on the site you want to manage,
or
Select on the map the site you want to manage by right clicking on it ( ),
Choose the Properties option from the context menu
Use the What's this help to get description about the open dialog window.

The displayed window contains at least 2 tabs (General and Display). An additional Other Properties tab is possible if
some user-defined fields are added to the Site table. In UMTS or CDMA/CDMA2000 projects, an additional tab dealing
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with Site equipment is available.


Managing site properties is also possible from the Site table.

IV.3.1.d CHANGING A SITE POSITION
A9155 permits easy management of the site positions. You can proceed in two ways, either by using geographic
coordinates, by integrating the field topology, or by moving sites manually (using the mouse).

A context menu is associated with each created site. This can be obtained identically by right clicking on the site on the
map or in the Sites folder from the Explorer window.

Using the geographic coordinates
To do so, proceed as follows :
Double click on the site (on the map, or in the Sites folder from the Explorer window) you want to move, in
order to obtain the site properties window. You can do the same by selecting the Properties option from the
context menu associated with this site (see above).
Choose the General tab,
Use the What's this help to get description about the open dialog window
Give the site coordinates (X,Y) in the display system you have chosen. The position of the site by default
(just at the creation) corresponds to the centre of your active map.

Note : in the General tab of the site properties window, you can also change the name of the site, add comments for
each site, and lock its position on the map. Locking the site position allows "safety" for manual movements (using the
mouse) for sites on the map. When you move the site, a message will ask you to confirm your action.

Moving sites to a high point
When creating a network, it may be very useful to get sites high enough to propagate signals easily. A9155 enables you
to put sites on the highest point (based on the DTM) around a site on a certain range.

To do so, proceed as follows :
Activate the site context menu (see above),
Select the Move to a high point... option,
Display the radius of highest point test around the current site.

Note : A9155 can use either the DTM or a user-defined height for sites in computations


Moving sites using the mouse
You can move sites manually on the map, by selecting (left click) one and then by dragging it on the map, left button
pressed, wherever you want. A moving confirmation is asked if the site has a locked position (see above).

IV.3.1.e MANAGING SITE ALTITUDES
A9155 computes automatically the altitude from the imported DTM map. Nevertheless, it is possible to define "real"
altitudes that will be the ones taken into account for computations. It is possible to have both altitudes per site, one
altitude read from the DTM map (non editable value) and another one that the user may define in the Real box. Only the
real altitude defined by the user is stored in database (Sites table).

To manually define a site altitude, proceed as follows :
Either,
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Expand the Sites folder by clicking on the button in front of it
Right click on the site you want to manage the altitude,
or,
Select on the map the site whose altitude you want to manage by left clicking on it ( ),
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Click the General tab of the open dialog,
Use the What's this help to get description about the open dialog window,
Enter the real altitude in the appropriate field.
Click OK or Apply to validate your choice

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Notes :
In the Sites table, A9155 displays the real altitude of the site if defined or the DTM altitude in brackets in case the site
has no real altitude.
In calculations, A9155 takes into account the site's real altitudes and the DTM value in case it does not find any real
altitude. You may force A9155 to consider only site altitudes determined from the DTM map by selecting the Compute
with the DTM altitudes option in the Properties window (General tab) of the site folder. In this case, A9155 ignores the
entered real altitudes.
Altitude is global height compared with sea level (Sea is 0 altitude) and depends on the data of the imported DTM file
(which could be DEM, i.e. including clutter height)

IV.3.1.f GETTING DISTANCES AROUND SITES
The radial grid is a graduated grid on the map around the site, with site text colour. This grid enables the user to have a
better distances around site visualisation. You can set its parameters by using the button.


To do so, proceed as follows :
Either,
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Expand the Sites folder by clicking on the button in front of it
Right click on the site you want to get distances around,
or,
Select on the map the site you want to get distances around by left clicking on it ( ),
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Click the Display tab of the open dialog,
Use the What's this help to get description about the open dialog window,
Left click the button to open the site grid parameter setting dialog box,
Set the maximum radius, the distance between each graduation and the deviation between angular
graduations.

Note : You can access directly to the grid parameters from the Grid option from the site context menu. Clicking ok is
equal to checking the Show radial grid box.


Example :

- Maximum radius of grid : 5 000 m
- Concentric distance between graduations : 500 m
- Distance between angular graduations : 30



Grid display with above parameters

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IV.3.1.g DISPLAYING THE LINE OF SIGHT AREA
The line of sight represents an area within which visible contact can be made, i.e. the visible zone from a site, choosing
either to work on a simple radius or on a more constraining Fresnel ellipsoid.

To display the line of sight area associated with a site, proceed as follows:
Left click on the desired site in the Sites folder (Explorer window) or on the map
Left click to select the Line of sight area option from the context menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the open dialog window,
Enter the desired parameters and left click,
Click on OK to validate. A9155 then displays the line of sight area.
IV.3.1.h SETTING THE DISPLAY PROPERTIES OF A SITE
A9155 always permits the user to manage object displays easily. For the sites, this can be done by selecting the display
tab of the site properties window. The properties window is reached from the site context menu (right click on the site on
the map or in the Sites folder from the Explorer window).

On the site display window, you may :
Define the site display colours (text and symbol). You can display sites with colours depending on their
attributes. The attributes of the sites can be displayed as labels in the workspace,

By left clicking on the symbol button, you may change the symbol font, colour, type, style (bold, italic,
underline) and background (colour and type). Concerning the background, you may choose between :
- , none,
- , halo,
- , opaque.


Display of the site name, or not and define the related font style,
Display of a radial grid around the site, or not.

Note : If you use the Display tab in the Site folder properties dialog box in the Explorer window, you may define globally
the symbol and text sites display, depending potentially on their attributes.
IV.3.1.i DELETING BUILT SITES
In A9155, sites (like transmitters) are organized in folders. Even if these two tables are linked, it is possible to delete
easily, in one shot, sites and transmitters referred to.

To do so, proceed as follows :
Open the Sites table,
Select the Sites you want to delete,
Either,
Press the Del button of your keyboard,
Or,
Choose the Delete record command from the Edit menu.

Note :
When deleting a site where transmitters are positioned, A9155 automatically removes the site and the transmitters
without displaying a warning. Hence, to cancel a deletion, use the undo feature available in the Edit menu.
Sites can be deleted directly on the map, using their context menu.
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IV.3.2 SITE LISTS
IV.3.2.a CREATING A SITE LIST
In addition to the dynamic filtering features, A9155 also enable users to define static lists of sites. Unlike filter/sort/group
criteria that may be only saved in user configuration files, site lists are stored in the database. Therefore, when creating
an .atl document from the database, it is possible to recover only the sites of a list you can choose. These site lists may
be also used as filter so as to study in predictions only sites of the list(s). In addition, site lists can be imported and
exported as ASCII files.

To create lists of sites, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Sites folder to open the context menu,
Choose the [Site list : List management] command from the open scrolling menu,
In the Site lists dialog, you may define one list per row. To validate a list creation, select another row.
Either
Select a list in the table and click on the Properties button.
Or
Select a row and double click on it.
In the List properties dialog, enter the sites belonging to the list (copy/paste is supported).

IV.3.2.b MANAGING A SITE LIST
It is possible to add a site, a group of sites or all the sites in an existing list subsequently.

To add a site in a list, proceed as follows :
Right click on a site in the explorer or on the map,
Choose the Add a site to a list command in the context menu,
In the Addition of sites in a list dialog, open the scrolling menu and select a list.

To add a group of sites in a list, proceed as follows :
Right click on a group of sites in the explorer,
Choose the Add sites to a list command in the context menu,
In the Addition of sites in a list dialog,
Either
Enter the name of a new list,
Or
Open the scrolling menu and select an existing list.

To add all the sites in a list, proceed as follows :
Right click on the Sites folder in the explorer,
In the context menu, choose Site lists and then the Add sites to a list command,
In the Addition of sites in a list dialog,
Either
Enter the name of a new list,
Or
Open the scrolling menu and select an existing list.

IV.3.2.c EXPORTING A SITE LIST
Site lists can be exported in ASCII text files

To export a site list, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Sites folder to open the context menu,
Choose the [Site list : List management] command from the open scrolling menu,
In the Site lists dialog, either
Select an existing list in the table,
Or
Type the name of a new list. Then, click on the Properties button (or double click on it).
Click on Export,
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In the Save as dialog, choose a directory to save the file, give a name to the file and click on OK.


The ASCII text file has the following syntax:

Site name 1
Site name 2


It contains only a list of site names; the coordinates and other attributes of sites are not saved. Thus, this file can be
imported only if the sites have been previously created in the .atl document.

IV.3.2.d IMPORTING A SITE LIST
Site lists can be created within A9155. They can also be imported from an external ASCII file.

To import a site list, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Sites folder to open the context menu,
Choose the [Site list : List management] command from the open scrolling menu,
In the Site lists dialog, either
Select an existing list in the table,
Or
Type the name of a new list. Then, click on the Properties button (or double click on it).
Click on Import,
In the Open dialog, specify the path to access the file and click on Open to import the file.

A9155 fills in the selected list with sites from the imported file. Sites listed before importing the file are kept. A9155
displays a warning if a site in the list does not exist in the .atl document.

IV.3.2.e DISPLAYING SITE LISTS
Site lists created in the .atl document can be stored in the database. Therefore, when a user opens an .atl document
from a database that contains site lists, he has the possibility to choose the list(s) of sites he wants to recover in his .atl
document.

To choose the site list to be displayed from a database, proceed as follows :
After selecting the database to be open, A9155 displays the Options dialog,
In this window, either
Select the value <ALL> to load all the sites in the .atl document
Or
Check only the box(es) of site lists you want to recover.
Click on OK to validate.

Only the sites from the selected list(s) will be available in the .atl document.

Note : It is possible to select several lists at once. To do this, click one or several lists using shift and/or Ctrl button at the
same time and then, check/uncheck one of the boxes.

IV.3.2.f FILTERING SITE LISTS
To use site lists as filters, proceed as follows :
Right click on the Sites folder and select Properties,
In the General tab, click on the Filter button,
In the filter dialog, open the Site lists tab and check/uncheck box(es) of site lists you want to keep/exclude
in the .atl document.
Click on OK to validate.

A9155 only keeps sites belonging to site lists you have selected. In this case, sites are not definitively removed from the
.atl document. This is only a filter you can cancel (by opening the Sites table and select Show all records in the Records
menu).

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Notes :
It is possible to select several lists at once. To do this, click one or several lists using shift and/or Ctrl button at the
same time and then, check/uncheck one of the boxes.
All the boxes can be unchecked at once by clicking the Clear all button.
By default, the value <ALL> is selected; it means there is no filter.

IV.4 ANTENNAS
IV.4.1 CREATING AN ANTENNA
An antenna is a device used for radiating or receiving electromagnetic energy. Depending on the type of project (GSM,
UMTS, etc.), A9155 provides antennas well-suited to the studied projects.

Furthermore, A9155 allows you to create antennas and set the parameters for the characteristics of each of them
(Name, manufacturer, gain, horizontal pattern, vertical pattern, and comments). It is also possible to import a specific
Alcatel Antenna.

Note : Creating and setting parameters for different antennas on the basis of manufacturers data is a long and
meticulous operation. To make it easier for you A9155 allows the use of copy and paste functions as easily as in all
office automation tools. You may thus create an antenna from a blank sheet or from an existing one ; the A9155 display
is compatible with most spreadsheets or word processors.


To create an antenna, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Antennas folder to open the context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on New to create a new antenna,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open windows,
Fill out the appropriate fields either manually, or by importing existing values,
Click either OK or Apply to validate


Notes :
When performing a calculation along an angle on which no data is available, A9155 computes a linear interpolation
from existing pattern values.
In the other properties tab, there are 3 A9155 custom properties like the Antenna beamwidth, minimum and maximum
frequencies corresponding to the antenna utilization range. The Beamwidth is, in a plane containing the direction of
the maximum lobe of the antenna pattern, the angle between the two directions in which the radiated power is one-
half the maximum value of the lobe. Translated in terms of dB, half power corresponds to -3 dB. In this window, you
may enter this angle in degrees.
An Electrical tilt field is available in the General tab, but is not taken into account for computations. Patterns must
already integrate this parameter in their shape.

IV.4.2 MANAGING THE ANTENNA PROPERTIES
In A9155, you may edit and even modify the current parameters of an antenna. You may do this action either individually
for each antenna, or globally.

Single radiation pattern editing
You may edit horizontal or vertical patterns of each antenna by doing nearly the same as creating an antenna. To do so,
proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Antennas folder by left clicking on the sign left to the directory
Select the antenna from which you want to edit the radiation pattern by left clicking on it,
Activate the antenna properties window either by double clicking or by choosing the properties option from
the scrolling menu.
Choose the pattern tab associated with the pattern you want to edit.

You may change the values by filling new ones directly on the tables. Patterns can be copied to clipboard or printed.


Note : it is possible to display antenna patterns with either linear or logarithmic axes. To choose your display system,
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right click in the pattern window and choose the appropriate option from the open scrolling menu. The new shape is
automatically displayed in the pattern window.

Multiple radiation pattern editing
Like for the other parameters (sites, transmitters, etc...), A9155 enables you to manage antennas in table form. To
activate the antenna table, double click on the antenna folder or choose the Open option from the antenna context menu
(right click on the antenna folder). By resizing cell heights and widths, you may obtain all the antenna patterns on a view
in order to make a comparative choice.


Data Tab/Antenna/Open - Antenna Data table


Notes :
By using the copy (Ctrl+C) and paste (Ctrl+V) functions, you may even attribute patterns from one antenna to another
one by working directly on the pattern cells of the antenna table,
The way patterns are displayed (linear or logarithmic) is reported in the antenna table as chosen in any single
antenna properties dialog box.
IV.4.3 MODIFYING ANTENNA PARAMETERS IN TABLES
A9155 can easily manage antenna data with its table form availability. Like for the other items, you may change data
directly in the table (left click on the cell you want to modify), or use the copy and paste (Ctrl+C and Ctrl+V) functions.
This last feature is very useful in that way you may reuse patterns of an antenna to others.

Example :
In the following table, a new antenna called Antenna1, from Martin SA, has been built, with a 12 dBi Gain, and
some patterns. The goal, here, is to export the patterns of a certain antenna to the one of Antenna1.

To do so
Activate the antenna table,
Select the pattern cell from the antenna whose pattern you want to export,
Copy the cell by using the Ctrl+C function,


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Data Tab/Antenna/Open/Pattern copying - Antenna Data table

Select the pattern cell from the antenna you want to change the pattern,
Paste the patterns by using the Ctrl+V option.



Data Tab/Antenna/Open/Pattern Pasting - Antenna Data table


A9155 replaces the old pattern by the new one both in the antenna table and properties window. You can check that
data have also been adapted in the patterns table of the modified antenna properties window.

IV.4.4 COPYING ANTENNA PATTERNS TO THE CLIPBOARD
To copy the horizontal/vertical pattern of an existing antenna to the clipboard, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Antennas folder by left clicking on the sign left to the directory
Select the antenna from which you want to copy the radiation pattern by left clicking on it,
Activate the antenna properties window either by double clicking or by choosing the properties option from
the scrolling menu.
Choose the pattern tab associated with the pattern you want to edit (horizontal/vertical),
Right click on the pattern window in order to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Copy command from the open menu.


This can be made either on a linear or a logarithmic display

IV.4.5 IMPORTING ANTENNA PATTERNS
Using existing values
If you already have table formatted values for antenna patterns in a file (spreadsheet or word processor), you can
import them directly into the cells of the patterns table by copying and pasting from your application (a spreadsheet in
the following example).

To do so, proceed as follows :
Select from your spreadsheet the columns containing angles and values you want to import,
Copy your selection,

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Horizontal pattern values copying

Switch to A9155,
Click the first top left cell of the corresponding pattern table in the antenna properties window,
Paste the data by using the Ctrl+V shortcut.
Left click on the Apply button


Missing values in selection
If there are some missing values (blank lines) in your data sheet, A9155 is able to interpolate the values in order to
obtain a complete and realistic pattern all around the antenna. To do so, just follow exactly the steps as above. When
pasted, blank lines are compacted in the pattern table when the apply button is pressed.

IV.4.6 PRINTING ANTENNA PATTERNS
To print the horizontal/vertical pattern of an existing antenna, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Antennas folder by left clicking on the sign left to the directory
Select the antenna from which you want to print the radiation pattern by left clicking on it,
Activate the antenna properties window either by double clicking or by choosing the properties option from
the scrolling menu.
Choose the pattern tab associated with the pattern you want to edit (horizontal/vertical),
Right click on the pattern window in order to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Print... command from the open menu.


This can be made either on a linear or a logarithmic display

IV.5 TRANSMITTERS
IV.5.1 TRANSMITTERS : OVERVIEW
A transmitter is the source or generator of any signal on a transmission medium. A transmitter is a piece of equipment
composed of some antennas located on a site. Depending on the type of project, A9155 manages differently the
transmitters parameters. Whatever the project, you may manage globally or individually the transmitter parameters and
their single activity/inactivity. A base station is a group of transmitters on the same site. With A9155, you may work on
several types, from single to multi-sectored stations, by creating new ones from nothing or templates.

Then depending on the project type, transmitters are managed differently. Hence, additional levels are introduced like
subcells and TRXs in TDMA/GSM projects, cells (one carrier on a transmitter) for WCDMA/UMTS and
CDMA/CDMA2000 projects.

So, the items referenced in this part deal with common management of transmitters and station templates. All specific
parts depending on the technology are described in their respective parts. In the coming sections, steps will describe the
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creation, deletion, moving and setting of the global properties of the transmitters and station templates.

IV.5.2 TRANSMITTERS PROPERTIES
IV.5.2.a CREATING A TRANSMITTER
In A9155, several antennas can be installed on the same transmitter. The creative steps for one antenna and more
antennas transmitters are identical. The second antenna used is automatically placed at the same height than the first
one.


To create a transmitter, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder,
Choose the New option from the context menu.
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open windows,
Fill out the appropriate fields in the several tab windows,
Click OK or Apply to validate the new transmitter.


A9155 opens the "Transmitter new element properties" window containing the main characteristics describing the
transmitter you are building. This window contains at least 2 tabs, additional tabs being linked with the type of project
template you are working on.

The standard tabs are General and Transmitter, and deal with the definition of the transmitter, its location, the
assignment to some specific radio equipment (leading to losses computation), and the antenna(s) used on this
transmitter. The power definition is located in the Transmitter part in GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects, whereas its definition is
made at the cell level in WCDMA/UMTS or CDMA/CDMA2000 projects.

Note : The Other Properties tab window is available for any project if a user-defined field has been added to the
transmitter table.

IV.5.2.b NAMING AUTOMATICALLY TRANSMITTERS
A9155 integrates, by default, a prefix to transmitter names which is the name of the related site. In addition to this prefix,
the sector number corresponding to the considered transmitter is added. Nevertheless, you can force A9155 not to use
this default prefix and to prefer user-defined prefixes. You can customise it by adding the syntax described below in an
Atoll.ini file. You must create this file and place it in the A9155 installation directory.

The syntax in order to define a new prefix to transmitter names in the Atoll.ini file is the following :
[Transmitter]
Prefix=newprefix
Each new transmitter will be named newprefixN instead of TxN.

Another solution is to use an automatic prefix by writing these lines:
[Transmitter]
Prefix=<AUTO>
In this case, each new transmitter is called Site name_n. Site name is the name of the site where the transmitter is
located and n is the transmitter number on this site.

Notes :
This file is read only when A9155 is started. Therefore, it is necessary to close the A9155 session and to restart it in
order to take into account any modification performed in Atoll.ini.
When changing the name of a site, A9155 automatically renames transmitters and cells related to the site which
names contain the site name. In the same way, if you rename a transmitter, the corresponding cells are automatically
renamed.
Automatically naming sites is also possible.


The default sector numbering can be set. By default, when creating a tri-sectors station, the numbering of the first sector
starts from 1. Therefore, we will have 3 transmitters named Site_1, Site_2 and Site_3.

To differently initialise the numbering of the first sector, add these lines in the Atoll.ini file:
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[Transmitter]
First=x (x must be an integer)

IV.5.2.c MANAGING TRANSMITTER PROPERTIES
Like for all objects organised in folders (Sites, Transmitters, Antennas, Predictions, Simulations, measurements, etc...)
within A9155, transmitters can be managed either individually or globally. A global setting is applied to all the filtered
transmitters.

Global properties management
In A9155, you may manage globally the properties associated with transmitters of your network :
To do so, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder,
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the open dialog window.

The 4 standard tab windows are : General, Table, Propagation and Display.
- The General tab deals with folder organisation and associate configurations.
- The Table tab helps you to manage contents in the Transmitter table.
- The Propagation tab makes it possible to assign the same propagation model(s), calculation radius (or radii), path loss
resolution(s) to all filtered transmitters of the folder, and to manage the path loss result storage,
- The Station templates tab allows you to manage (creation, modification, deletion) models of stations.
- The Display tab allows you to manage the display of transmitters depending on their attributes, to manage the legend,
labels on the map, and the contents of help popups using the tip tool .

Notes :
To attribute different colours to the transmitters (used in coverage prediction for example) in the network easily, use
the automatic command from the Display type scrolling box in the Display tab window (and validate by pressing the
Apply button).
In GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects, a BSIC format tab is available. In this one, you can define whether BSICs are in octal
or decimal notations.


Individual property management
There are two ways to edit properties of each transmitter in the current network.
To do so,
Either :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
Right click on the transmitter you want to manage,
or
Select on the map the transmitter you want to manage by left clicking on the appropriate Tx symbol
(arrow),
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the open dialog window.

The displayed window contains at least 4 tabs (General, Transmitter, Propagation, Display). The Other Properties tab is
available if some user defined fields have been added to the Transmitter table :
- The General tab deals with the referring site and the location of the current transmitter
- The Transmitter tab is linked with the definition of power (in GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects), assigned losses and
antennas built on this transmitter,
- The Propagation tab makes it possible to assign propagation model(s), calculation radius (or radii), path loss
resolution(s) to the current transmitter, and to manage the path loss result storage,
- The display tab allows you to manage the colour assigned to the current transmitter.

Note :
You can open the property dialog of the Site on which the transmitter is built by clicking the button on the right of
the scrolling site selection box in the General tab.
You can open the property dialog of the Antenna used as main antenna on the transmitter by clicking the button
on the right of the scrolling antenna selection box in the Transmitter tab.

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IV.5.2.d MOVING A TRANSMITTER ON THE MAP
Even if transmitters are linked with sites, it is possible to shift them from their reference site by adjusting Dx and Dy
contained in each transmitter property dialog box. Dx (resp. Dy) is the distance (in metres) between the considered
transmitter and the basis site X-positive (Y-positive) directed.

Nevertheless, it is possible to move a transmitter by using your mouse. To do so, proceed as follows :
Select the transmitter you want to move on the map by left clicking on it and maintaining it, a specific
second pointer appears close to the mouse pointer,

Drag the transmitter to the desired location,

Release the mouse button when reached.



Dx and Dy values are automatically modified in the transmitter properties.

IV.5.2.e ADJUSTING TRANSMITTER AZIMUTHS
In A9155, it is possible to modify the azimuth of the antenna(s) of any transmitter by accessing its property dialog box.
Azimuth values are defined in degrees, 0 indicating north, and are ordered in a clockwise direction.

It is also possible to modify the azimuth of the first antenna of any transmitter by using your mouse. To do so, proceed as
follows :
Select the transmitter you want to move on the map by left clicking on it and release the mouse
button,
Move the pointer to the arrow extremity of the selected transmitter, a specific rotation pointer
appears close to the mouse pointer,

Left click on the green dot and maintain the mouse button pressed,
Drag the pointer in order to execute a rotation around the original location,

The value of the azimuth is displayed in real time in the extreme left part of the status bar
,
Release the mouse button when the desired angle is reached.



The azimuth value for the first antenna of the considered transmitter is automatically modified in the transmitter
properties.

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IV.5.2.f INSTALLING SEVERAL ANTENNAS ON A TRANSMITTER
In A9155, it is possible to assign several antennas on the same transmitter in order to compose the several associated
patterns of each of them.

To build several antennas on the same transmitter, proceed as follows :
Either :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
Right click on the transmitter you want to manage,
or
Select on the map the transmitter you want to manage by left clicking on the appropriate Tx symbol
(arrow),
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Click the Transmitter tab of the open window,
Use the What's this help to get description about the open dialog,
In the Other antennas part, define additional antennas. Click on the first cell in the Antenna column, open
the scrolling menu (by clicking on the arrow) and choose an antenna in the scrolling menu. Then, enter its
characteristics: azimuth (Azimuth column), down tilt (Tilt column) and the percentage of power dedicated to
this antenna (Percent_power column). Select another row to validate the new antenna installation,
Click OK or Apply to validate the antenna building.


Notes :
Entering 0% in the Percent_power column means that only the first antenna will be considered.
The other antennas used are automatically placed at the same height as the first one.
The characteristics of additional antennas are no longer described in the Transmitters table.

IV.5.2.g SETTING TRANSMITTER ACTIVITY
When transmitters are built in a network, you may decide to activate them or not. Predictions, simulations and associated
reports/statistics take into account only active transmitters (and not filtered transmitters). In the Explorer window, active
transmitters are displayed in red ( symbol) in the transmitter folder, unlike inactive ones which are displayed in white
( symbol).

To set the activity of a transmitter,
Either,
Select the Transmitter tab from the transmitter properties
or
Activate the transmitter table window
(Un)check the active box in order to make the transmitter (un)active in the network

You may also manage the transmitters activity from the context menu associated with each transmitter individually (right
click on the transmitter subfolder in the geo tab from the explorer window) or globally (right click on the transmitters folder
in the geo tab from the explorer window)

IV.5.2.h DELETING A TRANSMITTER
To delete an existing transmitter, proceed as follows :
Either :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it
Right click on the transmitter you want to delete,
or
Select on the map the transmitter ( )you want to delete by left clicking on the appropriate Tx
symbol (arrow),
Choose the Delete option from the context menu.

Another alternative is to delete the line associated with the transmitter you want to delete in the Transmitters table.


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Note : When selecting a transmitter, be careful to reach the selection. is different. In that case, that is the
site which is selected. Since the deletion action is possible on sites on which transmitters are built, be sure of your
selection.

IV.5.3 STATION TEMPLATES
IV.5.3.a CREATING A STATION TEMPLATE
A station is one transmitter or a group of transmitters on a same site sharing the same properties. With A9155, you may
create, modify or delete station templates and build your network from stations instead of single transmitters.

To create a new station template, proceed as follows :
Either
From the toolbar, left click on the template scrolling box

Select the Manage Templates... tool

Or
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder,
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Click the Station templates tab,
Click the button to create a new station template,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Enter the parameters of the station being currently built,
Click OK to validate.

The new station template is then available in the station scrolling menu.

Note : In UMTS or CDMA/CDMA2000, the station template must integrate the site equipment properties related to the
site on which it will be dropped.

IV.5.3.b DEFINING STATION TEMPLATE PROPERTIES
A station is one transmitter or a group of transmitters on a same site sharing the same properties. With A9155, you may
create, modify or delete station templates and build your network from stations instead of single transmitters.

To manage a station template, proceed as follows :
Either,
From the toolbar, left click on the template scrolling box

Select the Manage Template... tool

Or
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder,
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
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Click the Station templates tab,
Select the template you want to manage in the Available templates box,
Click the button to open the station template properties dialog box,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Set the parameters of the current station,
Click OK to validate.


Note : the properties you can adjust are similar to the transmitter properties ones.

IV.5.3.c DELETING A STATION TEMPLATE
A station is one transmitter or a group of transmitters on a same site sharing the same properties. With A9155, you may
create, modify or delete station templates and build your network from stations instead of single transmitters.

To delete a station template, proceed as follows :
Either
From the toolbar, left click on the template scrolling box

Select the Manage Template... tool

Or
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder,
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Click the Station templates tab,
Select the template you want to delete in the Available templates box,
Click the button,
Click either OK or Cancel to close the dialog box.

IV.5.3.d DROPPING A STATION FROM A TEMPLATE
In A9155, as for (site, transmitter) pairs, you can easily build station from available templates.

Proceed as follows to create a station :
Select in the station template scrolling box (located in the toolbar) the template to use,
Left click on the New station button, left to the scrolling box,
Put the station on the appropriate location on your map,

You may also build several identical stations from a template in A9155. To do so, you must have previously defined a
hexagonal cell radius for the corresponding template in its properties dialog window. Once this is done, proceed as
follows to create groups of stations :
Select in the station template scrolling box (located in the toolbar) the template to use,
Left click on the Hexagonal design
1
button, left of the scrolling box,
Draw the zone in which you want to build the stations on the map as a computation or focus zone,
Stations with associated hexagonal shapes around are built as best possible in the drawn zone.


Once built, stations objects (sites and transmitters) are put in the corresponding folders, and you may work on them as if
they were sites and transmitters. Hence, you may add additional antennas on each created transmitter.


1
An hexagonal design is a group of stations created from the same station template

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Notes :
When you select a specific template, if the Hexagonal design button is not available ( ), please define a hexagonal
cell radius for this template in its properties dialog window, used as the hexagonal shape radius.
In UMTS or CDMA/CDMA2000, the site on which is dropped the station has UMTS equipment properties which are
defined in the station template dialog.
It is also possible to drop a station on an existing site.

IV.5.3.e DROPPING A STATION ON AN EXISTING SITE
In A9155, the standard way in dropping stations is at the same time the creation of related site and corresponding
properties (e.g. site equipment in UMTS or CDMA/CDMA2000). Nevertheless, it is easily possible to drop a station from
a template on existing site.

Once the reference site is available, to drop a station from a template on it, proceed as follows :
Select in the station template scrolling box (located in the toolbar) the template to use,
Uncheck the visibility flag in front of the hexagonal design folder,
Left click on the New station button, left of the scrolling box,
Move your pointer to the reference site on your map,
When the pointer sticks on it, put the station on the site by left clicking.

IV.5.3.f MANAGING A MULTI-SECTORED STATION
Even if you can select only one transmitter at a time, it is possible to group together all the transmitters composing a
same base station (defined in the station templates properties).

To do so, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitter folder to open the context menu
Choose the group by sites option
Transmitters are then displayed under sites subfolders in the transmitters folder.

IV.5.3.g MERGING HEXAGONAL GROUPS OF BASE STATIONS
When you build several hexagonal groups of different station templates, some hexagons may overlap. These
overlapping zones can overestimate the number of needed sites regarding the number of transmitters. To avoid that,
A9155 provides a tool that helps you to merge sites of different hexagon groups.

To merge sites of different hexagonal groups located within a certain distance, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Display the several hexagon groups by checking the box ( ) in front of the Hexagonal design folder,
Right click on the Hexagonal design folder to open the context menu,
Choose the Merge sites... command from the open menu,
Enter the distance within which you want to merge sites,
Click OK to start the merging process.


Example : let's imagine that two base bi-sector stations of different hexagon groups are located within a radius of 200
metres, and their respective hexagon cell radius is 500 m and 1000m. With this feature, you can merge sites located
within a distance of e.g. 300 metres. At the end of the process, there will be only one site on which 4 transmitters will be
built.

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IV.6 REPEATERS
IV.6.1 REPEATERS : OVERVIEW
A simple modelling of repeaters is available in the A9155 V6.2.1 version. The modelling focuses on the impact of
repeaters and the additional coverage they provide to transmitters.

Broad-band repeaters are not modelled. A repeater is similarly modelled for 2G and 3G networks, except that on the 2G
side, A9155 deals with EIRP and on the 3G side with a global amplification gain. We assume that all the TRXs from the
2G donor transmitter, as well as all the carriers from the 3G donor transmitter are amplified.
IV.6.2 CREATING A REPEATER
It is possible to model a repeater for which there is a donor transmitter.

To create a repeater, proceed as follows :
Select a transmitter on the map or in the Transmitters folder of explorer ; it will be the donor transmitter,
In the toolbar, click on the icon (active only if a transmitter has been previously selected),
Place the repeater on the map.

A repeater can be added on an existing site or can itself generate a new site. A9155 creates a repeater linked to the
selected donor transmitter. In the explorer, the new site is listed in the Sites folder and the repeater under its donor
transmitter.

The repeater is represented on the map by the symbol . The repeater has the colour of the donor transmitter and by
default, the same azimuth. When clicking on it, A9155 displays a link to the donor transmitter.

IV.6.3 MANAGING REPEATER PROPERTIES
The repeater property dialog can be open either by double-clicking on the repeater on the map or in the explorer, or by
selecting Properties in the repeater context menu. It consists of four parts, the General part, the Donor part, the
Coverage part and the Propagation part.

Standard properties are available in the General tab. This tab contains general information on the repeater :
The name of the repeater. By default, repeaters are called RepeaterN.
The donor transmitter name that cannot be changed after the repeater creation,
The site which it is located on,
The distance offset on x (Dx) and y (Dy) axis,
The amplifier gain (amplification gain),
It will be used in the link budget to evaluate the repeater total gain.
The delay offset (Internal delay) of the repeater,
Delay offset is an informative field in this version.
Comments.

All the created repeaters and donor side properties are listed in the Repeaters table. To open this table, right click on the
Transmitters folder and then, select Repeaters and Open.

Note : the table cannot be used to create repeaters since only properties of the donor side may be specified. On the
other hand, it allows you to delete repeaters or modify their characteristics ; standard features for managing table content
(Fill down/up, Delete, Display columns, Filter, Sort, Fields) are available in a context menu (when right clicking on
column(s) or record(s)) and in the Format, Edit and Records menu.

