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Aircraft Incidents

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Section 1 - Contents

Section 1 - Contents Fire and Rescue Service Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents Section 1 - Contents
Section 1 - Contents Fire and Rescue Service Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents Section 1 - Contents
Section 1 - Contents Fire and Rescue Service Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents Section 1 - Contents

Fire and Rescue Service Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents

Section 1 - Contents

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Section 1 - Contents

Contents

1. Contents

2. Foreword -

3. Preface

To be drafted by CFRA

4. Legal Framework

Primary Fire and Rescue Service Legislation

s - To be drafted by CFRA To be drafted by CFRA
s -
To be drafted by CFRA
To be drafted by CFRA

Primary Health & Safety at Work Legislation

Other Subject Specific Legislation

Further Reading

5. Strategic Role of Operational Guidance

Strategic Perspective

Status of Operational Guidance

6. Generic Risk Assessment (GRA)

7. Key Principles

8. Fire Service Operations

Operational Guidance Review Protocols -

ocols -

erations SOP SOP
erations
SOP SOP

Considerations

Part A Preplanning Considerations

echnical Information ction to Airport Term Aircraft Desig Aircraft Desig
echnical Information
ction to Airport Term
Aircraft Desig
Aircraft Desig

Part B Operational Considerations - G

ional Considerations - G

Part C Technical Information

Introdu- G ional Considerations - G Part C Technical Information ction to Airport Termin ction to

ction to Airport Termin

ction to Airport Terminology and Topography

Fixed Wing Aircraft Design and ConstructionAirport Termin ction to Airport Terminology and Topography Aircraft Engines Undercarriage Incidents Fuel and Fuel Tanks

Aircraft Enginesand Topography Fixed Wing Aircraft Design and Construction Undercarriage Incidents Fuel and Fuel Tanks Escape Slides

Undercarriage IncidentsFixed Wing Aircraft Design and Construction Aircraft Engines Fuel and Fuel Tanks Escape Slides and Access

Fuel and Fuel Tanksand Construction Aircraft Engines Undercarriage Incidents Escape Slides and Access Points Cargo Aircraft Helicopters

Escape Slides and Access PointsAircraft Engines Undercarriage Incidents Fuel and Fuel Tanks Cargo Aircraft Helicopters General Aviation Military

Cargo AircraftFuel and Fuel Tanks Escape Slides and Access Points Helicopters General Aviation Military Aircraft 2 PDF

HelicoptersFuel Tanks Escape Slides and Access Points Cargo Aircraft General Aviation Military Aircraft 2 PDF created

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Section 1 - Contents

Airport Fire Fighting ServiceSection 1 - Contents On Airport Incidents Off Airport Incidents Aircraft Firefighting and Rescue Considerations 9.

On Airport IncidentsSection 1 - Contents Airport Fire Fighting Service Off Airport Incidents Aircraft Firefighting and Rescue Considerations

Off Airport IncidentsContents Airport Fire Fighting Service On Airport Incidents Aircraft Firefighting and Rescue Considerations 9.

Aircraft Firefighting and Rescue ConsiderationsFighting Service On Airport Incidents Off Airport Incidents 9. Appendices A - Model of Airport Liaison

9. Appendices

A - Model of Airport Liaison for West Sussex FRS B - Casualty Bureau and
A - Model of Airport Liaison for West Sussex FRS
B - Casualty Bureau and Epic
C - Air Show Management
D - Polymer Composites
E - Hot Air Balloons
F – Gliders
10. Acknowledgements
11. References/Supporting Information
12. Record of Obsolete or Superseded Previous Operational Guidance
ous Operational Guidance
s Operational Guidance
13. Glossary of Terms

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Section 2 - Foreword

Section 2 - Foreword Fire and Rescue Service Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents Section 2 – Foreword
Section 2 - Foreword Fire and Rescue Service Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents Section 2 – Foreword
Section 2 - Foreword Fire and Rescue Service Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents Section 2 – Foreword

Fire and Rescue Service Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents

Section 2 – Foreword

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Section 2

Foreword

To be drafted by CFRA

Section 2 - Foreword

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Section 3 - Preface Fire and Rescue Service Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents Section 3 –

Section 3 - Preface

Section 3 - Preface Fire and Rescue Service Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents Section 3 – Preface
Section 3 - Preface Fire and Rescue Service Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents Section 3 – Preface

Fire and Rescue Service Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents

Section 3 – Preface

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Section 3

Preface

Section 3 - Preface

1.1 This Operational Guidance promotes and develops best practice within the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS) and is offered as a current benchmark standard for FRS.

1.2 Guidance issued by Communities and Local Government (CLG) aims to establish consistency in understanding, application, practice and user operational and management

procedures. It is envisaged that this will help establish high standards of efficiency and

safety in the interests of employers, employees and the general pub

lic. lic. lic.
lic.
lic.
lic.
rmation kn rmat plication plication nagerial judg does do it co nfer
rmation kn
rmat
plication
plication
nagerial judg
does
do
it
co
nfer

1.3 The Guidance, which is compiled using the best sources of information known at the date

of issue, is intended for use by competent persons. The application

of of the the gu guidance does

not remove the need for appropriate technical and managerial judgement in practical

nagerial judgement in

situations with due regard to local circumstances, nor does it co

r r g by-laws. by-l oever arising, p he he help
r r
g by-laws.
by-l
oever arising,
p
he
he
help

nfer any imm

nfer any immunity or

exemption from relevant legal requirements, including by-laws.

1.4 The onus of responsibility for application of guidance lies with the user. CLG accepts no

dance lies with the user. CL

1.5 It

is

legal liability or responsibility whatsoever, howsoever arising,

use or misuse of the guidance.

wsoever arising, ffor the conse

to

for the consequences of the

assist

meet

their

a matter for each individual FRS w

The Guidance

appropriate

S S w w hether to adopt hether to adopt hether to adopt er, offered
S S
w
w
hether to adopt
hether to adopt
hether to adopt
er,
offered
as good
as good
d
p
proc edures
procedures
edures
to
to
to
d d
d
to establish and
to
to establish and
establish and

and and

and and follow f this Operational

FRS in

legal

maintain proper standards of

Guidance.

determining

responsibilities, protect their workforce orkforce an an safety.

is, however, ever,

practices es

orkforce an an safety. is, however, ever, practices es pra practice them to to to develop

pra practice

them

to to to develop their own sy ever, it is suggested that d should only
to
to
to
develop their own sy
ever, it is suggested that d
should only
should only
should only
be undertake
be undertake
of wh
of wh
of wh
icichh clcleaearrllyy illill

1.6 Individual FRS are free

develop their own system

develop their own systems for the management of Operational

Risk Information. However, it is suggested that departure from the principles contained in

wever, it is suggested that de

the following guidance nce

be undertaken following a risk based assessment of an

alternative, the outcome outcome

ich clearly illustrates that the legal responsibilities of the

FRA have been met.

n n met. met. tional Guidance is onsid onsider it when hen solve emer solve
n n
met.
met.
tional Guidance is
onsid
onsider it when
hen
solve emer
solve emer

Purpose osese

1.7 This Operational Guidance is

set se out in the form of a procedural and technical framework.

developing or reviewing their policy and procedures to safely

FRS should consider it when

and efficiently resolve emergency incidents involving any aircraft.

1.8 The term aircraft is used to describe all types of flying machines:

ssee

fixed wingis used to describe all types of flying machines: ssee rotary wing (helicopters, autogyro etc) balloons

rotary wing (helicopters, autogyro etc)to describe all types of flying machines: ssee fixed wing balloons airships gliders 2 PDF created

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Section 3 - Preface

remotely piloted air systems (unmanned aerial systems)Section 3 - Preface microlights 1.9 The above list will cover both civil and military aircraft.

microlightsremotely piloted air systems (unmanned aerial systems) 1.9 The above list will cover both civil and

1.9 The above list will cover both civil and military aircraft. Non FRS organisations and agencies may use other more specific definitions for their own requirements, but the above definition is the most appropriate one for FRS to base their risk assessments and planning assumptions on.

