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Site Title: BIOLOGY 8e AP* Edition CD-ROM Book's Title: BIOLOGY 8e AP* Edition Book's Author: Campbell and Reece Location on 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles > Site: Practice Test Date/Time Fri Jan 27 2012 02:48:01 GMT-0500 Submitted: (EST)

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Summary of Results
98% Correct of 46 items:
45 correct: 1 incorrect: 2% 98%


How many genes are present in the human genome? (Concept 13.1) Your Answer: tens of thousands

Correct. Each chromosome has hundreds or thousands of genes; the entire human genome has on the order of 20,000 to 25,000 genes.


What is a locus? (Concept 13.1) Your Answer: the precise location of a gene on a chromosome

Correct. The location of a gene within the genome, including the identity of the particular chromosome that it maps to and its specific position on that chromosome, is called its locus.


Sexual and asexual reproduction are alike in that _____. (Concept 13.1) Your Answer: they can both occur in multicellular organisms

Correct. Examples of both sexual and asexual reproduction have been observed in multicellular organisms.


A clone is the product of _____. (Concept 13.1) Your Answer: The first and third answers are correct.

Correct. In asexual reproduction, an organism produces genetically identical progeny, or clones, by mitosis.


Unless the chromosomes were stained to show band patterns, a karyotype would be least likely to show which of the following? (Concept 13.2)

Your Answer:

part of a chromosome turned around

Correct. An inversion, which affects neither the number of chromosomes nor the length of a chromosome, is generally difficult to detect without staining to show chromosomal bands.


A karyotype is _____. (Concept 13.2) Your Answer: a photograph of all of an individual's chromosomes

Correct. Karyotypes, ordered displays of an individual's chromosomes, are useful in identifying chromosomal abnormalities.


Fertilization produces ___________. (Concept 13.2) Your Answer: a diploid zygote

Correct. Fertilization always involves the fusion of gametes and produces a diploid zygote.


Which one, if any, of the following statements is true? (Concept 13.2) Your Answer: all of the above

Correct. Diploid cells can divide by either mitosis or meiosis, but haploid cells can only divide by mitosis.


Which of the following is part of the life cycle called alternation of generations? (Concept 13.2) Your Answer: all of the above

Correct. In alternation of generations, zygotes give rise to multicellular, diploid sporophytes, and spores give rise to multicellular, haploid gametophytes.


The sexual cycle of the multicellular algal genus Fucus involves _____. (Concept 13.2) Your Answer: mitosis, meiosis, and fertilization

Correct. All multicellular organisms undergo mitosis, and all diploid, sexually

reproducing organisms undergo meiosis and fertilization, which are complementary processes.


A life cycle in which the only multicellular form is haploid is most typical of _____. (Concept 13.2) Your Answer: fungi

Correct. In most fungi, the multicellular form is haploid, and fertilization (and creation of a zygote) is immediately followed by meiosis.


Which of the following results in cells that contain half the parental chromosome number? (Concept 13.2) Your Answer: meiosis

Correct. The two cell divisions of meiosis, I and II, produce four haploid daughter cells.


In sexually reproducing species, the chromosome number remains stable over time because _____ and _____ always alternate. (Concept 13.2) Your Answer: meiosis; fertilization

Correct. Meiosis reduces the number of chromosomes by half, and fertilization restores the number to the diploid state.


The egg (ovum) of a rabbit contains 22 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are in the somatic (body) cells of a rabbit? (Concept 13.2) Your Answer: 44

Correct. Haploid sex cells contain half as many chromosomes as diploid somatic cells.


In a diploid cell containing 10 chromosomes, meiosis results in the formation of daughter cells containing _____ chromosomes. (Concept 13.2) Your Answer: 5

Correct. Haploid sex cells contain half as many chromosomes as diploid somatic cells.


How many pairs of autosomes do humans have? (Concept 13.2) Your Answer: 22

Correct. Humans have 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes.


Sister chromatids ___________. (Concept 13.2) Your Answer: are identical copies of each other formed during DNA synthesis

Correct. Sister chromatids are identical and participate in both mitosis and meiosis.


Which of the following statements about homologous chromosomes is correct? (Concept 13.2) Your Answer: They have genes for the same traits at the same loci.

Correct. The chromosomes that make up a pair are called homologous chromosomes, and they carry genes controlling the same inherited characters.


Humans have 46 chromosomes. This number of chromosomes will be found in _____. (Concept 13.2) Your Answer: liver cells

Correct. Liver cells are somatic cells, and they contain the characteristic diploid chromosome number.


When we say that an organism is haploid, we mean that _____. (Concept 13.2) Your Answer: its cells have a single set of chromosomes

Correct. Many fungi and some protists exist as haploid organisms, and plants and some algae also have a haploid stage (called a gametophyte) as part of the life cycle called alternation of generations.


Which one of the following is a function of mitosis in humans? (Concept 13.2) Your Answer: multiplication of body cells

Correct. This is a function of mitosis in humans. It is mitosis that enables a

multicellular adult to form from a fertilized egg and produces cells for growth and tissue repair.


Somatic cells in humans contain _____ set(s) of chromosomes and are therefore termed _____. (Concept 13.2) Your Answer: two; diploid

Correct. Somatic cells in interphase contain the characteristic diploid chromosome number.


Nearly all life cycles have both haploid and diploid phases. Usually, the transition from haploid to diploid takes place _____. (Concept 13.2) Your Answer: at fertilization, when gametes fuse

Correct. The union of haploid gametes at fertilization produces the zygote, or fertilized egg, which marks the beginning of the diploid phase of the life cycle.