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IV.6.4 SETTING DONOR PROPERTIES OF A REPEATER
Donor properties can be accessed from the donor tab of any repeater property dialog. Parameters of this tab model the
repeater donor side facing the donor transmitter.

The different settings are listed below :
The repeater donor side antenna has to be selected in the model scrolling menu. By default, if no antenna is installed
on the repeater, A9155 takes into account an omni antenna with 0 dBi gain.
Enter the repeater antenna height. A9155 evaluates the repeater azimuth and downtilt considering that the donor side
antenna of the repeater is pointed to the antenna of the donor transmitter.
Azimuth and downtilt can also be user-defined.
The Calculate button enables you to update azimuth and downtilt values after changing the repeater donor side
antenna height or the repeater location. If you choose another site or change site coordinates in the General tab, click
on Apply before using the Calculate button.
Finally, you may model the feeder equipment used. Choose a type of feeder in the Feeders scrolling menu and enter
its length.

IV.6.5 SETTING COVERAGE PROPERTIES OF A REPEATER
Coverage properties can be accessed from the Coverage side tab of any repeater property dialog. This tab enables you
to model the repeater coverage side.

The different settings are listed below :
The repeater activity status has to be chosen. Only active repeaters (displayed with red colour in the explorer) are
calculated.
Choose the repeater coverage side antenna in the model scrolling menu. By default, if no antenna is installed on the
repeater, A9155 takes into account an omni antenna with 0 dBi gain.
Enter the height, azimuth and downtilt of the repeater coverage side antenna.
Additional antennas can be specified.

Note : by default, characteristics (antenna, azimuth, height,) of the repeater coverage side correspond to the donor
transmitter characteristics.

Finally, you may model the feeder equipment used. Choose a type of feeder in the Feeders scrolling menu and enter
its length.
You may define EIRP in case of GSM/GPRS/EDGE networks or total gain in UMTS/CDMA/CDMA2000 networks.
A9155 will use this value (EIRP or total gain) to calculate the signal level received from the repeater. Either directly
enter a value, or click on the Calculate button in order for A9155 to deduce the value from the link budget. The
Calculate button enables you to update the value after changing any characteristic in the Coverage tab. If you modify
other characteristics in the General and Donor side tabs, click on Apply before using the Calculate button.

Note : default EIRP takes into account donor transmitter EIRP, propagation loss between the donor transmitter and the
repeater, donor part characteristics (donor antenna gain, feeder losses), amplifier gain and coverage part characteristics
(coverage antenna gain and feeder losses). The default gain is applied to each power (pilot power, SCH power,) and
takes into account the same information about donor transmitter, donor and coverage parts of the repeater.

Assumptions :
The link between the donor transmitter and the repeater has the same frequency as the network,
Propagation loss between donor transmitter and repeater is calculated using the ITU 526-5 propagation model.


Since repeaters will be involved in computations, propagation parameters have to be set like in transmitters. They can be
accessed from the Propagation side tab of any repeater property dialog.

As for the transmitter, you may specify:
A propagation model, a calculation radius and a resolution used to compute the main path loss matrix,
A propagation model, a calculation radius and a resolution taken into account to calculate the extended path loss
matrix.

Notes :
By default, A9155 assigns to the repeater calculation settings (propagation model, calculation radius, grid
resolution,) defined for the donor transmitter,
The definition of the calculation radius in the repeater property dialog has an effect on the related transmitters that will
be taken into account or not because of the use of a computation zone.
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IV.6.6 UPDATING REPEATER PARAMETERS
As for transmitters, it is possible to select a repeater on the map, to change its azimuth and its position relating to its site.
Angle calculation

In addition, it is possible to globally update calculated azimuths and downtilts of repeater donor side antennas by
selecting Repeaters and Calculate angles in the Transmitters context menu.

Finally, it is possible to globally update calculated total gains (or calculated EIRP) of all the repeaters by selecting
Repeaters and Calculate gain (or Calculate EIRP) in the Transmitters context menu.

IV.6.7 USING REPEATERS IN CALCULATIONS
Repeaters have an impact on the donor transmitter coverage.

Path loss matrices
A9155 calculates a main path loss matrix and potentially an extended one for each active repeater:
Which satisfies the filter criteria defined,
Which has a calculation area (intersection between the calculation radius and rectangle including the computation
zone).
Computations are performed with the standard validity management carried out for any transmitter.

Features such as export of repeater path loss matrices, the possibility to evaluate the number of transmitters/repeaters to
recalculate, the list of transmitters/repeaters calculated and their invalidity reasons, are available in the Result storage
dialog and in the Propagation tab of the Transmitters property dialog.


Coverage predictions
The calculation area is the union between calculation areas of the donor transmitter and the repeater. A9155 displays a
composite coverage ; on each pixel, it takes the sum of both signals, the signal level received from the donor transmitter
and the signal level from the repeater.

The desynchronisation, which would lead to constructive or destructive operation on signals, is not modelled.


Point analysis
In the Profile tab, it is possible to study the profile between a repeater and a target receiver. In this case, A9155 gives the
signal level from the repeater.

In the Reception and Results tabs, it provides the composite signal, the signal level received from the donor transmitter
plus the signal level from the repeater.


GSM/GPRS/EDGE specific calculations
Repeaters have no direct impact on:
TRX dimensioning,
The donor transmitter (which has an extended coverage) is supposed to deal with more traffic and so naturally needs
more TRXs.
Neighbour allocation,
The donor transmitter would naturally have more neighbours as its coverage is extended.
Frequency allocation,
The donor transmitter (which has an extended coverage) is supposed to create more interference so allocation will
naturally be more constrained.

UMTS, CDMA2000 and CDMA/ IS 95 specific calculations
Repeaters have no direct impact on:
Power control simulation,
Neighbour allocation,
The donor transmitter would naturally have more neighbours as its coverage is extended.
Scrambling code allocation.

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IV.7 RADIO EQUIPMENT
IV.7.1 RADIO EQUIPMENT : OVERVIEW
Radio equipment is related to several devices producing losses on transmitters. In A9155, it is possible to calculate such
losses for each type of equipment regarding their specific characteristics. The calculated values may then be used to
either determine total loss on transmitters or indicate their order of magnitude for each of them. Furthermore, for UMTS
or CDMA/CDMA2000 projects, assigning equipment to transmitter helps in the determination of the Total noise figure
using the Friis equation.


A9155 enables you to model transmitter equipment in any project. Radio equipment consists of three main parts:
Tower Mounted Amplifier (also called Mast Head Amplifier): it is used to reduce the composite noise figure of the
base station. TMAs are connected between the antenna and the feeder cable,
Feeders,
BTS.

All the components, tower mounted amplifiers, feeders and BTS, are described in three associated tables. In addition,
some characteristics, which may be different for transmitters using the same equipment, are specified in each transmitter
properties.

Equipment can also be managed in a database structure.

IV.7.2 MANAGING TMA EQUIPMENT
TMA (Tower Mounted Amplifier) are used in the equipment specifications linked with each transmitter. When defined,
TMA are available and can be assigned individually to each transmitter of the network.


To create/manage tower mounted amplifiers equipment, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the Transmitters folder to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Equipment : TMA equipment... option from the open menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open dialog window,
Click on the Records tab to open the TMA definition table,
Create TMA equipment (give an equipment name to each newly created one), and, for each of them,
specify noise figure (noise figure TMA, dB), uplink gain (reception gain TMA, dB) and downlink loss
(transmission losses TMA, dB),
Click the Close button to validate.


Notes :
Losses and gains must be positive values.
The Table tab window allows you to manage user-defined variables in the Records tab window.
Only transmission values are used in TDMA/GSM projects.

IV.7.3 MANAGING FEEDER EQUIPMENT
Feeders are used in the equipment specifications linked with each transmitter. When defined, feeder types are available
and can be assigned individually to each transmitter of the network.


To create/manage feeder equipment, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the Transmitters folder to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Equipment : Feeder equipment... option from the open menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open dialog window,
Click on the Records tab to open the Feeder definition table,
Create Feeder equipment (give an equipment name to each newly created one), and, for each of them,
specify losses per metre (feeder losses per metre, dB/m) and the connector transmission and reception
losses (dB),
Click the Close button to validate.
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Notes :
Losses must be positive values.
The Table tab window allows you to manage user-defined variables in the Records tab window.
Only transmission values are used in TDMA/GSM projects.
In CDMA/CDMA2000 or WCDMA/UMTS projects, feeder and connector losses are not included in the transmitter
uplink total losses since they are already taken into account in the noise figure evaluation.

IV.7.4 MANAGING BTS EQUIPMENT
BTS equipment is used in the equipment specifications linked with each transmitter. When defined, BTS types are
available and can be assigned individually to each transmitter of the network.


To create/manage BTS equipment, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the Transmitters folder to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Equipment : BTS equipment... option from the context menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open dialog window,
Click on the Records tab to open the BTS definition table,
Create BTS equipment (give an equipment name to each newly created one), and, for each of them,
specify noise figure (BTS noise figure, dB),
Click the Close button to validate.


Notes :
Noise figures must be positive values.
The Table tab window allows you to manage user-defined variables in the Records tab window.
Only transmission values are used in TDMA/GSM projects.

IV.7.5 ASSIGNING RADIO EQUIPMENT TO TRANSMITTER
Once defined, TMA, feeder and BTS equipment can be assigned to transmitters taking part of a network in order to
determine corresponding total losses. For example, in GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects, losses due to equipment will be
available only when the Power and Losses option is chosen to define the efficient power of transmitters instead of EIRP.


To define transmitter radio equipment, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
Either,
Right click on the transmitter you want to parameter radio equipment to open the associated context
menu,
Choose the Properties command from the open menu,
Or
Double click on the transmitter you want to parameter radio equipment,
Click on the Transmitter tab from the open window,
Click the button to open the associated dialog box,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Click OK to validate.


Notes :
Losses and gains must be positive values.
Only transmission values are used in TDMA/GSM projects.

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IV.7.6 USING EQUIPMENT TO COMPUTE TRANSMITTER LOSSES
TMA, feeder and BTS equipment allows you to calculate losses on transmitters. Once their characteristics defined for
each transmitter, A9155 calculates downlink losses for GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects, and downlink and uplink losses for
CDMA projects, including the total noise figure, using the Friis equation.

To display calculated loss regarding to equipment specifications for each transmitters, open the properties dialog
associated with the considered transmitter, and choose the Transmitter tab window. Calculated values are indicated in
brackets on the right of the boxes linked with the different types of losses. This fields are editable and can be user
modified.

Notes :
When loss information is lacking, the following default values are considered: Gain=0dB and Noise figure=0dB.
Only transmission values are used in TDMA/GSM projects.
Since they are already taken into account in the noise figure evaluation, feeder and connector losses are not included
in the transmitter uplink total losses (CDMA/CDMA2000 or WCDMA/UMTS projects).

A9155 does not automatically recalculate total losses and total noise figure when modifying equipment characteristics in
their respective tables, in each transmitter Equipment specifications window or in the Transmitters table. It keeps initial
values and displays updated values in parentheses.

For automatic total losses and total noise figure update from equipment characteristics, proceed as follows :
Either,
Right click on the Transmitters folder, choose Equipment : Apply to transmitters.
Or
Open the Transmitters table,
Select the whole column(s) you want to calculate
Empty it (them) using the Delete key on your keyboard.

Note : The first way enables you to update total losses and total noise figure of all the transmitters while the second one
can be used on a group of transmitters.

IV.7.7 MANAGING RADIO EQUIPMENT IN A DATABASE STRUCTURE
In A9155, TMA, feeder and BTS equipment are related to some objects from a database. These are available when
creating a new environment .atl or when opening an existing one not connected to a database.

To enable the equipment modelling in existing projects connected to a central database, a specific procedure must be
achieved. This is given below :
Let several users be connected with a central database. The database administrator is one of them,
In the database, the administrator must create three tables, called TMAEquipments, FeederEquipments,
and BTSEquipments, respectively dedicated to TMA, feeder and BTS equipment. Tables are described
hereafter. In each table, assign a primary key to the field NAME,

Field Label Length Description
NAME Text 255 Name of Tower Mounted Amplifier
DL_LOSSES Float 4 Downlink losses of Tower Mounted Amplifier
NOISE_FIGURE Float 4 Noise figure of Tower Mounted Amplifier
UL_GAIN Float 4 Uplink gain of Tower Mounted Amplifier
TMAEquipments table

Field Label Length Description
NAME Text 255 Name of Feeder
LOSS_PER_METER Float 4 Feeder loss per meter
FeederEquipments table

Field Label Length Description
NAME Text 255 Name of base station
NOISE_FIGURE Float 4 Noise figure of base station
BTSEquipments table

The administrator must also define fields, listed below, in the existing Transmitters and TplTransmitters
tables,
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Field Label Length Description
TMA_NAME Text 255 Name of the TMA equipment
FEEDER_NAME Text 255 Name of the feeder equipment
BTS_NAME Text 255 Name of the BTS equipment
FEEDERLENGTH_DL Float 4 Length of DL feeder
FEEDERLENGTH_UL Float 4 Length of UL feeder
ANTDIVGAIN Float 4 Antenna gain diversity
MISCDLL Float 4 Miscellaneous DL loss
MISCULL Float 4 Miscellaneous UL loss
Fields to add in the Transmitters and TplTransmitters tables





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V MANAGING COMPUTATIONS IN A9155
V.1 COMPUTATIONS IN A9155 : OVERVIEW
Once the network has been built, A9155 allows you to create some general studies. To make this easier, A9155
provides calculation tools like multithread and distributed computing features. Moreover, the several processes can be
either displayed in an event viewer window or inside a log file.

A9155 provides also the possibility to limit the calculation loading and time by introducing polygonal zones. These help
you to restrict the computation to a certain set of transmitters, and to clip related computations, coverages and other
outputs. This is made by using two type of polygonal zones : the computation zone and the focus zone. The first one is
the one on which are made the computations, the second one on which are made the statistical outputs.

Depending on the project type on which you are working on, you may choose between the different propagation models
available in A9155. Selecting the most appropriate one, you may even decide to attribute different ones to the different
transmitters composing the network.

Predictions may be featured in two ways :
by using the point analysis tool in order to predict, at any point of the current map, the reception profile between a
reference transmitter (in real time) and the value of the several signal levels of the surrounding transmitters at a given
point (using existing path loss matrices).
by computing different types of standard coverage predictions : coverage by transmitter, coverage by signal level and
overlapping zones. Many customisation features on coverage studies are available in order to make their analysis
easier.

All of these are easily manageable. Furthermore, A9155 allows you to export coverage and path loss results with a view
to use them elsewhere in another application.

Notes :
For CDMA technology projects (UMTS and CDMA/CDMA2000), A9155 provides also an active set analysis based on
a particular scenario (given terminal, mobility and terminal) for an existing simulation at a given point.
Other specific studies like interference studies (GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects) or handover, service availability, etc...
(UMTS and CDMA/CDMA2000) are also possible.

V.2 COMPUTING IN POLYGONAL AREAS
V.2.1 COMPUTATION AND FOCUS ZONES : OVERVIEW
The computation and focus zones are user-definable polygonal areas based on the map cutting. Drawing such polygonal
zones allows the user to reduce calculation area and calculation times, and to permit a more precise analysis on
computation results.

The computation zone had several functions :
Determining transmitters geographically involved in computations. The transmitters that will be taken into account are
the ones which have at least one calculation radius (main and/or secondary, at the transmitter or repeater level)
intersecting the rectangle around the computation zone.
Determining the validity of path loss matrices (i.e. Increasing the computation zone size invalidates path loss results),
Clipping traffic maps (during Monte-Carlo simulations, mobiles are dropped within the computation zone).,
Clipping all the coverage areas.

In other words, path loss matrices are computed within the rectangle around the computation zone and coverages are
displayed within the computation zone itself.


The focus zone help you in :
Clipping all reports and statistics,
Clipping the graphic display with lighter colours around the polygon (and optionally when printing).


To sum up, computation zone is the area where A9155 works out path loss matrices, coverage studies, Monte-Carlo and
power control simulations while focus zone is the area where you want the results. These features provide a practical
way of analysing sub-areas once the main area is fully calculated. Furthermore, they enable you to analyse simulation
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results and coverage without border effect.

Like other polygonal objects (e.g. clutter or traffic), computation and focus zone are easy to manage in A9155. Hence,
this zones can created either by drawing, or importing from an external file. Several drawing tools are available, e.g.
resizing, adding points to the zones, removing a point. Moreover, these can be saved in external files. Information on
these zones are also very easy to reach (size and coordinates).

Note : You may perform propagation calculations without geographic data (free space propagation). Nevertheless, it is
necessary to define a computation zone.

V.2.2 COMPUTATION AND FOCUS ZONES : EFFECTS
Computation and focus zones helps you to reduce calculation area and calculation times. They are applied on several
items listed below.

Clutter classes or traffic statistics
Clutter classes, traffic, UMTS, CDMA/CDMA2000 environment statistics refer to the focus zone if there is one. Only
areas inside the focus zone are taken into account.

Note : If not defined, the focus zone is the computation zone.

Clutter classes
A9155 calculates the surface of each clutter class contained in the focus zone and its percentage.

Traffic
In UMTS or CDMA/CDMA2000 projects, statistics are available only in case of traffic raster maps (traffic maps based on
environments). A9155 works out surface of each traffic class (environment) contained in the focus zone. For each of
them, it provides surface of each clutter class covered by the traffic class and its percentage.

In GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects, A9155 evaluates the surface of each traffic class contained in the working zone and its
percentage.

UMTS and CDMA/CDMA2000 environments statistics
For each user profile described in the environment, A9155 calculates density of users and the number of users on a
clutter class. The density of users remains the same. On the other hand, the number of users is related to the focus
zone.


Path loss matrices
A9155 works out a path loss matrix for each active and filtered transmitter (or related repeater) which at least a
calculation radius intersects a rectangle containing the computation zone. Only contents of the matrices inside the
rectangle around the computation zone are calculated.


Coverage studies

Calculation and display
Coverage calculations are achieved by taking into account the computation zone. A9155 checks coverage conditions on
the areas inside the computation zone. Therefore only bins contained in the computation zone will be covered.

Tip information on coverage is related to the computation zone. The focus zone has no effect on tip contents.

Statistics on UMTS and CDMA/CDMA2000 studies
To be taken into account, the focus zone must be defined before accessing study statistics. It is not necessary to define it
before computing coverage. When accessing the Statistics tab (in the study Properties window), A9155 considers only
covered areas inside the focus zone. For each threshold value defined in the Display tab, it works out the covered
surface and its percentage. These data are evaluated for each environment class, when using maps based environments
as traffic cartography.

Note : If not defined, the focus zone is the computation zone.

Study reports
To be taken into account, the focus zone must be defined before accessing reports. Reports are dynamically updated to
take into account the focus zone without requiring a coverage re-calculation. A9155 considers only covered surfaces
inside the focus zone. Therefore, in case of coverage by transmitter, only transmitters which coverage intersects the
focus zone can be considered in the report.
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Note : If not defined, the focus zone is the computation zone.


UMTS and CDMA/CDMA2000 simulations

Calculation
A9155 drops mobiles on the traffic area contained in the computation zone. During power control, A9155 considers all
the active and filtered transmitters which the calculation radius intersects rectangle containing the computation zone.

Simulation reports
To be taken into account, the focus zone must be defined before checking simulation results (UMTS,
CDMA/CDMA2000). It is not necessary to define it before calculating simulation. When accessing the results of the
simulation, only sites, transmitters and mobiles located inside the focus zone are considered. The global output statistics
are based on these mobiles.

Notes :
- If not defined, the focus zone is the computation zone. The computation zone is not used as filter. Therefore, all the
transmitters with a calculation area, even those located outside the computation zone, and all the created mobiles are
analysed in the simulation results.
- If the focus and computation zones are the same, only sites and transmitters located inside the focus zone are dealt
with in the simulation results.

Display
All the mobiles even those outside the focus zone are represented on the map. A9155 provides information for any of
them, in tips and by left clicking on them.


Other calculation algorithms
Other calculation algorithms for allocating primary scrambling codes or PN Offsets, neighbours, frequencies, BSIC or
working out the number of requested TRXs take into account all the active and filtered transmitters which the calculation
radius intersects rectangle containing the computation zone.


Printing
You may print either the whole selected area or only the area inside the focus zone when selecting the Erase outside of
the focus zone option [File : Page setup command].

Note : If the focus zone is not defined, A9155 will consider the computation zone instead of focus zone.

V.2.3 DRAWING A COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE
To draw a computation or a focus zone, proceed as follows :
Select the Draw command from the Tools : computation (resp. focus) zone menu in the menu bar,
Position the pointer (polygonal selection arrow) on the map,
Press the mouse left button (a first point is created),
Slide the pointer on the map and press the mouse left button to create another point,
Carry out the two last steps until you draw the polygonal area you want,
Double click to close off the polygonal area.

The selected computation zone is delimited by a red line. The focus zone is delimited by a green line and the background
is lighter.

Note : If not defined, the focus zone is the computation zone.

V.2.4 CREATING A COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE FROM POLYGONS
You can create a computation (resp. focus) zone from any polygon contained in a vector object (created or imported). To
do so, proceed as follows :
Right click on the polygon you want to become the computation (resp. focus) zone to open the associated
context menu,
Select the Use as computation (resp. focus) zone command from the available scrolling menu.

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V.2.5 IMPORTING THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE FROM A FILE
As many other geo data objects, A9155 allows you to import the computation (resp. focus) zone from a file with either an
Autocad (.dxf), Arcview (.shp), MapInfo (.Mif), Agd or PlaNET format. The imported computation (resp. focus) zone
takes the place of an already existing one.


To import a computation (resp. focus) zone file, proceed as follows :
Either,
Select the Import... command from the Tools : computation (resp. focus) zone menu in the menu
bar,
Or,
Select the Import... command from the File menu in the menu bar,
Specify the directory where the file to be imported is located, the file name and the file type in the open
dialog box,
Press the OPEN button to validate,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Select the computation (resp. focus) zone option from the Import to scrolling menu,
If necessary, precise the coordinate system associated with the file being currently imported,
Click the Import button to achieve the procedure.


Notes :
The drag and drop feature is available from any file explorer application to A9155 to import the computation (resp.
focus) zone,
Any computation (resp. focus) zone must be a polygon,
The Tools: computation (resp. focus) zone menu is available only if the map of the project is currently displayed.
Under A9155, shp filenames are not limited in number of characters when exporting or importing, even if the file
name is made of more than 8 characters.

V.2.6 EXPORTING THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE TO A FILE
In A9155, it is possible to export the computation (resp. focus) zone in order to make it available in other
applications/projects. This can be made in the Arcview (.shp), MapInfo (.Mif) or Agd formats.


To export the current computation (resp. focus) zone to a file, proceed as follows :
Select the Save as... command from the Tools : computation (resp. focus) zone menu in the menu bar,
Specify the path, the name and the format of the file to be exported,
Press the SAVE button to validate,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
If necessary, precise the coordinate system associated with the file being currently exported,
Click the Export button to achieve the procedure.


Notes :
The Tools: computation (resp. focus) zone menu is available only if the map of the project is currently displayed.
Under A9155, shp filenames are not limited in number of characters when exporting or importing, even if the file
name is made of more than 8 characters.

V.2.7 DELETING THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE
To delete the computation (resp. focus) zone, proceed as follows :
Either,
Left click on the red (resp. green) line (limit of the computation/focus zone). The pointer becomes
position indicator ( ),
Right click on this limit to open the associated context menu,
Select the Delete zone command from the open scrolling menu,
Or,
Choose the computation (resp. focus) zone : Delete command from the Tools menu when the
workspace is displayed on top.

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V.2.8 RESIZING THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE
To resize the computation (resp. focus) zone, proceed as follows :
Left click on the red (resp. green) line (limit of the computation/focus zone). The pointer becomes position
indicator ( ),
Press and hold the mouse left button,
Drag the pointer until its target location,
Release the mouse button.

V.2.9 MOVING A POINT OF THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE
To move an existing point of the computation (resp. focus) zone, proceed as follows :
Left click on the point of the computation zone limit (red line) you want to move. The pointer becomes
position indicator ( ),
Press and hold the mouse left button,
Drag the pointer until the target location,
Release the mouse button.

V.2.10 ADDING A POINT IN THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE
To add a point to the computation (resp. focus) zone, proceed as follows :
Left click on the location on the computation zone limit (red line) you want to add a point. The pointer
becomes position indicator ( ),
Right click on this limit to open the associated context menu,
Select the Insert point command from the open scrolling menu.

V.2.11 REMOVING A POINT IN THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE
To remove a point from the computation (resp. focus) zone, proceed as follows :
Left click on the point from the computation zone limit (red line) you want to delete. The pointer becomes
position indicator ( ),
Right click on this limit to open the associated context menu,
Select the Delete point command from the open scrolling menu.

V.2.12 DISPLAYING THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE SIZE
By using the tips button , A9155 allows the user to read several information about any object. Thus, it is possible to
display information (here : area size) on the current computation (resp. focus) zone.

To do so, proceed as follows :
Rest the pointer on the red (resp. green) line (limit of the computation/focus zone) except on the main
points making up the computation zone until the information appears.

Note : Information about surface will appear only if the tips button is on.

V.2.13 DISPLAYING THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE COORDINATES
To display the coordinates of points composing the computation (resp. focus) zone, proceed as follows :
Either,
Left click on the red (resp. green) line (limit of the computation/focus zone). The pointer becomes
position indicator ( ),
Right click on this limit to open the associated context menu,
Select the Properties command from the open scrolling menu,
The coordinates (in the defined display system) of the point composing the computation (resp. focus)
zone are then displayed in a table window,
Or,
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Choose the computation (resp. focus) zone : Properties... command from the Tools menu when the
workspace is displayed on top.


Advice: To draw an appropriate computation/focus zone, you can copy a list of point coordinates from a spreadsheet and
paste it in the computation zone properties window. The format of the data contained in the table is the following :
X_coordinate TAB Y_coordinate on each line. Inside this interface, TAB and Return commands are available by using
simultaneously the Ctrl key and the appropriate key. Coordinates are displayed as defined previously.

V.3 PROPAGATION MODELS
V.3.1 PROPAGATION MODELS : OVERVIEW
By computing losses along transmitter-receiver paths, propagation models permit to predict the received signal level at a
given point and take into account :
the Radio data,
the Geo data like DTM and/or clutter classes, according to the model.


The mechanisms involved in electromagnetic propagation are :
Free space propagation,
Reflections,
Diffraction,
Scattering.


All these mechanisms can be more or less taken into account by propagation models depending on their complexity.
A9155 provides, by default, some model based on empirical approaches. For any type of project, you must find the best
suited one. Nevertheless, A9155 allows you to manage any project with several propagation models. These can be
assigned either globally or at the transmitter level. Each transmitter may have a main propagation model (high resolution
and short calculation radius) and a secondary one, with a lower resolution, and an extended calculation radius.

Some propagation models (Okumura-Hata and Cost-Hata) are based on a model type principle. On the base of the
formulae they offer, you can use these models to develop customized models by duplicating the existing base model
(Okumura-Hata and Cost-Hata).

The Okumura-Hata, Cost-Hata, Longley-Rice, Standard propagation model and WLL models available in A9155 are
based on formulae whose parameters can be set. Okumura-Hata and Cost-Hata in particular are based on one formula
for each clutter class.

The ITU 526-5 and ITU 370-7 (Vienna 93) models are deterministic and therefore their parameters cannot be set.

Like other A9155 objects, propagation models can be easily managed.


Notes : When performing consecutive calculations with different thresholds :
If no calculation radius has been defined, A9155 recalculates the complete coverage for each prediction.
If a relatively large calculation radius has been defined, A9155 "stores in memory" the calculations for the defined
area and only calculates the difference between the two predictions.

V.3.2 PROPAGATION MODEL GENERAL INFORMATION
V.3.2.a SELECTING PROPAGATION MODELS
In A9155, propagation models can be chosen at different levels. For this reason, you must be very careful with the
propagation models priority order given to the different places where these models are defined.

A9155 is able to calculate two path loss matrices per transmitter, a first matrix over a near radius computed with a high
resolution and a propagation model, and a second matrix over a far radius computed with a low resolution and another
propagation model.

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Note : in addition, it is possible to differentiate resolution of path loss matrices from plot resolution.


To define propagation model(s) simultaneously to all transmitters, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Transmitters folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Click on the Propagation tab from the open window,
In the main matrix part, choose from the scrolling list a propagation model (with a calculation radius and a
resolution used to compute the main path loss matrix),
Optionally, in the extended matrix part, choose from the scrolling list a propagation model (with a
calculation radius and a resolution taken into account to calculate the extended path loss matrix),
Click OK to validate.

To define propagation model(s) to one transmitter at a time, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Transmitters folder by left clicking on the button,
Either :
Right click on the transmitter to which you want to assign a specific propagation model,
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Or
Double click on the transmitter to which you want to assign a specific propagation model,
Click on the Propagation tab from the open window,
In the main matrix part, choose from the scrolling list a propagation model (with a calculation radius and a
resolution used to compute the main path loss matrix),
Optionally, in the extended matrix part, choose from the scrolling list a propagation model (with a
calculation radius and a resolution taken into account to calculate the extended path loss matrix),
Click OK to validate.

You can also define these parameters in the Transmitters table.

Notes :
The calculation radius limits the scope of the calculations to the radius that has been defined. The calculation radius
prevents the system from calculating over too long distances (e.g. in an urban area). In the case of very large
environments, the calculation radius allows you to improve the calculation time. If no main calculation radius has been
defined (and no secondary propagation model), A9155 takes into account automatically the prediction minimum
threshold to define the calculation radius for each transmitter. Nevertheless, this could drive to long calculation times
Since it is a matrix (or 2 in case of extended calculation radius) which is computed for each transmitter, the
calculation radius represents the half side length of the potential matrix located around the considered transmitter.
A9155 computes an extended matrix only if the three parameters, propagation model, calculation radius and
resolution, are specified. Therefore, an extended matrix will not be worked out if its resolution is null.
A9155 computes at the same time the main and extended matrices of a transmitter with a global management.
Therefore, it will recalculate both matrices even if only one is invalid.

To select a default propagation model on predictions, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Click on the Propagation tab from the open window,
Choose from the scrolling list a propagation model,
Enter the grid resolution,
Use the What's this help to get further description about the fields available in the current dialog window,
Click OK to validate.

Note : this selected model is taken into account only if the value of the main propagation model (transmitter property) is
(Default model).
V.3.2.b SETTING PROPAGATION MODEL PRIORITY
Even if it is possible to choose a propagation model in the Predictions folder, priority is given firstly to model(s) defined at
the transmitter level (in any case, for either coverage studies or point analysis predictions). In that next case, you can
choose a propagation model (and potentially a secondary one) for each transmitter. What is then displayed as
propagation model in the Transmitters folder properties is the summary of what has been chosen for each independent
transmitter.

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For example, if you chose the same main propagation model X for each single transmitter, X will be displayed as main
propagation model in the Transmitters folder properties. If you assign a main propagation model X to some transmitters
and Y to others, no main propagation model will be displayed in the Transmitters folder properties.

Because of the priority given to the transmitters in term of propagation models, the one displayed in the Predictions folder
will be kept as reference for the complete project if the (default model) value has been selected for all the transmitters in
the network.
V.3.2.c DISPLAYING GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROPAGATION MODEL
Under A9155, the user interface is homogeneous for the different available propagation models. Indeed, for all of them, a
common General tab window is available. In this tab, you may enter the model name, add some descriptions and check
the model signature. The model signature is used for validity purpose. A unique model signature is assigned to each
propagation model and its settings. When modifying model parameters, the associated model signature is changed. This
enables A9155 to detect potential path loss matrix invalidity. In the same way, two identical propagation models in
different projects do not have the same model signature.

Notes : Model signature corresponds to the MODEL_ID field you can find in .par files when externalising path loss
matrices. Nevertheless, the real name of the used propagation model is also explicitly written in .par files
(TX_MODEL_NAME field).
V.3.2.d CHOOSING THE APPROPRIATE PROPAGATION MODEL
The different propagation models are more or less suited depending on the type of project, radio and geographic data in
use in the .atl current project. A summarized description is given in the following table.

Model Frequency
band
Take into account Required settings Recommended
use

Longley-Rice
(theoretical)
~ 40 MHz - Terrain profile
- Reflection
- Calibration - Flat areas
- Very low frequencies

ITU 370-7 Vienna
93
100 - 400 MHz - Terrain profile - Percentage time while
real field > calculated field
- Long distances
(d>10km)
- Low frequencies

ITU 526-5
(theoretical)
30 - 10.000 MHz - Terrain profile
- Diffraction (3 knife-
edge Deygout method)
Fixed receivers

WLL 30 - 10.000 MHz - Terrain profile
- Deterministic clutter
- Diffraction (3 knife-
edge Deygout method)
- Free space loss
- Receiver height and
clearance per clutter
Fixed receivers
> Microwave links

Okumura-Hata 150 - 1.000 MHz - Terrain profile
- Statistical clutter (at
the receiver)
- 1 formula per clutter
- Reflection
- With diffraction or not
- Urban loss + correction
a(Hr)
1 < d < 20 km
> GSM 900
> CDMA/CDMA2000

Cost-Hata 1.500 - 2.000
MHz
- Terrain profile
- Statistical clutter (at
the receiver)
- 1 formula per clutter
- Reflection
- With diffraction or not
- Urban loss + correction
a(Hr)
1 < d < 20 km
> GSM 1800
> UMTS

Standard
Propagation
Model
150 - 2.000 MHz - Terrain profile
- Statistical clutter
- Effective antenna
height
- With diffraction weight
- K1, ..., K6 (single
formula)
- LOS or NLOS
differentiation
- Loss per clutter with
clutter weighting
- Receiver clearance
1 < d < 20 km
> GSM 900
> GSM 1800
> UMTS
> CDMA/CDMA2000
(Automatic calibration
available)
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V.3.2.e MANAGING PROPAGATION MODEL FOLDERS
In the Modules tab, propagation models are organized in folders. That way, these items are easy to manage like other
objects. Hence it is easily possible to delete, duplicate, copy and rename each of them.