1.10 A FRS may respond to a wide range of incidents involving numerous types of aircraft. The kind of incident varies greatly and can result in fires, rescues, scene safety and environmental impact.

1.11 The purpose of this guidance is to assist emergency responders to make safe, risk

with

onders to m onde attending attendin attending and and for E
onders to m
onde
attending
attendin
attending
and and
for E

assessed, efficient and proportionate responses when operational incidents involving aircraft.

d dealing

ng to ng to ng to incide
ng to
ng to
ng to
incide

1.12 Whilst this guidance may be of use to a number of other agencies, it is desig

er agencies, it is desig

ned ned to to provide

relevant information, planning and operations relati

Scope

aircraft aircraft inci incidents dents

for En

for English FRS.

1.13 The scope of this guidance covers a wide range of

ide range of incident types t

covers a wide range of ide range of incident types t incident types that FRS are

incident types that FRS are likely to

encounter associated with aircraft. It is applicable to any event regardless of scale, from

applicable to any ev

is applicable to any ev

ent re

small incidents, such as an accident involving a microlight to a large incident involving a

nt involving a microlight to

volving a microlight to a

sulting in a large scale major

civil aircraft (e.g. Airbus A380) resulting in a large scale major

a large scale major

incident.

1.14 It is focussed on the tactical with:

the development ofmajor incident. 1.14 It is focussed on the tactical with: bility at interoperability at nt of

bility at

interoperability atfocussed on the tactical with: the development of bility at nt of nt of large or

nt of nt of large or large or large or cross borde
nt of
nt of
large or
large or
large or
cross borde

and technical aspect

ystems of work (

and technical aspects of airc

and technical aspects of aircraft incidents so as to assist FRS

safe systems of work (SSoW)

safe systems of work (S

cross border incidents where more than one FRS is in

t t incidents with Airport Rescue and Fire Fighting

attenda

nncece nce ervice (RFFS) ervic agency working to agency working t overs the overs the
nncece
nce
ervice (RFFS)
ervic
agency working to
agency working t
overs the
overs the
ent b
ent b

Service (RFFS)

toworking t overs the overs the ent b ent b Service (RFFS) promote interoperability a multi

promote interoperability a

multient b ent b Service (RFFS) to promote interoperability a agency working to resolve aircraft incidents

agency working to resolve aircraft incidents

1.15 This guidance covers the

time period from the receipt of the first emergency call to the

closure of the incident by the FRS Incident Commander (IC).

1.16 In addition to detailed tactical and technical information it also outlines the key operational and strategic responsibilities and considerations that need to be taken into account to enable the FRS to train, test intervention strategies and plan to ensure effective response at an aircraft incident.

Structure

1.17 The Operational Guidance is based on nationally accepted good practice. It is written as an enabling guide based around risk critical operational principles rather than a strict set of

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Section 3 - Preface

rules and procedures. This is done to recognise local differences across the English regions and elsewhere in the UK in terms of risk profiles and levels of resources.

1.18 Section 8 contains the bulk of the guidance and is divided into three parts:

Part A – Preplanning Considerations

Part B – Operational Considerations – Generic Standard Operating Procedure

Part C – Technical Considerations

Part A: Preplanning Contains information that supports FRS personnel in a number of roles when
Part A: Preplanning
Contains information that supports FRS personnel in a number of roles when
n
a num
undertaking preparatory work for dealing with aircraft incidents that may occur in
ft incidents th
their service area.
This section covers planning considerations at both the strategic level when
ns
at both the strategic le
planning for service wide response options and for those associated with local
ns and for those associated
site specific risks.
Part B: Operational Considerations – erations – Generic neric Standard Operating Procedure Provides guidance to
Part B: Operational Considerations –
erations –
Generic
neric
Standard Operating
Procedure
Provides guidance to FRS personnel on
FRS personnel on
responding to and resolving aircraft
incidents. It is struct
ured around six eme
ured around six emergency response phases common to all
operational incidents.
ents.
The procedu
re detailed in
detailed in
this part of the guidance uses the Incident Command
this part of the
System (ICS) decision making model
ision making model
as its foundation. It is Generic Standard
Operati
ng Procedure (GS
ng Procedure (GSOP) for
dealing with aircraft incidents that FRS can
adopt or adapt depending on their individual risk assessments and resources.
t or adapt depending on
Each section of the GSOP details comprehensive but not exhaustive lists divided
ach section of the GSOP de
into:
possible actions
possible act
possible operational considerations
ssibl
It should be stressed that these are not mandatory procedures. They are a ‘tool
box’ of operational considerations which will act as an enabling guide when
dealing with aircraft incidents.
The GSOP reflects the hazards and control measures of the national Generic
Risk Assessment (GRA) relevant to aircraft incidents.
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Section 3 - Preface

Part C – Technical Information This section contains technical information and operational considerations that may
Part C – Technical Information
This section contains technical information and operational considerations that
may be required by FRS personnel for planning, training and operations. It also
references more detailed guidance that may be of interest to FRS.
This part only contains information with an operational connotation and is not
intended to be an exhaustive technical reference document.

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Section 4 – Legal Framework

Section 4 – Legal Framework Fire and Rescue Service Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents Section 4 –
Section 4 – Legal Framework Fire and Rescue Service Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents Section 4 –
Section 4 – Legal Framework Fire and Rescue Service Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents Section 4 –

Fire and Rescue Service Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents

Section 4 – Legal Framework k

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Section 4 Legal Framework

Section 4 – Legal Framework

1.1 Fire and Rescue Services (FRS) need to be aware of the following legislation. It is relevant to command and control at operational incidents and also in the training environment.

Note:

1.2 This section does not contain detailed legal advice about the legislation. It is just a summary of the relevant legislation, as applied to FRS and firefighters. You should confirm

with your legal team on your FRS compliance with this legislation.

essential

to

recognise cognise cognis that that sed by legi n, an
recognise
cognise
cognis
that that
sed by legi
n, an

any a

1.3 When considering this framework it is

definitive

sed by legislation c

sed by legislation can only be

interpretation of the legal roles and responsibilities impo given by a court of law.

sed ponsibilitie advis advisors. advisors.
sed
ponsibilitie
advis
advisors.
advisors.

1.4 For a full understanding of the responsibilities imposed by the legislation, and by the Fire

sed by the legislation, and b

and Rescue Service National Framework, reference should be made to the relevant

rence should be made to

cognised that the range of

legislation or National Framework. It is also recognised that the range of legislation and

ecognised that t

guidance that could impact on the operational responsibilities of the FRS is extensive and

al responsibilities of the FRS

each FRS should seek guidance from their ir own own legal legal

ar documents.
ar documents.

t in this guidance will assi

1.5 The adoption of the principles set out in this guidance will assi

n this guidance will assi

st st FRS F in achieving suitable

risk control measures such

d appropriate corresponding

and sufficient risk assessments and appropriate corresponding

ropriate corresponding

ther similar documents.

as those referred to in this and other similar documents.

Rescue Servic ices Act 2004 ices Act 2004 ices Act 2004 ch affects FRS. Am
Rescue Servic
ices Act 2004
ices Act 2004
ices Act 2004
ch affects FRS. Am
ch affects FRS. Am
ch affects FRS. Am
oo
d d

Primary Fire and

Rescue Service Leg

Rescue Service Legislation

Fire and Rescue Serv

1.6 This is the main Act Act whi whi

to secure the

ong other things, it obliges FRS (in section 7)

Rescue Services (E iges FRS to m iges FRS to ma mical, biolo mical, biolo
Rescue Services (E
iges FRS to m
iges FRS to ma
mical, biolo
mical, biolo
prov
prov

provision of the p

ersonnel, ersonnel, services and equipment that are necessary to

ormal requirements an

meet all normal requirements an

als also to secure the provision of training for such

personnel. ll

Fire and Rescue Services (Emergencies) (England) Order 2007

Rescue Services (Emerg

1.7 The Order obliges FRS to make provision for decontaminating people following the release

of CBRNE (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, explosives) contaminants (article 2)

and also to make

provision for freeing people from collapsed structures and non-road

transport wreckages (regulation 3). The Order also obliges FRS to use their specialist CBRNE or USAR (Urban Search And Rescue) resources outside their own areas to an extent reasonable for dealing with a CBRNE or USAR emergency (regulation 5).