Spores and gametes are different in that _____. (Concept 13.2) Your Answer: gametes can fuse to form a zygote, but spores can develop into independent organisms without first forming a zygote

Correct. Unlike a gamete, a spore gives rise to a multicellular organism without fusing with another cell.


At the end of telophase I of meiosis and the first cytokinesis, there are _____. (Concept 13.3) Your Answer: two haploid cells

Correct. Each of these cells carries a haploid set of chromosomes, each consisting of two chromatids.


What is the result when a diploid cell undergoes meiosis? (Concept 13.3) Your Answer: four haploid cells

Correct. The two cell divisions of meiosis, I and II, produce four haploid daughter cells, which are not genetically identical to the diploid parent cell.


Synapsis occurs during _____. (Concept 13.3) Your Answer: prophase I

Correct. Synapsis is the pairing of homologous chromosomes during prophase I.


Which of the following occurs during anaphase II? (Concept 13.3) Your Answer: Sister chromatids separate and migrate toward opposite poles.

Correct. This occurs during anaphase II.


Which of the following occurs during anaphase I? (Concept 13.3) Your Answer: Homologs separate and migrate toward opposite poles.

Correct. This occurs during anaphase I.


Cytokinesis is the _____. (Concept 13.3) Your Answer: division of one cell into two

Correct. Cytokinesis normally accompanies both telophase I and telophase II, as well as the telophase of mitosis.


What is the function of meiosis? (Concept 13.3) Your Answer: to make cells with a haploid (half that of the parents) number of chromosomes

Correct. The two cell divisions of meiosis, I and II, produce four haploid daughter cells, which are not genetically identical to the diploid parent cell.


Crossing over occurs during _____. (Concept 13.3) Your Answer: prophase I

Correct. Crossing over resulting in genetic recombination occurs during this phase.


Regions of chromosomes where nonsister chromatids cross over are called _____. (Concept 13.3) Your Answer: chiasmata

Correct. Chiasmata are regions where crossing over has occurred.


The synaptonemal complex _____. (Concept 13.3) Your Answer: physically connects homologous chromosomes during prophase I

Correct. The synaptonemal complex helps to line homologous chromosomes up gene by gene.


In the experiment by Yoshinori Watanabe and colleagues regarding the role of the protein shugoshin, their hypothesis was that __________. (Concept 13.3) Your Answer: one yeast strain would not produce the shugoshin protein while the other would the protein shugoshin protects cohesins from being degraded

Correct Answer:

No. This describes part of their experimental control.


An organism has a haploid chromosome number n = 4. How many tetrads will form during meiosis? (Concept 13.3) Your Answer: 4

Correct. Because of the synapsis of homologous chromosomes, the number of tetrads in meiosis I will be the same as the haploid number of chromosomes.


Which event occurs only during prophase I of the first meiotic division? (Concept 13.3) Your Answer: Synapsis of homologous pairs occurs.

Correct. Synapsis of homologous chromosomes occurs at prophase of meiosis I.


In a male mammal, every cell that undergoes meiosis gives rise to _____ sperm. (Concept 13.3) Your Answer: four

Correct. One diploid parent cell gives rise to four haploid sex cells at the completion of the two meiotic divisions.


Which one of the following occurs in meiosis, but not mitosis? (Concept 13.3) Your Answer: Homologous chromosomes separate.

Correct. Homologous chromosomes separate during anaphase I. This event follows synapsis, an event unique to prophase I.


Which function makes meiosis lengthier and more complex than mitosis? (Concept 13.3) Your Answer: all of the above

Correct. Meiosis involves two divisions that typically result in four daughter cells (instead of two). Each cell has half the number of chromosomes of the original parent cell, and is, of course, not genetically identical to the parent cell.


Ignoring crossover, how many kinds of gametes can be produced by an organism with a diploid number of 8? (Concept 13.4) Your Answer: 16

Correct. The number of combinations possible when chromosomes assort independently into gametes during meiosis is 2n, where n is the haploid number of chromosomes.


Which of the following contributes to genetic variation in sexually reproducing species? (Concept 13.4) Your Answer: random fertilization, independent assortment, crossing over

Correct. These three aspects of sexual reproduction increase genetic variation.


In humans, the haploid number of chromosomes is 23. Independent assortment has the possibility of producing _____ different types of gametes. (Concept 13.4)

Your Answer:


Correct. For each gamete there are two possibilities for each chromosome (the paternal or the maternal chromosome), and there are 23 different chromosomes per gamete.


The diploid number of chromosomes in a certain animal is 8 (2n = 8). How do the four pairs of homologous chromosomes align and separate during meiosis? (Concept 13.4) Your Answer: They align and assort independently to form any of 16 different combinations.

Correct. Because each pair of homologous chromosomes is positioned independently in metaphase I, the first meiotic division results in the independent assortment of paternal and maternal chromosomes into daughter cells. In a case in which 2n = 8, 16 combinations of chromosomes are possible for gametes.


In a diploid set of chromosomes, one member of each pair of homologous chromosomes is derived from the father (paternal), and the other comes from the mother (maternal). If 2n = 6, what is the probability of obtaining a gamete in which all the chromosomes are paternal ones? (Concept 13.4) Your Answer: 1/8

Correct. The chance of any one paternal chromosome ending up in a particular gamete is 1/2, so the chance that all three would be of paternal origin would be (1/2)n, where n = 3.


The major contribution of sex to evolution is that _____. (Concept 13.4) Your Answer: it provides a method to increase genetic variation

Correct. Sexual life cycles produce enormous genetic variation among offspring.

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