To access the different managing properties of any propagation model, right click on the model you want to manage to
open the related context menu. Then choose among the several available commands : delete, duplicate, copy, rename.

All newly created propagation models will then be available in the propagation model selection boxes (Prediction or
Transmitter properties).

The copy function can be useful to copy and paste a specifically tuned model in an atl project to another one (considering
the name does not already exist).

V.3.3 PROPAGATION MODELS AVAILABLE IN A9155
V.3.3.a WORKING WITH LONGLEY-RICE MODEL
The Longley-Rice is a theoretical model particularly suitable for predictions in the 40 MHz band in flat areas. This model
uses the terrain profile to calculate propagation. However, the Longley-Rice model parameters can be set in the form of a
calibration involving the distance and an additional loss value.

To manage the Longley-Rice model, proceed as follows :
Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Propagation models by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the Longley-Rice subfolder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click on the Longley-Rice subfolder,
Click on the Parameters tab,
Use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the displayed window,
Define the loss parameters to be added to the model (in constant terrain, 0 values means a signal linear
decreasing as function of distance). dkm is the distance (in kilometres) from the transmitter,
Validate by clicking on Apply or OK.

V.3.3.b WORKING WITH ITU 526-5 MODEL
The ITU 526-5 model is particularly suitable for predictions in the 30-10000 MHz band at fixed receivers. It uses the
terrain profile and the diffraction mechanism (3 knife-edge Deygout method) to calculate path loss.

The ITU 526-5 recommendation considers that :
If there are no obstacles, propagation will take place in free space ;
If there is an obstacle, attenuation will be taken into account.

If there is an obstacle, an attenuation will be caused on contact with the relief with diffraction on the main peak
(represented by a red line in the Profile tab of the point analysis window). The main peak taken into account is the one
that intersects the most with the Fresnel ellipsoid. Any attenuation that occurs is then calculated between the station and
the main peak and between the main peak and the receiver. The result may then show up to two new attenuation peaks
in addition to the main peak. The various peaks are identified by red lines. The attenuation generated by all the peaks is
displayed above the main peak.

To access the ITU 526-5 model properties box, proceed as follows :
Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Propagation models by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the ITU526 subfolder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click on the ITU526 subfolder,
Click on the Parameters tab,
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Use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the displayed window,
A dialog window opens in which you may choose or not to apply an empirical tuneable corrective formula
on the Deygout method,
Validate by clicking on Apply or OK.

V.3.3.c WORKING WITH ITU 370-7 MODEL (VIENNA 93)
The ITU 370-7 model follows the recommendations of the Vienna 1993 international conference on telecommunications
network coordination. This model is particularly suitable for predictions in the 100-400 MHz band over long distances
(d>10 km), such as in Broadcast studies. It uses the terrain profile to calculate propagation.

Vienna 93 model parameter setting is limited to defining the percentage of time during which the real field is higher than
the signal level calculated by the model (1%, 10% or 50% of the time). The 50% value is usually used for coverage
predictions, and 1% is usually used for interference studies.

To access the ITU 370-7 model properties box, proceed as follows :
Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Propagation models by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the ITU370 subfolder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click on the ITU370 subfolder,
Click on the Parameters tab,
Use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the displayed window,
Choose the appropriate time percentage for the current study,
Validate by clicking on Apply or OK.


Notes : when using this model, take care not to define reliability level different from 50%, or will be considered twice.

V.3.3.d WORKING WITH WLL (WIRELESS LOCAL LOOP) MODEL
The WLL model is specially intended for "Radio Local Loop" applications in the 30-10000 MHz band. It is derived from
the ITU 526-5 model from which it takes the prediction algorithms while applying specific changes :

The possibility of setting loss parameters dealing with free space propagation and loss within the line of sight area
only or not,

If the option Line of sight only is not selected, A9155 computes the path loss on each calculation bin, using formula
defined in the dialog box.

If the option Line of sight only is used, A9155 checks for each calculation bin if the receiver is in the transmitter line of
sight. Receiver is in the transmitter line of sight if 100% of the Fresnel half ellipsoid is cleared (no obstacle along the
transmitter-receiver profile).
If the receiver is in the transmitter line of sight, A9155 computes the path loss on each calculation bin, using formula
defined in the dialog.
When the receiver is not in the transmitter line of sight, A9155 considers that the path loss tends towards infinite.

The use of an altimeter clutter whose heights for different items (trees, buildings, etc.) will be added to those for
DTM,

The possibility of defining a height and a receiver clearance associated with each clutter class; (e.g.. receiver on a
building, etc.). These heights will be added to the heights of the clutter,

Adding notions of transmitter clearance.

The WLL model uses the terrain profile but also takes into account the height of clutter components. These components
(houses, trees, buildings, etc.) will be added to the DTM altitudes to predict propagation and path loss.
You can define a clearance space around transmitters and receivers (20 metres by default).This feature permits in
particular to simulate holes in clutter areas.

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Example : the clearance can be used to simulate streets in an area of buildings where the clutter class file used does not
show street detail.

To access the WLL model properties box, proceed as follows :
Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Propagation models by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the WLL subfolder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click on the WLL subfolder,
Click on the Parameters tab,
Use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the displayed window,
Set the free space path loss prediction parameters,
Define an overall clearance for all the transmitters,
Define a default clearance for each receiver,
Define a height and clearance specific to the receiver for each clutter class. If, for a given class, you have
not defined any value, the default height will be used. This land use part will be available only if the
document contains a Land use folder,
Validate by clicking on Apply or OK.

V.3.3.e WORKING WITH OKUMURA-HATA MODEL
V.3.3.e.i Working with Okumura-Hata model : Overview
The Okumura-Hata is a model particularly suitable for predictions in the 150-1000 MHz band over long distances (1 < d <
20km) and is very adapted to GSM 900, IS95 and 1xRTT technologies. This model uses the terrain profile, diffraction
and reflection mechanisms in order to calculate propagation.

Hata models are well adapted to urban environment. Nevertheless, in order to make them available in a wide range of
environments, It is possible to define several corrective formulas, and to associate each one to each clutter class
available in the project. Furthermore, it is also possible to define a default formula used when no land use data is
available.

V.3.3.e.ii Considering losses due to diffraction (Okumura-Hata)
Okumura-Hata is able to take into account or not diffraction mechanisms by using a 1-knife edge Deygout method.

To compute losses due to diffraction in the total path loss, proceed as follows :
Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Propagation models by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the Okumura-Hata subfolder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click on the Okumura-Hata subfolder,
Click on the Configuration tab,
Use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the displayed window,
Choose from the dedicated scrolling menu to take into account (1) or not (0) losses due to diffraction,
Validate by clicking on Apply or OK.

V.3.3.e.iii Defining an environment default formula (Okumura-Hata)
A9155 takes into account that even if you do not have a clutter file or clutter data missing, it is possible to use the
Okumura-Hata model. To achieve this, you may define a default type formula to be assigned to the undefined zones.

To select the environment default formula, proceed as follows :
Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Propagation models by left clicking on the button,
Either
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Right click on the Okumura-Hata subfolder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click on the Okumura-Hata subfolder,
Click on the Configuration tab,
Use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the displayed window,
Choose from the dedicated scrolling menu one of the available formulas (tuneable by accessing the
Formulas dialog box) to assign to undefined zones,
Validate by clicking on Apply or OK.

V.3.3.e.iv Assigning environment formulas to clutter types (Okumura-Hata)
When environment formulae and clutter data are available for the current project, you need to assign to each detected
clutter class a type of formula, in order to make this model valid for a wide range of media.

To configure clutter types with available formulae, proceed as follows :
Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Propagation models by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the Okumura-Hata subfolder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click on the Okumura-Hata subfolder,
Click on the Configuration tab,
Use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the displayed window,
Select in the scrolling lists cells from the Formula column the clutter-formula associations,
Validate by clicking on Apply or OK.


Comment : Without this association, the Okumura-Hata model, which uses the clutter classes, will be unable to correctly
perform prediction calculations. The default formula will be used on all clutter classes.

V.3.3.e.v Creating/Modifying environment formulas (Okumura-Hata)
To create/modify an environment formula :
Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Propagation models by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the Okumura-Hata subfolder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click on the Okumura-Hata subfolder,
Click on the Configuration tab,
Click on the button to open the associated dialog box,
Use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the displayed window,
Adjust formula types and coefficients depending on the considered environment type,
Validate by clicking on OK.

V.3.3.f WORKING WITH COST-HATA MODEL
V.3.3.f.i Working with Cost-Hata model : Overview
The Cost-Hata is a model particularly suitable for predictions in the 1500-2000 MHz band over long distances (1 < d <
20km) and is very adapted to DCS 1800 and UMTS technologies. This model uses the terrain profile, diffraction and
reflection mechanisms in order to calculate propagation.

Hata models are well adapted to urban environment. Nevertheless, in order to make them available in a wide range of
environments, It is possible to define several corrective formulas, and to associate each one to each clutter class
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available in the open project. Furthermore, it is also possible to define a default formula used when no land use data will
be available.

V.3.3.f.ii Considering losses due to diffraction (Cost-Hata)
Cost-Hata is able to take into account or not diffraction mechanisms by using a 1-knife edge Deygout method.

To compute losses due to diffraction in the total path loss, proceed as follows :
Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Propagation models by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the Cost-Hata subfolder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click on the Cost-Hata subfolder,
Click on the Configuration tab,
Use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the displayed window,
Choose from the dedicated scrolling menu to take into account (1) or not (0) losses due to diffraction,
Validate by clicking on Apply or OK.

V.3.3.f.iii Defining an environment default formula (Cost-Hata)
A9155 takes into account that even if you do not have a clutter file or clutter data missing, it is possible to use the Cost-
Hata model. To achieve this, you may define a default type formula to be assigned to the undefined zones.

To select the environment default formula, proceed as follows :
Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Propagation models by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the Cost-Hata subfolder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click on the Cost-Hata subfolder,
Click on the Configuration tab,
Use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the displayed window,
Choose from the dedicated scrolling menu one of the available formulas (tuneable by accessing the
Formulas dialog box) to assign to undefined zones,
Validate by clicking on Apply or OK.

V.3.3.f.iv Assigning environment formulas to clutter types (Cost-Hata)
When environment formulae and clutter data are available for the current project, you need to assign to each detected
clutter class a type of formula, in order to make this model valid for a wide range of media.

To configure clutter types with available formulae, proceed as follows :
Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Propagation models by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the Cost-Hata subfolder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click on the Cost-Hata subfolder,
Click on the Configuration tab,
Use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the displayed window,
Select in the scrolling lists cells from the Formula column the clutter-formula associations,
Validate by clicking on Apply or OK.


Comment : Without this association, the Cost-Hata model, which use the clutter classes, will be unable to correctly
perform prediction calculations. The default formula will be used on all clutter classes.
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V.3.3.f.v Creating/Modifying environment formulas (Cost-Hata)
To create/modify an environment formula :
Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Propagation models by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the Cost-Hata subfolder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click on the Cost-Hata subfolder,
Click on the Configuration tab,
Click on the button to open the associated dialog box,
Use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the displayed window,
Adjust formula types and coefficients depending on the considered environment type,
Validate by clicking on OK.

V.3.3.g WORKING WITH STANDARD PROPAGATION MODEL
V.3.3.g.i Working with Standard Propagation model : Overview
The Standard Propagation Model is a model (deduced from the Hata formulae) particularly suitable for predictions in the
150-2000 MHz band over long distances (1 < d < 20km) and is very adapted to GSM 900/1800, UMTS and
CDMA/CDMA2000 technologies. This model uses the terrain profile, diffraction mechanisms (calculated in several ways)
and takes into account clutter classes and effective antenna heights in order to calculate path loss. An automatic
calibration tool is available.

The model may be used for any technology. It is based on the following formula :

( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+ + + +
=
LOS hill clutter Rx
Tx
Tx R
K clutter f K H d K
n Diffractio K H K d K K
P P
eff
eff
, 5
4 3 2 1
log log
log log


with :

PR: received power (dBm).
PTx: transmitted power (EIRP) (dBm)
K1: constant offset (dB).
K2 : multiplying factor for log(d).
d : distance between the receiver and the transmitter (m).
K3 : multiplying factor for log(HTxeff).
eff
Tx
H : effective height of the transmitter antenna (m).
K4 : multiplying factor for diffraction calculation. K4 has to be a positive number.
Diffraction loss : loss due to diffraction over an obstructed path (dB).
K5: multiplying factor for log(HTxeff)log(d).
K6: multiplying factor for
Rxeff
H .
eff
Rx
H : effective mobile antenna height (m).
Kclutter: multiplying factor for f(clutter).
f(clutter): average of weighted losses due to clutter.
LOS hill
K
,
: corrective factor for hilly regions (=0 in case of NLOS)

All of these parameters are user-definable in the Standard Propagation Model Properties window consisting in 4 tabs
(General, Parameters, Clutter, Calibration).

See Typical values for Standard Propagation Model formula parameters.

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V.3.3.g.ii Accessing Standard Propagation Model properties
Users cannot access the internal formula of the Standard Propagation Model. Nevertheless, you may set all its
parameters in the Parameters and Clutter tab windows from the SPM properties dialog box.

To access the Standard Propagation Model properties box, proceed as follows :
Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Propagation models by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the SPM subfolder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click on the SPM subfolder,
A dialog window opens,
Select the tab according the way you want to adjust model parameters.

See Typical values for Standard Propagation Model formula parameters.
V.3.3.g.iii Adjusting Standard Propagation Model parameters
You may adjust the parameters contained in the SPM base formula by using both the General and the Clutter tab
windows from the SPM properties box. Excepting for the loss and clearance per clutter class (defined in the Clutter tab
window), all parameters (including the Diffraction terms) are user-definable in the Parameters tab window.

Moreover, in 5 cases, user have to select his choice in scrolling menus :
Effective antenna height determination method,
Diffraction calculation method (Deygout, Epstein-Peterson, Deygout with correction, Millington).
The Profiles cell : if you select the radial option, A9155 establishes a profile between each transmitter and each point
located on its calculation perimeter (user-defined by the calculation radius) and then, uses the nearest profile to make
a prediction on a point inside the calculation perimeter (radial optimisation). When choosing the systematic option,
A9155 systematically determines a profile between each transmitter and any points in its calculation area. To avoid
longer calculation times, it is recommended to choose the radial option.
Corrective term for hilly regions,
The Grid calculation method. You can perform the calculations either at the centre (centred option) or in the bottom
left corner (bottom left option) of each grid.

For all the other parameters, user may enter directly the appropriate values directly in the associated boxes.

See typical values for Standard Propagation Model formula parameters.
V.3.3.g.iv SPM General tab window


When open, use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the available fields.
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150/476 3DF 01955 6283 PCZZA Ed. 01


V.3.3.g.v SPM Parameters tab window


When open, use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the available fields.

This tab manage parameters from the Standard Propagation model base formula.


In the Near transmitter and Far from transmitter parts, specify the maximum distance, max distance, and four (K1,K2) sets
(two sets per part).
Max distance is a maximum distance from transmitter. When d (distance between receiver and transmitter) is inferior to
this distance, the receiver is considered near transmitter. On the other hand, if d is greater than the maximum distance,
the receiver is considered far from transmitter.
Two (K1,K2) sets, (K1,K2)los and (K1,K2)nlos, are defined in each part. They enable to differentiate the case where the
receiver is in the transmitter line of sight path (los index) or is not (nlos index).
Therefore, the (K1,K2) sets taken into account in prediction calculations will depend on d and visibility.


In the Effective antenna height part, define the
eff
Tx
H calculation method, the minimum and maximum distances (distance
min and distance max) and K3 factor.
eff
Tx
H may be calculated with six different methods.

Note : distance min and distance max are set to 3000 and 15000 m according to ITU recommendations and to 0 and
15000 m according Okumura recommendations.
These values are only used in two methods of effective antenna height calculation and have different meanings
according to the method.


In the Diffraction part, specify which method you want to use for calculating the Diffraction term and K4 factor.

These diffraction calculation methods are based on the General method for one or more obstacles described in ITU 526-
5 recommendations. The calculations take earth curvature into account via the effective Earth radius concept.

Four different methods (Deygout, Epstein-Peterson, Deygout with correction and Millington) are available.


In the Other parameters part, specify the values for K5, K6, Kclutter and hilly terrain corrective factor.. Enter 1 or 0 to
respectively take it into account or not. In the calculation profile, if you select the radial option, A9155 establishes a
C H A P T E R 5


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profile between each transmitter and each point located on its calculation perimeter (user-defined by the calculation
radius) and then, uses the nearest profile to make a prediction on a point inside the calculation perimeter (radial
optimisation). On the other hand, when choosing the systematic option, A9155 systematically determines a profile
between each transmitter and any points in its calculation area.

Comment: To avoid longer calculation times, choose the radial option.


Finally, you can perform the calculations at the centre (centred option) or in the bottom left corner (bottom left option) of
each grid.

To select a method (in Effective antenna height and Diffraction parts)
Right click on the method line and then, on the arrow on the extreme right side.
Choose a method in the list.

Note : Default values have been assigned to multiplying factors. The default values correspond to the quasi-open
Okumura-Hata formula valid for a 935 MHz frequency. (See Sample values for SPM formula parameters).

V.3.3.g.v.i Transmitter effective antenna height SPM
eff
Tx
H may be calculated with five different methods.

Height above ground: transmitter antenna height above the ground (
Tx Tx
H H
eff
= in m).
Tx Tx
H H
eff
=

Height above average profile: The transmitter antenna height is determined relative to an average ground height
calculated along the profile between a transmitter and a receiver. The profile length depends on distance min and
distance max values and is limited by the transmitter and receiver locations. Distance min and Distance max are
minimum and maximum distances from the transmitter respectively.
( )
0 0
H H H H
Tx Tx Txeff
+ =
where,
Tx
H
0
is the ground height (ground elevation) above sea level at transmitter (m).
0
H is the average ground height above sea level along the profile (m).

Note : If the profile is not located between the transmitter and the receiver, HTxeff equals HTx.


Slope at receiver between 0 and distance min: the transmitter antenna height is calculated using the ground slope at
receiver.

( ) ( ) d K H H H H H
Rx Rx Tx Tx Txeff
+ + + =
0 0

where,
Rx
H is the receiver antenna height above the ground (m).
Rx
H
0
is the ground height (ground elevation) above sea level at receiver (m).

K is the ground slope calculated over a user-defined distance (Distance min). In this case, Distance min is a distance
from receiver.

Notes:
1. If m H
Txeff
20 < then, A9155 uses 20m in calculations.
2. If m H
Txeff
200 > then, A9155 takes 200m.


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152/476 3DF 01955 6283 PCZZA Ed. 01


Spot Ht :

If
Rx Tx
H H
0 0
> then,
( )
Rx Tx Tx Txeff
H H H H
0 0
+ =
If
Rx Tx
H H
0 0
then,
Tx Txeff
H H =

Abs Spot Ht :
Rx Tx Tx Txeff
H H H H
0 0
+ =

Note : distance min and distance max are set to 3000 and 15000 m according to ITU recommendations and to 0 and
15000 m according Okumura recommendations.

These values are only used in the two last methods and have different meanings according to the method.


Enhanced slope at receiver :



Let x-axis and y-axis respectively represent positions and heights. We assume that x-axis is oriented from transmitter
(origin) to receiver.

This calculation is achieved in several steps:

1
st
step: A9155 determines line of sight between transmitter and receiver.

The LOS line equation is:

( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) i s
d
H H H H
H H i Los
Rx Rx Tx Tx
Tx Tx
Re
0 0
0
+ +
+ =

where,

Tx
H
0
is the ground height above sea level at transmitter (m).

Tx
H is the transmitter antenna height above the ground (m).

Rx
H
0
is the ground height above sea level at receiver (m).

Rx
H is the receiver antenna height above the ground (m).
d is the distance between transmitter and receiver (m).
i is the point index.
Res is the profile resolution (distance between two points).

2
nd
step: A9155 extracts the transmitter-receiver terrain profile.

3
rd
step: Hills and mountains are already taken into account in diffraction calculations. Therefore, in order
for them not to unfavourably influence the regression line calculation, A9155 filters the terrain profile.

A9155 calculates two filtered terrain profiles; one established from the transmitter and another from the receiver. It
determines filtered height of every profile point. Profile points are evenly spaced on the basis of profile resolution. To
determine filtered terrain height at a point, A9155 evaluates ground slope between two points and compares it with a
threshold set to 0.05; where three cases are possible.
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Some notations defined hereafter are used in next part.
filt
H is the filtered height.
orig
H is the corrected original height. Original terrain height is determined from extracted ground profile and corrected by
considering Earth curvature.

- Filter starting from transmitter
Let us assume that ( ) ( ) Tx H Tx H
orig Tx filt
=



For each point, we have three different cases:
1
st
case: If ( ) ( ) 1 > i H i H
orig orig
and
( ) ( )
05 . 0
Re
1


s
i H i H
orig orig
,
Then, ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 1 + =

i H i H i H i H
orig orig Tx filt Tx filt


2
nd
case: If ( ) ( ) 1 > i H i H
orig orig
and
( ) ( )
05 . 0
Re
1
>

s
i H i H
orig orig

Then, ( ) ( ) 1 =

i H i H
Tx filt Tx filt


3
rd
case: If ( ) ( ) 1 i H i H
orig orig

Then, ( ) ( ) 1 =

i H i H
Tx filt Tx filt

If ( ) ( ) i H i H
orig filt
> additionally
Then, ( ) ( ) i H i H
orig Tx filt
=



- Filter starting from receiver
Let us assume that ( ) ( ) Rx H Rx H
orig filt
=

For each point, we have three different cases:
1
st
case: If ( ) ( ) 1 + > i H i H
orig orig
and
( ) ( )
05 . 0
Re
1

+
s
i H i H
orig orig
,
Then, ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 1 + + + =

i H i H i H i H
orig orig Rx filt Rx filt

2
nd
case: If ( ) ( ) 1 + > i H i H
orig orig
and
( ) ( )
05 . 0
Re
1
>

s
i H i H
orig orig

Then, ( ) ( ) 1 + =

i H i H
Rx filt Rx filt

3
rd
case: If ( ) ( ) 1 + i H i H
orig orig

Then, ( ) ( ) 1 + =

i H i H
Rx filt Rx filt

If ( ) ( ) i H i H
orig filt
> additionally
Then, ( ) ( ) i H i H
orig Rx filt
=



Then, for every point of profile, A9155 compares the two filtered heights and chooses the higher one.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) i
H
i
H
i
H Rx filt Tx filt filt
= , max ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) i H i H i H
Rx filt Tx filt filt
= , max

4
th
step: A9155 determines the influence area, R. It corresponds to the distance from receiver at which the
original terrain profile plus 30 metres intersects the LOS line for the first time (when beginning from
transmitter).

The influence area must satisfy additional conditions:
m R 3000 ,
d R 01 . 0 ,
R must contain at least three bins.

Notes:
1. When several influence areas are possible, A9155 chooses the highest one.
2. If d < 3000m, R = d.

5
th
step: A9155 performs a linear regression on the filtered profile within R in order to determine a regression line.

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The regression line equation is:

b ax y + =

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )


=
i
m
i
m filt m
d i d
H i H d i d
a
2
and
m m
ad H b =

where,
( )

=
i
filt m
i H
n
H
1

i is the point index. Only points within R are taken into account.
2
R
d d
m
=
d(i) is the distance between i and the transmitter (m).

Then, A9155 extends the regression line to the transmitter location. Therefore, its equation is:

( ) ( ) b s i a i regr + = Re

6
th
step: Then, A9155 calculates effective transmitter antenna height,
Txeff
H (m).

a
b
H H
H
Tx Tx
Txeff
2
0
1+
+
=

If HTxeff is lower than 20m, A9155 recalculates it with a new influence area, which begins at transmitter.

Notes:
1. In case m H
Txeff
1000 > , 1000m will be used in calculations.
2. If
Txeff
H is still lower than 20m, an additional correction is taken into account (7
th
step).

7
th
step: If
Txeff
H is still lower than 20m (even negative), A9155 evaluates path loss using m H
Txeff
20 = and applies a
correction factor.

Therefore, if m H
Txeff
20 < ,
( )
K
f d m
H L L lowant Txeff el el
+ = = , , 20
mod mod

where,
( )
( ) ( )
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+

=
1000
93 . 6
1000
63 . 9
20 1 20
20 3 . 0
10
5
d d
H
H
d
K
Txeff
Txeff lowant

f is the frequency (MHz).

V.3.3.g.v.ii Diffraction computation in SPM
This feature is available in the General tab window from the SPM properties box.

In the Diffraction part, user has to define calculations method for the Diffraction term and K4 factor. These diffraction
calculation methods are based on the General method for one or more obstacles described in ITU 526-5
recommendations. The calculations take earth curvature into account via the effective Earth radius concept.

Four different methods (Deygout, Epstein-Peterson, Deygout with correction and Millington) are available.


In order to define precisely the diffraction profile, a clearance per clutter class must be defined. To do so, enter the
appropriate values in the Clutter tab window from the SPM properties box in cells just left to the clutter classes ones.

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V.3.3.g.v.iii Deygout
The Deygout construction, limited to a maximum of three edges, is applied to the entire profile from transmitter to
receiver.
This method is used to evaluate path loss induced by multiple knife-edges. Deygout method is based on a hierarchical
knife-edge sorting, so as to distinguish the main edges, which induce the strongest losses, and secondary edges, which
have a lower effect. The edge hierarchy depends on the obstruction parameter () value.

1 obstacle
A straight line between transmitter and receiver is drawn and the heights of obstacles above the Tx-Rx axis, hi, are
calculated. The obstruction positions, di, are also recorded. From these data, i are evaluated. The point with the highest
value is termed the principal edge, p, and the corresponding loss is J(p).

Point p
Rx
Tx
h
p
Sea level

Deygout construction 1 obstacle
Therefore, we have ( )
p
J loss n Diffractio =

3 obstacles
Then, the main edge (point p) is considered as a secondary transmitter or receiver. Therefore, the profile is divided in two
parts: one half profile, between the transmitter and the knife-edge section, another half, constituted by the knife-edge-
receiver section.
The same procedure is repeated on each half profile to determine the edge with the higher . The two obstacles found,
(points t and r), are called secondary edges.
Losses induced by the secondary edges, J(t) and J(r), are then calculated.
Once the edge hierarchy is determined, the total loss is evaluated by adding all the intermediary losses obtained.

Point t
Point r
Point p
Rx
Tx
hp
hr
ht
Sea level

Deygout construction 3 obstacles
Therefore,

If 0 >
p
, we have ( ) ( ) ( )
r t p
J J J loss n Diffractio + + =
Else ( )
p
J loss n Diffractio =

Note : In case of ITU 526-5 and WLL propagation models, Diffraction loss term is determined
as follows:
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156/476 3DF 01955 6283 PCZZA Ed. 01


If 78 . 0 >
p
, we have ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
r t p
J J t J loss n Diffractio + + =
Where,
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
= 1 ,
6
min
p
J
t
Else 0 = loss n Diffractio

Deygout with correction
The Deygout with correction (ITU 526-5) method is based on the Deygout construction (3 obstacles) plus an empirical
correction, C.

Therefore,
If 0 >

p
, we have ( ) ( ) ( )
r t p
J J J loss n Diffractio + + = +C
Else ( ) C J loss n Diffractio
p
+ =



Note : In case of ITU 526-5 propagation model, Diffraction loss term is determined as follows:
If 78 . 0 >
p
, we have ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) C J J t J loss n Diffractio
r t P
+ + + =


Where,
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
= 1 ,
6
min
p
J
t
d C 04 . 0 0 . 8 + = (d: distance stated in Km between the transmitter and the receiver).
Else 0 = loss n Diffractio

V.3.3.g.v.iv Epstein-Peterson
The Epstein-Peterson construction is limited to a maximum of three edges. First of all, the Deygout construction is
applied to determine the three main edges over the whole profile as described above. Then, the main edge height, hp, is
recalculated; according to the Epstein-Peterson construction, hp is the height above a straight line connecting t and r
points. The main edge position dp is recorded and hence, from these data, p and J(p) are evaluated.

Point t
Point r
Point p
Rx
Tx
hp
hr
ht
Sea level

Epstein-Peterson construction

Therefore, we have ( ) ( ) ( )
r t p
J J J loss n Diffractio + + =

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V.3.3.g.v.v Millington
The Millington construction, limited to a single edge, is applied over the whole profile. Two horizon lines are drawn at the
transmitter and at the receiver. A straight line between the transmitter and the receiver is defined and the height of the
intersection point between the two horizon lines above the straight line , hh, is calculated. The position dh is recorded and
then, from these values, h and J(h) are evaluated using the same previous formulas.

Point h
Rx
Tx
hh
Sea level

Millington construction

Therefore, we have ( )
h
J loss n Diffractio =

Note : If you select no diffraction, the Diffraction term equals zero and is not taken into account in calculations.
V.3.3.g.v.vi Receiver effective antenna height
( )
Tx Rx Rx Rxeff
H H H H
0 0
+ =
where,
Rx
H is the receiver antenna height above the ground (m).
Rx
H
0
is the ground height (ground elevation) above sea level at the receiver (m).
Tx
H
0
is the ground height (ground elevation) above sea level at the transmitter (m).

Note : The calculation of effective antenna heights (
Rxeff
H and
Txeff
H ) is based on extracted DTM profiles. They are not
properly performed if you have not imported heights (DTM file) beforehand.

V.3.3.g.v.vii Sample values for SPM formula parameters
Here are some orders of magnitudes for the different parameters composing the Standard Propagation Model formula

Min Typical Max
K1 Variable Variable Variable
K2 20 44.9 70
K3 -20 5.83 20
K4 0 0.5 0.8
K5 -10 -6.55 0
K6 -1 0 0

Concerning the parameter K1, this really depends on the frequency, and so, on the technology type. Here are some
examples :

Project type Frequency (MHz) K1
GSM 900 935 12.5
GSM 1800 1805 22
GSM 1900 1930 23
UMTS 2110 23.8
1xRTT 900 12

Since K1 is a constant, its value is strongly dependant on the values given to losses per clutter class (if needed)

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V.3.3.g.v.viii Correction for hilly regions
An optional corrective term
LOS hill
K
,
is proposed in the SPM Parameters tab to correct path loss for hilly regions when
transmitter and receiver are in LOS.
LOS hill
K
,
is determined in three steps. Influence area, R, and regression line are
supposed available.

1
st
step: For every profile point within influence area, A9155 calculates height deviation between the original terrain
profile (with Earth curvature correction) and regression line. Then, it sorts points according to the deviation and draws
two lines (parallel to the regression line), one which is exceeded by 10% of the profile points and the other one by 90%.

2
nd
step: A9155 evaluates the terrain roughness, h; it is the distance between the two lines.

3
rd
step: A9155 calculates
K LOS hill ,
.

We have
K K K hf h LOS hill
+ =
,


If m h 20 0 < , 0 =
Kh

Else ( ) ( ) 746 . 6 log 29 . 15 log 73 . 7
2
+ = h h
Kh


If m h 10 0 < , ( ) ( )
i
regr
H H K Rx Rx Rx hf
+ =
0
1924 . 0 2
Else ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
h
i
regr
H H
h h
K
Rx Rx Rx
hf

+
+ =
0 2
21 . 11 log 75 . 14 log 616 . 1 2

iRx is the point index at receiver.

V.3.3.g.vi SPM Clutter tab window
V.3.3.g.vi.i SPM Clutter tab window


When open, use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the available fields.

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In this tab, you may define the average of weighted losses due to clutter, f(clutter) in the case of statistical clutter class
maps only.

( )

=
=
n
i
i i
w L clutter f
1

where

L: loss due to clutter defined in the Clutter tab by the user (in dB).
w: weight determined through the weighting function.
n: number of points taken into account over the profile. Points are evenly spaced depending on the profile
resolution.

The losses due to clutter are evaluated over a maximum distance from receiver, Max distance. Each clutter class is
assigned specific loss, Loss per clutter class. The losses are calculated from ground and clutter heights. The weighting
function enables to give a weight to each point.

Uniform weighting function:
n
w
i
1
=
Logarithmic weighting function:

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
n
j
j
i
i
D
d
D
d
w
1
1 log
1 log

Exponential weighting function:

=
n
j
D
d
D
d
i
j
i
e
e
w
1
1
1

Triangular weighting function:

=
=
n
j
j
i
i
d
d
w
1

'
i i
d D d = where di is the distance between the receiver and the i point.


To select the weighting function
Right click on the weighting function line and then, on the arrow.
Choose a function type in the list.

In the case of semi-deterministic clutter class maps only, you may define a clearance (m) around the receiver for each
clutter class .

In the case of deterministic clutter class maps only, all information related to the evaluation of losses per clutter class are
given directly by the data contained in the maps Clearance and heights can be determined, and there is no need to
define them again in this dialog.

V.3.3.g.vi.ii Typical values or losses per clutter class (SPM)

Losses per clutter class
Dense urban from 4 to 5
Woodland from 2 to 3
Urban 0
Suburban from -5 to -3
Industrial from -5 to -3
Open in urban from -6 to -4
Open from -12 to -10
Water from -14 to -12

These values have to be entered only when considering statistical clutter class maps only.

Note : the Standard Propagation Model is deduced from the Hata formulae, valid in the case of a urban environment.
The values above are consistent since 0 dB is indicated from a urban clutter class, positive values for more dense clutter
classes, and negative values for less dense clutter classes.