Civil Contingencies Act 2004

1.8 Section 2(1) states, among other things, that FRS shall maintain plans for the purpose of ensuring that if an emergency occurs or is likely to occur the FRS is able to perform its functions so far as necessary or desirable for the purpose of preventing the emergency, reducing controlling or mitigating its effects or taking other action in connection with it.

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Section 4 – Legal Framework

The Civil Contingencies Act 2004 (Contingency Planning) Regulations 2005

1.9 FRS must cooperate with each other in connection with the performance of their duties under Section 2(1) of the Civil Contingencies Act 2004. In addition, the Regulations state that FRS may facilitate cooperation by entering into protocols with each other (regulation 7), that FRS may perform duties under Section 2(1) jointly with one another and make arrangements with one another for the performance of that duty (regulation 8).

Primary Health & Safety at Work Legislation

Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007

July 2007.

manslaughter in England, Wales and Northern Ireland,

Scotland.

iven iven Roy 008, 008, it it is is , , and and and cor
iven
iven
Roy
008,
008,
it it
is is
, ,
and
and
and
cor
cor
nd ar

porate h

1.10 The Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act was given

The offence came into

force on

6 th

Royal assent on 26 th

cal called corporate

April 2008,

corporate homicide in

fety l lar, the way in d d
fety l
lar, the way
in
d d

1.11 FRS that take their obligations under health and safety law seriously and are not likely to

fety law seriously a

nd are no

be in breach of the new provisions. Nonetheless,

FRS should keep their health and safety

FRS should keep their healt

management systems under review, in particular, the way in which their activities are

managed or organised by senior management. nt.

investigated by the Police. Prosecution decisions

Wales), W the Crown Office

and Procurator Fiscal Service (Scotland) and the Director of Public Prosecutions (Northern

Ireland).

Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974

ular, the way in which their

1.12 Any alleged breaches of this act will be

investigated by the

Any alleged breaches of this act will be investigated by the Police. ion Serv ice (England

Police.

ion Serv ice (England an

will be made by the Crown Prosecution Service (England an

n Service (England an

tland) and the Director of Pub

) and the Director of Pu

tc Act 1974 tc Act 19 cal, the health, safety a
tc Act 1974
tc Act 19
cal, the health, safety a
FRS FRS FRS am am
FRS
FRS
FRS
am
am

among

other

1.13 This Act applies to all employers in relation to health and safety. It is a wide ranging piece

in relation to health and safety. It is a wide ranging piece mployers in relation to

mployers in relation to health

ery general terms, impo ses t

of legislation but in very general terms, imposes t

ry general terms, imposes t

he general duty on FRS to ensure, so far

as is reasonably practical, the health, safety and welfare at work of all of their employees

(section 2(1)).

ractical, the health, safety an

gulati gulati on on obliges obliges nt of the risks to th y (regulation 3(1
gulati
gulati
on on
obliges obliges
nt of the risks to th
y
(regulation 3(1
of the princ
of the princi
the effe
the effe
the effe

ctct

Management of Health and Safety a

sufficient

assessment of the risks to the health and safety of firefighters to which they are exposed

To implement any preventive and protective measures

on the basis of the principles specified in the Regulations (regulation 4). To make

whilst on duty (regulation 3(1

nt of Health and Safety a

Work Wo Regulations 1999

things,

to

1.14 This

regulati

make

suitable

and

nt of the risks to the h

)(a)). )

arrangements for

ctive planning, organisation, control, monitoring and review of the

preventive and protective measures (regulation 5) and to provide such health surveillance as is appropriate having regard to the risks to health and safety which are identified by the risk assessment (regulation 6).

Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998

1.15 This regulation obliges FRS to ensure that work equipment is constructed or adapted as to be suitable for the purpose for which it is used or provided (regulation 4(1)). FRS must have regard to the working conditions and to the risks to the health and safety of firefighters which exist in the premises in which the equipment is to be used and any

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Section 4 – Legal Framework

additional risk posed by the use of that equipment (regulation 4(2)). The Regulations also contain provisions about maintenance, inspection, specific risks, information and instructions and training regarding work equipment.

Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992

1.16 This regulation obliges FRS to ensure that suitable Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is provided to firefighters (regulation 4(1)). The Regulations contain provisions as to the suitability of PPE, compatibility of PPE, assessment of PPE, maintenance and replacement of PPE, storage for PPE, information, instruction and training regarding the PPE and the use of PPE.

1.17 Any PPE purchased by an FRS must comply with the Personal Protective Equipment nal
1.17 Any PPE purchased by an FRS must comply with the Personal Protective Equipment
nal Prote
al
P
Regulations 2002 and be ‘CE’ marked by the manufacturer to show that it satisfies certain
show that it s
show
essential safety requirements and, in some cases, has been tested and certified by an
en tested
en tested
and cer
approved body.
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002
ons 2002
ons 2
1.18 FRS must ensure that the exposure of firefight
ers to
ers to subs tances hazardous
ers to substances hazardous to health is
ances hazardous
either prevented or, where prevention is not reasonably practicable, adequately controlled
easonably practicable, adequ
sonably practi
(regulation 7(1)). Where it is not reasonably practicable for rr
y practicable fo
cable fo
FRS FRS to to prev prevent the hazardous
exposure of firefighters, FRS must, among other things, provide firefighters with suitable
ng other things, provide fi re
ngs, p
Respiratory Personal Equipment (RPE) which must comply with the Personal Protective
E) which must comply with t
) which must comply
Equipment Regulations 2002 and other ther
(HSE).
standards set by the H
ealth e
and Safety Executive
Dangerous Substances and
Explosiv e Atmospheres Regu
Explosiv
Explosive Atmospheres Regulations 2002
osphe
1.19 FRS are obliged to eliminate
inate
inate
or reduce risks to safet
or reduce risks to safety from fire, explosion or other events
duce risks to
arising from the hazardous properties of a ‘dangerous substance’. FRS are obliged to
ardous properties of a ‘dan
carry out a suitable ble
and sufficient assessm
and sufficient assessment of the risks to firefighters where a
dangerous substance is or may be present (regulation 5). FRS are required to eliminate or
tance is or may be present (r
r may b
reduce risk so far as is reasonably practicable. Where risk is not eliminated, FRS are
o
far as is reasona
far as is reasonably pract
required, s
o
far as is reasonably pr
far as is reasonably practi
far as is reasonably practicable and consistent with the risk assessment, to
apply measures to control risks and mitigate any detrimental effects (regulation 6(3)). This
easures to control risks and
includes
the p
the p
the p
rovision of suitable P
rovision of suitable PPE (regulation 6(5)(f)).
uita
Confined Spaces Regulations 1997
aces Regulations
1.20 No firefighter must enter a confined space to carry out work for any purpose unless it is not
t t
enter a
enter a
reasonably practicable to achieve that purpose without such entry (regulation 4(1)). If entry
ble
ble

to a confined space is unavoidable, firefighters must follow a safe system of work (SSoW) (including use of breathing apparatus) (regulation 4(2)) and put in place adequate emergency arrangements before the work starts (regulation 5).

