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1776: 1786: 1788: 1797: 1798: 1823: 1825: 1825: 1828: 1829: 1831: 1835: 1836: 1837: 1839: 1841: 1843: 1847: 1852: 1854: 1854: 1855: 1859: 1863: 1869: 1870: 1872: 1873: 1876: 1880: 1892: 1893: D avi d Bu s h n e l l b u i l ds t h e fi r s t mi l i t a r y s u b ma r i n e. Jo h n a n d Wi l l i a m Bra i t h w a i te de ve l o p a n i mp rove d di vi n g h e lm e t . Jo h n Sme a to n i mp roves di vi n g b e l l . K a r l H e i n r i c h K l i n g e r t c re a tes d i v i n g s u i t . R o b e r t Fu l to n b u i l d s t h e s u b m a r i n e N a u t i l u s. Charles D eane pate nts "smok e helmet" for fire fighters and dive rs. Wi l l i a m Ja me s de ve l o p s fi r s t t r u e s c u b a . Ch a r l e s Con de r t de ve l o p s co mp re s s e d a i r re s e r vo i r. Ch a r l e s & Jo h n D e a n e de vi s e a h e l me t a n d di vi n g s u i t . Russian E.K.G auzen inve nts diving machine. Voya g e o f t h e H .M.S. Be a g l e. J o h n B e t h e l d e s i g n s c l o s e d d re s s d i v i n g a p p a rat u s. Ch a r l e s D ea n e p u b l i s h e s fi r s t di vi n g ma n u a l . Aug u s t u s Si e b e fu s e s di vi n g h e l me t to r u b b e r s u i t . S ei b es s u i t u s e d fo r s a l va g e o f H MS Roya l G eo rg e. D e compre ssion sick ness is first enco unte red by co al miners. Th e fi r s t di vi n g s c h o o l e s t a b l i s h e d by Roya l N av y. Joseph Hook er identifies diato ms as plants. I n d i a n a s h o e m a k e r Lo d n e r D. P h i l i p s b u i l d s t wo s u b m a r i n e s. Edw a rd Fo r b e s, fo u n de r o f t h e s c i e n ce o f o ce a n o g ra p hy, di e s. D e co m p re s s i o n s i c k ne s s i s c l i n i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d. W i l h e l m B a u e r b u i l d s 5 2 - fo o t s u b m a r i n e. Br u t u s D e V i l l e ro i b u i l ds 3 3 - fo o t - l o n g t re a s u re - h u n t i n g s u b mar i ne. Alligato r is first submarine bought by U.S. Nav y to lay mines. J u l e s Ve r n e w r i te s 2 0 , 0 0 0 Le a g u e s U n d e r t h e S e a . B ro o k l y n B r i d g e wo r k m e n e x p e r i e n ce th e b e n d s. Voyage of the H.M.S. Challenger. R o u q u ay ro l a n d D en ay ro u ze b u i l d d i v i n g s u i t w i t h p e r fe c te d a i r s u p p l y. H e n r y Fl e u s s d i e s w h i l e u s i n g h i s p u re ox yg e n S C U B A r i g. Pa u l B e r t d i s cove r s t h e c a u s e o f t h e b e n d s. Lou i s Bo u t a n de ve l o p s s c u b a t h a t c a n b e u s e d fo r u p to t h re e ho ur s. Louis Boutan deve lops first under wate r camera.