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160/476 3DF 01955 6283 PCZZA Ed. 01


V.3.3.g.vii SPM Calibration tab window
V.3.3.g.vii.i SPM Calibration tab window


When open, use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the available fields.

In this tab, you may statistically analyse difference between predictions and CW measurements (Click on the Statistics....
button) and perform an automatic model calibration (Click on the Calibrate... button) from CW measurement survey.

Choose in the list the CW measurement paths you want to use. In the Filter part, you may select the CW measurement
points to be taken into account in statistics and for the model calibration by specifying distance and CW measurement
intervals, los (CW measurement points in the transmitter line of sight) and nlos (CW measurement points which are not in
the transmitter line of sight) options.

Note : Statistical analysis and calibration cannot be performed without CW measurement survey.

V.3.3.g.vii.ii Displaying statistics before calibration (SPM)
This feature is available in the Calibration tab window from the SPM properties box.

With this, you may statistically analyse difference between predictions and an existing CW measurement survey.

To statistically compare CW measurements with prediction results, left click on the Statistics button. The study is
carried out on the CW measurement points which check filter criteria. The report window is displayed:

All parameters defined in General and Clutter tabs are summarized in the Model parameter part: the formulas used for
calculations depending on visibility and distance from transmitter, the algorithms for evaluating Diffraction and
eff
Tx
H terms and the losses per clutter classes.

In the Global statistics part, the number of CW measurement points which check filter criteria (Num points), the average
value (Mean), the standard deviation (Std deviation), minimum (Min) and maximum (Max) values are evaluated for data
like error, error (LOS), error (NLOS), log(d), log(
eff
Tx
H ), Diff, log(d)log(
eff
Tx
H ) and
eff
Rx
H .

The difference between experimental (CW measurement) and theoretical (prediction) values (named Error), is calculated
on the whole path. On the other hand, Error (LOS) is only calculated from points in transmitter line of sight path and Error
(NLOS) takes into account points which are not in transmitter line of sight path. Other data (log(d), log(
eff
Tx
H ), Diff,
log(d)log(
eff
Tx
H ) and
eff
Rx
H ) are calculated on the whole path.

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In the Statistics per clutter classes part, Num points, Mean and Std deviation on error are detailed per clutter classes.

Finally, the correlation matrix is specified.

V.3.3.g.vii.iii Calibrating the Standard Propagation Model
This feature is available in the Calibration tab window from the SPM properties box.

With this, you may perform an automatic model calibration from an existing measurement survey.

Choose in the list the measurement paths you want to use. In the Filter part, you may select the measurement points to
be taken into account in statistics and for the model calibration by specifying distance and measurement intervals, los
(measurement points in the transmitter line of sight) and nlos (measurement points which are not in the transmitter line of
sight) options.

Note : Statistical analysis and calibration cannot be performed without measurement survey.


From a selected measurement session, you may either display statistics on comparison with the current propagation
model or choose to calibrate this model in order to stick its results to the measurements.


To calibrate the model, press the Calibrate... button. The Calibration window is open.

The calibration is carried out on the measurement points which check filter criteria using the linear regression method.

The variables (cste, clutter, log(d), log(Heff), Diff, log(d)log(Heff), Hmeff) to be calibrated, the corresponding correlation
coefficients (except for cste and clutter which are constant) and the corrections to be made on Ki initial factors to take
into account the calibration are listed in a table.

You may compare the average error (Mean) and the error standard deviation (Std deviation) before (initial statistics) and
after (current statistics) calibrating the model.


To achieve the model calibration, right click one or several variables (using shift and/or Ctrl button at the same time) and
then, press Identify button. The calibration will be achieved when the current Mean and Std deviation values and hence,
all correlation coefficients are as close to zero as possible.

When selecting a specific variable, you may see, in the right small window, the correlation between error and this
variable. When the correlation coefficient is close to one, a straight line can be drawn from the points: the error is strongly
dependent on the variable. On the other hand, when the correlation coefficient is close to zero, the points are scattered
around the straight line: there is no correlation between the error and the variable.

When all the variables are selected, identification is processed for each variable from the most correlated to the less
correlated to error.

To recover the initial data before calibration, press Reinitialise button.
To validate the calibration, press OK. The corrections will be added to Ki factor values.

Note : K1 and K2 factors are the same for near and far options.

Important :
Model automatic calibration solution is a mathematical solution. Before committing results, ensure of their relevance
towards a physical and realistic solution. See Typical values for Standard Propagation Model formula parameters
We remind you that model calibration and its result (standard deviation) strongly depend on the measurement
samples you use. A calibrated model must restore the behaviour of measurements depending on their configuration
on a large scale, not totally stick to a few number of measurements. The calibrated model has to give correct results
for every new measurement point performed in the same geographical zone, without having been calibrated on these
measurements.

See also (to calibrate 1 variable - to calibrate several variables)
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V.3.3.g.vii.iv To calibrate one variable
Let us consider the scatter of measurement points depending on their calculation values for a given variable.


calculated
values for the
variable
ERROR (measurement prediction)
Regression line


If the regression line (where the sum of square differences is minimised) is :

b ax y + =

It is easy to prove that :

=
2
X
XY
a where x x X
i
= and y y Y
i
= with y x a b + =

When a variable is calibrated, the new value of the coefficient Ki is equal to a and the constant value is equal to b. The
coefficients are effectively affected to the model by clicking on OK. b is generally not null, thats why Cste is often set
when identifying a variable.

Caution: The Correction column means the difference between the new value and the current value of the model for
each coefficient.

The correlation equals to:

=
Y X
XY
r

A correlation is considered satisfying when its absolute value is closed to 1. When it is not the case, the resulting
correction may be unstable and so not reliable.

Once the variable has been calibrated (after pushing the Identify button), a correction is suggested and the correlation is
then set to zero because the differences between measurements and predictions are no longer dependent on the
calculated values.

Once the identification is processed, the correlation graphic becomes:

calculated values
for the variable
ERROR (measurement prediction)
Regression line


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V.3.3.g.vii.v To calibrate several variables
We can generalise the regression line for a set of N coefficients :

[ ]
(
(
(

=
N
N
x
x
a a y
0
0


We can prove by the same mean :

(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(




Y X
Y X
Y X
a
a
a
X X X
X X X
X X X X X
N N N N
N


1
0
1
0
2
0
2
1 1 0
0 1 0
2
0


with
( )
0 0 0
x x X
i
= , ( )
1 1 1
x x X
i
= and ( ) ( ) ( ) y y Y
i
=

By inverting the matrix, we can get the coefficients ai.


CONCLUSION:
It is important to notice that the matrix may be not inverted (or nearly not) in some cases.
When the correlation is wrong (When
( )
i N
X
is nearly a constant (for example log(Heff) when Heff is unique) and more
generally variables whose correlation is wrong (its absolute value near to zero). When the variable is actually a
constant, the correlation is 0 and no calibration is offered (in this case the chart is empty).
When two variables depend on each other (2 lines are proportional in the matrix: for example log(d) and
log(d)*log(Heff) when Heff is nearly a constant), the process works wrongly and may diverge.

So, it is advised to process identification for several variables at a time but only for those which are well correlated and
do not depend on another one already involved.
V.3.3.h WORKING WITH WINPROP-PROMAN MODEL
V.3.3.h.i Working with WinProp-ProMan model: Overview
WinProp-ProMan is an urban propagation model developed by AWE. The plug-in module is fully integrated in A9155
performing predictions based mainly on building databases generated by the building database management tool
WinProp-WallMan. The urban propagation model can be used for these different applications:
Microcellular coverage in urban environments with antenna heights below the rooftops and cell ranges of
typically a few hundreds of meters;
Minicells coverage in urban environments with antenna heights above medium rooftop level (surrounding
buildings higher and lower) and with cell ranges up to 2-3 kilometres ;
Macrocellular coverage in urban environments with antennas mounted on top of buildings higher than surrounding
buildings and on masts with cell ranges of tens of kilometres ;

In macro- and minicells the base station antenna is generally installed above the medium rooftop level of the surrounding
buildings. Therefore the path loss is determined mainly by diffraction at rooftops, i.e. the main rays propagate above the
buildings. In contrary to this for micro cells the base station antennas are mounted below the rooftop level of the
surrounding buildings. In this case wave propagation is determined by diffraction around and reflection at buildings what
leads to wave guiding effects in street canyons.
V.3.3.h.ii Working with WinProp-ProMan model: Physical background on Urban
Propagation Models

Radio transmission in urban environments is subject to strong multipath propagation. Dominant characteristics in these
scenarios are reflection, diffraction, shadowing by discrete obstacles and the wave guiding in street canyons. To consider
these effects in a propagation model, it is necessary to gain knowledge of all dominant propagation paths. These paths
depend primarily on the base station antenna height with respect to the building heights around.

For simplification of propagation modelling several two-dimensional empirical models have been developed under the
assumption of over-rooftop propagation as main propagation mechanism. The model according to Walfisch-Ikegami with
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extensions from the European research cooperation COST 231 is such an analytical approach with empirically based
equations and correction factors.

The second group of micro-cellular prediction models is deterministic and they use ray optical methods. They allow a
very site-specific, three dimensional path loss and signal spread prediction including impulse response for base station
heights below as well as above rooftop level. Hence, a three dimensional description for the propagation environment
including building shape and building heights has to be incorporated. Of course, due to the three dimensional ray optical
methods these models require a higher computation effort than the simplified approaches mentioned above. However, a
method to accelerate this ray optical approach by an intelligent pre-processing of the building database was developed
which leads to computation times in the range of empirical models.

The described models are generally valid only for flat urban area, what means that the standard deviation of the terrain
heights is small in comparison to the standard deviation of the building heights in the considered area. If this is not the
case the influence of terrain should be taken into account by adequate extensions of the above mentioned methods.
V.3.3.h.iii Working with WinProp-ProMan model: Required databases

The basis for any propagation model is a building database, which describes the propagation environment. Urban
propagation modelling possess the best reliance on high resolution geographical information. High resolution databases
of the building structures in the urban area with an accuracy in the range of 1-2m derived from aerial photography
measurements are now normally being used. For urban propagation, it is essential to have accurate information at least
about the average height of individual buildings, especially when base stations are operating close to rooftop height.

As micro-cells are planned to increase the network capacity in urban areas, it is obvious to use building oriented
databases. In order to get a more accurate description of wave propagation, the building data are stored in a vector
format. Every building is modelled as a vertical object with polygonal ground plane and a uniform height above street
level. With this approach only vertical walls and horizontal flat roofs are considered. Additionally, the material properties
(thickness, permeability, conductivity) of the building surfaces can be taken into account, which is important for the
calculation of the reflection and diffraction coefficients and also for the penetration into buildings.

Considering the influence of database information on prediction accuracy it is noted that prediction errors in micro-cells of
up to 15 dB were attributed to database inaccuracies arising from poor resolution of the building data. Recalling that the
field estimation may be quite sensitive to the surface additionally the terrain profile should be considered for the
propagation modelling if the considered area is not flat. Therefore terrain databases in pixel format are required with
resolutions about 20-30 m.

Creation, modification, simplification and pre-processing of building databases have to be performed with the building
management tool WinProp-WallMan.
V.3.3.h.iv Working with WinProp-ProMan model: COST 231 Walfisch-Ikegami

The so-called empirical models (e.g. models according to Walfisch/Ikegami) consider only the propagation in a vertical
plane, which contains transmitter and receiver. For the field strength prediction significant parameters have to be
extracted from this vertical section (e.g. average building height).

Finally equations containing these parameters have to be optimised and fitted to numerous measurements in order to get
a prediction model which is applicable in different propagation environments. The main advantage of empirical models is
their short computation time.

However, their prediction accuracy is limited due to the fact that only a small number of parameters are taken into
account and the influence of the distance from the transmitter is over-emphasized. Additionally, wave-guiding effects in
streets cannot be considered with an empirical approach.

The empirical model implemented in ProMan was developed in the course of the European COST 231 project by a
combination of the Walfisch and Ikegami models. However this model is still statistical and not deterministic because
only characteristic values are taken into account for the prediction.

Because of the calibration with measurements from European cities no parameters have to be adjusted when using this
model. However with this empirical approach it is not possible to predict the wideband properties of the mobile radio
channel as e.g. the delay spread or impulse response.
V.3.3.h.v Working with WinProp-ProMan model: Intelligent Ray Tracing

The mobile radio channel in urban environments is characterized by strong multi-path propagation. Dominant
propagation mechanisms in these scenarios are reflection, diffraction, shadowing by discrete obstacles, and wave
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guiding in street canyons. With a ray optical approach it is possible to consider these effects in a propagation model.

As smaller wavelengths, i.e. higher frequencies, are considered, the wave propagation becomes similar to the
propagation of light. A radio ray is assumed to propagate along a straight line influenced only by refraction, reflection,
diffraction or scattering. These are the concepts of Geometrical Optics (GO). The criterion taken into account for this
modelling approach is that the wavelength should be much smaller in comparison to the extension of the considered
obstacles, i.e. the buildings for urban environments. At the frequencies used for mobile communication networks this
criterion is sufficiently fulfilled.
V.3.3.h.v.i Specular reflection
The specular reflection phenomenon is the mechanism by which a ray is reflected at an angle equal to the incidence
angle. The reflected wave fields are related to the incident wave fields through a reflection coefficient, which is a matrix
when the full polarimetric description of the wave field is taken into account. The most common expression for the
reflection is the Fresnel reflection coefficient, which is valid for an infinite boundary between two mediums, for example
air and concrete. The Fresnel reflection coefficient depends on the incident wave field and upon the permeability and
conductivity of each medium. The application of the Fresnel reflection coefficient formulas is very popular and these
equations are also applied in ProMan.

In order to calibrate the prediction model with measurements some ray optical software tools consider an empirical
reflection coefficient varying with the incidence angle to simplify the calculations. Such an empirical approach is also
available in ProMan.
V.3.3.h.v.ii Diffraction
The diffraction process in ray theory is the propagation phenomenon, which explains the transition from the lit region to
the shadow regions behind the corner or over the rooftops. Diffraction by a single wedge can be solved in various ways:
empirical formulas, perfectly absorbing wedge, Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) or Uniform Theory of Diffraction
(UTD). The advantages and disadvantages of using either one formulation is difficult to address, since it may not be
independent on the environments under investigation. Indeed, reasonable results are possible with each formulation. The
various expressions differ mainly from the approximations being made on the surface boundaries of the wedge
considered. One major difficulty is to express and use the proper boundaries in the derivation of the diffraction formulas.
Another problem is the existence of wedges in real environments: the complexity of a real building corner or of the
buildings roof illustrates the modelling difficulties.

Despite these difficulties, however, diffraction around a corner or over rooftop are commonly modelled using the heuristic
UTD formulas since they are well behaved in the lit/shadow transition region, and account for the polarization as well as
for the wedge material. Therefore these formulas are also used in ProMan to calculate the diffraction coefficient.
V.3.3.h.v.iii Multiple diffraction
For the case of multiple diffraction the complexity increases dramatically. In the case of propagation over rooftops the
result of Walfisch and Ikegami has been used to produce the COST-Walfisch-Ikegami model. One method frequently
applied to multiple diffraction problems is the UTD. The main problem with straightforward applications of the UTD is that
in many cases one edge is in the transition zones of the previous edges. Strictly speaking this forbids the application of
ray techniques, but in the spirit of the UTD the principle of local illumination of an edge should be valid. At least within
some approximate degrees, a solution can be obtained which is quite accurate in most cases of practical interest.

The key point in the theory is to include slope diffraction, which is usually neglected as a higher order term in an
asymptotic expansion, but in the transition zone the diffraction term is of the same order as the ordinary amplitude
diffraction terms. ProMan utilizes the UTD including slope diffraction for over rooftop propagation for the calculation of
multiple diffraction processes. Additionally there is an empirical diffraction model available, which can easily be calibrated
with measurements.
V.3.3.h.v.iv Scattering
Rough surfaces and finite surfaces (i.e. surfaces with small extension in comparison to the wavelength) scatter the
incident energy in all directions with a radiation diagram, which depends on the roughness and size of the surface or
volume. The dispersion of energy through scattering means a decrease of the energy reflected in specular direction.

This simple view leads to account for the scattering process only by decreasing the reflection coefficient and thus, only
by multiplying the reflection coefficient with a factor smaller than one which depends exponentially on the standard
deviation of the surface roughness according to the Rayleigh theory. This description does not take into account the true
dispersion of radio energy in various directions, but accounts for the reduction of energy in the specular direction due to
the diffuse components scattered in all other directions.
V.3.3.h.v.v Penetration

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In order to predict indoor coverage, penetration losses due to building walls have been considered by material
parameters for different building types.
V.3.3.h.v.vi Ray tracing

Ray optical propagation models are very often used for the prediction of the field strength in urban scenarios. They are
very accurate, because they consider wave-guiding effects in street canyons and they include diffraction at wedges.
There are two different approaches to determine the ray optical propagation paths between transmitter and receiver: Ray
tracing and ray launching.

Ray tracing computes all rays for each receiver point individually and guarantees the consideration of each ray wall as
well as a constant resolution. In the ray launching approach, the rays are launched from the transmitter with a constant
angular increment. Thus the ray launching might neglect a wall because it is very small and located between two rays.
Different approaches to a better resolution with the ray launching were presented in the last years, but the ray- launching
has still kept the disadvantage of a variable resolution depending on the distance to the transmitter. The only advantage
of ray launching is the shorter computation time compared to standard ray tracing algorithms. However, the ray tracing
algorithm within ProMan, which is called IRT (Intelligent Ray Tracing), is much faster than ray launching. IRT includes
several accelerations concerning computation effort without considerable loss of accuracy.
V.3.3.h.vi Working with WinProp-ProMan model: Quick Start

1) Getting a WinProp license

For running WinProp a separate computer dependent license file is required.

Run the program LicenseCustomer.exe on target computer.
A file called License.DAT.<hostname> is generated.
Please send a license request including the DAT-file to the A9155 Support Team.
After receiving the license file named License.AWE.<hostname> rename it to License.AWE and store it on the target
computer, e.g. in the A9155 Program directory.
Set the system and/or user variable WINPROP_LICENSE_FILE in System Properties, tab Environment according to
the path where the license file is located.

The WinProp DLL is already automatically registered during installation of A9155.
In case of a manual installation please perform the following:
Register the WinProp DLL with the RUN option in the START menu of the computer according to the program installation
path.
Example: regsvr32 "C:\Program Files\Alcatel SEL AG\A9155 V6.1\winprop.dll"

2) Loading the building database

Load the vector-format building database via MIF- or DXF-Import in the Geo tab (for display purposes only).

3) Setting propagation parameters

To manage the WinProp-ProMan model, proceed as follows:
Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Propagation models by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the WinProp-ProMan subfolder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double-click on the WinProp-ProMan subfolder,
Click on the different parameter tabs for adjusting the model parameters,
Define the model parameters (see descriptions below),
Validate by clicking on Apply or OK.


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Output tab

Received power results are calculated by default. An offset can be set manually on demand.
Channel impulse response results and propagation paths can be also calculated and redirected to the output filename. A
graphical output for these results is foreseen for one of the next releases.



Database tab

The name of the pre-processed building database has to be specified. An IRT- (Intelligent Ray Tracing) or a COST-
database has to be chosen.
Several offsets for material properties of buildings can be set in addition to the default values which are already set
during pre-processing of building database in WallMan.
Caution: The database type must fit to the selected prediction type on the Prediction tab!




Prediction tab

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The prediction model used within the building database area has to be selected.
Empirical Model COST231: Extended Walfisch-Ikegami-Model can be chosen in case of a corresponding pre-processed
building database being available.
IRT (Intelligent Ray Tracing) can only be used if pre-processing was performed either for full 3D, real 2x2D or empirical
2x2D computation.
For IRT, some parameters can be influenced: the maximum number of considered paths and the computation type of the
contribution of the rays can be chosen. Also some parameters about the so-called breakpoint can be modified.
Caution: The prediction type must fit to the selected database type on the Database tab!




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Post-processing tab

After the IRT or COST prediction several post-processing steps can be triggered.
Indoor pixels covered from outdoor transmitters can be computed in addition to the outdoor prediction.
A COST prediction for all pixels, which were not predicted with the IRT model can be performed.
The transition between IRT and COST for all pixels predicted with IRT can be influenced by several control parameters.
In case of a pre-processed IRT area which is smaller than the whole building database area for a smooth transition
between the IRT and the COST area a linear transition can be used.
In order to produce presentation plots a filter function for smoothing results is available.




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Hybrid model tab

The Standard Propagation Model is used for predictions outside the building database area.
For a smooth transition at the building database border, a linear transition can be used.



V.3.3.h.vii Working with WinProp-ProMan model: Important hints

The urban propagation module WinProp consists out of the ProMan prediction model integrated in A9155 and the
WallMan building database management tool. Use WallMan for creation, modification, simplification, and pre-processing
of building databases before prediction.

The pre-processed prediction type must fit to the selected prediction type in A9155.

Several prediction types are available:
COST 231 Walfisch-Ikegami: empirical model for first estimations
Empirical 2x2D: 2D ray tracing in horizontal plane and COST prediction in vertical plane (best trade-off between
accuracy and computation speed)
Real 2x2D: 2D ray tracing in both horizontal and vertical plane
Full 3D: 3D ray tracing for detailed analysis, delay spread and propagation path investigations
Hybrid: IRT and/or COST within building database area and Standard Propagation Model outside building database
area

The pre-processed mobile station height must fit to the selected height on the Receiver tab in the Prediction properties
dialog page.

The calculation resolution need not necessarily fit to the pre-processing resolution. In that case the result is over-
sampled automatically. The recommended resolution for urban predictions is 10 meters.

The computation zone or the calculation radius can be larger than the pre-processed area. In that case the hybrid model
is called which uses the Standard Propagation Model for the regions outside the building database area.

Warnings while computing are not displayed on screen but written into a log file called logfile.log.

For further information about the WinProp package, please refer to:

A9155 V6.1 ProMan User Manual ref. 3DF 01955 6181 PCZZA
A9155 V6.1 ProMan Reference Manual ref. 3DF 01955 6181 RKZZA
A9155 V6.1 WallMan User Manual ref. 3DF 01955 6182 PCZZA

V.4 TUNING RECEPTION PARAMETERS
V.4.1 SETTING THE RECEIVER PROPERTIES
In A9155, the calculation of signal levels at any point, for point analysis or coverage purpose, is linked with the definition
of a receiver. Depending on the considered project type, different properties might be set.
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To set receiver properties, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Either,
Right click on the Predictions folder to open the context menu,
Choose the Properties option from the context menu.
Or
Double click on the Predictions folder
Left click on the Receiver tab from the open window,
Use the What's this help to get description about receiver fields,
Enter its height and, for GSM/GPRS/EDGE studies, associated antenna, losses, and the adjacent channel
protection level.


Notes :
By default, the antenna is set to an omni one with a 0 dB gain,
In GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects, its is possible to set the adjacent channel protection level. This parameter is used in
interference computations in order to simulate the signal level offset due to an adjacent channel contribution on the
considered channel. For example, if the value is set to 18 dB (default value), this means that the signal level coming
from an adjacent channel will be decreased by 18 dB on the total noise computation on the considered channel.

For UMTS or CDMA/CDMA2000 studies, the point analysis tool is used for a particular scenario. Depending on the type
of mobility, service or terminal (or Radio configuration in CDMA/CDMA2000) chosen, radio parameters are not the same
for the receiver. Consequently, to manage receiver parameters used in the point analysis, you must set the
characteristics of each used UMTS parameters (type of service, mobility, terminal) or CDMA/CDMA2000 (type of service,
Radio Configurations) in the corresponding properties dialog window.

In GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects, A9155 has also an option which limits the representation for coverages around stations,
in order to consider synchronisation problems. This feature is a graphic representation for coverages and is not taken
into account in calculations.

To define the maximum range value limiting the coverage display (GSM/GPRS/EDGE studies only) around stations,
proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Either,
Right click on the Predictions folder to open the context menu,
Choose the Properties option from the context menu.
Or
Double click on the Predictions folder
Left click on the System tab (if available) from the open window,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the current window,
Set maximum range value,
Click OK or Apply to validate.

V.4.2 COMPUTING SHADOWING MARGINS PER CLUTTER CLASS
Propagation models are mathematical tools used for the prediction of losses along a path with the better accuracy
possible. In reality, if we were to stay on a same location measuring a signal level, we would observe some variations of
results due to slow fading/shadowing, i.e. surrounding environment. We would observe that real results are spread on a
gaussian curve, around an average value, and with a specific standard deviation. If we consider the model correctly
calibrated, its result should check to this average value. So, in that case, we assume that the model gives a result which
is at least correct in an average case, that is to say, in 50% of the measured cases. 50% means that 50% of the
measurements will be better that the predicted value, the other values, being worst.

This can be taken into account by considering a model standard deviation per clutter class. The considered clutter is the
one on which you compute a signal level. These standard deviations, linked with a certain needed reliability level on
results (point analysis or coverages) lead to additional losses per clutter class called shadowing margins. These are
margins from a result given by propagation model (in dB) for which the probability of error is 50%. They indicate that, on
the real field, results will at least the value computed by A9155 with the defined reliability level (this means maybe better
but not worst).

For example, let's consider the model (correctly calibrated) gives a loss that should lead to a signal level of -70 dBm. The
user wants a reliability level of 85 %. Let's imagine A9155 provides a shadowing margin of 7 dB for the considered
location. All of this lead to the fact that the real signal will be equal or better than -77 dBm in 85% of cases.
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Of course, the same reliability level provides the same shadowing margins to all the receivers located on the same clutter
type. Different reliability levels will impose different values of shadowing margins even if considering the same clutter
type.


To display the computed shadowing margins per clutter class as a function of reliability level, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Shadowing margins... option from the scrolling menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about other fields available in the current window,
Set the reliability level,
Click the button to start computation,
Click OK to close the dialog.


Notes :
When the reliability level is greater than 50%, shadowing margin values are not null only if standard deviations are
defined for clutters.
In UMTS or CDMA/CDMA2000 projects, uplink soft handover gains due to multipath (2 and 3 links) are also indicated
in this window,
If no clutter data is available, shadowing margin will be set to 0dB, and UL soft handover gain will be set to the default
global value (defined in the Transmitter global parameters in UMTS or CDMA/CDMA2000),
When the reliability level is 50%, even if UL SHO gains (2 and 3 links) are computed in this window, the value taken
into account is the default global value (defined in the Transmitter global parameters) for coverage studies and point
analysis.
In UMTS and CDMA/CDMA2000 simulations, these losses are evaluated by computing random shadowing errors
and are added to the model path loss.

V.4.3 USING RELIABILITY LEVEL IN PREDICTIONS
A9155 models the probability of error on the predicted path loss; errors on calculations depend on the transmitter-
receiver path and the receiver position. They are due to some obstacles, which are not taken into account by the
propagation model (in case geographic data are not up-to-date or appropriate enough, or when there are point
obstacles). This phenomenon is called shadowing or slow fading; variation occurs over distances comparable to the
width of obstacles (buildings, hills ) along the path.

From a user-defined standard deviation corresponding to the clutter class where the receiver is located and a reliability
level, A9155 evaluates a shadowing margin and adds it to the path loss predicted by the model. In order for A9155 to
take into account a defined reliability level in calculations, you must define model standard deviation per clutter class. All
coverage studies integrate the possibility to enter a reliability level (in their property dialog box).


Notes :
In case of a correctly calibrated propagation model, typical standard deviations should be around 6 dB to 9 dB.
We remind you that model calibration and its result (standard deviation) strongly depend on the CW measurement
samples you use. A calibrated model must restore the behaviour of CW measurements depending on their
configuration on a large scale, not totally check to a few number of CW measurements. The calibrated model has to
give correct results for every new CW measurement point performed in the same geographical zone, without having
been calibrated on these CW measurements.
In Interference computation (GSM/GPRS/EDGE, UMTS, CDMA/CDMA2000), Shadowing margins (depending on the
entered reliability level and the standard deviation per clutter class) are applied only on signal level values. These are
not taken into account in noise determinations.


When calculating coverage with a x% reliability level, A9155 displays the areas where the measured field exceeds the
predicted signal during x% of time. When increasing the reliability level, the predicted signal deviates from average and
hence, the shadowing margin raises.


Notes :
When using the ITU 370 model, take care not to define reliability level, the reliability level being already included as a
parameter.
The possibility to make soft handover in UMTS or CDMA/CDMA2000 make available the computation of UL SHO
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gains for 2 and 3 links in predictions or simulations (UMTS or CDMA/CDMA2000).

V.5 COVERAGE STUDIES
V.5.1 COVERAGE STUDIES : OVERVIEW
A coverage is a set of covered pixels. The coverage is a result of path loss matrix computations depending on the choice
of propagation models, calculation areas and computation and coverage resolutions. Coverage areas defined by
coverage conditions in order to select the transmitters that must be taken into account for the study. Then, according to
this selection, any pixel will be covered as depending on the display type chosen, either by transmitter, by signal level, by
overlapping zones in the standard case (for all projects). So, a coverage is a graphic representation of points for which a
coverage condition is satisfied.

Depending on the type of project considered, some specific studies (treated in their specific parts) are also available :
- Interference studies in GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects
- Specific GPRS/EDGE studies dealing with coding schemes or rates colouring,
- Specific UMTS or CDMA/CDMA2000 studies based either on simulations or user-defined traffic loads.

Like for many other A9155 objects, the management of coverage studies is both easy and powerful. The generic A9155
display dialog (including legend, label et tip management) is used and allows you to display your study on several
attributes related to transmitters. Furthermore, some organization features (filter, sort and groups) are also available on
the displayed result.

Many features help in the management of coverage in A9155. Indeed, it is possible to lock/unlock either complete
studies or individual matrices, to display, print or export exhaustive coverage reports, to export matrices or coverage
zones, to check the validity of current results regarding to the current radio configurations, and other tools always with a
view to make handy coverage studies in A9155.

It is also possible to calculate path loss matrices independently from any coverage study.

V.5.2 COVERAGE PREDICTION GENERAL SETTINGS
V.5.2.a SETTING CALCULATION AREAS
In A9155, calculation areas are defined at the transmitter level. A9155 is able to calculate two path loss matrices per
transmitter, a first matrix over a near radius computed with a high resolution and a propagation model, and a second
matrix over a far radius computed with a low resolution and another propagation model.

In addition, the calculation areas of each transmitter occur only within the computation zone.


To define calculation area(s) simultaneously to all transmitters, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Transmitters folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Click on the Propagation tab from the open window,
In the main matrix part, enter a calculation radius (with a propagation model and a resolution used to
compute the main path loss matrix),
Optionally, in the extended matrix part, enter a calculation radius (with a propagation model and a
resolution used to compute the extended path loss matrix),
Click OK to validate.


To define calculation area(s) to one transmitter at a time, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Transmitters folder by left clicking on the button,
Either :
Right click on the transmitter to which you want to define a specific calculation area,
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Or
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Double click on the transmitter to which you want to assign a specific calculation area,
Click on the Propagation tab from the open window,
In the main matrix part, enter a calculation radius (with a propagation model and a resolution used to
compute the main path loss matrix),
Optionally, in the extended matrix part, enter a calculation radius (with a propagation model and a
resolution used to compute the extended path loss matrix),
Click OK to validate.

You can also define these parameters in the Transmitters table.

Notes :
The calculation radius limits the scope of the calculations to the radius that has been defined. The calculation radius
prevents the system from calculating over too long distances (e.g. in an urban area). In the case of very large
environments, the calculation radius allows you to improve the calculation time. If no main calculation radius has been
defined (and no secondary propagation model), A9155 takes into account automatically the prediction minimum
threshold to define the calculation radius for each transmitter. Nevertheless, this could drive to long calculation times
Since it is a matrix (or 2 in case of extended calculation radius) which is computed for each transmitter, the
calculation radius represents the half side length of the potential matrix located around the considered transmitter.
A9155 computes an extended matrix only if the three parameters, propagation model, calculation radius and
resolution, are specified. Therefore, an extended matrix will not be worked out if its resolution is null.
A9155 computes at the same time the main and extended matrices of a transmitter with a global management.
Therefore, it will recalculate both matrices even if only one is invalid.
The main calculation radius (and the related propagation model) can be also set at the station template level.
When modifying a computation zone (e.g. reduction of the area) in which some predictions studies have already been
made, it is strongly recommended to run again predictions in order to ensure validity of results with current
computation zone.

V.5.2.b SETTING CALCULATION RESOLUTIONS
In A9155, it is possible to calculate two path loss matrices per transmitter, a first matrix over a near radius computed with
a high resolution and a propagation model, and a second matrix over a far radius computed with a low resolution and
another propagation model. The resolution of matrices is not a global parameter since it can be managed for each
transmitter depending on its location.

In addition, it is possible to differentiate resolution of path loss matrices from plot resolution. Prediction plot resolution can
be actually defined on a per study basis. Thus, you can calculate several coverage studies with different resolutions
without invalidating and recalculating path loss matrices.


To define calculation resolution(s) simultaneously to all transmitters, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Transmitters folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Click on the Propagation tab from the open window,
In the main matrix part, enter a calculation resolution (with a propagation model and a calculation radius
used to compute the main path loss matrix),
Optionally, in the extended matrix part, enter a calculation resolution (with a propagation model and a
resolution used to compute the extended path loss matrix),
Click OK to validate.