The Work at Height Regulation 2005 (as amended)

1.21 This regulation replaces all of the earlier regulations about working at height. The Work at Height Regulations 2005 consolidates previous legislation on working at height and

implements European Council Directive 2001/45/EC concerning minimum safety and health

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Section 4 – Legal Framework

requirements for the use of equipment for work at height (The Temporary Work at Height Directive).

Other Subject Specific Legislation

ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation, Annex 14) Aerodrome

1.22 The International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) was founded at the Chicago Convention in 1944. The convention established international standards for the safe, orderly and efficient operation of global air transportation. These standards and recommended practices are promulgated in a series of annexes and encompass a range of requirements for aviation safety.

for rescue and firefighting

for rescue a for r quirements are ap quirement viation Authority. viation Authori
for rescue a
for
r
quirements are ap
quirement
viation Authority.
viation Authori

1.23 Annex 14 titled “Aerodromes” specifies the requirements

services at airports. In order to ensure these generic requirements are applied within

countries, each country has established its own national Aviation Authority.

ean
ean

1.24 Within the United Kingdom this is the Civil Aviation A the Department for Transport.

European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA)

uthority (CAA), which is

sponsored spon by

1.25 The European Union has established the European Aviation Safety Agency which

the European Aviation Sa

promotes operating standards of safety and environmental protection in civil aviation within

and environmental pr

y and environmental protec tio

y. nisatio Annex Anne
y.
nisatio
Annex Anne

Org Organisation, anisation,

europe and worldwide. It is the centrepiece of a new system which provides a single

ntrepiece of a new system

epiece of a new syste

(International

UN

Recommendations

industry.

european regulator in the aviation industry.

ICAO

‘Transportation of Dangerous Goods by Air’

Civil Aviation Aviation Aviation us Goods by Air’ us Goods he he ds to be
Civil
Aviation
Aviation
Aviation
us Goods by Air’
us Goods
he
he
ds to be carried safely.
r

18)

1.26 Annex 18 specifies the

broad standards and re

c commended practices to be followed to

goods to be carried safely.

enable dangerous goods to be carried safely.

1.27 The Annex contains fairly stable material requiring only infrequent amendment using the

e n Authority n Aut on Authorit on Authorit 2 2 as as
e
n Authority
n Aut
on Authorit
on Authorit
2 2
as
as

ntains fairly stable material

tains fairly stable

normal Annex amendment process. The Annex also makes binding upon contracting

ex amendment process. Th

ex amendment proce

States the provisions of the technical instructions, which contain the very detailed and

provisions of the technic

provisions of the technical

us instructions necessary for

numerous instructions necessary for the correct handling of dangerous cargo.

Civil Aviation Authority

1.28 The Civil Aviati

on Authority (CAA), which is a public corporation, was established by

Parliament in 1972 as an independent specialist aviation regulator and provider of air

traffic services.

1.29 The CAA is the UK's independent specialist aviation regulator. Its activities include economic regulation, airspace policy, safety regulation and consumer protection.

1.30 The UK Government requires that the CAA costs are met entirely from its charges on those whom it regulates. Unlike many other countries, there is no direct government funding of the CAA work.

5

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Section 4 – Legal Framework

1.31 The CAA publishes numerous Guidance Publications which the aviation world must adhere to. Below are two Civil Aviation Publications (CAP) of particular relevance.

CAP 168, Licensing of Aerodromes

1.32 The UK CAA requirements related to licensed aerodromes are contained in CAP168 - Licensing of Aerodromes. This CAP is a code of practice for licensed aerodromes. In particular, Chapter 8 defines the UK RFFS requirements and Chapter 9 defines the emergency planning requirements based on the ICAO Standards And Recommended Practices (SARPs).

CAP 403, Flying Displays and Special Events Guidance

1.33 Air displays and aerial special events form a significant part

of the UK l of th administration, n adminis achieved an
of the UK l
of th
administration, n
adminis
achieved an

of the UK leisure industry

today and participation, together with their organisation and administration, needs careful

consideration if the highest safety standards are to be

achieved and mainta

achieved and maintained. This

publication is intended as a code of practice and an indicator of best practice to provide

d Aerodromes nsed to a
d Aerodromes
nsed
to a

dicator of best pr

dicator of best practice to

guidance to ensure that the safety of both the participants and the spectators is not

compromised.

sed Aerodromes

CAP 793, Safe Operating Practices at Unlicensed Aerodromes

articipants and the spectator

rticipants and the spe

1.34 Flight training activities are now permitted at unlicensed airports / airstrips and this CAP

d at unlicensed airports / air

gives guidance on the emergency procedure that such operations will be expected to

ocedure that such operatio

ocedure that such op

ners who will need vision accordingly. ents
ners who will need
vision accordingly.
ents

provide. This is of relevant to FRS plan lan

to ass

to assess the scale of the risks

ing provision accordingly.

involved and make suitable planning provision accordingly.

Civil Aviation (Investigation of Air

f Air Air 6 no 2798, gives the S tions into aircra cident or or
f Air
Air
6
no 2798, gives the S
tions into aircra
cident
or or
incident under th
It shall
not be tthhe
not be the

Accidents and Incidents)

Regulations 1996

1.35 Statutory Instrument 1996 no 2798, gives the Secretary of State for Transport the powers

no 2798, gives the Secreta

to undertake investigations into aircraft accidents and incidents. The sole objective of the

tions into aircraft acci dents a

accident

investigation of an accident

incident under these regulations shall be the prevention of

cidents. It shall

accidents and incidents. It shall

blame or liability.

purpose of such investigation to proportion

ty. ty. er Reading er Reading al Gui al Gui dance on t he dance
ty.
ty.
er Reading
er Reading
al Gui
al Gui
dance on t he
dance on the
he
past.
past.
past.
icula
Manual
Manual

Further Reading

1.36 Operational Gui

ma management of risk in the operational environment has been

issued in the

In particular

In particular, refer to:

Fire Service Manualbeen issued in the In particular In particular, refer to: Volume 2 (3rd edition) Incident Command

Volume 2 (3rd edition) Incident Command

Fire and Rescue Operational Assessment Toolkit 2009Fire Service Manual Volume 2 (3rd edition) Incident Command Integrated Risk Management Plan (IRMP) Guidance Notes

Integrated Risk Management Plan (IRMP) Guidance NotesCommand Fire and Rescue Operational Assessment Toolkit 2009 HSEs guidance booklet HSG53: Respiratory protective

HSEs guidance booklet HSG53: Respiratory protective equipment at work: A practical guide2009 Integrated Risk Management Plan (IRMP) Guidance Notes Fire Service Manual Volume 2 – Safe Working

Fire Service Manual Volume 2 – Safe Working Near, On or In WaterRespiratory protective equipment at work: A practical guide Fire Service Manual Volume 2 – Safe Working

Fire Service Manual Volume 2 – Safe Working at HeightManual Volume 2 – Safe Working Near, On or In Water 6 PDF created with pdfFactory

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Section 4 – Legal Framework

Fire Service Manual Volume 2 – Firefighting Foam (Operational)Section 4 – Legal Framework Fire Service Manual Volume 2 – Environmental Protection Guidance on Aerodrome

Fire Service Manual Volume 2 – Environmental ProtectionService Manual Volume 2 – Firefighting Foam (Operational) Guidance on Aerodrome Safety Standards - www.caa.co.uk

Guidance on Aerodrome Safety Standards - www.caa.co.uk www.caa.co.uk

_services_and_airfield_operators_2008.cfm

CAP 393 Air Navigation Orderemergency _services_and_airfield_operators_2008.cfm dance t danc hief hief Of ficer n n Standards, App

dance t danc hief hief Of ficer n n Standards, App Standa . . .
dance t
danc
hief
hief
Of
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n n
Standards, App
Standa
. .
.
In addition,
In addition,
In addition,

1.37 The Fire Service College maintain a bibliography of technical guidance to which FRS can

refer (Fire Service Manuals, Fire Service Circulars, Dear Chief

Officer Letters, Dear

Firemaster Letters, Technical Bulletins, British and European Standards, Approved Codes

of Practice, Health and Safety Executive (HSE) Guidance) )

technical technical guidance

is available on the Communities and Local Governme

nt (CLG) website and at the Chief

and Local Governme nt (CLG) website and at the Chief nt (CLG) website and at th

nt (CLG) website and at th

nt (CLG) website

Fire and Rescue Adviser (CFRA) library. However, F of these documents within their own libraries.

