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Name __________________________

Biology Unit 4 Study Guide: Cellular Energy

1. The chemical energy used for most cell processes is carried by ___________

2. __________ is changed to _____________ when a phosphate group is added

3. What types of molecules are most commonly broken down to make ATP?

4. What is chemosynthesis?

5. How is chemosynthesis different from photosynthesis?

6. What is the equation of photosynthesis?

7. What organelle does photosynthesis take place in?

8. What is the pigment that is involved in capturing the sun’s energy?

9. What are thylakoids?

10. What are grana?

11. What is the stroma?

12. Where do the light-dependent reactions take place?

13. Know your diagrams for photosynthesis.

Light-dependent reactions
14. Chlorophyll absorbs energy from _________________

15. Energized electrons enter ______________________________________________

16. _________________________ molecules are split

17. _________________________ is released as a waste

18. _________________________ are transported across the thylakoid membrane

19. energized electrons are used to make ____________________

20. Hydrogen ions diffuse through the membrane protein _____________________________ to make __

21. What is needed for the light-dependent reactions?

22. What is produced by the light-dependent reactions?

23. What is the purpose of NADPH?

Light-independent reactions (dark reactions)
24. Where do the light-independent reactions take place?

25. ________________________________ molecules enter the Calvin cycle and are added to a
________________________________. Six carbon molecules are formed.

26. ________________ is added and the six carbon sugar splits to form _____________________

27. After two three carbon molecules join together you get ____________________________

28. Three carbon molecules are recycled back into __________________________________

29. What is needed for the light-independent reactions to take place?

30. What are the products of the light-independent reactions?

Cell Respiration
31. What is the equation for cell respiration?

32. What is the difference between autotrophs and heterotrophs?

33. What organelle does cellular respiration occur in?

34. Where does glycolysis occur?

35. In glycolysis ____________________ is broken down into ________________________ (think

‘sugar splitting’)

36. What do you get at the end of glycolysis?

37. Where does the Krebs cycle take place?

38. What happens to the 3-carbon pyruvates as they go from the cytoplasm to the matrix?

39. In the Krebs cycle, a 2-carbon _________________________ bonds to a ________ carbon

40. CO2 is released forming a _________ carbon compound

41. CO2 is released again forming a ____________ carbon compound

42. As the 6 carbon molecule is recycled what is formed?

43. What do you get at the end of the Krebs cycle?

44. NADH and FADH2 are ____________________________________

45. What is the purpose of the Electron Transport Chain?

46. H+ is pumped into the ____________ _________________________ ________________ and diffuses

through the membrane protein _______________________________________________ generating

47. What is the final electron acceptor in the ETC?

48. What do you get at the end of the ETC?

49. Where does fermentation occur?

50. Fermentation is when _______________ occurs without _____.

51. Fermentation allows cells to produce more of the electron carrier ________. This is necessary to make

52. What produces more ATP per unit glucose, fermentation or aerobic cellular respiration?