To define calculation resolution(s) to one transmitter at a time, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Transmitters folder by left clicking on the button,
Either :
Right click on the transmitter to which you want to define a specific calculation resolution,
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Or
Double click on the transmitter to which you want to assign a specific calculation resolution,
Click on the Propagation tab from the open window,
In the main matrix part, enter a calculation resolution (with a propagation model and a calculation radius
used to compute the main path loss matrix),
Optionally, in the extended matrix part, enter a calculation resolution (with a propagation model and a
calculation radius used to compute the extended path loss matrix),
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Click OK to validate.

You can also define these parameters in the Transmitters table.

Notes :
The calculation radius limits the scope of the calculations to the radius that has been defined. The calculation radius
prevents the system from calculating over too long distances (e.g. in an urban area). In the case of very large
environments, the calculation radius allows you to improve the calculation time. If no main calculation radius has been
defined (and no secondary propagation model), A9155 takes into account automatically the prediction minimum
threshold to define the calculation radius for each transmitter. Nevertheless, this could drive to long calculation times
A9155 computes an extended matrix only if the three parameters, propagation model, calculation radius and
resolution, are specified. Therefore, an extended matrix will not be worked out if its resolution is null.
A9155 computes at the same time the main and extended matrices of a transmitter with a global management.
Therefore, it will recalculate both matrices even if only one is invalid.


In addition to the default propagation model, a default grid resolution can be specified in the property dialog of the
Predictions folder.

A9155 takes into account the default grid resolution when no value or zero is defined for the main resolution in the
transmitter properties. In this case, the main path loss matrix of the transmitter will be worked out with the default grid
resolution.

To define a default calculation resolution, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Click on the Propagation tab from the open window,
Enter the default calculation resolution,
Use the What's this help to get further description about the fields available in the current dialog window,
Click OK to validate.

V.5.2.c CREATING COVERAGE CALCULATIONS
Whatever the project type is, all existing predictions are listed in the Predictions folder (Data tab). When starting a new
project, no prediction is available.

To create any prediction, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on New...,
Choose from the list a prediction template in the open window,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the associated prediction window,
Set prediction parameters,
Click OK to validate your choice.

At this step, no calculation is made. The prediction with the parameters is just ready to b run.

Notes : User interface of each prediction study Properties is standardised. For any common study, the Properties
window consists of three tabs:
The General tab where you may rename the study, define the coverage resolution, add some comments, define
group, sort and filter criteria, on the coverage display only (not on the results),
The Condition tab where you can specify the study parameters,
The Display tab to define coverage display settings.

V.5.2.d CREATING COVERAGE STUDIES PER GROUP OF TRANSMITTER
In A9155, it is possible to automatically create prediction studies restricted to a given transmitter or group of transmitters.


To create a coverage study by transmitter or by group of transmitters :
Either,
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
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Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it
Right click on the transmitter/transmitter subfolder you want to manage,
Or,
Select on the map the transmitter you want to manage by left clicking on the appropriate Tx symbol
(arrow),
Choose the Predictions... option from the context menu,
Choose a prediction study in the open window and press OK,
Click on the Calculate button to run calculations. The created study is listed in the Predictions folder.

Notes :
The general tab of the prediction dialog can be also used to restrict the results display identically,
Coverages per transmitter or group of transmitters work like when filtering transmitters in coverage studies, i.e., the
filter is made on display only, and not on computations.

V.5.2.e ACCESSING COVERAGE PREDICTION PROPERTIES
Coverage predictions are manageable identically as point analysis prediction. Firstly, because propagation models may
be specified either in the Predictions folder or in the Transmitters folder, you must be very careful to its priority order. The
main propagation model defined with transmitters is taken first before the one defined with Predictions (See Selecting
and managing propagation models). Then take care about the fact that reception is modelled as if it was made using a
specific receiver and its associated parameters.

Predictions are organised as the other A9155 objects, i.e. in a folder form. The Predictions folder is the parent item for all
the performed coverage predictions. So, it is possible to access the properties either of the Predictions folder or of any
prediction.

To access predictions global properties, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
either
Right click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
or
Double click on the Predictions folder
Click either the Predictions, Receiver or the System tab (if available),
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in each dialog,
Set predictions global parameters,
Click OK to validate your choice.

To access the properties of any single existing prediction, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Predictions folder by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the prediction study of which you want to access properties,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click on the prediction study of which you want to access properties,
Click on the available tabs to display the different windows,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in each window,
Check or adjust prediction parameters,
Click OK to validate your choice.
V.5.2.f SETTING COVERAGE RESOLUTIONS
In the property dialog of each prediction study (General tab), it is possible to specify the plot resolution. Prediction plots
are generated from multi-resolution path loss matrices. Nevertheless, the plot resolution is independent from matrix
resolutions and can be defined on a per study basis.

Therefore, in A9155, you can:
Change the plot resolution without making multi-resolution path loss matrices invalid. This enables you to save
calculation and recalculation times.
Display prediction plots with a resolution different from path loss matrix resolutions.
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V.5.2.g ORGANISING RESULT OUTPUTS OF A COVERAGE STUDY
In A9155, it is possible to filter the results of a coverage study by excluding some zones involved in the initial result.
These filters only deals with display. Of course, during calculation, A9155 takes into account all the active and filtered
transmitters (at the transmitter folder level) to calculate the prediction and displays only coverage related to this
transmitter.

Practical example: the network consists of 4 stations (Tx0, Tx1, Tx2 and Tx3).
Coverage by transmitter study: with best server, no margin and filter on Tx0.
A9155 displays the areas where the signal level from Tx0 is higher than the specified threshold and Tx0 is the best
server.

Interfered areas study: any calculation option and filter on Tx0.
Tx1, Tx2 and Tx3 are possible interferers; they are taken into account in calculations. The covered areas are the areas
where Tx0 is interfered by one of these items.

To make a filter on any study, open its associated properties, and use the standard filter tools by clicking the
button.

Notes :
Filters defined in the Transmitters folder and filters inside a polygon have priority over the prediction filters.
Transmitters, which do not check these filter criteria, are considered as inactive in predictions.
In the General tab, Group and Sort features enable you to organise study result in the Explorer. You can group or sort
a study according to any transmitter attribute. These commands are always available except when selecting display
of best signal level, best server path loss, best server total losses or number of servers.
It is also possible to set the plot resolution in the General tab of any coverage study.
V.5.2.h DEFINING THE COVERAGE CONDITIONS
In A9155, all the common coverage studies use the same dialog made of 3 tabs (General, Condition, Display). The
condition tab of any coverage study property dialog allows you to filter the active transmitters (with calculation area) that
will be part of the computation.

So, in this tab, you must specify (using the What's this help to get information about available fields in the condition tab
window):
The study criterion you want A9155 to calculate: you can choose to evaluate the signal level at the receiver (Signal
level), the path loss (Path loss) or the total losses (Total losses), as in point analysis,
Minimum and maximum thresholds: a bin of the map will be covered only if the calculated criterion for each
considered transmitter on the bin is between minimum and maximum thresholds.
Servers you want to study from the evaluation of their service area. You may choose to keep, on each pixel All the
servers, the one with the Highest signal level or the one with the Second highest signal level, as far as they check the
other conditions (e.g. minimum reception threshold)
A margin in case of a best signal study.

- In case of all the servers are considered (All), the coverage area of Txi is the zone where:

( ) threshold Maximum or or threshold Minimum

<
Losses Total L P
Txi Txi
tot
Txi
rec



- In case of best signal level (Best signal level) and a margin, the service area of Txi corresponds to the bins where:

( ) ( ) threshold Maximum or or threshold Minimum <

Losses Total L
ic
P
Txi Txi
tot
Txi
rec

and
( ) ( ) ( ) M ic P Best ic P
Txj
rec
i j
Txi
rec



where
M is the specified margin (dB).
Best function : considers the highest value.

Notes
If the margin equals 0 dB (best signal level and no margin), A9155 will consider bins where the signal level received
from Txi is the highest one.
If the margin is set to 2 dB, A9155 will consider bins where the signal level received from Txi is either the highest one
or 2dB lower than the highest one.
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If the margin is set to -2 dB, A9155 will consider bins where the signal level received from Txi is 2dB higher than the
signal levels from transmitters, which are 2nd best servers.

- In case of second best signal level and a margin, the service area of Txi corresponds to the bins where:

( ) ( ) threshold Maximum or or threshold Minimum <

Losses Total L
ic
P
Txi Txi
tot
Txi
rec

and
( ) ( ) ( ) M ic P Best ic P
Txj
rec
i j
nd Txi
rec

2


where
M is the specified margin (dB).
2nd Best function : considers the second highest value.

Notes
If the margin equals 0 dB, A9155 will consider bins where the signal level received from Txi is the second highest
one.
If the margin is set to 2 dB, A9155 will consider bins where the signal level received from Txi is either the second
highest one or 2dB lower than the second highest one.
If the margin is set to -2 dB, A9155 will consider bins where the signal level received from Txi is 2dB higher than the
signal levels from transmitters, which are 3rd best servers.

In GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects, some specific server conditions related with the potential use of HCS layers are available
for the service area determination.

The last parameters to define in the Condition tab, whatever the project type is, are :
The study reliability level. Entering 60% as reliability level means that the measured criterion exceeds the predicted
one, 60% of the time.
The selection of an item defining power in transmitters (TRX types in GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects, carrier in UMTS or
CDMA/CDMA2000)

Note : this tab deals with the determination of covering transmitter only. The way they cover the bin is managed in the
Display tab.

V.5.2.i MANAGING PREDICTION DISPLAY
Like for the other A9155 objects classified under folders, prediction results can be either displayed (by checking the
box just left to each prediction) or not (by unchecking the box just left to each prediction) on the map. You may even
display all the calculated predictions by checking the box just left to the Predictions folder (See Managing object
visibility). Coverages are organised as layers. The layer order can be modified in order to make some of them displayed
on the top.

Concerning the coverage itself, A9155 uses the generic display dialog in order to make easy and complete its
management. So, when creating a prediction study, once the filter on the transmitters to take into account in
computations and coverage (and interference) condition are set (condition tab), the display tab allows you to colour the
defined zones depending on selected attributes (using the What's this help to get information about available fields in the
display tab window). Attributes can be chosen in order to realize either common studies (coverage by transmitter, by
signal level, overlapping zones), or specific studies (e.g. interference studies in GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects, handover
status, pilot pollution, etc.., in UMTS or CDMA/CDMA2000 projects), or studies depending on any other attributes (zone,
manufacturer, site status, any user-defined flag).

These attributes can be, for example :

Signal level (in dBm, dBV, dBV/m)
On each bin of each transmitter coverage area, A9155 calculates signal level received from the transmitter. A bin of a
coverage area is coloured if signal level exceeds (=) entered minimum thresholds (bin colour depends on signal level).
Coverage consists of several independent layers for which you may manage visibility in the workspace. There are as
many layers as transmitter coverage areas. Each layer shows the different signal levels available in the transmitter
coverage area.

Best signal level (in dBm, dBV, dBV/m)
On each bin of each transmitter coverage area, A9155 calculates signal levels received from transmitters, which
coverage areas overlap the studied one, and chooses the highest value. A bin of a coverage area is coloured if the signal
level exceeds (=) entered thresholds (the bin colour depends on the signal level). Coverage consists of several
independent layers for which you may manage visibility in the workspace. There are as many layers as defined
thresholds. Each layer corresponds to an area where the signal level from the best server exceeds a defined minimum
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threshold.

Path loss (dB)
On each bin of each transmitter coverage area, A9155 calculates path loss from the transmitter. A bin of a coverage area
is coloured if path loss exceeds (=) entered minimum thresholds (bin colour depends on path loss). Coverage consists of
several independent layers for which you may manage visibility in the workspace. There are as many layers as coverage
areas. Each layer shows the different path loss levels in the transmitter coverage area.

Total losses (dB)
On each bin of each transmitter coverage area, A9155 calculates total losses from the transmitter. A bin of a coverage
area is coloured if total losses exceed (=) entered minimum thresholds (bin colour depends on total losses). Coverage
consists of several independent layers for which you may manage visibility in the workspace. There are as many layers
as coverage areas. Each layer shows the different total losses levels in the coverage area.

Best server path loss (dB)
On each bin of each transmitter coverage area, A9155 calculates signal levels received from transmitters, which
coverage areas overlap the studied one, determines the best transmitter and evaluates path loss from the best
transmitter. A bin of a coverage area is coloured if the path loss exceeds (=) entered thresholds (bin colour depends on
path loss). Coverage consists of several independent layers for which you may manage visibility in the workspace. There
are as many layers as defined thresholds. Each layer corresponds to an area where the path loss from the best server
exceeds a defined minimum threshold.

Best server total losses (dB)
On each bin of each transmitter coverage area, A9155 calculates signal levels received from transmitters, which
coverage areas overlap the studied one, determines the best transmitter and evaluates total losses from the best
transmitter. A bin of a coverage area is coloured if the total losses exceed (=) entered thresholds (bin colour depends on
total losses). Coverage consists of several independent layers for which you may manage visibility in the workspace.
There are as many layers as defined thresholds. Each layer corresponds to an area where the total losses from the best
server exceed a defined minimum threshold.

Number of servers
A9155 evaluates how many coverage areas cover a bin in order to determine the number of servers. The bin colour
depends on the number of servers. Coverage consists of several independent layers for which you may manage visibility
in the workspace. There are as many layers as defined thresholds. Each layer corresponds to an area where the number
of servers exceeds (=) a defined minimum threshold.

Reliability level (%)
On each bin of each transmitter service area, the coverage corresponds to the pixels where the signal level from this
transmitter fulfils signal conditions (defined in Conditions tab) with different reliability levels. In the explorer, there is one
coverage area per transmitter.

Best reliability level (%)
On each bin of each transmitter service area, the coverage corresponds to the pixels where the best signal level received
fulfils signal conditions (defined in Conditions tab). In the explorer, there is one coverage area per reliability level.

Caution: In case of a signal level, path loss or total losses display, the lowest defined threshold must be equal to the
minimum threshold entered in the Condition tab.

Notes :
A9155 provides default calculation and display parameters when creating common prediction studies (coverage by
signal level, coverage by transmitter and overlapping), but it is possible to cover by signal level even if choosing a
coverage by transmitter study.
The definition of a study (coverage condition and display parameters) can be chosen for a study template.
Choosing another display type can make invalid coverage study. In this case, it is necessary to recalculate prediction
study in order to update coverage.

V.5.2.j RUNNING COVERAGE CALCULATIONS
In A9155, coverage studies can be firstly created and tuned, and then calculated. So, it is possible to prepare a complete
set of coverage studies, and let them work all together only when necessary.

To run calculations on created predictions, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Calculations will be made only on unlocked predictions (symbolized ),
Either,
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From the menu bar, click either the Calculate button
2
or the Force calculation button
3
,
Or,
Right click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
Choose either the Calculate or Force calculation command from the open scrolling menu,
The event viewer opens showing the calculations progress in the Tasks tab (you may stop calculations
even by clicking the Stop button or pressing the Esc key),
When finished, results are then displayed on the current map (if the visibility flag is checked).

Notes : The calculate and Force calculation features can be also accessed either :
by using respectively the F7 and Ctrl+F7 keys,
from the Tools menu in the menu bar,
from the Predictions folder context menu.

V.5.2.k LOCKING COVERAGE STUDIES
A9155 allows you to lock some coverage predictions (and to freeze their result display) whereas you desire to commit
calculations on other studies. So, this feature enables the user to easily compare prediction results made with different
parameters individually. This can be made either globally or for each single prediction.

To lock/unlock any single prediction study :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Predictions folder by left clicking on the button,
Right click on the prediction study you want to lock/unlock the calculations,
Select/Unselect the Locked study option from the open scrolling menu,


To lock/unlock all the existing prediction studies :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
Select either the Lock studies or Unlock studies from the open scrolling menu.


Locked predictions are displayed with the icon, whereas unlocked predictions are given by the icon.

Note : Be careful not to mix up locking predictions with locking path loss results from the Result storage. Even if some
predictions are locked and other unlocked, path loss matrices may stay unchanged if either they are locked in the Result
storage window or if the user does not use the Force calculation button.


Caution : when calculations have to be completed, be sure to have already defined the coordinate system used in the
current project.

V.5.3 PREDICTION STUDY TEMPLATES
V.5.3.a CALCULATING A COVERAGE BY TRANSMITTER
In A9155, all studies are classified in a study types box, referencing standard and customized studies. Standard studies
are divided into two parts, common studies and studies which are specific to the current project (GSM/GPRS/EDGE,
UMTS, CDMA/CDMA2000). Common studies for any projects are : coverage by transmitter, coverage by signal level and
overlapping zones.

The coverage by transmitter study enables the user to predict coverage zones by transmitter depending either on their
signal level, their path loss or total losses defined within a user-defined range.

To prepare this prediction study, in the prediction creation steps, select the coverage by transmitter option from the study

2
In this case, locked path loss result matrices (in the Result storage window from the Predictions context menu) are not calculated again. Only invalid
path loss matrices (compared to the current radio parameters) will be computed again. If locked, even invalid matrices are not recalculated

3
In this case, even locked matrices are all deleted and totally calculated from scratch. If there are some valid matrices, A9155 warns you about the
potential destruction of existing data

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types window. The open window is made of three tab windows : General, Condition, and Display. For all of these, use
the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the windows (See also Defining the coverage condition
and Manage prediction display).

The coverage by transmitter study is a template for which the field 'Transmitter' is selected by default in the display tab.
In that case, coverage zones will be displayed with the same colours than the ones defined for each transmitter.

Notes :
A9155 offers default calculation and display parameters when creating common prediction studies but it is possible to
cover by signal level even if choosing a coverage by transmitter study just by setting this in the display tab.
Choosing another display type can make invalid coverage study. In this case, it is necessary to recalculate prediction
study in order to update coverage.

V.5.3.b CALCULATING A COVERAGE BY SIGNAL LEVEL
In A9155, all studies are classified in a study types box, referencing standard and customized studies. Standard studies
are divided into two parts, common studies and studies which are specific to the current project (GSM/GPRS/EDGE,
UMTS, CDMA/CDMA2000). Common studies for any projects are : coverage by transmitter, coverage by signal level and
overlapping zones.

The coverage by signal level study enables the user to predict coverage zones by field strength from transmitter
depending either on their signal level, their path loss or total losses defined within a user-defined range.

To prepare this prediction study, in the prediction creation steps, select the coverage by signal level option from the study
types window. The open window is made of three tab windows : General, Condition, and Display. For all of these, use
the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the windows (See also Defining the coverage condition
and Manage prediction display).

The coverage by signal level study is a template for which the field 'Best signal level' is selected by default in the display
tab. In that case, each layer corresponds to an area where the signal level from the best server exceeds a defined
minimum threshold. Numerous option related to signal level coverage are available in the Display tab.

Notes :
A9155 offers default calculation and display parameters when creating common prediction studies but it is possible to
cover by transmitter even if choosing a coverage by signal level study just by setting this in the display tab.
Choosing another display type can make invalid coverage study. In this case, it is necessary to recalculate prediction
study in order to update coverage.
Choosing a display per best signal level creates a study item made of threshold items whereas choosing a display per
signal level let the folder be made of transmitter items. On each of these items, it is possible to check/uncheck the
visibility flag.

V.5.3.c CALCULATING OVERLAPPING AREAS
In A9155, all studies are classified in a study types box, referencing standard and customized studies. Standard studies
are divided into two parts, common studies and studies which are specific to the current project (GSM/GPRS/EDGE,
UMTS, CDMA/CDMA2000). Common studies for any projects are : coverage by transmitter, coverage by signal level and
overlapping zones.

Overlapping is a coverage whose points correspond, for a defined condition, to the common points of areas covered by
the signal of, at least, two transmitters. Therefore, A9155 displays the areas where the signal level from at least two
transmitters (signal level option), the path loss of the signal received from at least two transmitters (path loss option), or
total losses along two paths between the considered point and transmitters (total losses option), is between minimum
and maximum user-defined thresholds.

To prepare this prediction study, in the prediction creation steps, select the Overlapping option from the study types
window. The open window is made of three tab windows : General, Condition, and Display. For all of these, use the
What's this help to get description about the fields available in the windows (See also Defining the coverage condition
and Manage prediction display).

The coverage by overlapping area study is a template for which the field 'Number of servers' is selected by default in the
display tab. In that case, each layer corresponds to an area where the number of servers exceeds a defined minimum
threshold.

Notes :
A9155 offers default calculation and display parameters when creating common prediction studies but it is possible to
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cover by transmitter even if choosing an overlapping study just by adjusting display.
Choosing another display type can make invalid coverage study. In this case, it is necessary to recalculate prediction
study in order to update coverage.

V.5.3.d CREATING A COVERAGE STUDY TEMPLATE
A9155 provides a feature allowing you to save the definition of a coverage study (General, condition and display tab
properties) in a study template.

To save the settings of any study in a template, proceed as follows :
Right click the coverage study you want to save as a template,
Choose the "Save as a template" command from the open context menu,
A9155 saves the study parameters in a Studies.xml file stored in the A9155 installation directory.


All the study templates saved in this file are available when creating new prediction studies. In the Study types window,
A9155 lists all the classical studies available for a type of project in the standard studies part and the study templates
you have created in the customised studies part.

Note : the name given to the reference study is kept as template name.

It is possible to remove a study template from the file. In the Study types window, select a customised study and click on
the Delete button.
V.5.3.e DELETING A COVERAGE STUDY TEMPLATE
In A9155, coverage study templates are saved in a Studies.xml file stored in the A9155 installation directory. These
templates contain settings of reference studies set in their General, condition and display tab properties.

To delete an existing study template proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on New...,
Select from the list the study template (customized studies) you want to delete,
Click the button,
Click OK to close the dialog.


Note : you can also delete globally all the customized studies by deleting the Studies.xml file in the A9155 directory.

V.5.4 PATH LOSS MANAGEMENT
V.5.4.a STORAGE OF PATH LOSS MATRICES
The first step of coverage predictions consist in the determination of the path loss matrices associated with each active
and filtered transmitter in the network. This is automatically made for the first coverage prediction. Results (path loss
matrices) may be stored either directly in the current atl project or can be externalised either in the same directory than
the .atl project or in any directory you can specify.


To set the location of the path loss matrices of an .atl A9155 project, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Properties... option from the scrolling menu,
In the Predictions tab, click on the button and choose a location to store multi-resolution path loss
matrices:
Embedded: matrices are included in the .atl document.
\<ATL_name>.losses: Multi-resolution matrices are stored in an external folder located in the same
directory as the .atl document. A9155 memorises a relative path to access path loss matrices. By
default, this folder is called <ATL_name>.losses (<ATL_name> is the name of the .atl document).
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Nevertheless, it is possible to change the folder name afterwards; all the names are supported.
When using the Save as command, A9155 creates a new folder associated to the new .atl document
in the same directory; this folder contains path loss matrices and has the same name as the .atl
document. No recalculation occurs if you move the .atl document and its related path loss matrix
folder in another directory.
Browse: In this case, specify the directory where you want to save path loss matrices and click on
OK. A9155 memorises the whole path to access path loss matrices. The path can be manually typed
or modified. In that case, A9155 works differently than in the previous option when using the Save
as command. It only creates the new .atl document.
Use the What's this help to get description about other fields available in the current window,
Click OK to validate.


When externalising path loss results, A9155 creates an external folder containing :
One .los file per transmitter ; it corresponds to its main path loss matrix.
A .dbf file giving validity information for all the main matrices.
A folder called LowRes dedicated to extended path loss matrices.
This folder contains one .los file per transmitter, which has an extended path loss matrix, and a .dbf file giving validity
information for all the extended matrices.

Using this option, calculations are no longer stored in the .atl file. This feature enables the user to store bigger
calculations in external files without storage size limitation (2 Gbytes for a file).

Caution : the external files are updated without saving the A9155 environment as soon as calculations are performed.
To keep consistency with the stored calculations, the corresponding A9155 environment must be saved before closing.

Notes :
Since the dbf file has a standard format, its contents can be checked by opening it in Access.
This feature allows you to create matrices that will sharable between several users.
In the case of a project in which some matrices were initially embedded, A9155 provides a feature that compresses
.atl files when getting out

V.5.4.b LOCKING PATH LOSS RESULTS
This feature enables you to let freeze any path loss matrix, even if invalid when using the Calculate button.
Nevertheless, all existing (even locked) matrices are recalculated if you use the Force calculation button during
calculations.


There are two ways to lock path loss matrices, either from the Predictions global properties in a table form, or from any
transmitter properties.


To lock/unlock propagation results (one transmitter at a time), proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Transmitters folder by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the transmitter you want to lock the associated path loss matrix,
Choose the Properties option from the open scrolling menu,
Or
Double click on the transmitter you want to lock the associated path loss matrix
Click on the Propagation tab,
Check/Uncheck the Locked box,
Use the What's this get description about other fields available in the current window,
Click OK to validate.


To lock/unlock propagation results (possibly on several transmitters), proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Result storage... option from the open scrolling menu,
Either
Check/Uncheck the Locked box associated with the transmitters you want to lock/unlock the
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associated path loss matrix,
Or
Select the transmitters you want to lock path loss matrix,
Choose the Lock/Unlock option from the Action button,
Use the What's this get description about other fields available in the current window,
Click OK to validate.


Notes :
Be careful not to mix up locking matrices with locking calculations.
It is possible to lock/unlock matrices from the context menu of the Propagation tab of the Transmitter global
properties.

V.5.4.c CHECKING PATH LOSS RESULTS VALIDITY
This feature enables you to check if current path loss results are consistent with the current radio parameters. There are
two ways to check path loss matrices validity, either from the Predictions global properties in a table form, or from any
transmitter properties. If validity is not ok, you may calculate path loss matrices again in order to keep consistency.
Reasons of invalidity are displayed for each transmitter.


To check propagation results validity (one transmitter at a time), proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Transmitters folder by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the transmitter you want to check the associated path loss matrix validity,
Choose the Properties option from the open scrolling menu,
Or
Double click on the transmitter you want to check the associated path loss matrices validity,
Click on the Propagation tab,
Check the label displayed in the Validity line. If the label is "No", the invalidity reason is given just below,
Use the What's this help to get description about other fields available in the current window,
Click OK to validate.


To check propagation results validity (possibly on several transmitters), proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Transmitters folder to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Properties... option from the open scrolling menu,
Click on the Propagation tab,
Check the label displayed in the Validity column. If the label is "No", the invalidity reason is given on the
same line,
Use the What's this help to get description about other fields available in the current window,
Click OK to validate.

From this dialog box, it is possible to know how many transmitter path loss data must be recalculated in order to be
consistent with the current radio configuration before starting calculations. Only matrices dealing with active transmitters
are taken into account in that case. To do so, click on the button. The number is automatically given in the
dialog. The number of transmitters available in the current network is also indicated.

Notes :
It is possible to check the validity of existing path loss matrices from the [Predictions: Result storage...] command.
A9155 manages path loss matrix validity, transmitter by transmitter, even in case transmitters have main and
extended path loss matrices. Therefore, even if only one path loss matrix of the transmitter is invalid, A9155 will
recalculate both of them.
In the Results storage dialog and in the Propagation tab of the Transmitters property dialog, A9155 lists calculated
transmitters (transmitters with main and extended matrices) without distinguishing main path loss matrices from
extended ones.

V.5.4.d EXPORTING MAIN PATH LOSS MATRICES
Existing main path loss matrices may be exported in external files in order to be used in external applications. For the
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export, the user must select the type of value to export (Path loss or Signal levels). If Signal level is selected, units have
to be chosen.
Furthermore, A9155 enables the user to select the storage file format (binary, text or table).


To export one or several path loss matrices, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Result storage... option from the open scrolling menu,
Select the transmitter(s) from which you want to export the existing main matrix,
Use the What's this help to get description about other fields available in the current window,
Choose the Export... option from the Action button,
Choose the directory, the format, and the field to export,
Click OK to validate.

Two files are created by exported matrix. One is the exported field, the other, the georeferencement file related to the
involved transmitter and its related calculation area.

Possible exports are :
Attenuations in dB ;
Signal levels in dBm, dBV or dBV/m.

Possible file formats to export values are :
Binary format : .bil ;
Text : .txt with tab as separating character ;
Table : .csv with semicolon as separating character.

Caution : take care not to mix-up with externalising path loss matrices (where each matrix is "made" of a .par and .los
file)

Note : Secondary matrices, linked with extended calculation radius, cannot be exported.

V.5.5 PREDICTION COVERAGE OUTPUTS
V.5.5.a MANAGING PREDICTION RESULTS : OVERVIEW
A9155 contains several features in order to manage prediction results. Prediction results concern both coverages or
matrices.

From available results, it is possible to display associated statistical reports on the coverage zones associated with each
prediction study, and to easily export or print them.

When a coverage display is satisfactory, it is possible to lock it in order to create further comparative coverage with
different parameters.

Depending on their type, coverage results may be exported in vector or raster formats. Exported data are covered areas
and related threshold definition.

Another A9155 feature allows you a complete management of path loss matrices related to transmitters. Firstly, it is
possible to lock only some path loss matrices (even if invalid), while calculating path loss matrices from other transmitters
of the network. Then, it is possible to check the validity of current matrices regarding the current radio parameters. Then,
these path loss matrices my also be exported in order to be used in external applications.

Results (path loss matrix for each transmitter) may be either directly embedded to any current project, or outsourced to
an external folder, in order to let them available from other users. Indeed, A9155 permits to share propagation results
stored in an external folder between several users. Therefore, this special results storage permits to use in the same
project, both external results for some transmitters and private results for others. This part is treated in the specific multi-
users chapter.


Note : even if several cells can be defined per transmitter in UMTS or CDMA/CDMA2000, only one path loss matrix is
computed per transmitter, powers not being parameters of interest for matrix computation.

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V.5.5.b DISPLAYING PREDICTION REPORTS
A9155 provides a report editing feature on all available prediction for any project type. These can be done either for each
single prediction or for all displayed prediction ( box checked for predictions in the Predictions folder from which you
want a report). Reports are displayed in a table form and their content can be managed like in any other table.

When a report table is active, columns can be managed by using the columns to display option from the Format menu.
On first opening, the report will only display the name and coverage areas columns.

To edit a report about any displayed coverage, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Predictions folder by left clicking on the button,
Right click on the Prediction from which you want a report to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Report option from the scrolling menu,
The associated report is then displayed as a new window,
Choose the Display columns... option from the Format menu,
Check the boxes associated with the related information to display as columns is the current report.

Notes :
You may display simultaneously report on all displayed coverages by using the Report option from the Predictions
folder context menu. The obtained report concerns all displayed predictions, and is organised in the same order than
the one defined in the Explorer window Data tab.
Columns to display are either related to the global coverage or to each transmitter taking part into the coverage.
In GSM/GPRS projects, reports dealing with traffic data are base on the default traffic analysis

V.5.5.c EXPORTING PREDICTION REPORTS
The report on any coverage prediction can be exported to any other Office-like application. To do so, like for any other
table in A9155, perform a copy and paste action for the entire report, then reformat the text if required (change into a
table, modify, etc...).

You may also export the displayed map (including currently displayed results) and the results from the point analysis
window to any other application program supporting image data format.

V.5.5.d PRINTING PREDICTION REPORTS
You can use A9155 to print both characteristics tables and reports as well as maps with their coverage.

To print a prediction report, proceed as follows :
Make active a report window,
Choose the Print... option from the File menu in the menu bar,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Adjust the printing parameters (We assume that your printer is correctly configured for your Windows
applications. If this is not the case, first use the Print configuration... option),
Click OK to validate and activate the printing.

Print reports can be centred on the sheet and possibly spread over a number of sheets for large-scale tables. Cell sizes
are then displayed on the screen.

Comment : When printing a report, a footnote is created automatically in order to indicate the date (in month/day/year
format) and the time of printing as well as the page numbering.

V.5.5.e EXPORTING PREDICTION COVERAGES
With A9155, it is possible to export the coverage areas resulting from any coverage prediction in Bmp or Tiff raster
formats or in ArcView, MapInfo or Agd vector formats. Of course, it is possible to only export predictions that have
been calculated beforehand. Exporting coverage predictions allows the user to generate data file easy to import as
vector or raster objects within A9155 or within other applications. For each exported prediction (total or for a transmitter),
the exported zone is delimited by the rectangle encompassing the coverage. All coverage type can be exported.


To export any prediction coverage zone, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
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Expand the Predictions folder by left clicking on the button,
Right click on the Prediction from which you want to export the coverage zones,
Choose the Export... option from the scrolling menu,
Choose the name, the format and the path for the file to be exported,
Click on the Save button to validate,
Check or modify the reference coordinate system for the file to be exported (if needed - vector format),
Click the Export button to achieve the prediction export.


Notes :
Be very careful about the accuracy of the coordinate system format to export. Indeed, when selecting a different
coordinate system than the one initially defined within A9155, the file is converted thanks to this other coordinate
system.
Under A9155, shp filenames are not limited in number of characters when exporting or importing, even if the file
name is made of more than 8 characters.
Raster format export is not possible when the coverage is made per transmitter (coverage studies with display type
per transmitter, per any transmitter attribute, per signal level, per path loss, per total losses). In this case, only
coverage area of a single transmitter can be exported in BMP or TIFF raster format.

See Coverage prediction available exports

V.5.5.f COVERAGE PREDICTION AVAILABLE EXPORTS
Depending on the type of prediction, the following exports are possible :

Prediction Possible export

Overlapping
Coverage by signal level
Coverage by C/I level
Pilot pollution
Downlink total noise The total coverage
handover status
GPRS/EDGE max rate per timeslot
GPRS/EDGE coding scheme


Coverage by transmitter
Interfered zones
Service area (Eb/Nt) uplink The total coverage
Service area (Eb/Nt) downlink Coverage of each transmitter
Effective service area
Pilot reception analysis Ec/Io


For each exported prediction (global or for a single transmitter), the exported zone is delimited by the rectangle
encompassing the coverage

Note : exporting coverage zones by transmitter is possible only when the coverage study item is made of transmitter
sub-items.