However, F of these documents within their own libraries. RS should maintain up to dat RS

RS should maintain up to dat

RS should maintain up to date copies

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Section 5 – Strategic Role of Operational Guidance

Section 5 – Strategic Role of Operational Guidance ational Guidance ational Guid ational Gui Fire and
Section 5 – Strategic Role of Operational Guidance ational Guidance ational Guid ational Gui Fire and
ational Guidance ational Guid ational Gui
ational Guidance
ational Guid
ational Gui

Fire and Rescue Service Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents

Section 5 –

Strategic Role of f Oper Oper

Incidents Section 5 – Strategic Role of f Oper Oper 1 PDF created with pdfFactory trial

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Section 5 – Strategic Role of Operational Guidance

Section 5 Strategic Role of Operational Guidance Strategic Perspective

1.1 Strategic managers and Fire and Rescue Service (FRS) are responsible for ensuring that their organisation and personnel operate safely when dealing with incidents involving aircraft. Their legal duties and responsibilities are contained in Section 4.

1.2 FRS should continually strategically assess the risk, in terms of the foreseeable likelihood

 

fo

for

ass

assess

ings w

ings will help t

in place for

in place for dealing

iding, at least, the mini

ty of care’? The following p

ty of care’? The following pr

rations must be legal and within the requirements of regulations

e requiremmenentsts oof regulations

 

ccononsistsistenten with voluntary co

lunta

ises andand proprocceeddureures

blem should have

ontrol a problem should have

 

mmuustst bbee eetthical

 

of an

of an in

cidenntt ccaann bbee ddeefifinen

n emergency. In many sc

of an emergency. In many sc

 

ours. It encompasse

tter of hours. It encompasse

emergency itself (e.

emergency itself (e.g. fighting

.

.

disru

disrupti

onn,, mmeeddiiaa iinntteererest).

eric key roles of the F

eric key roles of the FR S att

 

ee

eevvenentt fifirreses

 

and severity, of aircraft incidents occurring within their areas. This assessment should form

part of their integrated risk management plan (IRMP). The findings will help them to ensure

they have appropriate organisation, policy and procedures in place for dealing with aircraft

incidents.

1.3 How do

strategic managers know if they are providing, at least, the minimum level of

iding, at least, the minimum

acceptable service or possibly meeting their ‘duty of care’? The following principles will

assist strategic managers in answering the question: stion: tion:

opestrategic managers in answering the question: stion: tion: actions and decisions should be consistent with voluntary

actions and decisions should be consistent with voluntary consensus stmanagers in answering the question: stion: tion: ope andards and nationally recommended practises and procedures

andards and

nationally recommended practises and procedures

actions and decisions to control a problem should have a technical foundationandards and nationally recommended practises and procedures actions and decisions must be ethical 1.4 The response

actions and decisions must be ethicalto control a problem should have a technical foundation 1.4 The response phase of an incident

1.4 The response phase of an incident can be defined as the actions taken to deal with the

immediate effects of an emergency. In many scenarios it is likely to be relatively short and

to last for a matter of hours. It encompasses the effort to deal not only with the direct

effects of the emergency itself (e.g. fighting fires, rescuing individuals) but also the indirect

effects (e.g. disruption, media interest).

1.5 The generic key roles of the FRS attending aircraft incidents are:

save lifekey roles of the FRS attending aircraft incidents are: fight and prevent fires manage hazardous materials

fight and prevent firesroles of the FRS attending aircraft incidents are: save life manage hazardous materials and protect the

manage hazardous materials and protect the environmentaircraft incidents are: save life fight and prevent fires mitigate damage from fires or fire fighting

mitigate damage from fires or fire fightingfires manage hazardous materials and protect the environment ensure the health and safety of fire service

ensure the health and safety of fire service responders and the general publicthe environment mitigate damage from fires or fire fighting safety management within the inner cordon 1.6

safety management within the inner cordonand safety of fire service responders and the general public 1.6 When called to attend a

1.6 When called to attend a significant aircraft incident the FRS has strategic multi-agency responsibilities. These are additional, and in the main complementary, to the specific fire

2

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Section 5 – Strategic Role of Operational Guidance

and rescue functions that the FRS performs at the scene. The strategic intention is to co- ordinate effective multi-agency activity in order to:

preserve and protect livesto co- ordinate effective multi-agency activity in order to: mitigate and minimise the impact of an

mitigate and minimise the impact of an incidentactivity in order to: preserve and protect lives inform the public and maintain public confidence prevent,

inform the public and maintain public confidencelives mitigate and minimise the impact of an incident prevent, deter and detect crime assist an

prevent, deter and detect crimean incident inform the public and maintain public confidence assist an early return to normality (or

assist an early return to normality (or as near to it as can be reamaintain public confidence prevent, deter and detect crime sonably achieved) resp responsibi eearnarned ery phases

sonably achieved)

resp responsibi eearnarned ery phases of a major incide n n of o leadership in
resp
responsibi
eearnarned
ery phases of a major incide
n
n
of
o leadership in the form of
p in th
is fully
s fully described in the Fi
described in th
rd
rd
2 Fire Service Operations, 3
, 3
edditiitionon,, 22008008)) IInnciciddenentt CC
values of the service, which are:
hich are:
people
oo tthhee ccoommmunmunityity
lues are intrinsic to everythi
lues are intrinsic to everyth
safety and well being of
safety and well being o
safety and well being o
their crews at the forefront of their
ss
IItt iiss iimmporporttaanntt tthat
managers.
nagers.
nager
s
s
been d
been d
elo
elo

1.7 Other important common strategic objectives flowing from these responsibilities are to:

participate in judicial, public, technical, or other inquiries ssobjectives flowing from these responsibilities are to: evaluate the response and identify lessons to be learned

evaluate the response and identify lessons to be learnedin judicial, public, technical, or other inquiries ss FRS involvement in the restoration and recovery phases

FRS involvement in the restoration and recovery phases of a major incidentss evaluate the response and identify lessons to be learned ery phases of a major inciden

ery phases of a major inciden

Values

1.8 The FRS expresses its values and vision of leadership in the form of a simple model. The

model has been named Aspire and is fully described in the Fire and Rescue Manual

(Volume

the core

edition, 2008) Incident Command. It has at its heart

diversitycore edition, 2008) Incident Command. It has at its heart our improvement service to the community

our2008) Incident Command. It has at its heart diversity improvement service to the community 1.9 These

improvement2008) Incident Command. It has at its heart diversity our service to the community 1.9 These

service to the communityCommand. It has at its heart diversity our improvement 1.9 These values are intrinsic to everything

1.9 These values are intrinsic to everything FRS strive to achieve at an operational incident,

with the

policies and

procedures. It is important that core values are recognised and promoted by all FRS

strategic

1.10 This guidance has been drafted with a view to ensure that equality and diversity issues are

considered and develo

ped and has undergone full Equality Impact Assessment (EIA) in

line with priority one of the Equality and Diversity Strategy.

Status of Operational Guidance

1.11 Operational Guidance is made available to promote and develop good practice within the FRS, and is offered as a benchmark standard for FRS.

1.12 The various publications issued by Communities and Local Government (CLG) aim to establish consistency in understanding, application, practice and standard operating

3

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Section 5 – Strategic Role of Operational Guidance

procedures, in order to maintain high standards of efficiency and safety in the interests of employers, employees and the general public.