OC E A NOG R A PH IC T I M EL I NE

O C EA N O GR APHIC T IME L I N E
1 9 0 0 : J o h n P. H o l l a n d b u i l d s s u b m a r i n e. 1905: The United States Nav y publishes its first dive manual. 1 9 0 5 : The o d o re R o o s e ve l t b e com e s t h e f i r s t U . S . p re s i d e n t to r i d e i n s u b m a r i n e. 1 9 0 6 : U - 1 , t h e f i r s t G er m a n U - B o a t i s l a u n c h e d. 1 9 0 6 : O ce a n o g ra p h i c M u s e u m a n d Aqu a r i u m i n M o n a co e s t a b l i s h e d. 1910: Pu blication of first dive tables. 1911: Draeger introduces ox yg en re-breather. 1912: Th e U.S. Nav y te sts decompression tables. 1915: Alfred Wegener proposed continental drif t theor y. 1915: U - 20 si n ks Lu si ta n i a . 1 9 1 7 : Th e U . S . B u rea u o f Con s t r u c t i o n & R e p a i r i n t ro d u ce s M a r k V D i v i n g H e l m e t . 1918: O g ushi Peerless Respirator introduced. 1919: C. J. Co ok e deve lops heliox fo r use as a breathing gas by divers. 1921: H ar r y Ho u di n i pa ten ts a d iver ' s suit . 1923: W. H. Longley tak es the first under wate r co lor photos at Dr y To r t ugas, FL. 1924: First h el i u m- ox ygen exp er im ent al d ives were cond uc ted by U. S. 1925: Yves Le Pr i eu r pro du ces fir st p rac t ic al SC UBA. 1928: Invention of the Davis Submersible D ecompression Chamber. 1 9 2 9 : C . B. M o m s e n d e ve l o p s e s c a p e l u n g. 1 9 3 0 : Wo o d s H o l e O ce a n o g ra p h i c I n s t i t u t i o n i s fou n d e d i n U . S . A . 1930: Beebe descends 1,426 feet in a bathysphere. 1 9 3 0 : R u b b e r g o g g l e s u s e d. S p e a r f i s h i n g i n t h e M ed i ter ra n e a n . 1933: Fins pate nted. 1934: B e e be a n d B a r to n desce nd to 3, 028 fe et in b at hysp here. 1938: Co elacanth discovered. 1 9 3 8 : G u y G i l p a t r i c w r i te s f i r s t b o o k o n rec re a t i o n a l d i v i n g. 1942: Jacques Cousteaus first under water film introduced. 1943: Cou stea us Aq u a -Lu n g d esigned. 1 9 4 4 : Fr d r i c D u m a s rea c h e d 6 2 m e te r s w i t h a Cou s te a u Aq u a - Lu n g. 1 9 4 6 : Aqu a - Lun g m a r k e te d i n Fra n ce. ( B r i t a i n 1 9 5 0 , Can a d a 1 9 5 1 , U S A 1 9 5 2 ) . 1947: D u ma s ma de a reco rd dive wit h t he Aq ua-Lung to 94 m eter s. 1948: A B ri ti sh N av y di ver sets an op en-sea record of 540 feet . 1948: 1950: 1951: 1951: 1952: 1952: 1954: 1954: 1954: 1956: 1956: 1957: 1958: 1959: 1960: 1960: 1962: 1964: 1964: 1965: 1966: 1968: 1970: 1977: 1979: 1981: 1983: 1985: 2000: 2001: 2003: 2007: O t is Bar ton descended in a bathysphere to a depth of 4500 feet. Co u s te a u a c q u i re s t h e Cal yp s o. D eepest O cean Point, Challenger D eep discovered. US Nav y develops the we tsuits. N AU TILU S SSN 5 7 1 . Si l e n t Wo r l d i s re l e a s e d by Ja c q u e s - Yve s Co u s te a u. K ir k D ou g l a s s t a r s i n 2 0 , 0 0 0 Le a g u e s U n d e r t h e S e a . Bathyscaphe used to exceed reach a depth of 4050 mete rs. Z a l e Par r y s e t s re cord a s f i r s t wom a n to d e s ce n d b e l ow 6 1 m e te r s. U n i ve r s i t y o f Ca l i for n i a de ve l o p s n e o p re n e we t s u i t . Th e re d and white dive r down flag is introduced. Th e first segment of S e a Hunt airs on te levision. USS Nautilus successfully passes under the Nor t h Pole. N AU I e s t a b l i s h e d. Picard and Walsh descend to 10,918 meters in bathyscaphe. Tr iton co mpletes first under water circ umnavigation of the wo rld U S N av y S ea l Te a ms 1 a n d 2 fo r me d. SEALAB I. Alvin completed. SE AL AB II, CO N SH E L F III, Th u n de r b a l l . PAD I fo u n de d. Gruener and Watson dive to 437 fe et breathing compressed air. N OA A E s t a b l i s h e d. Hydrothermal Vents discovered. Sy lvia Earle walks on sea floor at re co rd depth of 1,250 feet. Re co rd 2 2 5 0 fo o t - di ve ma de i n D u k e M edi c a l Cen te r c h a mb e r. Fi r s t e l e c t ro n i c di ve comp u te r. D r. R o b e r t B a l l a rd f i n d s T i t a n i c. R e co rd d i ve o f 2 0 2 . 5 m e ter s s e t . J o h n B e n n e t t rea c h e s 3 0 8 m e ter s. M ar k E l l ya t t s e t s n e w wor l d reco rd o f 1 ,0 2 6 .9 fe e t . H e l i x Sc u b a Watc h e s i n t ro du ce d.

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OC E A NOG R A PH IC T IM EL I NE

2007 Helix All rights reserved First Edition No part of this book may be used or reproduced without written permission. Design, Illustration, Photography and Sculpture by Michael G. Sivak [thekavis.com] Additional Illustrations by NIcholas A. Forker Additional Photographs by Jennifer DeChello Special thanks to: Capt. Noel Voroba and Orbit Marine, Dave Lipp, Simon Edgett Wikipedia.org Super-Luminova and Tachymeter referred. Created and Printed in U.S.A.

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