V.6 POINT ANALYSIS PREDICTIONS
V.6.1 POINT ANALYSIS PREDICTIONS : OVERVIEW
A9155 contains several propagation models for specific needs. Once the choice has been made, the associated
parameters have been set and the receiver has been tuned, you are able to make radiowave propagation predictions.
Moreover, A9155 provides a point analysis tool allowing you, in the standard case (for all types of projects),
to study reception along a profile between from a reference transmitter in real time (no matrix needed),
to evaluate the signal levels coming from the surrounding transmitters at a given point (using existing path loss
matrices).

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Furthermore, this tool is very helpful in the analysis of cases related to specific technologies. With this, you can :
evaluate interferences on a selected transmitter at a given point, and determine the interferers and associated noise
levels in GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects,
make a complete active set analysis at a given point for a probe UMTS or CDMA/CDMA2000 user moving in the
network with a particular behaviour. This tool will help you to study also, at a point, the pilot reception and the
connection status.
These specific studies are available in their specific parts.

Of course due to the fact that several powers can be defined on an identical transmitter (at the subcell level in
GSM/GPRS/EDGE or at the cell level in UMTS or CDMA/CDMA2000), point analysis window provides the possibility to
select either the TRX type or the carrier of the study.

Using the Standard Propagation Model, it is possible to obtain further data along a terrain profile with the point analysis.
Other tools like export ease, link budget, the possibility to adjust in real time reliability level, etc...are also available


Note : like for coverage predictions, and because propagation models may be defined either in the Predictions folder or
in the Transmitters folder, you must be very careful to its priority order. The propagation model defined with transmitters
is taken first compared to the one defined with Predictions (See Selecting and managing propagation models).

V.6.2 DISPLAYING POINT ANALYSIS RESULTS
V.6.2.a USING THE RECEIVER
To make the point analysis active, just click on the icon (or check the Point analysis in the View menu). When this is
made, you can move on the active map, and have displayed in Point analysis window the profile analysis between a
given transmitter and the current location, the predictions from all the surrounding transmitters, and specific
GSM/GPRS/EDGE or CDMA/UMTS studies.

If you click on the map, the receiver is fixed on a particular point. To move it again, just click the icon, and drag it
over the map.

V.6.2.b STUDYING THE PROFILE FROM A TRANSMITTER
With the point analysis tool, A9155 is able to display a view of the terrain profile between a given station and the point
defined by the receiver on the map using the propagation model as defined before (with priority order respect). Results
are given in real time (no need for path loss matrices).

To make active the reception profile window :
From the menu bar, check the Point analysis command in the View menu,
The point analysis window opens in the lower right corner of your current environment,
Left click on the Profile tab,
Select the transmitter on which you want to base the prediction from the associated scrolling list,
Either
Click the button in the Point analysis window,
Or
Click the button from the toolbar,
The data appearing on the profiles (ellipses, clutter, etc.) will be function of the considered model (See
below).


In this profile tab window, A9155 indicates the propagation model associated with the selected transmitter; this model is
used for analysis. You may choose to display either the signal or several losses at any point. You can also choose the
item level at which the power(s) of each transmitter are defined (TRX type or carrier).


The altitude (expressed in metres) is reported on the vertical scale. A green line shows the line of sight (LOS) from the
studied transmitter and A9155 displays the angle of the LOS read in the antenna vertical pattern. Along the profile, if the
signal meets an obstacle, this causes an attenuation with diffraction symbolized by a red vertical line (if the model used
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takes into account diffraction mechanisms). The main peak taken into account is the one that intersects the most the
Fresnel ellipsoid. Any attenuation that occurs is then calculated in one hand, between the station and the main peak, in
the other hand, between the main peak and the receiver. With some propagation models using a 3 knife-edge Deygout
diffraction method, the result may then show up two new attenuations peaks in addition to the main peak. The various
peaks are identified by red lines. The attenuation generated by all the peaks is displayed above the main peak.


Profile with ITU 526-5, Okumura-Hata or Cost-Hata model
When you use the ITU 526-5, Okumura-Hata or Cost-Hata models, Fresnel ellipsoids (blue) will appear on the profile and
possible diffraction peaks will be represented by a red line. The attenuation generated by these peaks will be displayed
above the main peak.

Profile with WLL model
When you use the WLL model, clutters will also appear on the profile in addition to DTM.
As for the previous models, the Fresnel ellipsoids (in blue) and possible diffraction peaks due to the DTM and/or clutters
symbolized by red lines with attenuation calculated for all these peaks are displayed above the main peak.

Profile with the Longley-Rice and Vienna 93 models
Only the first Fresnel ellipsoid and the terrain profile appear for these two models.

Profile with the Standard Propagation model
Peaks of diffraction are displayed regarding to the selected method (Deygout, Epstein-Peterson, Deygout with correction
and Millington). Both the terrain profile and the clutter (and its height, if defined) appear using this model. A report
containing information on transmitter-receiver profile can be displayed.

V.6.2.c DISPLAYING PREDICTED SIGNAL LEVELS AT A POINT
With the point analysis tool, A9155 is able to display the signal from active transmitters in a network at the point defined
by the receiver on the map by using the propagation model as defined before (with priority order respect).

To make active the reception window :
From the menu bar, check the Point analysis command in the View menu,
The point analysis window opens in the lower right corner of your current environment,
Left click on the Reception tab,
Click the button from the toolbar,
Move over the current map to the places where you want to make your analysis.


The value of the different signal levels coming from different transmitters is reported in the Reception window in bar form,
from top to bottom from the highest predicted signal level to the lowest one. Displayed bars have the same colours as
defined for each transmitter.

Notes :
Displaying the predicted signal level at a point is possible only if path loss matrices have been already determined. To
do this, you must have previously executed any coverage prediction or simulations (CDMA/CDMA2000, UMTS)
before using the point analysis tool.
You can choose the item level at which the power(s) of each transmitter are defined (TRX type or Carrier),
IN GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects, it is possible to select the HCS layer on which you want to study signal levels.
For UMTS or CDMA/CDMA2000 studies, that is the pilot power which is displayed in this window whereas it is the
Ec/Io which is given in the AS analysis window.

V.6.2.d LISTING ALL SIGNAL AND C/I LEVELS AT A POINT
In addition to the studies with point analysis of the profile from a transmitter, predicted signals from surrounding
transmitters, and, potentially interferences in case of GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects, A9155 provides an additional tab in
the point analysis window allowing you to display, in the same window, general information at the receiver.

So, A9155 provides in the Results tab of the Point analysis window:
General information on the receiver: its coordinates (stated in the Display coordinate system) and the clutter class
which it is located on,
The signal level received from each transmitter containing the receiver in its calculation area, (Transmitters are sorted
in a descending signal level order),
C/I levels due to surrounding transmitters, first both in co-channel and adjacent cases, then in adjacent channel case
only (studying always the most interfered TRX) in GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects.
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Notes :
Displaying interference levels at a point is possible only if path loss matrices have been already determined. To do
this, you must have previously executed any coverage prediction or simulations (CDMA/CDMA2000, UMTS) before
using the point analysis tool.
Interferences are possible only if some channels have been allocated to TRXs.
You can choose the item level at which the power(s) of each transmitter are defined (TRX type or Carrier),
IN GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects, it is possible to select the HCS layer on which you want to study signal levels.
For UMTS or CDMA/CDMA2000 studies, that is the pilot power which is displayed in this window whereas it is the
Ec/Io which is given in the AS analysis window.
V.6.3 MANAGING POINT ANALYSIS
V.6.3.a SELECTING A TRANSMITTER IN POINT ANALYSIS
When studying reception profile and interferences using the point analysis tool, it is possible to display results at an
identical point for several transmitters.

To do so, when using the point analysis icon over the map as a moving receiver, click on the map at the location
you want to study different transmitters. Then, the receiver is fixed on the map. In the Point analysis window (Profile or
Interference tab), select the transmitter to study then. Results are automatically displayed in the Point analysis window.

V.6.3.b SELECTING THE POWER DEFINITION ITEM IN POINT ANALYSIS
Depending on the considered technology, power can be defined with different values within the same transmitters. The
point analysis window allows you to select the level at which several powers can be defined for the same transmitter.
Hence, you can select :
In GSM/GPRS/EDGE, the TRX type (BCCH, TCH or TCH_INNER) over which to study the profile. Choosing the (All)
option takes the TRX type with the highest signal level
In UMTS or CDMA/CDMA2000, the carrier, assuming that several cells can be assigned to a transmitter, each cell
characterising a carrier on a transmitter. Choosing the (All) option takes the carrier where the related cell has the
highest signal level.

This feature is available both when working in the Profile, Reception, Interference, Results and AS Analysis tabs in
UMTS/CDMA. Nevertheless, concerning the last one, the (all) option (for cells) works regarding the carrier selection
mode as defined in the site equipment (UMTS, CDMA/CDMA2000)

V.6.3.c ADJUSTING RELIABILITY LEVEL IN A POINT ANALYSIS
A9155 allows the user to display the properties of a probe receiver used in a point analysis window. Depending on the
tab in use (reception profile, predicted signal, interference analysis, Results, and AS Analysis tabs in UMTS/CDMA, it is
possible to display different pieces of information.

The reliability level can be set at the receiver level, in order to calculate shadowing margins (using standard deviation
defined per clutter class) to apply to computed path loss (made by the model).

In any tab window of the point analysis window, to access the reliability setting box, proceed as follows :
Right click in the current Point analysis window,
Choose the Properties... option from the context menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Set the value of the reliability level (and UL SHO gains in UMTS/CDMA),
The related shadowing margin value is automatically displayed,
Click OK to close the dialog.


Notes :
When the reliability level is greater than 50%, shadowing margin values are not null only if standard deviations are
defined for clutter classes.
If no clutter data is available, shadowing margin will be set to 0dB, and UL soft handover gain will be set to the default
global value (defined in the Transmitter global parameters in UMTS or CDMA/CDMA2000),
In UMTS and CDMA/CDMA2000 simulations, these losses are evaluated by computing random shadowing errors
and are added to the model path loss.
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V.6.3.d DISPLAYING SIGNAL LEVELS OR LOSSES IN POINT ANALYSIS
A9155 allows the user to display the properties of a probe receiver used in a point analysis window. Depending on the
tab in use (reception profile, predicted signal, interference analysis, Results, and AS Analysis tabs in UMTS/CDMA, it is
possible to display different pieces of information.

Hence, you can choose to display results at a given point in term of path loss, total losses or signal level in the Profile tab
of the point analysis window. This can also be made as a coverage condition.

In the Profile tab window, to access the result type box, proceed as follows :
Right click in the current Point analysis window,
Choose the Properties... option from the context menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Choose to display either the signal level, path loss or total losses in the Result type scrolling box,
Click OK to close the dialog and validate your choice.


The available study criteria are detailed in the table below.

Study criteria Formulas
Signal level (
rec
P
)
( )
Rx ant Shadowing path rec
L
G
M L EIRP P
Rx
+ =

Path loss (
path
L
)
L
L L
ant path
Tx
+ =
model

Total losses (Total-Losses)
( ) ( )
G G
L L M L Losses Total
ant ant Rx Tx Shadowing path
Rx Tx
+ + + + =


Note : In case of coverage studies, it is possible to calculate the signal level at the receiver in dBm, dBV or dBV/m.

V.6.3.e DISPLAYING LINK BUDGET AT A RECEIVER
A9155 allows the user to display the link budget at a receiver along a path profile. The link budget is made of powers,
gains and losses composing the resulting signal level.


To display the link budget box at any point, proceed as follows :
From the menu bar, check the Point analysis command in the View menu,
Left click on the Profile tab,
Right click in the current Point analysis window,
Choose the Link budget... option from the context menu.

V.6.3.f USING A SITE AS A TARGET FOR POINT ANALYSIS
A9155 provides a feature in order to drop the receiver used for point analysis on the exact location of an existing site,
using any tab (reception profile, predicted signal, interference analysis, Results, or AS Analysis tabs in UMTS/CDMA of
the point analysis window.

To put the point analysis tool on an existing site, proceed as follows :
Make active the point analysis,
Right click on the receiver to open the associated context menu,
Select the Target site command from the open scrolling menu,
In the Target site dialog, choose one existing site from the scrolling list,
Click OK to close the dialog.

V.6.3.g DISPLAYING SPM PARAMETERS OVER A PROFILE ANALYSIS
When using Standard Propagation model, you may display a report containing information on transmitter-receiver profile.

To get it, proceed as follows :
Right click on the profile part of the current window in order to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Model details command from the displayed menu.


The default text editor. In this report, A9155 gives the number of points taken into account along the transmitter-receiver
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path and details for every point:
The distance between the point and the transmitter (Dist) in m,
The ground height (Alt) in m,
The ground height with earth curvature consideration (Gr H) in m,
The total height (Tot H) in m: Tot H = Gr H + clutter height.

Note : At the transmitter (first point in the list) or at the receiver (last point in the list), we respectively have: Tot H = Gr H
+ Clutter height + HTx and Tot H = Gr H + Clutter height + HRx, where, HTx and HRx are respectively transmitter and
receiver antenna heights above the ground (m).

The clutter class,
The filtered total height (Flt H) in m. A9155 determines this parameter only when the Enhanced slope at
receiver method is selected.

Then, it recapitulates effective transmitter antenna height (Tx effective height), K1 and K2 parameters used in
calculations (Far or Near, LOS or NLOS) and detailed propagation results. Correction for low Tx effective height, are
different from zero.

V.6.3.h EXPORTING A POINT ANALYSIS STUDY
Whatever the point analysis on which you are working (reception profile, predicted signal level, interference analysis, and
AS Analysis - UMTS/CDMA - tabs) is, A9155 allows the user to export a result as displayed in the Point analysis window
as in image in any application.

To do so, proceed as follows :
From the menu bar, check the Point analysis command in the View menu,
The point analysis window opens in the lower right corner of your current environment,
Choose the tab associated with your current study,
Make your results displayed,
Right click in the Point analysis window,
Choose the Copy option from the context menu,
Switch to another application supporting any format image,
Paste the current content of your clipboard by :
Either
by using the Ctrl+V shortcut,
Or
by choosing the Paste command from the Edit menu.

V.6.3.i PRINTING A POINT ANALYSIS STUDY
Whatever the point analysis on which you are working (reception profile, predicted signal level, interference analysis, and
AS Analysis - UMTS/CDMA - tabs) is, A9155 allows the user to print a result as displayed in the Point analysis window :

To do so, proceed as follows :
From the menu bar, check the Point analysis command in the View menu,
The point analysis window opens in the lower right corner of your current environment,
Choose the tab associated with your current study,
Make your results displayed,
Right click on the Point analysis window,
Choose the Print... option from the context menu,
The Print dialog window opens,
Choose the appropriate printing parameters,
Click OK to start printing.

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V.7 CALCULATION TOOLS IN A9155
V.7.1 A9155 FEATURES FOR COMPUTING
A9155 provides a multi-thread feature allowing you to spread the some computations on several processors. Hence,
A9155 can use two processors of the local machine for propagation computations, UMTS and CDMA/CDMA2000
simulations and coverage studies (standard or specific GSM/GPRS/EDGE, UMTS or CDMA/CDMA2000) and automatic
scrambling code allocation.

This feature is automatic. That means that, on a dual-processor pc, each processor works out one path loss matrix, one
prediction study or one simulation. Therefore, calculation times are divided in two.

It is also possible to distribute path loss calculation using several Pcs on the same time.

V.7.2 DISTRIBUTING CALCULATIONS ON SEVERAL PCS
A9155 provides you the possibility to share computations using two processors of a multi-processors PC. Moreover,
another feature enables you to distribute path loss calculations on several workstations. The A9155 package provides a
computing server application; it can be installed either on workstations or servers and used by A9155 sessions installed
on other stations. Once the computing server application is installed on a workstation, this one is considered as a
potential calculation server for other workstations with computing server application. Therefore, a user can distribute
calculations of path loss matrices on another workstation if the computing server application is installed on his
workstation and the other one.

This application (working only on path loss matrix computations) supports dual-processor configurations. Once the
computing server application is installed on some computation servers, the distributed computation feature is possible for
other computers of the network.

To activate the distributed calculation on a local workstation, proceed as follows :
From the menu bar, select the Distributed calculation... command in the Tools menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the open dialog window,
Check the Activate the distributed calculation option,
Either,
Type the name of calculation servers, which you want to distribute computations on (use semicolon
as separator). A9155 automatically saves the list of calculation servers to be used in an Atoll.ini file
located in the A9155 installation directory. The file has the following syntax:

[RemoteCalculation]
Servers=Workstation_1;Workstation_2

If the list is empty, A9155 considers that the distributed calculation option is inactive. Then, computations are run on the
local workstation.

Or,
When clicking on the Detect button, A9155 searches and displays all the potential calculation
servers you can use.
Or,
When clicking on the All button, A9155 displays the symbol * in the Use servers dialog. In this case,
it will scan all the potential calculation servers when starting calculations. A9155 will use all the
found calculation servers.
Click OK to validate your choice.

When starting propagation computations, A9155 searches the calculation servers of the list and distributes calculations
on the found servers. It displays in the Events tab the found calculation servers.


Notes :
If calculation servers entered in the list are not available (workstation is off), computations are run on the local
workstation.
The distributed calculations do not work in case of embedded geographic data and ISTAR format maps (*.ist).
Several users can distribute their computations on the same calculation server. Path loss matrices are not
simultaneously calculated but one at a time (e.g. 1
st
matrix from user1, 1
st
matrix from user2 and so on)
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An Atoll.ini file can be prepared by an administrator in order to specify the computing servers, and marked as read
only.
This calculation server(s) uses 1 A9155 licence per pair of processors. Of course, each pair of processors of each
client uses also a licence.
Floating licence are not mandatory using the A9155 calculation server feature.

V.7.3 DISPLAYING CALCULATION EVENTS IN A LOG WINDOW
An event viewer window is available in A9155. To make it open, use the View menu. This window consists of two tabs,
the Events and Tasks tabs.

Events tab
A9155 lists some events and provides for each of them, the type, the hour the event occurred and a description. Events
detailed in the Events tab concern PlaNET imports and calculations (path loss matrices and coverage studies). You may
encounter three types of events, displayed with a specific symbol:
- Errors occurred during PlaNET import or calculations: A9155 does not stop the import or calculation process; it
automatically opens the Events tab to warn you,
- Warnings about minor problems happened during calculations. Be careful, A9155 does not open the Events tab to
inform you,
- Information on time a calculation or PlaNET import process is started and ended.

Some features in order to manage events are available. To access them, right click on the window in order to open the
related context menu. Then you will be able to :
- Delete the selected event(s) (Clear command),
- Delete all the events (Clear all command),
- Copy the event description in the clipboard (Copy command),
- Display the entire event description (Properties command).

Tasks tab
The Tasks tab enables you to visualise progress of path loss matrix, prediction study, UMTS, CDMA/CDMA2000
simulation calculations and neighbour allocation.

As calculation progress is managed in the Tasks tab, it is possible to work with A9155 while calculations start.

The Tasks tab is automatically open as soon as calculations are started.

To interrupt calculations, click on the button, available in the Tasks tab.

Notes :
Messages listed in the events tab can be saved in a log file.
The log window is automatically magnetised within the other set of A9155 windows. To break this magnetism, and
freely move this window, use the CTRL key when dragging it.

V.7.4 EXPORTING CALCULATION EVENTS IN A LOG FILE
The Event viewer window contains two tabs : Events and Tasks. The events tab displays details about processes and
potential errors, information and warnings.

Messages listed in this tab can be saved in a .log file. To do that, add an option when starting A9155 from a command
line, with the syntax above :
C:\Program Files\Alcatel\A9155\Atoll.exe -log C:\.\events.log



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VI GSM/GPRS/EDGE/TDMA PROJECT MANAGEMENT
VI.1 GSM/GPRS/EDGE PROJECTS : OVERVIEW
GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) and DCS ((Digital Communications System) are radio technologies
using TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) principles, each on a different frequency band.

In TDMA technologies, users are spread over frequency bands made of physical channels. Each of these physical
channels is divided into a certain number of logical channels called timeslots. The norm in standard TDMA is 8 timeslots
per channel. This means that a channel can carry simultaneously 8 speaking users.

Even if users on a same physical channel do not interferer each other (spread on time), every data carried on a physical
channel can be potentially interfered by other communications occurring on co-channel or on adjacent channel. The goal
of planning such a GSM/GPRS/EDGE network will be to provide a sufficient coverage to cover a maximum area, to
assign to transmitters enough channels in order to absorb the traffic demand by limiting interferences in the network.

GPRS (Global Packet Radio Service) and EDGE (Enhanced Data-rates for GSM - or Global - Evolution) are 2.5th
numeric telephony norms working around the 900-1800 MHz band, using the also TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)
technology as classical GSM norm. Contrary to GSM working in circuit switched mode, EDGE and GPRS use timeslot
working on packet switched mode, but can be mixed with GSM timeslots on transmitters.

GSM and GPRS/EDGE projects share the same template. A station will be able to allow both GSM and GPRS services
depending on its properties. This will be set at the subcell level with timeslot either dedicated to circuit, packet or
composite services.

Each transmitter dealing with GPRS/EDGE must have a piece of GPRS/EDGE equipment. A9155 allows the user to
either create or modify easily these equipment. These are linked with so-called coding schemes functions of C or C/I
thresholds. GPRS technology provides 4 coding schemes whereas EDGE can offer 9. With A9155, you can set these
coding schemes and display their effects in graphs.

Since GPRS/EDGE technology is based on GSM norm, it is possible to define or not, in the same network, transmitters
as GPRS/EDGE stations.

Compared to GSM norm, GPRS/EDGE provides the support of larger amounts of data services. Moreover, this
technology permits to carry more data per timeslot. Depending on the radio data and the number of timeslots dedicated
to packet service transmissions for the transmitters part of the current network, A9155 can determine the average
capacity per timeslot per transmitter.

Geo data are easily manageable as in the other projects. You may either create or import any of these data. Sites,
antennas, station templates, transmitters, measurements, and propagation models work in the same way for
GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects than for the other technology types. Nevertheless, the complexity of such a modelling has
led to the introduction of several specific radio data for GSM/GPRS/EDGE in order to optimise the management of radio
resources. As many objects in A9155, these data are easy to manage and use generic dialogs.

Multi-service traffic can be fully managed in A9155 through the settings of GSM/GPRS/EDGE parameters (services,
mobility types, terminals, user profiles, environments), multi-service cartography (maps per environment, per user profile,
live traffic, user density). Mixing the network and all these multi-service data, traffic is spread using the traffic capture
feature.

Thanks to it, and by the use of a dimensioning model, it is possible to determine the requested number of TRXs to
absorb the traffic with regard to quality requirements. The resource allocation can be made either manually or by using
an Automatic Frequency Planning.

Even if all common studies are available (coverage by transmitter, coverage by signal level, overlapping) with some
specific conditions due to GSM/GPRS/EDGE, A9155 provides also some other specific coverage studies dealing with
interferences : interfered zones and coverage by C/I level and specific GPRS/EDGE coverages : coding schemes and
throughput per timeslot.

The resulting network can be analysed thanks to the availability of different tools dealing with frequency plan check,
channel location search and KPI calculation.

The What's this context tool allows the user to understand the specific GSM/GPRS/EDGE fields and features available in
the several dialog boxes.

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VI.2 GSM/GPRS/EDGE PROJECTS PROTOCOL
A classical GSM/GPRS/EDGE project protocol, within A9155, is described below :

Project initialisation
Choice of a project template
Definition projection and display coordinate systems
Definition of length, reception and transmission units

Definition of geographic data through the import or the creation of maps
Clutter classes
Clutter heights
DTM
Vector data
Population data
Generic data
...

Common coverage studies (by transmitter, by signal level, HCS layers, etc...)

Network design : Setting radio data
Determination of domains and groups (frequencies, BSICs, HSNs)
Setup of cell types
Definition and tuning of transmitters and subcells
Coding scheme definitions
Setup of GPRS/EDGE equipment

Definition of multi-service traffic parameters
Services
Mobility types
Terminals
User profiles
Environments

Definition of the traffic through the import or the creation of maps
Traffic maps per environment
Traffic maps per user profile
Live traffic maps
User density traffic maps

Capture of the traffic to analyse the demand

Dimensioning of the network
Dimensioning model settings
Required number of TRXs per transmitter to absorb the input traffic
Determination of the traffic load per transmitter

Definition of the neighbours manually or automatically

Resource manual allocation
Manual allocation of frequencies
Manual allocation of BCCH
Manual allocation of BSICs
GSM/GPRS/EDGE Automatic Frequency Planning

Checking of the network allocations
Frequency plan checking
Channel search tool
KPI calculation

GSM/GPRS/EDGE oriented prediction studies
Interference areas
Coverage by C/I level
Coverage by coding schemes
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Coverage by rates per timeslot
VI.3 DEFINING GSM/GPRS/EDGE RESOURCES
VI.3.1 DEFINING GSM/GPRS/EDGE RESOURCES : OVERVIEW
In A9155, radio network modelling needs the management of specific radio resources data in GSM/GPRS/EDGE
projects :
Frequencies
HSNs (Hopping Sequence Number)
BSICs (NCC-BCC pairs)

As many other objects in A9155, these parameters have been integrated to the tool with a will to make their
management and their use easy. These parameters are used as inputs for cell types, subcells and TRXs in stations.

The resources are organised in domains, each domain being potentially made of several groups. During the resource
allocation, only items belonging to the defined domains will be allowed to be chosen.

Note : for frequencies, the top layer is the frequency band. A frequency domain (made of several groups) will be a part of
a frequency band.

VI.3.2 FREQUENCIES
VI.3.2.a FREQUENCIES : OVERVIEW
In A9155, for a complete exploitation of frequencies, it is possible to define frequency domains and groups based on
standard frequency bands.

A domain is a set of groups; it consists of one or several groups. A frequency domain belongs to a frequency band; it
is a subset of the frequency band.
A group is a set of channels. A frequency group belongs to one or several frequency domains; it is a subset of
frequency domains.

Manual and automatic frequency planning is based on frequency domains assigned to the TRX types in cell types.

The creation and the management of frequency domains and groups, like for many other objects in A9155 is always
easy and clear.

VI.3.2.b MANAGING FREQUENCY BANDS
Frequency bands represent the reference frequency set that frequency groups and domains (which include specific
rules, steps and exclusions) refer to. Frequency bands can be seen as a fixed item, whereas groups and domains are
the frequency subsets that can be managed in order to scheck to available frequency lists.


Frequency band properties can be accessed in two ways, either from a frequency band table, either from a frequency
band dialog.

To open the frequency band dialog, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder in order to get the related context menu,
Choose the Properties option from the open menu,
Click on the Frequencies tab,
Use the What's this help to get description about available fields in the open window,
Either
Select the frequency band you want to manage,
Click the modify button to open the associated dialog,
Or,
Double click the frequency band you want to manage.
Click the General tab,
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Define the frequency band parameters,
Click OK to validate your choice,
Click again OK to close the transmitters properties dialog box.


Notes :
The Frequency domains tab lists the domains related to the current frequency band,
Addition, deletion of frequency bands are made using respectively the and buttons,
The button helps you to manage the content of the frequency band table (See below).


To open the frequency band table, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder in order to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Network settings : Frequency bands...] command from the open menu,
Define the parameters of each frequency band.


Notes :
The dialog of each frequency band (see above) is reachable by either double clicking the related record in the table,
or by using the button once a record is selected,
The button helps you to manage the content of the frequency band table.
An Other Properties tab is available when some user defined fields have been added to the Frequency band table.

VI.3.2.c MANAGING FREQUENCY DOMAINS AND GROUPS
For an easier resource management, frequency domain and group tables are available. Frequency domains are linked to
types of TRXs. When defining a cell type, you must assign a frequency domain to each TRX type.

To define domains and groups of frequencies, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Network settings : Domains : Frequencies] command from the open menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
In the Domains dialog, enter a domain per line and specify the related frequency band. To validate a
domain creation, select another line.
Either
Select a domain in the table and click on the Properties button.
Or
Select the line relating to a domain and double click on it.
In the domain properties dialog, specify the name of group(s) that you want to associate to this domain and
define for each of them:
- The lowest available frequency (Min channel number),
- The highest available frequency (Max channel number),
- The value interval between the frequencies (Step between channels),
- Frequency (frequencies) you do not want to use (Excluded channel numbers). You can paste a list of
channels; separator must be a blank character,
- Additional frequency (frequencies) you want to consider during allocation (Extra channel numbers).
You can paste a list of channels; separator must be a blank character.


You can also define the domain-group pairs in the Group of frequencies window.

To do so, proceed as follows :
After defining all the domains, close the Domains dialog,
Right click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Network settings : Groups : Frequencies] command from the open menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
In the Group of frequencies window, select a domain and associate one or several groups of frequencies to
each of them. Define the groups as explained above.

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The defined domains can be now assigned to TRX types of each cell type in order then to be used as constraints in the
automatic allocation of frequencies.

VI.3.3 HSNS
VI.3.3.a HSNS : OVERVIEW
In A9155, modelling of base frequency hopping and synthesised frequency hopping are supported. So, some parameters
such as MAL (Mobile Allocation List), HSN (Hopping Sequence Number), MAIO (Mobile Allocation Index Offset) are
managed.

HSN (Hopping Sequence Number) parameter is used to describe frequency hopping sequence; this is one of 4 input
parameters for GSM hopping sequence generator algorithm. HSN may take 64 different values; they are numbered from
0 to 63. Frequency sequences are pseudo-random, except for the special case of HSN = 0, where frequencies are used
one after the other (cyclic hopping).

In A9155, for a complete exploitation of HSNs, it is possible to define HSN domains and groups.

A domain is a set of groups; it consists of one or several groups.
A group is a set of HSNs. A HSN group belongs to one or several HSN domains; it is a subset of HSN domains.

Manual and automatic HSN planning are based on the HSN domains assigned to TRX types in cell types.

Creation and management of HSN domains and groups, like for many other objects in A9155 always stays easy and
clear.

VI.3.3.b MANAGING HSN DOMAINS AND GROUPS
For an easier resource management, HSN domain and group tables are available. HSN domains are linked to types of
TRXs. When defining a cell type, you must assign a HSN domain to each TRX type.

To define domains and groups of HSNs, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Network settings : Domains : HSNs] command from the open menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
In the Domains dialog, you can enter a domain per line. To validate a domain creation, select another line.
Either
Select a domain in the table and click on the Properties button.
Or
Select the line relating to a domain and double click on it.
In the domain properties dialog, specify the name of group(s) included in this domain and define for each of
them:
- The lowest available HSN (Min),
- The highest available HSN (Max),
- The value interval between the HSNs (Step),
- HSN(s) you do not want to use (Excluded). You can paste a list of HSNs; separator must be a blank
character,
- Additional HSN(s) you want to consider during allocation (Extra). You can paste a list of HSNs;
separator must be a blank character.

Note : A default domain called ALL HSNs exists; it contains the 64 HSNs.


You can also define the domain-group pairs in the Group of HSNs window.

To do so, proceed as follows :
After defining all the domains, close the Domains dialog,
Right click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Network settings : Groups : HSNs] command from the open menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
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In the Group of HSNs window, select a domain and associate one or several groups of HSNs to each of
them. Define the groups as explained above.


The defined domains can be now assigned to TRX types of each cell type in order then to be used as constraints in the
automatic allocation of HSNs.

VI.3.4 BSICS
VI.3.4.a BSICS : OVERVIEW
In GSM/GPRS/EDGE, the BSIC (Base Station Identity Code) colour code is associated with a BCCH in order for a
mobile to distinguish the base station to which both are assigned from the other surrounding ones. The BSIC is
composed of a NCC (Network Colour Code) and BCC (BTS Colour Code). NCC and BCC are integers between 0 and 7.

Hence, the BSIC is a result of a (NCC-BCC) couple and can be noted using two types of notation : octal or decimal.
A9155 supports both syntaxes and will make its allocation depending on the chosen format.

As available BSICs depend on the country and on the area; it is sometimes necessary to distinguish borders from other
zones. To model this, domain and group tables have been created.

A domain is a set of groups; it consists of one or several groups.
A group is a set of BSICs. A BSIC group belongs to one or several BSIC domains.

Therefore, a BSIC domain can contain more or less than 8 BSICs.

Manual or automatic BSIC planning is based on the BSIC domain assigned to transmitter.

Creation and management of BSIC domains and groups, like for many other objects in A9155 always stays easy and
clear.

VI.3.4.b DEFINING BSIC FORMAT
The BSIC colour code is the result of two digits : NCC (Network Colour Code) and BCC (BTS Colour Code). NCC and
BCC are integers between 0 and 7. 64 BSICs are available. They are distributed in 8 groups (one group per possible
NCC) of 8 BSICs. For each pair, it is possible to define a BSIC number, following either the octal or the decimal notation.


Decimal format
By considering NCC (Network Colour Code [0..7]) and BCC (Base station Colour Code [0..7]), it is possible to build a
BSIC number with the rule : NCCx8 + BCC. For example, the (3-2) pair leads to a BSIC value of 26.

Octal format
The octal rule is identical to the decimal rule, except the fact that 8 is replaced by 10 (NCCx10 + BCC). For the case
above, the (3-2) pair drives to a value of 32 in octal format.