1.13 CLG compiles these documents using the best sources of information known at the date of issue. The publications are intended for use by competent persons and the application does not, therefore, remove the need for technical and managerial judgement in practical situations and with due regard to local circumstances, nor do they confer any immunity or exemption from relevant legal requirements, including by-laws.

1.14 The onus of responsibility for the application lies with the user. CLG cannot accept legal liability or responsibility whatsoever, for the consequences of the use or misuse of the publications.

on on FRS, FR Operational

duty duty duty o o assist assist re sponsibilitie onal Guidance e e
duty
duty
duty
o o
assist
assist
re sponsibilitie
onal Guidance
e e

1.15 Adhering to Operational Guidance is not in itself a legal

Guidance is offered as an example of good practice to assist

FRS FRS in in determining

appropriate practices and procedures to meet their legal l

responsibilities. It is s

responsibilities. It is suggested

that departure from the principles contained in Ope

rati rati rati rk for a safe s for a c the aviation ind the
rati
rati
rati
rk for a safe
s for a c
the aviation ind
the aviation industr

onal Guidance will need

onal Guidance will need a risk

FRS F have

assessed alternative, clearly illustrating that the legal responsibilities of th

been met.

gal responsibilities of th

ework for a safe

1.16 This Operational Guidance presents a framework for a safe

system system of of w work (SSoW) for

operations at aircraft incidents. It therefore, provides for a consistency of approach across

, provides for a c onsistency

the FRS and forms the basis for common operational practices, supporting interoperability

n operational practice s, supp

ces and ces und and enhances
ces and
ces
und and enhances

n operational practi

vices and

across the FRS, other emergency services and

practices

drive toward common principles, practices

the aviation industry and other groups. The

anndd pprorocceeddureuress ssuu

and procedures su

The anndd pprorocceeddureuress ssuu and procedures su pports the development of ident ground and enhances safer

pports the development of

ident ground and enhances

safer systems of work on the incident ground and enhances

n national resilience.

Operational Guidance Review Protocols

ance Review Protoc

ance Review P dance danc will be reviewed for e reviewed for of pu of
ance Review P
dance
danc
will be reviewed for
e reviewed for
of pu
of pu
of pu
blic
ation). The Opera
oning the review and

1.17 This Operational Guidance will be reviewed for

it its currency and accuracy in xxxx year

(three years from date ate

blication). The Operational Guidance Programme Board will be

responsible for commissi ommissi

any decision for revision or amendment.

for commissi ommissi any decision for revision or amendment. 1.18 The Operati onal Guidance Progra mme
for commissi ommissi any decision for revision or amendment. 1.18 The Operati onal Guidance Progra mme

1.18 The Operati

onal Guidance Progra

mme mme Board may decide that a full or partial review is

required

electron

within this period. Any re

within this period. Any revi

within this period. Any revisions or amendments will be made only to the

icic vveerrssiioonn ooff tthhisis OOppere ationa

ic version of this Operational Guidance available at:

iti iti e e s s go go v. v. u u k/xxxxx k/xxx 4 PDF

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Section 6 – Generic Risk Assessment

Section 6 – Generic Risk Assessment sessment en Fire and Rescue Service Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents
Section 6 – Generic Risk Assessment sessment en Fire and Rescue Service Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents
sessment en
sessment
en

Fire and Rescue Service Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents

Section 6 –

Generic Risk Assessment

Aircraft Incidents Section 6 – Generic Risk Assessment 1 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version

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Section 6 – Generic Risk Assessment

Section 6 Generic Risk Assessment (GRA)

1.1 Due to the size and nature of the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS) and the wide range of activities in which it becomes involved, there is the potential for the risk assessment process to become a time consuming activity. To minimise this and avoid having inconsistencies of approach and outcome, Communities and Local Government (CLG) have produced a series of Generic Risk Assessments (GRA). These GRAs have been produced as a tool to assist individual FRS in drawing up their own assessments to meet

the requirements of the Management of Health and Safety at Work

Reg Reg f f the the ecific GRAs that ecific GR r r dealing with
Reg
Reg
f f
the
the
ecific GRAs that
ecific GR
r r
dealing with
dealing with

Regulations 1999.

1.2 There are occasions when the risks and hazards sited in any of the

GRAs GRAs may m need to be

considered at an aircraft incident. However there are specific GRAs that FRS should

consider when developing their policy and procedures for dealing with

o

aircraft aircraft incidents.

They have been used as the foundations of the information and guidance contained in this

Operational Guidance.

s are: are: stems – Air Air bbliclicaatitionons/s/ffiirree//ggrra43a4
s are:
are:
stems – Air
Air
bbliclicaatitionons/s/ffiirree//ggrra43a4

ation and guidance containe

ation and guidance c

1.3 GRAs of particular relevance to aircraft incidents are:

4.3.

Incidents Involving Transport Systems – Air

part of their o o wn risk f the FRS nor
part of their o
o
wn risk
f the FRS nor

4.5.

Working with Helicopters

1.4 FRS should use these GRAs as part of their o

s as r ed as of the information co
s
as
r
ed as
of the information co
as part of their o s as r ed as of the information co wn risk

wn risk assessment strategy not as an

alternative or substitute for it. They are designed to help FRS assess their specific risks,

it. They are designed to he

and should be considered as part of the FRS normal planning process. It is suggested that

FRS:

ed as part of the FRS normal

check the validity of the information contained in the GRA against their FRS currentIt is suggested that FRS: ed as part of the FRS normal validity of the information

validity of the information co

ssuresures urrent controls, for the Service’s me ther regu ther regu
ssuresures
urrent controls, for
the Service’s me
ther regu
ther regu

of current controls, for

using

es and identify an

practices and identify any additional or alternative hazards, risks and control

es and identify any additio

measures

evaluate the severity and likelihood of hazards causing harm, and the effectivenessrisks and control es and identify any additio measures example, ex operational procedures, training and PPE

example, ex operational procedures, training and PPE etc., by

valuate the severity and like

the Service’s methodology

consider other regulatory requirementsby valuate the severity and like the Service’s methodology identify additional measures which will be needed

identify additional measures which will be needed to reduce the risk, so far as is reasonably practicablemethodology consider other regulatory requirements discuss with Rescue Fire Fighting Service (RFFS) to ensure

discuss with Rescue Fire Fighting Service (RFFS) to ensure consistency, gap analysis, interoperability and complete a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU)to reduce the risk, so far as is reasonably practicable put those additional measures and arrangements

put those additional measures and arrangements in placeand complete a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) discuss interoperability with their local RFFS to ensure

put those additional measures and arrangements in place discuss interoperability with their local RFFS to ensure

discuss

interoperability

with

their

local

RFFS to ensure consistency, gap analysis and

2

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Section 6 – Generic Risk Assessment

1.5 GRAs provide a guide to the type of information, arrangements and training that should be given to the Incident Commander (IC), firefighters and any other personnel likely to be affected.

1.6 Full guidance on the GRAs is contained in Occupational health, safety and welfare:

Guidance for fire services: Generic Risk Assessments.

Guidance for fire services: Generic Risk Assessments. 3 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version

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Section 7 – Key Principles

Section 7 – Key Principles Fire and Rescue Service Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents Section 7 –
Section 7 – Key Principles Fire and Rescue Service Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents Section 7 –
Section 7 – Key Principles Fire and Rescue Service Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents Section 7 –

Fire and Rescue Service Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents

Section 7 – Key Principles

Guidance Aircraft Incidents Section 7 – Key Principles 1 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version

1

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Section 7 Key Principles

Section 7 – Key Principles

1.1 Fire and Rescue Service (FRS) will be called to attend aircraft incidents and FRS has an obligation to attend.

1.2 Each FRS should develop clear policy and direction for personnel to follow at foreseeable incidents.

1.3 Safe systems of work should be developed based on the Generic Risk

operational guidance, but should

be

geared

Risk Risk FRS FRS FRS indi t t Plan (IRMP). Plan usual for the Airp
Risk
Risk
FRS
FRS
FRS
indi
t t
Plan (IRMP).
Plan
usual for
the Airp

Assessment (GRA)

and

and

resources, as identified within the Integrated Risk Management Plan (IRMP).

towards

individual risk

1.4 FRS has the statutory responsibility under the Fire and Rescue Services

Rescue Services

rt it is ligations under ligations under ligations under
rt
it
is
ligations under
ligations under
ligations under

undertake firefighting and rescue operations at an

Commander (AIC) to initially command the in

attendance they are obliged to exercise their ob b of joint fire and rescue operations.

Act 2004

Act 2004 (Act) to

aircraft incident on

or or off off airport.

are

However, at an incident which occurs on airport it is usual for the Airport Incident

in

the the Act Act and and take command

the Airport Incident in the the Act Act and and take command the Airpor cident. However,

the Airpor

cident. However, once the

FRS

1.5 FRS joint working with the Rescue Fire Fighting Service (RFFS) should be documented in

Fighting Service (RFFS) sh

(RFFS) should be documented in Fighting Service (RFFS) sh rt Emergency Plan. den will not witho
rt Emergency Plan. den will not witho will not witho adjace adj
rt Emergency Plan.
den
will not witho
will not witho
adjace
adj

irport Emergency Plan.

a MoU and should form part of the Airport Emergency Plan.

airport incident

1.6 FRS Officers attending an on airport incident

will not without good cause or reason alter

the tactical plans of the RFF

S. S. S. aft accident occurri ng aft accident oc ake technical and tactic ctic
S.
S.
S.
aft accident occurri ng
aft accident oc
ake technical and tactic
ctic

1.7 In the event of an aircraft accident occurring

adjacent to a licensed airport with an RFFS,

both the FRS and RFFS will attend. The senior

FFS will attend. The senior

FRS Officer in attendance will have full

tactical control and will will t t

ake technical and tactical advice from the attending AIC.

an accident i an accident i an accident i rce (RAF rce (RAF C C
an accident i
an accident i
an accident i
rce (RAF
rce (RAF
C C
m
m

1.8 Due to the complex and specialised nature of aircraft incidents, effective liaison at an early

nature of aircraft incidents, effective liaison at an early omplex and specialised natur stage is essential.

omplex and specialised natur

stage is essential. Incident command

ssential. Incident command

ers er must ensure that timely and appropriate liaison is police, ambulance services and Air Traffic Control

established with responding RFFS,

(ATC).

hed with responding RFFS,

1.9 In the case of

nvolving a military aircraft, liaison should be established with

the Royal Air Force (RAF), Aeronautical Rescue Coordination Centre (ARCC), based at

RAF Kinloss. ARCC maintain the RAF crash hazards data base, which will include all

military aircraft and will prove invaluable in managing a military related incident.

1.10 A significant feature for FRS attending aircraft incidents is access, egress and evacuation of the public. Incident commanders should quickly assess the incident and relay information back to the Mobilising Centres and oncoming appliances. (See GSOP Section 8 Part B).

1.11 Aircraft incidents off airport are often in remote and difficult locations, which can result in FRS personnel working in very difficult and dangerous environments. Incident

2

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Section 7 – Key Principles

commanders must therefore consider the effects of the incident location in regard to operational equipment, water supplies, logistics and welfare of personnel.

1.12 All crash sites are to be deemed a crime scene, until the Police state otherwise. Therefore FRS must ensure wherever possible, evidence is preserved and records kept of all actions undertaken during firefighting and rescue operations.

1.13 Once all firefighting and rescue operations have ceased the post crash scene should be handed over to the appropriate person/agency.

1.14 FRS will not normally become involved in post accident clean up recovery.

o o o
o
o o

perations or aircraft

accident clean up recovery. o o o perations or aircraft 3 PDF created with pdfFactory trial

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Part A – Preplanning Considerations

Part A – Preplanning Considerations Fi Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents Section 8 – Fire Service Operations
Part A – Preplanning Considerations Fi Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents Section 8 – Fire Service Operations
Part A – Preplanning Considerations Fi Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents Section 8 – Fire Service Operations

Fi

Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents

Section 8 –

Fire Service Operations erationss

Part A –

Preplanning ingg CCoonnssideiderraattiioonn Considerations

1

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Strategic Planning

Part A – Preplanning Considerations

1.1 Planning at a strategic level to ensure that Fire and Rescue Service (FRS) develop and maintain an appropriate and proportionate response to aircraft incidents is fundamental to protecting the public, FRS responders and mitigating the wider impact of any incident. For the purposes of this guidance an aircraft is defined as:

fixed wing rotary wing (helicopters, gyro planes etc) balloon airship glider remotely piloted air systems
fixed wing
rotary wing (helicopters, gyro planes etc)
balloon
airship
glider
remotely piloted air systems
microlight
1.2 The aviation industry in this country forms part of
part of
the Critical Nati onal In
the Critica
the Critical National Infrastructure (CNI)
and consists of a range of both civil and military
nd military
airports that in many instances are
airports that in
airpo
integrated within the wider transportation infrastructure:
on infrastructure:
n infrast
large international airports incorporating passenger services and cargo
ncorporrating passenger servi
ating passenger servi
small/large licensed airports
rports
ports
small/large unlicensed airports/airstrips
nsed airports/airstrips
helipads/decks
ks
both medical and commerc
both medical and commercial
military air bases
ir bases
1.3 The management of an airport and its operation will be the responsibility of:
ement of an airport and it
ement of an airport and it s o
a
irport owners/manage
irport owners/management
irport owners/management - who will maintain and control the airport
infrastructure
astruc
astructure
airline operators - who operate the aircraft and are responsible for any passengers
perators - wh
perators - wh
or goods
air freight operating companies
the Ministry of Defence (MOD)

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Part A – Preplanning Considerations

Strategic Planning Considerations and Duties

1.4 Even a relatively minor aircraft incident has the potential to create significant disruption over a wide area, with potential for national or international implications on commerce, tourism and travel.

1.5 Planners should recognise that due to the complex and diverse nature of aircraft design; construction and use, incidents may result in other related emergencies. Airports form part

of the UK’s critical transportation infrastructure and therefore if an airport operation has to close, terminal buildings become overcrowded and the road network gridlocked within a

matter of hours. Therefore this could result in the possibility of further i njuries to
matter of hours. Therefore this could result in the possibility of further i
njuries to the public,
unrelated to the aircraft incident itself.
1.6 Due to the nature of aircraft incidents and the hazards associated with them, the potential
ated with th em,
ated w
for injury applies not only to FRS personnel but also to m
responding emergency agencies.
embers of
embers of
embers of
the public and other
the public
1.7 In order to ensure incident response is appropriate and proportionate, FRS
and proportionate, FRS
mu must ensure
that preplanning is undertaken. This planning should ensure that dialogue
should
shoul
ensure that dialogue
re that dialogue
takes place
between the FRS and the airport manager/s for the airports
for t he airports
or the airports
to to which which th they are likely to
respond, both civil and military. This will involve establishing structures to ensure
ill
invo
lve establishing stru
lve estab
appropriate liaison at bronze, silver and gold old levels. levels.
1.8 FRS will determine the appropriate and nd
reflect:
proportional response to aircraft incidents. This will
proportional response to a
proportional response t
the size, complexity and relative impor
d d
relative impor
relative impor
ttaannccee ooff tthehe aa
tance of the a
irport within its area
Integrated Risk Management P
anagement P
anagement P
lan (IR
lan (IR
MP) resp
MP
MP) response options
discussions at the regional Resilience Forum e.g. threat level
t the regi onal Resilience Foru
the re
al Resilience Foru
the hazards associated with an individual airport, the type and size of aircraft that
rds associated with an indivi
ds associated w
use the facility and the likely severity and impact of any incident 1
e
facility and the likel
facility and the likely severit
information received from liaison with the airport operators and licensing authority
ormation received from liais
(CAA), this equally applies to military air bases, as it does to civil airports
CAA), this equally app
CAA), this equally applies t
1.9 It will be necessary to ensure the suitability and sufficiency of the response is tested. The
ssary to ensur
ssary to ensure
Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) requires a licensing exercise to be held at all airports on a
uthority (CA
uthority (CA
regular basis. FRS
shoul
shoul
shoul
d play a key part in the planning and execution of such exercises.