To choose the BSIC format globally for a project, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder,
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Click the BSIC format tab,
Select either the Octal or Decimal option in the Display format scrolling box
Click OK or Apply to validate,


Notes:
When defined, the selected BSIC format will be taken into account by the BSIC manual allocation (i.e. only values
consistent when the selected choice are available in the BSIC scrolling box TRX tab of transmitter property dialog),
the AFP and consistency checking tool.
Take care about the definition of the BSIC domain, in order to be consistent with the chosen BSIC notation.
It is still possible to enter the BSIC in NCC-BCC format in the TRX tab of the transmitter dialog. Depending on the
BSIC format, A9155 will translate the NCC-BCC pair in BSIC number.
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The BSIC format has to be defined correctly prior to the Test mobile data imports.

VI.3.4.c MANAGING BSIC DOMAINS AND GROUPS
For an easier resource management, BSIC domain and group tables are available. You must assign a BSIC domain to
each transmitter.

To define domains and groups of BSICs, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Network settings : Domains : BSICs] command from the open menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
In the Domains dialog, you can enter a domain per line. To validate a domain creation, select another line.
Either
Select a domain in the table and click on the Properties button.
Or
Select the line relating to a domain and double click on it.
In the domain properties dialog, specify the name of group(s) that you want to associate to this domain and
define for each of them:
- The lowest available BSIC (Min),
- The highest available BSIC (Max),
- The value interval between the BSICs (Step),
- The BSIC(s) you do not want to use (Excluded). You can paste a list of BSICs; separator must be a
blank character,
- Additional BSIC (s) you want to consider during allocation (Extra). You can paste a list of BSICs;
separator must be a blank character.

Note : A default domain called ALL BSICs exists; it contains the 64 BSICs in 8 groups (NCC = 0, ..., 7).


You can also define the domain-group pairs in the Group of BSICs window.

To do so, proceed as follows :
After defining all the domains, close the Domains dialog,
Right click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Network settings : Groups : BSICs] command from the open menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
In the Group of BSICs window, select a domain and associate one or several groups of BSICs to each of
them. Define the groups as explained above.


The defined domains can be now assigned to each transmitter in order then to be used as constraints in the automatic
allocation of BSICs.

VI.4 MANAGING GSM/GPRS/EDGE RADIO DATA
VI.4.1 MANAGING GSM/GPRS/EDGE RADIO DATA : OVERVIEW
In A9155, radio network modelling and radio resource management has lead to the introduction of specific radio data for
GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects :
HCS layers
Timeslot configurations
TRX types and Cell types
Subcells
GPRS/EDGE Equipment

As many other objects in A9155, these parameters have been integrated to the tool with a will to make their
management and their use easy. By their use, it is possible to define subcells and TRXs of stations.

Thanks to this advanced description level, concentric cells are supported. In addition, modelling of several hopping
modes are supported : no hopping, Base Band Hopping and Synthesised Frequency Hopping. Some parameters such
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as MAL (Mobile Allocation List), HSN (Hopping Sequence Number), MAIO (Mobile Allocation Index Offset) are managed.

VI.4.2 HCS LAYERS
VI.4.2.a HIERARCHICAL CELLS : OVERVIEW
In A9155, It is possible to model hierarchical networks. Indeed, you may define several types of layers, a given priority
and a threshold speed on each of them, and then, assign one of them to transmitters.

Hierarchical cells are taken into account (including priority) in any prediction study (e.g. coverage by transmitter,
interfered zones and coverage by C/I levels) based on search for best server for coverage conditions. The threshold
speed is used for the traffic distribution as a filter criterion on the mobility. Only mobiles with a mobility lower than the
maximum speed will be considered eligible to reside on the layer.

VI.4.2.b MANAGING HCS LAYERS
In A9155, HCS layers are listed in a table form. Hence, their management (creation, deletion or modification) is identical
to standard management of data in tables.

To manage HCS layers that will be available to assign to transmitters, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder in order to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Network settings : HCS Layers...] command from the open menu,
Define and modify each HCS layer with its name, and its related priority, by editing cells.

The priority of each HCS layer is taken into account in coverage predictions, when considering, on each pixel, the server
which has the highest signal level on the highest priority layer.

You can also assign a threshold speed to each HCS layer. This speed threshold is used to distribute traffic over different
network layers using the mobility criterion. Mobiles with a mobility of less than the threshold speed for a layer can reside
on that layer.

Note : priority is organised in ascending order, i.e. 1 has higher priority than 0 (lowest priority).

VI.4.2.c ASSIGNING HCS LAYERS TO TRANSMITTERS
To assign a HCS layer among existing ones to a transmitter, proceed as follows :
Either :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it
Right click on the transmitter which you want to assign a HCS layer to,
or
Select on the map the transmitter which you want to assign a HCS layer to by left clicking on the
appropriate Tx symbol (arrow),
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Click on the General tab,
Choose the HCS layer to assign to the current transmitter in the associated scrolling menu,
Click OK or Apply to validate.


Notes :
Layer priority is automatically assigned to transmitter. This parameter maybe taken into account in
GSM/GPRS/EDGE coverage conditions in prediction studies,
The threshold speed is used for the traffic distribution as a filter criterion on the mobility. Only mobiles with a mobility
lower than the maximum speed will be considered eligible to reside on the layer.
Assigning HCS layers to transmitters is optional.

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VI.4.3 TIMESLOT CONFIGURATIONS
VI.4.3.a TIMESLOT CONFIGURATIONS : OVERVIEW
It is possible to define timeslot configurations that can be used in allocating different timeslot types to TRXs. A timeslot
configuration defines the distribution method for circuit, packet and shared timeslots on a TRX. Timeslot configurations
influence the network dimensioning results (evaluation of the number of TRXs required to fulfil the traffic demand) and
calculation of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs).

Note : Shared timeslots are used for both, circuit-switched and packet-switched calls, circuit-switched timeslots for
circuit-switched / GSM calls and packet-switched timeslots in case of packet-switched / EGPRS calls.

VI.4.3.b MANAGING TIMESLOT CONFIGURATIONS
To create and describe a timeslot configuration, proceed as follows :
Right click on the Transmitters folder,
In the context menu, choose Network settings and Timeslot configurations command,
In the List of timeslot configurations dialog, type the name of a new configuration in the table,
In the table, select the row including the configuration and then, either click on Properties or double click,
In the configuration property dialog, indicate the distribution of circuit, packet and shared timeslots for each
TRX.
A TRX per row is described in the table: enter the TRX number and specify the corresponding number of
circuit, packet and shared timeslots. When there is not enough number of TRXs, A9155 uses the timeslot
distribution assigned to the last TRX.
Click OK to validate the timeslot configuration description,
Click on Close.

Notes
Three default timeslot configurations (one per TRX type: BCCH, TCH and TCH_INNER) are available.
The fields defined at the subcell level "Number of packet (circuit or shared) timeslots" are used when no timeslot
configuration is defined
VI.4.4 CELL TYPES
VI.4.4.a CELL TYPES : OVERVIEW
In A9155, a cell type describes the types of TRXs that a cell can use and their parameters, which can be different.

Examples: Default cell types are available in the tool:
The cell type GSM900_N_NORMAL (a non concentric GSM900 normal cell) contains BCCH and TCH TRXs.
The cell type DUALBAND_CC_MINI (a concentric dual band cell) contains BCCH, TCH and TCH_INNER TRXs.

Cell types are linked to station templates or transmitters. Indeed, when defining a station template or transmitter
properties, you must specify the cell type which the station or transmitter refers to.

Creation and management of cell types, like for many other objects in A9155 always stays easy and clear.

VI.4.4.b TRX TYPES : DEFINITION
By default, three types of TRXs are modelled in A9155:
The BCCH TRX type: this TRX type is the BCCH carrier,
The TCH TRX type which is the default traffic carrier,
The TCH_INNER TRX type: this TRX type is the inner traffic carrier.

Note : you can define additional TRX types directly from the GSM_EGPRS.mdb document template.

The cell type definition must include a TRX type, which is the BCCH carrier (BCCH TRX type), and a TRX type, which is
the default traffic carrier (TCH TRX type). Only one TRX type carrying the broadcast and only one TRX type carrying the
default TCH are supported.

TRX types are the standard elements which compose cell types.
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VI.4.4.c MANAGING CELL TYPES
Cell types are linked to station templates or transmitters. Indeed, when defining a station template or transmitter
properties, you must specify the cell type which the station or transmitter refers to.

Cell type properties can be accessed in two ways, either from a Cell type table, either from a Cell type dialog.

To open the cell type dialog, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder in order to get the related context menu,
Choose the Properties option from the open menu,
Click on the Cell types tab,
Use the What's this help to get description about available fields in the open window,
Either
Select the cell type you want to manage,
Click the modify button to open the associated dialog,
Or,
Double click the cell type you want to manage.
Click the General tab,
Define the cell type parameters,
Click OK to validate your choice,
Click again OK to close the transmitters properties dialog box.


Notes :
Addition, deletion of cell types are made using respectively the and buttons,
The button helps you to manage the content of the cell type table (See below).


To open the cell type table, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder in order to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Network settings : Cell types...] command from the open menu,
Either
Select the cell type you want to manage,
Click the modify button to open the associated dialog,
Or,
Double click the cell type you want to manage.
Define the parameters of each cell type.


Notes :
The dialog of each cell type (see above) is reachable by either double clicking the related record in the table, or by
using the button once a record is selected,
The button helps you to manage the content of the cell type table.
An Other Properties tab is available when some user defined fields have been added to the Cell type table.

VI.4.4.d CELL TYPE PARAMETERS
In the cell type properties window, you can rename it, enter the types of TRXs (BCCH, TCH, TCH_INNER) used by this
cell type and specify for each of them:

The assigned frequency domain,
Only channels belonging to this frequency domain will be allocated to TRXs during automatic or manual frequency
planning.

Maximum MAL (Mobile Allocation List) length,
This is the maximum size of the MAL. In other words, it corresponds to the maximum number of channels allocated to
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TRXs of a subcell during automatic frequency planning in case SFH (Synthesized Frequency Hopping) or BBH (Base
Band Hopping) is supported and allocation mode is free.

Allocation mode,
It refers to the allocation strategy used during manual or automatic frequency planning. Two allocation strategies are
offered:
- Free allocation: all the channels of the frequency domain can be assigned to TRXs.
- Grouped allocation: Only channels belonging to a same group of the frequency domain can be chosen.

Min C/I,
This is a quality condition; you can enter specific quality requirements for each TRX type. It can be used as reference
value in interference studies and in AFP.

% max interference,
This is the maximum percentage of interfered area or interfered traffic that A9155 must not exceed during automatic
frequency planning.

Default DL power offset,
This is a reduction of power relative to the transmitter power. It enables you to model power control of TCH TRXs and
concentric cells (TCH_INNER TRXs that transmit a power lower than BCCH TRX and TCH TRXs).

Default hopping mode,
Here, you can specify if frequency hopping technology is supported for this TRX type. If frequency hopping is supported,
choose either the Base Band Hopping mode (BBH), or the Synthesized Hopping mode (SFH). Else, select Non Hopping.

Default reception threshold,
This is the reception condition for this TRX type. You can enter a specific reception condition for each TRX type.

AFP weight,
This is a cost factor used to increase or decrease the importance of a TRX type during automatic frequency planning.
The cost factor must be a positive real. The higher the AFP weight is, the higher the constraint on the TRX type is.

HSN domain,
Only HSNs belonging to this HSN domain will be allocated to subcells during automatic or manual frequency planning.
Allocation of HSN is performed in case of BBH or SFH.

Freeze HSN,
Selecting this option enables you to keep the current HSN allocation of subcells related to this TRX type when starting a
new AFP session.

DTX support (default),
Here, you can specify if DTX (Discontinuous Transmission) technology is supported for this TRX type.

Number of circuit TS (default),
This is the number of time slots per TRX dedicated to circuit traffic (voice) (
N
circuit
TS
).

Number of packet TS (default),
This is the number of time slots per TRX supporting packet traffic (
N
packet
TS
).

Number of composite TS (default),
This is the number of time slots per TRX supporting both voice and packet traffic (
N
composite
TS
).

Note : These time slots are exclusively dedicated to traffic channels; they are not used for BCCH and CCCH (Control
Common Channels).

In case of BCCH TRX type, at least one time slot is used for BCCH. So, we have:

1 + +
F N N N ng multiplexi
composite
TS
packet
TS
circuit
TS



In case of TCH or TCH_INNER TRX types, we have:

F N N N ng multiplexi
composite
TS
packet
TS
circuit
TS
= + +


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F ng multiplexi
is the multiplexing factor of the frequency band, which the frequency domain assigned to this TRX type belongs
to.

The number of requested TRXs for voice traffic depends on these values. In case of GPRS/EDGE stations, A9155
considers only time slots available for voice traffic (
N N
composite
TS
circuit
TS
+
). If the GPRS/EDGE option is not selected (GSM
station), A9155 considers all the time slots (
N N N
composite
TS
packet
TS
circuit
TS
+ +
).

Important:
The fields Number of shared timeslots per TRX, Number of circuit timeslots per TRX and Number of packet timeslots
per TRX are available in the cell type description but are used in calculations only if no timeslot configuration is defined
(described below).

Default hysteresis,
This parameter is not used in this A9155 version.
This is a default value of a subcell specific parameter. It denotes the handover hysteresis margin (when going below min
reception level). It concerns intra-cell handovers only.

Priority,
This parameter is not used in this A9155 version.
If a probe mobile can be served by more than one subcell of a transmitter, the subcell that has a higher service priority
will serve it.

Half-rate traffic ratio,
It is the percentage of Half-Rate voice traffic in the subcell. This parameter is taken into account to calculate the required
number of timeslots to satisfy the voice traffic demand.

Traffic overflow target,
This parameter is used during the traffic analysis to distribute the traffic between subcells and layers. For a given
subcell, this parameter is the percentage of candidate traffic considered to overflow to another subcell with a lower
priority. It impacts the traffic capture between Inner and Outer subcells, as well as between micro and macro layers. In
other words, it is a kind of anticipation of the percentage of traffic rejected from higher priority subcells/layers to lower
ones.

Note : If the traffic overflow target is set to a value lower than the Grade of Service, it implies that the traffic rejected
(according to the dimensioning model, Erlang B or Erlang C) will be considered lost and will not overflow to other
subcells.

Timeslot configuration name,
Name of the timeslot configuration describing the distribution of circuit, packet and shared timeslots on TRXs of a
subcell.

When a cell type is assigned to a transmitter, its parameters are used to initialise the properties of the transmitter
subcells. If you modify the values in the TRX types of the cell types afterwards, these are not updated automatically in
the subcells which were already set with the previous values.

VI.4.4.e EXAMPLES OF CELL TYPES
Two examples of cell types provided by default in A9155 are explained below :

Normal cell type
A normal cell type consists of two TRX types:
- BCCH TRX type
- TCH TRX type

The table below described parameters to be specified for any selected hopping mode.

Characteristics Used in A9155 Hopping mode
Non
hopping
BBH SFH
Frequency domain Automatic or manual frequency
planning
x x x
Maximum MAL (Mobile Allocation List)
length
Automatic frequency planning Not used x x
Allocation mode Automatic or manual frequency
planning
x x x
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Min C/I Interference studies,
Automatic frequency planning
x x x
% max interference Automatic frequency planning x x x
Default DL power offset Signal level studies = 0 for
BCCH
= 0 for TCH
= 0 for BCCH
= 0 for TCH
= 0 for BCCH
= 0 for TCH
Default hopping mode Interference studies Non
Hopping
Base Band
Hopping
Synthesized
Hopping
Default reception threshold Signal level studies x x x
AFP weight Automatic frequency planning x x x
HSN domain Automatic frequency planning Not used x x
Freeze HSN Automatic frequency planning x x x
DTX support (default) Automatic frequency planning,
Interference studies
x x x
Number of composite TS (default) Number of requested TRXs,
GPRS-like studies
x x x
Number of packet TS (default) Number of requested TRXs,
GPRS-like studies
x x x
Number of circuit TS (default) Number of requested TRXs,
GPRS-like studies
x x x
Default hysteresis Not used Not used Not used Not used
Priority Not used Not used Not used Not used
Half-rate traffic ratio Traffic analysis x x x
Target rate of traffic overflow Traffic analysis x x x
Timeslot configuration Dimensioning x x x


Concentric cell type
A concentric cell type consists of three TRX types:
- BCCH TRX type
- TCH TRX type
- TCH_INNER

The table below described parameters to be specified for any selected hopping mode.

Characteristics Used in A9155 Hopping mode
Non hopping BBH SFH
Frequency domain Automatic or manual frequency
planning
x x x
Maximum MAL (Mobile Allocation
List) length
Automatic frequency planning Not used
x
x
Allocation mode Automatic or manual frequency
planning
x x x
Min C/I Interference studies,
Automatic frequency planning
x x x
% max interference Automatic frequency planning x x x
Default DL power offset
Signal level studies
= 0 for BCCH
=> 0 for TCH
<> 0 for
TCH_INNER
= 0 for BCCH
=> 0 for TCH
<> 0 for
TCH_INNER
= 0 for BCCH
=> 0 for TCH
<> 0 for
TCH_INNER
Default hopping mode Interference studies Non Hopping Base Band
Hopping
Synthesized
Hopping
Default reception threshold Signal level studies x x x
AFP weight Automatic frequency planning x x x
HSN domain Automatic frequency planning Not used x x
Freeze HSN Automatic frequency planning x x x
DTX support (default) Automatic frequency planning,
Interference studies
x x x
Number of composite TS (default) Number of requested TRXs,
GPRS-like studies
x x x
Number of packet TS (default) Number of requested TRXs,
GPRS-like studies
x x x
Number of circuit TS (default) Number of requested TRXs,
GPRS-like studies
x x x
Default hysteresis Not used Not used Not used Not used
Priority Not used Not used Not used Not used
Half-rate traffic ratio Traffic analysis x x x
Target rate of traffic overflow Traffic analysis x x x
Timeslot configuration Dimensioning x x x

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VI.4.4.f ASSIGNING CELL TYPES TO TRANSMITTERS
A cell type consists in TRX types (BCCH, TCH or TCH inner). Assigning a cell type to a transmitter enables you to define
its subcells (TRX type properties become subcell properties). A subcell corresponds to the transmitter-TRX type pair.

To assign a cell type to a transmitter, proceed as follows :
Either :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
Right click on the transmitter you want to manage,
or
Select on the map the transmitter you want to manage by left clicking on the appropriate Tx symbol
(arrow),
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Click on the TRXs tab of the current dialog,
Use the What's this help to get description about the open dialog window,
Click on the scrolling menu and choose a cell type in the list,
Click OK to close the dialog


Notes :
If you modify the settings of a Cell type which is already assigned to a transmitter, A9155 does not update transmitter
subcell characteristics automatically.
Once selected, cell type property dialog can be open by clicking on the button,
A9155 indicates the main frequency band of the transmitter. This is the frequency band, which the frequency domain
assigned to BCCH TRX type belongs to. A9155 takes into account this frequency band in path loss matrix evaluation.

VI.4.5 SUBCELLS
VI.4.5.a MANAGING SUBCELLS IN TRANSMITTERS
The subcells of transmitter and their settings are defined in this part. A subcell is a group of TRXs sharing the same radio
characteristics, the same quality (C/I) requirements, and common settings. A subcell is defined by the transmitter-TRX
type pair.

Subcells of transmitter and their settings depend on the cell type selected for the transmitter. The cell type predefines the
TRX type of each subcell since the properties of each TRX type initialise the ones of each subcell. The default values
reported for subcells can be modified without changing reference for the cell type. On the other hand, A9155 updates
subcell characteristics when selecting another cell type.

Except their TRX type (coming from the selected cell type), all subcell properties are editable and can be modified in the
subcell part of any transmitter property.

To access the subcell table from the transmitter properties, proceed as follows :
Either :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
Right click on the transmitter you want to manage,
or
Select on the map the transmitter you want to manage by left clicking on the appropriate Tx symbol
(arrow),
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Click on the TRXs tab of the current dialog,
Use the What's this help to get description about the open dialog window,
Define the Subcell settings in the subcell part,
Click OK to close the dialog.

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VI.4.5.b DISPLAYING THE SUBCELL LIST
Even if subcells are linked to transmitters, it is possible to display all existing subcells of a network in an editable form.

To open the subcell general table, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Subcells : Subcell list] command from the open menu,
Define the Subcell settings.


The button helps you to manage the content of the subcell table.
VI.4.5.c SUBCELL PROPERTY DETAILS

Whatever is the way to reach subcell properties (from transmitter properties or from the subcell table), for any of them,
A9155 details:

Requested TRXs
This is the number of TRXs requested for a subcell. In case of BCCH TRX type, the number of requested TRXs is 1 by
default. In case of TCH or TCH_INNER TRX type, this is a network dimensioning result, which depends on the traffic
density in the subcell and on the blocked call percentage.

Traffic load,
It indicates the usage rate of TRXs; its value is between 0 and 1. This parameter may be, either user-defined, or
automatically reported after calculating the number of requested TRXs. In this case, traffic load (
traffic
L
) is a dimensioning
result; this is a global traffic load for all the subcells of each transmitter. We have:

TRX
traffic
N
Traffic
L =

Traffic
is the traffic request (Erlang) on the transmitter coverage area,
TRX
N
is the total number of TRXs requested by a transmitter.

It is taken into account in interference calculation and automatic frequency planning.

HSN
This is the hopping sequence number of subcell. All the TRXs of the subcell have the same HSN. HSN can be manually
entered or automatically allocated. Only HSN belonging to the HSN domain assigned to this TRX type (in the selected
cell type property dialog) can be allocated. This parameter is taken into account in interference calculation in case of
SFH or BBH.

Synchronisation
Type the same string of character in order for the TRXs of several subcells are synchronized during frequency hopping.
By default, synchronization is performed at the site level; TRXs of subcells on a same site are synchronized. You may
also define synchronization at the subcell level (different values for each subcell) or group of transmitters level (unique
value for subcells of this group).

Notes
1. Any string of character can be entered.
2. This field is case sensitive.

This parameter is taken into account in interference calculation in case of frequency hopping (BBH or SFH).

DL power offset
This is a reduction of power relative to the transmitter power. Entering 3 dB means that the subcell power will be 3 dB
lower than the transmitter power defined in the Transmitter tab.

Hopping mode
If frequency hopping is supported, choose either the Base Band Hopping mode (BBH), or the Synthesized Hopping
mode (SFH). Else, select Non Hopping.

Reception threshold
This is the reception condition for the subcell. This value can be used as reference value in signal level coverage
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predictions (lowest received signal level in order for receiver to be covered by the subcell).

Hysteresis
This parameter is not used in this A9155 version.

DTX supported
Select this option if DTX (Discontinuous Transmission) technology is supported for the subcell.

Number of circuit TS (default)
This is the number of time slots per TRX dedicated to circuit traffic (voice) (
N
circuit
TS
).

Number of packet TS (default)
This is the number of time slots per TRX supporting packet traffic (
N
packet
TS
).

Number of composite TS (default)
This is the number of time slots per TRX supporting both voice and packet traffic (
N
composite
TS
).

Note : These time slots are exclusively dedicated to traffic channels; they are not used for BCCH and CCCH (Control
Common Channels).

In case of BCCH TRX type, at least one time slot is used for BCCH. So, we have:
1 + +
F N N N ng multiplexi
composite
TS
packet
TS
circuit
TS


In case of TCH or TCH_INNER TRX types, we have:
F N N N ng multiplexi
composite
TS
packet
TS
circuit
TS
= + +


F ng multiplexi
is the multiplexing factor of the frequency band, which the frequency domain assigned to this TRX type belongs
to.

The number of requested TRXs for voice traffic depends on these values. In case of GPRS/EDGE stations, A9155
considers only time slots available for voice traffic (
N N
composite
TS
circuit
TS
+
). If the GPRS/EDGE option is not selected (GSM
station), A9155 considers all the time slots (
N N N
composite
TS
packet
TS
circuit
TS
+ +
).

Important:
The fields Number of shared timeslots per TRX, Number of circuit timeslots per TRX and Number of packet timeslots
per TRX are available in the cell type description but are used in calculations only if no timeslot configuration is defined
(described below).

Excluded
When defining frequency domains, you have to choose the range of channels, the step, exceptional and excluded
channels. Excluded channels are channels that are in the defined range that you do not want to make allocatable.
Excluded channels can be set first in the frequency domain definition. In addition, you can also define less constraining
domains (with less excluded channels) and define excluded channels at the subcell level. All subcells related to this
domain must not have access to these excluded channels for the allocation.

Notes:
1. Channels must be separated by a blank character.
2. When defined, the excluded channels (per subcell) will be taken into account by the frequency manual allocation (i.e.
only consistent values are available in the TRX channel scrolling box TRX tab of transmitter property dialog), the AFP
and consistency checking tool.
3a. In Non Hopping mode or Base Band Hopping, in Free or Group Constrained strategy, excluded channels are not
visible in their related domains. So, subcells are allocated with consistency within their defined domain.
3b. In Synthesized Frequency Hopping, in Free strategy, excluded channels are not visible any more in their related
domains.
3c. In Synthesized Frequency Hopping, in Group Constrained strategy, since the allocation is made per exact group, as
soon as a group has a defined excluded channel, the complete group is excluded from the domain. The allocation (and
what is visible in frequencies scrolling boxes) is then possible only over groups with initially no excluded channel.
These 3 rules are checked by the consistency checking tool.

Assigned frequency domain,
Only channels belonging to this frequency domain will be allocated to TRXs during automatic or manual frequency
planning.
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Maximum MAL (Mobile Allocation List) length,
This is the maximum size of the MAL. In other words, it corresponds to the maximum number of channels allocated to
TRXs of a subcell during automatic frequency planning in case SFH (Synthesized Frequency Hopping) or BBH (Base
Band Hopping) is supported and allocation mode is free.

Allocation mode,
It refers to the allocation strategy used during manual or automatic frequency planning. Two allocation strategies are
offered:
- Free allocation: all the channels of the frequency domain can be assigned to TRXs.
- Grouped allocation: Only channels belonging to a same group of the frequency domain can be chosen.

Min C/I,
This is a quality condition; you can enter specific quality requirements for each subcell. It can be used as reference value
in interference studies.

% max interference,
This is the maximum percentage of interfered area or traffic (defined during the interference histogram determination)
that A9155 must not exceed during automatic frequency planning.

AFP weight,
This is a cost factor used to increase or decrease the importance of a subcell during automatic frequency planning. The
cost factor must be a positive real. The higher the AFP weight the greater the constraint on the subcell.

HSN domain,
Only HSNs belonging to this HSN domain can be allocated to subcells during manual frequency planning. Allocation of
HSN must be performed in case of SFH or BBH.

Freeze HSN,
Selecting this option enables you to keep the current HSN allocation of subcells related to this TRX type when running a
new AFP.

Half-rate traffic ratio,
It is the percentage of Half-Rate voice traffic in the subcell. This parameter is taken into account in the traffic analysis and
to calculate the required number of timeslots to match the voice traffic demand.

Traffic overflow target,
This parameter is used during the traffic analysis to distribute the traffic between subcells and layers. For a given
subcell, it is the percentage of candidate traffic considered to overflow to another subcell with a lower priority. It impacts
the traffic capture between Inner and Outer subcells, as well as between micro and macro layers. In other words, it is a
kind of anticipation of the percentage of traffic rejected by higher priority subcells/layers to lower ones.

Important:
The traffic overflow target and the Half-Rate traffic ratio must be the same for BCCH and TCH subcells. If you enter
different values for BCCH and TCH subcells, A9155 will take the BCCH subcell values.

Timeslot configuration name,
Name of the timeslot configuration describing the distribution of circuit, packet and shared timeslots on TRXs of a
subcell.

Required number of shared timeslots,
This is the number of shared timeslots required for all the TRXs of a subcell.

Required number of circuit timeslots,
This is the number of circuit switched timeslots required for all the TRXs of a subcell.

Required number of packet timeslots,
This is the number of packet switched timeslots required for all the TRXs of a subcell.

Effective rate of traffic overflow,
This is the percentage of traffic overflowing from a subcell.

Note : The last four fields contain results from the dimensioning process.

With this data model, all data contained in cell types become default ones, i.e. they are used to initialise subcell
properties when creating a transmitter; they can be modified in the transmitter property dialog without modifying the
default values defined for the cell type, which the transmitter refers to. If you modify one of these data in cell types,
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transmitters already dealing with these cell types will not have their default parameters modified.

VI.4.6 GPRS/EDGE EQUIPMENT
VI.4.6.a CREATING A GPRS/EDGE EQUIPMENT
A folder called GPRS/EDGE equipment is available in the Explorer window Data tab. It enables you to manage specific
equipment for GPRS and EDGE networks. Thresholds associated with coding schemes are defined in these equipment.
Any transmitter dealing with GPRS or EDGE technology have to be assigned an existing piece of equipment.


To create a new GPRS/EDGE equipment, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Equipment : GPRS/EDGE Equipment] command from the open menu,
Fill the empty table line in order to create the new piece of equipment,
Click the button to open the related complete dialog,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Set the GPRS/EDGE equipment settings,
Click OK or Apply to achieve the creation,


Notes :
The button helps you to manage content of the GPRS/EDGE Equipment table.
An Other Properties tab is available if some user defined fields have been added to the GPRS/EDGE Equipment
table.

VI.4.6.b MANAGING GPRS/EDGE EQUIPMENT PROPERTIES
In A9155, it is possible to modify properties (name, number of coding schemes, thresholds and associated graphs) of
any existing equipment. These equipment have to be defined for each transmitter taking part in specific GPRS/EDGE
coverage predictions (Coding schemes and Max rate per timeslot). The user can define the technology supported by this
equipment (whether GPRS or EGPRS).


To manage an GPRS/EDGE equipment, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Equipment : GPRS/EDGE Equipment] command from the open menu,
The associated Data table opens,
Define the parameters of each GPRS/EDGE Equipment.


Notes :
The dialog of each GPRS/EDGE Equipment is reachable either by double clicking the related record in the table, or
by using the button once a record is selected,
The button helps you to manage content of the GPRS/EDGE Equipment table.
An Other Properties tab is available if some user defined fields have been added to the GPRS/EDGE Equipment
table.

VI.4.6.c SETTING CODING SCHEMES PARAMETERS
In GPRS or EDGE technology, the coding scheme is a coding algorithm used to introduce more or less redundancy (rate
multiplier) and improve packet transmission. Four and nine coding schemes are respectively available for GPRS and
EDGE networks. The more important the coding scheme is, the less redundancy there is. Therefore, in GPRS networks,
using a coding scheme 4 means that there will be no redundancy.


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To adjust the parameters associated with coding schemes from any equipment, proceed as follow :
Access the property dialog of the equipment you want to adjust the associated coding schemes,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Click on the General tab to check or modify, for the current equipment :
The name and/or the maximum number of coding schemes available for the current equipment,
If the equipment supports only GPRS or both GPRS and EDGE.
Click on the Thresholds tab to define, for each coding scheme :
Power threshold and Signal noise ratio threshold : They are respectively the minimum power (C) and
the minimum signal noise ratio (C/I) required at the receiver in order for the coding scheme to be
used,
Max rate (kbps): It is the maximum rate (kbps) obtained when there is no data transmission error,
Rates depending on C (kbps) and rates depending on C/I (kbps): These columns contain values
used to represent Rate=f(C ) and Rate=f(C/I) graphs.
8PSK modulation used or not (EDGE only).
Click OK or Apply to validate.


The and buttons allows to display graphs associated with the currently selected coding
scheme.

Note : In the case of GPRS/EDGE, two sets of charts (C and C/I) can be given : one is related to the GPRS mode and
another one related to the EDGE mode. If the option Edge is not checked, A9155 considers that the charts (C and C/I)
are related to the GPRS mode, else it uses them as charts related to the EDGE mode.

VI.4.6.d DISPLAYING RATE GRAPHS
In GPRS/EDGE technology, coding schemes are linked with data transmission redundancy level. The least redundancy
deals with riskier data transmissions with potentially higher transmission rates. The most redundancy deals with safer
data transmissions but with lower rates. Coding schemes are hence defined in order to obtain the best compromise
between enough transmission speed and safety of data packet transmission. That is why each coding scheme has an
optimum working range depending on either C or C/I values. This can be pointed out through graphs attached with the
definition of each coding scheme linked to GPRS/EDGE equipment.


To display the rate graph as function of C or C/I values for a given coding scheme, proceed as follows :
Access properties dialog box of the equipment you want to adjust the associated coding schemes,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Click on the Thresholds tab,
Either,
Click on the C or C/I cell you want to display the associated rate graph,
Or,
Select the line of the coding scheme you want to display a rate graph,
Click either the or button to open the graph (as function respectively of
C or C/I) dialog window,
The Rate graph window opens. It consists of a table where you can define C (or C/I) and rate values
(copying and pasting a set of values, adding and deleting values is possible) and a part where the graph is
displayed,
Click OK or close the window.


Note : these graphs show the rate evolution depending on radio conditions (C and C/I) by considering block error rates.
Therefore, from these graphs, you can choose a coding scheme suitable to radio conditions.

VI.4.6.e SETTING GPRS/EDGE TRANSMITTERS
In A9155, transmitters part of network dealing either with GPRS or EDGE can be or not considered as GPRS/EDGE
sectors by default. If not, they are taken as classical GSM stations.


To assign GPRS/EDGE properties to any transmitter, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Either,
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Double click the Transmitters folder to open the associated table,
Check the boxes associated with such transmitters in the GPRS/EDGE column,
Assign the associated GPRS/EDGE to cells,
Or
Access the properties dialog box of the transmitter you want to define as an GPRS/EDGE station,
Click on the GPRS/EDGE tab,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the current window,
Check the GPRS/EDGE Station box and complete the GPRS/EDGE equipment field,
Click OK or Apply to validate.


Notes :
When choosing the equipment, all pieces of equipment previously described in the GPRS/EDGE equipment folder
are available in the GPRS/EDGE equipment scrolling menu. If none is chosen, A9155 does not consider the
associated transmitter in the GPRS/EDGE specific studies,
The number of coding schemes limits the number of coding schemes of the associated equipment that the E/GPRS
station can use.
Example: Let a GPRS station use an equipment with four coding schemes. The number of supported coding schemes
has been set to 2. It means that the station will use only the first two coding schemes (1 and 2).
The average 8PSK Power Backoff is the average power reduction for E/GPRS transmitters due to 8PSK modulation
in EDGE.
All these inputs are also available in the station template description.

VI.5 GSM/GPRS/EDGE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
VI.5.1 GSM/GPRS/EDGE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT : OVERVIEW
The A9155 GSM/GPRS/EDGE traffic model is flexible, versatile and comprehensive. This traffic model introduces the
notion of service in the GSM/GPRS/EDGE documents allowing the user to completely model the multi-service 2G/2.5G
network traffic. The salient parameters in this regard are the settings of a GSM/GPRS/EDGE parameters folder
containing :
Services,
Terminal types,
Mobility types,
User profiles,
Environment classes

All of these items are classified into subfolders. In addition to these, the folder also contains a GPRS dimensioning model
subfolder.

Finally, A9155 provides the possibility to create various types of traffic maps : per environment, per user profile (vector),
per user density, or by using live traffic data.

Furthermore, the traffic analysis feature allows the user to manipulate the created traffic maps in order to use them in
prediction studies and in the dimensioning procedure.

A user profile can be considered to be the principal data for the traffic maps. It describes the behaviour of a certain type
of users in terms of terminal type, service and mobility. This data can then be used to generate traffic environments that
contain a certain type of users with a certain density. Traffic maps can then be based on environments, user profiles,
throughput per sector (Live traffic) and densities.

VI.5.2 GSM/GPRS/EDGE MULTI-SERVICE TRAFFIC DATA
VI.5.2.a GSM/GPRS/EDGE SERVICES
VI.5.2.a.i Creating GSM/GPRS/EDGE services
The traffic model allows the user to define not only voice but also data services in GSM/GPRS/EDGE documents.
Services are divided into two categories: circuit switched and packet switched. Currently, the circuit switched service
includes only GSM voice services that use a single timeslot.
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To create a service, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by left clicking on the button,
Right click on the Services folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on New,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Click the available tabs to set the parameters of the created service,
Validate by clicking on OK.

VI.5.2.a.ii Setting GSM/GPRS/EDGE service parameters
Similar to the other A9155 object folders, GSM/GPRS/EDGE services are easily manageable. Creation steps and display
management are standard.

To manage the GSM/EGPRS services parameters, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by left clicking on the button,
Expand the Services folder by left clicking on the button,
Either,
Right click on the service of which you want to manage the properties to open the associated context
menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or,
Double click on the service of which you want to manage the properties,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Click the available tabs to adjust the parameters of the current service,
Validate by clicking on OK.


- For a circuit switched service the user can specify the maximum blocking rate (stated in term of Erlang B or C).

- For each packet switched service the user can enter, apart from a maximum permissible blocking rate, a maximum
permissible delay, a minimum required throughput with a percentage of coverage that should at least be provided with
this throughput, and minimum/maximum number of timeslots allowed to be multiplexed per user for that particular
service.

- The maximum blocking rate defines the call blocking or call queuing rate for the GSM voice services and the probability
of delayed packet arrivals for EGPRS data services.

- The field minimum throughput per user defines the lower threshold on the user throughput and is one of the inputs for
the dimensioning process for EGPRS networks. The dimensioning takes into account the availability percentage of this
minimum throughput as well. These two criteria tell A9155 dimensioning engine that the defined minimum user
throughput should be available for at least that percentage of cell coverage.

- Maximum allowable delay for a certain type of service is another input to the dimensioning process. This is the user
level delay perceived accessing a given service, i.e. web, ftp, e-mail, etc.

- The user can also define the minimum number of timeslots reserved for packet communication to ensure a minimum
quality level. The maximum can be specified to limit the allocation at the dimensioning within a practical/feasible range
for the network operator.

VI.5.2.a.iii Managing globally GSM/GPRS/EDGE services
A9155 allows the user to simultaneously display all topics of one type (services, mobility, terminal type, user profiles,
environment) in a table window.


To open the services table, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by left clicking on the button,
Either,
Right click on the Services folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Open,
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Or,
Double click on the Services folder,
The services table opens.
Click on to close the table.


The services table works exactly like the other tables. Its cells are editable, sorting and filtering tools, and copy/paste
functions are available.

Notes :
The advanced grouping/filtering/sorting feature may be used on the services from the context menu associated with
the Services folder. From the properties dialog box, you may also manage the contents of the services table. Use the
What's this help to get description about the fields available in the different windows.
When the Services table is displayed and active, it is possible to open the property dialog window of any service by
simply double clicking on any cell in the associated line, or on the associated arrow at left.

VI.5.2.b GSM/GPRS/EDGE MOBILITY TYPES
VI.5.2.b.i Creating a GSM/GPRS/EDGE mobility type
With the knowledge of user mobility, i.e. speed, A9155 can analyse multi-layer traffic. In a multi-layer GSM/GPRS/EDGE
network, a user speed is one of the main criteria that is taken into account at the moment of connection establishment
when there are more than 1 possible servers available. A fast moving mobile is usually allocated a channel from the
macro/umbrella layer rather than from the micro layer to minimize signalling and hence computational load on the
system.

To create a GSM/GPRS/EDGE mobility type, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by left clicking on the button,
Right click on the Mobility type folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on New,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Set the parameters of the currently created mobility,
Validate by clicking on OK.

Note : A maximum speed for each HCS (Hierarchical Cell Structure) layer is defined in the Network settings that allows
each HCS layer to capture a certain type of traffic within defined mobility limitations.

VI.5.2.b.ii Setting a GSM/GPRS/EDGE mobility type
Like for the other A9155 object folders, GSM/GPRS/EDGE mobility types are easily manageable. Creation steps and the
display management are standard.

To manage the mobility types parameters, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by left clicking on the button,
Expand the Mobility type folder by left clicking on the button,
Either,
Right click on the mobility of which you want to manage the properties to open the associated
context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or,
Double click on the mobility of which you want to manage the properties,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Set the parameters of the current mobility,
Validate by clicking on OK.


Note : When the Mobility type table is displayed and active, it is possible to open the property dialog window of any
mobility by simply double clicking on any cell in the associated line, or on the associated arrow at left.

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VI.5.2.b.iii Managing globally GSM/GPRS/EDGE mobility types
A9155 allows the user to simultaneously display all topics of one type (services, mobility, terminal type, user profiles,
environment) in a table window.


To open the mobility types table, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by left clicking on the button,
Either,
Right click on the Mobility types folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Open,
Or,
Double click on the Mobility types folder,
The mobility types table opens.
Click on to close the table.


The mobility types table works exactly like the other tables. Its cells are editable, sorting and filtering tools, and
copy/paste functions are available.

Notes :
The advanced grouping/filtering/sorting feature may be used on the services from the context menu associated with
the mobility types folder. From the properties dialog box, you may also manage the contents of the mobility types
table. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the different windows.
When the Mobility type table is displayed and active, it is possible to open the property dialog window of any mobility
by simply double clicking on any cell in the associated line, or on the associated arrow at left.

VI.5.2.c GSM/GPRS/EDGE TERMINALS
VI.5.2.c.i Creating a GSM/GPRS/EDGE terminal
A terminal defines the capabilities of a mobile terminal in terms of the number of timeslots it can multiplex in downlink (if it
is defined as GPRS/EDGE compatible), the frequency bands, and the technology it is compatible with.

During traffic analysis (capture), packet switched service can only work with GPRS or GPRS/EDGE technology
compatible mobile terminals. On the other hand, circuit switched service can be associated to GSM technology
compatible mobile terminals as well as GPRS and GPRS/EDGE technology compatible mobile terminals. Therefore,
A9155 will distribute:

Circuit switched service users in the service areas of GSM and GPRS/EDGE stations,
Packet switched service users with GPRS technology compatible mobile terminals in the service areas of
GPRS/EDGE stations with GPRS/EDGE equipments supporting either only GPRS, or both GPRS and EDGE
technologies,
Packet switched service users with GPRS/EDGE technology compatible mobile terminals in the service areas of
GPRS/EDGE stations with GPRS/EDGE equipments supporting both GPRS and EDGE technologies.

To create a GSM/GPRS/EDGE terminal, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by left clicking on the button,
Right click on the Terminals folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on New,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Set the parameters of the currently created terminal,
Specify the compliant technology type(s) with the current terminal
Since a GPRS or GPRS/EDGE technology compatible mobile terminal can consume/communicate
over multiple timeslots simultaneously, in that case indicate the number of downlink timeslots.
Specify the frequency band(s) the mobile terminal is compatible with. The definition of compatible
frequency bands again allows the software to allocate the mobile to a certain network layer in the
multilayer scenario with multiple bands (GSM900 and DCS1800 layers, for example).
Validate by clicking on OK.



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VI.5.2.c.ii Setting GSM/GPRS/EDGE terminal parameters
Like for the other A9155 object folders, GSM/GPRS/EDGE terminals are easily manageable. Creation steps and the
display management are standard.

To manage the terminal parameters, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by left clicking on the button,
Expand the Terminals folder by left clicking on the button,
Either,
Right click on the terminal of which you want to manage the properties to open the associated
context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or,
Double click on the terminal of which you want to manage the properties,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Set the parameters of the current terminal,
Validate by clicking on OK.


Note : When the Terminal table is displayed and active, it is possible to open the property dialog window of any terminal
by simply double clicking on any cell in the associated line, or on the associated arrow at left.

VI.5.2.c.iii Managing globally GSM/GPRS/EDGE terminals
A9155 allows the user to simultaneously display all topics of one type (services, mobility, terminal, user profiles,
environment) in a table window.


To open the terminals table, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by left clicking on the button,
Either,
Right click on the Terminals folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Open,
Or,
Double click on the Terminals folder,
The terminals table opens.
Click on to close the table.


The terminals table works exactly like the other tables. Its cells are editable, sorting and filtering tools, and copy/paste
functions are available.

Notes :
The grouping/filtering/sorting advanced feature may be used on the services from the context menu associated with
the Terminals folder. From the properties dialog box, you may also manage the contents of the terminals table. Use
the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the different windows.
When the Terminal table is displayed and active, it is possible to open the property dialog window of any terminal by
simply double clicking on any cell in the associated line, or on the associated arrow at left.

VI.5.2.d GSM/GPRS/EDGE USER PROFILES
VI.5.2.d.i Creating a GSM/GPRS/EDGE user profile
User profiles model the behaviour of the different subscriber categories. Each user profile is constituted by a list of
services and their associated usage parameters such as used terminal, call or session frequency (calls/hour) and
duration or data volume to be transferred.

Parameters for circuit switched services are:
Average number of calls per hour,
Average duration of a call in seconds,
Used terminal (equipment used for the service (from the Terminals table)).
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Parameters for packet switched services are:
Average number of sessions per hour,
Volume in Kbytes which is transferred on the downlink during a session,
Used terminal (equipment used for the service (from the Terminals table)).

These parameters are used in traffic distribution to assign a certain traffic type to a certain layer and station that can
manage the said traffic.

Notes :
For circuit switched services, entering a one-hour call during 1000s corresponds to define 2 calls per hour during
500sthe activity probability is the same in both cases.
You can model temporal variations of user behaviour by creating different profiles for different hours (busy hour, ...).


To create a GSM/GPRS/EDGE user profile, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by left clicking on the button,
Right click on the User profiles folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on New,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Set the parameters of the currently created user profile,
Validate by clicking on OK.


VI.5.2.d.ii Adjusting GSM/GPRS/EDGE user profile properties
Like for the other A9155 object folders, GSM/GPRS/EDGE user profiles are easily manageable. Creation steps and the
display management are standard.


To manage the user profile parameters, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by left clicking on the button,
Expand the User profiles folder by left clicking on the button,
Either,
Right click on the user profile of which you want to manage the properties to open the associated
context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or,
Double click on the user profile of which you want to manage the properties,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Set the parameters of the current user profile,
Validate by clicking on OK.


Note : When the User profiles table is displayed and active, it is possible to open the property dialog window of any user
type by simply double clicking on any cell in the associated line, or on the associated arrow at left.

VI.5.2.d.iii Managing globally GSM/GPRS/EDGE user profiles
A9155 allows the user to display simultaneously all topics of one type (services, mobility, terminal, user profiles,
environment) in a table window.


To open the user profiles table, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by left clicking on the button,
Either,
Right click on the User profiles folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Open,
Or,
Double click on the User profiles folder,
The user profiles table opens.
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Click on to close the table.


The user profiles table works exactly like the other tables. Its cells are editable, sorting and filtering tools, and copy/paste
functions are available.

Notes :
The grouping/filtering/sorting advanced feature may be used on the services from the context menu associated with
the User profiles folder. From the properties dialog box, you may also manage the contents of the user profiles table.
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the different windows.
When the User profiles table is displayed and active, it is possible to open the property dialog window of any user
type by simply double clicking on any cell in the associated line, or on the associated arrow at left.

VI.5.2.e GSM/GPRS/EDGE ENVIRONMENTS
VI.5.2.e.i Creating a type of GSM/GPRS/EDGE environment
Environment classes may be used to describe subscriber spatial distribution on a map; they are the available classes for
traffic cartography design. An environment class represents an economic and social concept, which defines the
characteristics of user profiles. Each environment class contains a set of three data (user profile, mobility, density) where
density is a number of subscribers with the same profile per km. There is no restriction on the number of data sets
constituting an environment.

To get an appropriate user distribution, you may assign weights per clutter classes, for each environment class.

To create a GSM/GPRS/EDGE environment type, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by left clicking on the button,
Right click on the Environments folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on New,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Click the available tabs to set the parameters of the currently created environment,
Validate by clicking on OK.


Particular case: When no multi-service geo-marketing data are available, you may supply A9155 with usual traffic data
like user densities per service (for example, values coming from adapted GSM Erlang maps).Traffic distribution will only
depend on densities per service.

VI.5.2.e.ii Setting GSM/GPRS/EDGE environment parameters
Like for the other A9155 object folders, GSM/GPRS/EDGE environments are easily manageable. Creation steps and the
display management are standard.

To manage the environments parameters, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by left clicking on the button,
Expand the Environments folder by left clicking on the button,
Either,
Right click on the environment type of which you want to manage the properties to open the
associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or,
Double click on the environment type of which you want to manage the properties,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Click the available tabs to adjust the parameters of the current environment,
Validate by clicking on OK.


Notes :
To get an appropriate user distribution, you may assign weights per clutter classes, for each environment class in the
Clutter weighting tab.
When the Environments table is displayed and active, it is possible to open the property dialog window of any
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environment type by simply double clicking on any cell in the associated line, or on the associated arrow at left.
VI.5.2.e.iii Managing globally GSM/GPRS/EDGE environment types
A9155 allows the user to simultaneously display all topics of one type (services, mobility, terminal, user profile,
environment) in a table window.

To open the environment types table, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Expand the GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder by left clicking on the button,
Either,
Right click on the Environments folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Open,
Or,
Double click on the Environments folder,
The Environment type table opens.


The environment types table works exactly like the other tables. Its cells are editable, sorting and filtering tools, and
copy/paste functions are available.

Notes :
The grouping/filtering/sorting advanced feature may be used on the services from the context menu associated with
the Environments folder. From the properties dialog box, you may also manage the contents of the environment types
table. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the different windows.
When the Environments table is displayed and active, it is possible to open the property dialog window of any
environment type by simply double clicking on any cell in the associated line, or on the associated arrow at left.

VI.5.2.e.iv Subscriber clutter weighting in GSM/GPRS/EDGE environments
Enter a weight for each clutter class in order to get an appropriate user distribution
The following formula is used for calculations:

=
j
j j
k k
class k
S w
S w
N N

where :
k
N

Number of users in the k clutter
class
N

Number of users in an environment class
k
w

k clutter weight at fixed surface
k
S

k clutter surface (stated in km)

VI.5.3 GSM/GPRS/EDGE MULTI-SERVICE TRAFFIC CARTOGRAPHY
VI.5.3.a GSM/GPRS/EDGE MULTI-SERVICE TRAFFIC CARTOGRAPHY : OVERVIEW
A9155 provides 4 types of traffic maps for GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects :

Traffic raster maps based on environments: each pixel of the map is assigned an environment class.
Traffic vector maps based on user profiles: each polygon or line contains a density of subscribers with given user
profile and mobility type.
Traffic maps per transmitter and per service: live traffic is spread over a best server coverage plot.
Traffic raster maps based on user densities: actual user density per pixel can be used to create a map of this type.

Whatever the type of map is, this one can be either created or modified manually, imported from an external file and
exported to an external file.

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VI.5.3.b GSM/GPRS/EDGE ENVIRONMENT TRAFFIC MAPS
VI.5.3.b.i Creating a GSM/GPRS/EDGE environment traffic map
There are two solutions to define an environment traffic map, either by creating environment polygons or by directly
importing a raster map in your project as an environment traffic map.

To create a GSM/GPRS/EDGE environment traffic map by drawing, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Traffic folder to open the associated context menu,
Select the New map command from the scrolling menu,
Choose the map based on environments (raster) option in the Create a traffic map open window,
Press the button to validate,
Use the cartography editor (selecting one of the available environment classes as defined in the
environment folder) to draw environment polygons,
Click the button to close the editor.

Notes :
Like other raster maps, it is easily possible to save the generated traffic map.
You can only choose among existing environment classes in the cartography editor. To make available additional
classes, do it in the GSM/GPRS/EDGE parameters.

VI.5.3.b.ii Importing a GSM/GPRS/EDGE environment traffic map
There are two solutions to define an environment traffic map, either by creating environment polygons or by directly
importing a raster map (with the appropriate format) in your project as an environment traffic map.

To import a GSM/GPRS/EDGE environment traffic map from an external file, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Traffic folder to open the associated context menu,
Select the New map command from the scrolling menu,
Choose the map based on environments (raster) option in the Create a traffic map open window,
Press the button to validate,
Locate the file to be imported and click the button to validate,
Choose the Traffic option from the scrolling menu in the open File import window,
Press the button to validate,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
In the name column, left click cells in order to replace class (codes or clutter) names by existing
environment classes,
Press OK or Apply to validate.


Notes :
Importing a file as a traffic map can be also made through the generic import (selection of the environment traffic type
in the appropriate scrolling menu),
Clutter files can be imported as traffic files,
In order to manage traffic on the entire map, this operation must be carried out for all classes.
The description table can be fully copied and pasted (using Ctrl+V and Ctrl+C) in a new A9155 project after importing
the raster file. To select globally the environment class table, just left click on the top left angle of the environment
table.
Like other raster maps, it is easily possible to save the generated traffic map.

VI.5.3.b.iii Managing GSM/GPRS/EDGE environment traffic maps
On an existing environment traffic map, you can access properties and it is possible to modify the class association and
its display settings.

To access the properties of an existing environment traffic map, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Traffic folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
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Either
Right click on the related environment map folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click on the related environment map folder,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Click the description tab to re-associate environment classes,
Click the display tab to set the transparency level, the visibility scale and to add the map information to the
legend,
Press OK or Apply to validate.

It is also possible to access the properties of a single file composing the resulting map (properties command in the
related context menu) to embed it into the atl project or to check the map geocoding.

Notes :
Absolute and relative statistics can be provided for this type of map.
A9155 provides the possibility to display the cumulated traffic when working on several traffic map(s), whatever there
types are.

VI.5.3.b.iv Exporting a GSM/GPRS/EDGE environment traffic map
Like the other GSM/GPRS/EDGE traffic map types (user profile, live traffic or user density), it is possible to export a
environment traffic map in either a 8 bits/pixel raster tiff, bil or bmp format. It is possible to export a part or the complete
environment traffic map.

To export a part or the complete environment traffic map in GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Traffic folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
Right click on the Environment map folder in order to get the related context menu,
Left click on the Save as... option from the open scrolling menu,
Define the format, the directory path and the name to give to the file to be exported,
Click the Save button when this is made,
In the Export dialog box, select one of the options and define the resolution (in metres) of file :
The whole covered region option allows you to save the whole traffic map in another file. As soon as
the file is saved, the properties (name,...) of the traffic maps listed in the Environment Traffic
subfolder are updated.
The only pending changes option allows just to save in the file the created traffic polygonal area. As
soon as the modifications are saved, an additional traffic item is created and listed in the
Environment Traffic subfolder.
The computation zone option allows you to save only traffic map region inside the computation zone
in another file. As soon as the file is saved, an additional traffic object is created and listed in the
Environment Traffic subfolder. To enable this option, you must have drawn a computation zone
beforehand.
A resolution value is suggested; it is defined for raster traffic from the following criteria :
If one traffic object is clipped, the displayed resolution will be the object resolution.
If several objects are modified, the suggested resolution will be the smallest resolution of the
altered items.
If there is no initial traffic item, the resolution will equal the resolution of DTM object which the
modifications are made on or the smallest resolution of the merged DTM objects if the
modifications are performed on several DTM objects.
If you draw your own traffic data without initial DTM, clutter or traffic object, a 100 m default
resolution will be suggested.
The resolution value must be an integer.
The minimum resolution is set to 1 metre.
Click OK to validate.

Comment: When you save files using BIL and TIF formats, .hdr and .tfw files are automatically created in the same
folder. The .hdr and .tfw files are respectively associated with .bil and .tif files; they contain geocoding information and
resolution.

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VI.5.3.b.v Displaying statistics on GSM/GPRS/EDGE environment traffic maps
It is possible to display statistics on an existing GSM/GPRS/EDGE environment traffic map. Statistics are given globally
and relatively as functions of environment traffic classes. Traffic density statistics indicates the proportion of each traffic
class. Traffic statistics refer to the focus zone is existing.


To display traffic statistics of the map in GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Traffic folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
Right click on the Environment Traffic folder to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Statistics option from the scrolling menu
The surface (Si in km) of imported or edited traffic class (i) included in the focus (if existing) zone and its
percentage (% of i) are specified:

100 of % =

k
k
i
S
S
i


Notes :
If no focus zone is defined, statistics are given over the computation zone.
Current statistics are printable by clicking the button.

VI.5.3.c GSM/GPRS/EDGE USER PROFILE TRAFFIC MAPS
VI.5.3.c.i Creating a GSM/GPRS/EDGE user profile traffic map
In A9155, user profile traffic maps can be defined in any type of project (GSM/GPRS/EDGE, UMTS or
CDMA/CDMA2000). The vector data (points, lines, polygonal shapes) are expected to directly link a dedicated user
profile, mobility and traffic density. The way to get user profile traffic maps consists in either importing vector files
(MapInfo(MIF,MID), Arcview (SHP), Autocad(DXF)) and using them as traffic maps or creating vectors with the vector
editor and assign them some traffic information.

To create a GSM/GPRS/EDGE user profile traffic map by drawing, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Traffic folder to open the associated context menu,
Select the New map command from the scrolling menu,
Choose the map based on user profiles (vector) option in the Create a traffic map open window,
Press the button to validate,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open dialogs,
Potentially define traffic information (user profile, mobility type, density) in the Table tab, assign them to
A9155 internal traffic fields in the Traffic tab, and use the vector editor to draw environment polygons, lines
or points,
Click the button to close the editor.

Notes :
Like other vector layers, it is easily possible to save the generated traffic map.
Points can be seen as traffic hotspots

See Examples of vector traffic data

VI.5.3.c.ii Importing a GSM/GPRS/EDGE user profile traffic map
In A9155, user profile traffic maps can be defined in any type of project (GSM/GPRS/EDGE, UMTS or
CDMA/CDMA2000). The vector data (points, lines, polygonal shapes) are expected to directly link a dedicated user
profile, mobility and traffic density. The way to get user profile traffic maps consists in either importing vector files
(MapInfo(MIF,MID), Arcview (SHP), Autocad(DXF)) and using them as traffic maps or creating vectors with the vector
editor and assign them some traffic information.

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To import a GSM/GPRS/EDGE user profile traffic map by drawing, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Traffic folder to open the associated context menu,
Select the New map command from the scrolling menu,
Choose the map based on user profiles (vector) option in the Create a traffic map open window,
Press the button to validate,
Locate the file to be imported and click the button to validate,
Choose the Traffic option from the scrolling menu in the open File import window,
Press the button to validate,

A dialog box is displayed in order to configure traffic vector data.
Click the Traffic tab,
In the Traffic fields part, specify the user profiles to be considered on the traffic vector map, their mobility
types (km/h) and their densities (number of users/km2 for polygons and number of user/km for lines). You
can decide the type of information that you want to use to define the traffic characteristics, either a field
described in the file (by field option in the Defined column) or a value directly user-definable in A9155 (by
value option in the Defined column).
The first method can be used only if the file you are importing contains attributes providing
information about the user profile, mobility or density. In this case, select in the Choice column a
suitable field for each data (user profile, mobility and density); A9155 lists all the attributes described
in the file. The attributes of the source file cannot be modified. Using this method, each traffic
polygon or linear is assigned specific characteristics (user profile, mobility or density).
Note : Take care to define in A9155 user profiles and mobility types described in traffic file with exact
spelling.

The second way is useful when traffic files contain no attribute. Therefore, you may assign manually
user profiles, mobility types and densities created in A9155. Select in the Choice column user profile
and mobility listed in GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters folder and specify manually a global density for
all the polygons. Beforehand, just make sure to define in GSM/GPRS/EDGE Parameters the internal
data like user profile and mobility you want to allocate. Here, all the polygons are described by global
characteristics (user profile, mobility or density).

In the Clutter weighting part, assign a weight to each clutter class. Thus, A9155 allows you to spread traffic
inside the polygons according to the clutter weighting defined for the whole subfolder. The spreading
operation (using a raster step) will be carried out during the simulation process.
Then, press OK to validate the properties setting.


Notes :
Importing a file as a traffic map can be also made through the generic import (selection of the Traffic type in the
appropriate scrolling menu),
During the import procedure, if the imported user profiles or mobility types are not currently part of the existing user
profiles or mobility types, A9155 warns you about the fact that these may not be correctly taken into account as traffic
data.
Path and description are stored in the external user configuration file.

See Examples of vector traffic data

VI.5.3.c.iii Managing GSM/GPRS/EDGE user profile traffic maps
To access the properties of an existing user profile traffic map, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Traffic folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
Either
Right click on the related user profile traffic map folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click on the related user profile traffic map folder,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open window,
Click on the General tab to either embed the file into the atl project, to relocate the map by the definition of
the appropriate coordinate system, by imposing sorts on the vector organisation or filters on the vector
display,
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Click on the Table tab to manage the content of the vector,
Click on the Traffic tab to re-associate vector fields and A9155 internal traffic fields, and to impose
subscriber clutter weighting using this map for the traffic analysis,
Click on the Display tab to open the A9155 generic display dialog,
Press OK or Apply to validate.

Note : A9155 provides the possibility to display the cumulated traffic when working on several traffic map(s), whatever
there types are.

VI.5.3.c.iv Examples of GSM/GPRS/EDGE user profile traffic data
Structure of two vector traffic files is described hereafter. Niceregion.mif consists of eleven polygons representing the
Nice region. Each polygon is characterised by a user profile, the services offered to subscribers, their mobility types and
densities. Densities are stated in number of subscribers per km
2
. Highway.mif represents a highway (linear) where
density corresponds to a number of subscribers per km.


Niceregion.mif

Name Userprofile Services used MobilityA DensityA MobilityB DensityB
Hinterland rural user Speech 90 km/h 8 pedestrian 2
Village rural user Speech 50 km/h 10 pedestrian 5
Corniche rural user Speech 50 km/h 10 pedestrian 20
Rural rural user Speech 90 km/h 8 pedestrian 2
Villages rural user Speech 50 km/h 10 pedestrian 10
Nice urban user Speech, Web, Simple messaging, Video
conferencing
pedestrian 700 50 km/h 100
Nice airport urban user Speech, Web, Simple messaging, Video
conferencing
pedestrian 700 50 km/h 100
Nice
surroundings
rural user Speech 50 km/h 100 90 km/h 100
Rural rural user Speech 90 km/h 5 pedestrian 5
Villages rural user Speech 50 km/h 10 pedestrian 5
Nice center urban user Speech, Web, Simple messaging, Video
conferencing
pedestrian 4000 pedestrian 0

Using the user profile traffic import procedure, it is possible to associate (Traffic tab of the properties dialog) :
To user profile : either a global value (by value) for all the polygons or the Userprofile field of the vector (by field), with
a different definition for each polygon,
To mobility : either a global value (by value) for all the polygons or the MobilityA (resp. MobilityB) field of the vector
(by field), with a different detention for each polygon,
To density : either a global value (by value) for all the polygons or the DensityA (resp. Density B) field of the vector
(by field), with a different definition for each polygon.


Highway.mif

ID User_profile Service used Density Mobility
highway driver Speech 400 120 km/h


Using the user profile traffic import procedure, it is possible to associate (Traffic tab of the properties dialog) :
To user profile : either a global value (by value) for all the polygons or the User_profile field of the vector (by field),
with a different definition for each polygon,
To mobility : either a global value (by value) for all the polygons or the Mobility field of the vector (by field), with a
different detention for each polygon,
To density : either a global value (by value) for all the polygons or the Density field of the vector (by field), with a
different definition for each polygon.

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VI.5.3.c.v Exporting a GSM/GPRS/EDGE user profile traffic map
Like the other GSM/GPRS/EDGE traffic map types (environment, live traffic or user density), it is possible to export user
profile traffic maps.

To export a GSM/GPRS/EDGE user profile traffic map, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Traffic folder by left clicking on the button,
Right click on the user profile traffic map folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click on the Save as... option from the open scrolling menu,
Define the format, the directory path and the name to give to the file to be exported. Possible formats are
Arcview (.shp), MapInfo (.mif) and the A9155 internal format (.agd),
Click the Save button to complete the export procedure.

VI.5.3.d GSM/GPRS/EDGE LIVE TRAFFIC MAPS
VI.5.3.d.i Creating a GSM/GPRS/EDGE live traffic map
This kind of traffic map requires a coverage by transmitter prediction study. Then, A9155 expects on each transmitter
service area, a number of Erlangs in case of speech service and rate values (kbps) for packet-switched services.

Note : It is possible to define either one map per service or one map with all services.

Then, the traffic cartography is built without connection with the initial coverage prediction. This map consists of polygons
provided with the same features as the user profile traffic polygons.

The definition of GSM/GPRS/EDGE live traffic maps can be made either from a direct creation on the basis of a
coverage by transmitter study previously calculated or by importing a file.

To create a GSM/GPRS/EDGE live traffic map, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Traffic folder to open the associated context menu,
Select the New map command from the scrolling menu,
Choose the map based on transmitters and services option in the Create a traffic map open window,
Press the button to validate,
Select the prediction study to be considered for traffic distribution. Only coverage per transmitter studies
can be used. A table where you can indicate the live traffic spread over the transmitter service areas is
available. It consists of a column dedicated to transmitters and several columns for the different services
previously defined in the GSM/EGPRS parameters folder. In the TX_ID column, select each line, click on
the arrow and choose a transmitter in the list. You may also use the copy and paste commands
(respectively Ctrl+C and Ctrl+V) from an Excel file already containing the expected columns.
Enter Erlangs for speech service and rate values (kbits/s) for packet-switched services for each transmitter.
Press OK to continue the map creation.
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the open dialogs,
A9155 displays the property dialog of the map. Click the Traffic tab of the opened property dialog and
define terminal and mobility ratios by entering percentage values for each terminal and each mobility type
(they will be used in the traffic scenario). You may also specify a weight per clutter class to spread traffic
over each coverage area. The spreading operation will be performed during the traffic distribution.
Click OK to validate.


A9155 creates an object called Traffic map per transmitter in the Traffic folder of the Geo tab.

Notes
The map only contains the service areas of transmitters listed in the table. Then, the traffic map shape is fixed and
cannot be modified; it is not possible to add new transmitters.
On the other hand, it is possible to modify traffic values (Erlangs, throughputs) afterwards in the Table related to the
map.

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VI.5.3.d.ii Importing a GSM/GPRS/EDGE live traffic map
The definition of GSM/GPRS/EDGE live traffic maps can be made either from a direct creation on the basis of a
coverage by transmitter study previously calculated or by importing a file.

You may import files with AGD format. This is the A9155 geographic data internal format. This kind of file must be
created from A9155 (export of a coverage by transmitter study in the AGD format).

To import a GSM/GPRS/EDGE live traffic map by drawing, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Traffic folder to open the associated context menu,
Select the New map command from the scrolling menu,
Choose the map based on transmitters and services option in the Create a traffic map open window,
Press the button to validate,
Locate the file to be imported and click the button to validate,
Choose the Traffic option from the scrolling menu in the open File import window,
Select the option embed in the document to include the file in the .atl document. When this option is not
selected, A9155 just memorizes the file directory path.

In the coordinate systems part, A9155 summarises the projection coordinate system you have defined in
the .atl project. In the box just below, specify the coordinate system of the file you are importing (click on
Change to choose another coordinate system).
Press the button to validate,
A9155 displays the property dialog of the map. Click the Traffic tab of the opened property dialog and
define terminal and mobility ratios by entering percentage values for each terminal and each mobility type
(they will be used in the traffic scenario). You may also specify a weight per clutter class to spread traffic
over each coverage area. The spreading operation will be performed during the traffic distribution.
Click OK to validate.

Note : It is also possible to import a traffic map per transmitter using the standard import procedure (Import command in
the File menu). In this case, you must specify in the import dialog that yo