1.10 The general duties of the FRS in responding to emergency incidents are contained within the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004.

1.11 The Civil Contingencies Act 2004 (Contingency Planning) Regulations 2005 set out clear responsibilities for category 1 and category 2 responders and their need to participate in local resilience forums.

1 Guide to Risk Assessment Tools, Techniques and Data - Fire Research Series 5/2009

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Part A – Preplanning Considerations

1.12 Most aerodrome managers will have responsibilities under civil contingency act as category 2 2 responders to co-operate and share relevant information with FRS. (Airports that have passenger figures less than 50,000 passengers per year and/or less than 100,000 tonnes of air freight will not be category 2 responders).

1.13 When developing FRS response plans it is essential that planners are cognisant of existing regional multi agency ‘major incident procedures’ and that these complement neighbouring FRS procedures.

1.14 Diagram below shows a risk evaluation cycle:

ing and Resilience For response nal Assurance rom Risk esses and ofiling d evaluate
ing and
Resilience For
response
nal Assurance
rom
Risk
esses and
ofiling
d evaluate

2 The Civil Contingencies Act 2004, CAA (Contingency Planning) Regulations 2005

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Part A – Preplanning Considerations

Underpinning Strategic Knowledge

1.15 To inform and support strategic planning it is essential that FRS personnel tasked with developing emergency response plans should have some underpinning knowledge with regard to:

the geographical locations of airports in relation to other FRSshould have some underpinning knowledge with regard to: the CAA category of the airport concerned the

the CAA category of the airport concernedgeographical locations of airports in relation to other FRS the off airport response distances and geographical

the off airport response distances and geographical boundaries with regard to airport Rescue Fire Fighting Services (RFFS) s with regard to airport Rescue Fire Fighting Services (RFFS)

centres within centr al airports an vil and
centres within
centr
al airports an
vil and

the number and location of the Air Traffic Control (ATC)(RFFS) centres within centr al airports an vil and centres within their area the different types

centres within their area

the different types of aircraft that are likely to use local airports and local airspaceof the Air Traffic Control (ATC) centres within their area cal airports and local ai th

cal airports and local ai

th air frastructure frastructure
th air
frastructure
frastructure

the nature and range of hazards associated with airports, both civil and military andcal airports and local ai th air frastructure frastructure th airports , both civil and milit

th airports , both civil and milit

other associated hazards with this type of infrastructure

RFFS resources and capabilityother associated hazards with this type of infrastructure RFFS intervention tactics o d S are likely

RFFS intervention tacticsthis type of infrastructure RFFS resources and capability o d S are likely to resp 1.16

o d S are likely to resp
o
d
S are likely to resp

1.16 Multi agency liaison will facilitate the

the e

development and maintenance of plans and

development and mai

development and m

procedures that support a strategy to deliver an effective and efficient operational

tegy to de liver an effective

er an effective

response to aircraft incidents to which FRS are likely to respond. This may include:

which FRS are likely to resp

d intervention and ev ports ports nal response to aircraft in vention strategies mana
d
intervention and ev
ports
ports
nal response to aircraft in
vention strategies
mana

FRS/RFFS combined intervention and evacuation strategies for aircraft incidents onports nal response to aircraft in vention strategies mana intervention and evacuati on or adjacent to

intervention and evacuati on

or adjacent to airports

agreed operational response to aircraft incidents with neighbouring FRS, ensuringon intervention and evacuati on or adjacent to airports ational response to aircraft in uniformity of

ational response to aircraft in

neighbouring FRS, ensuring ational response to aircraft in uniformity of intervention strategies of intervention

uniformity of intervention strategies

of intervention strategies

anagement anage s s to exchange to exchange y y respons respons sed o sed
anagement
anage
s s
to exchange
to exchange
y y
respons
respons
sed o
sed o

management

strategic liaison with airportto exchange y y respons respons sed o sed o management port managers and other agencies

port

managers and other agencies

strategies for information gathering to facilitate FRS planning and sceneliaison with airport port managers and other agencies trategies for information gath methods to exchange i

trategies for information gath

methods to exchangeFRS planning and scene trategies for information gath i information at a national/regional level for improving

i information at a national/regional level for improving

emergency response to aircraft incidents for FRS, emergency services and other

agencies ba

outcomes

sed on operational experience e.g. debriefs and shared learning

1.17 Any strategy developed must provide Safe Systems of Work (SSoW) to allow FRS operations to commence with or without the attendance of RFFS, military specialists or other technical advisers.

1.18 A range of activities may be undertaken by FRS to examine performance of plans following exercises or significant incidents. This may include the development of systems and processes to analyse and review the performance of plans, the effectiveness of liaison and training exercises (outcomes/learning) at gold, silver and bronze levels within their

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Part A – Preplanning Considerations

service. This process should not be undertaken in isolation but may include consultation and multi agency debriefs involving:

local airport managers, both civil and militaryinclude consultation and multi agency debriefs involving: RFFS, both civil and military airline operating companies

RFFS, both civil and militaryinvolving: local airport managers, both civil and military airline operating companies other emergency services other

airline operating companiesboth civil and military RFFS, both civil and military other emergency services other statutory agencies Future

other emergency servicesRFFS, both civil and military airline operating companies other statutory agencies Future Developments 1.19 FRS will

other statutory agencies Future Developments 1.19 FRS will be consulted during the planning of airport
other statutory agencies
Future Developments
1.19 FRS will be consulted during the planning of airport facilities and infrastructure or the
cilities and infrastruct
ilities and in
significant upgrading of existing infrastructure that may a
ffect emergency r
ffect emergency response
ffect emergency response or FRS
intervention strategies.
1.20 As part of consultation on future developments, it is important for FRS to actively
nts,
it
is important for
FRS
participate
during
the
development
of
emergency
mergency
rgency
plann
plann
plann
ing ing
assumptions assum
and
on
appropriate intervention strategy. This will ensure that FRS,
ensure that FRS,
that FRS,
airport airport managers/owners man and
CAA expectations are realistic and reasonable. nable.
1.21 To ensure a consistent approach to FRS operations, it is highly desirable that intervention
FRS operations, it is highl
S operations, it is highl
yy d
strategies are agreed with RFFS, , partic partic
ularly in areas of incident command for on or off
ular
ularly
in areas of incid
n areas of incid
airport incidents and they maintain a commonality of approach in terms of responsibilities
tain a commonality of appro
monality of appro
and actions.
1.22 This is particularly important for issues such as:
tant for issues such as:
clear understanding reference the statutory responsibility for the safe management
tanding reference the statuto
ding reference the statuto
of the incident
ent
local
Memorandums of Understa
Memorandums of Understanding (MoU) with regard to standard operating
Memorandums of Un
procedures and handover protocols
cedures and handover proto
cedures and handover prot
int
eroperability of equipment and standard operating procedures
eroperability of equip
eroperability of equipmen
implementation of the
entation of the
entation of the
incident command system
facilities provided
vided
vided
for FRS response e.g. provision and maintenance of rendezvous
points (RVPs), holding areas etc

communications between RFFS and FRSmaintenance of rendezvous points (RVPs), holding areas etc continuous and consistent liaison between the airport

continuous and consistent liaison between the airport operator/RFFS at bronze, silver and gold levelholding areas etc communications between RFFS and FRS 6 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version

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Part A – Preplanning Considerations

Local Planning Responsibilities

1.23 This section is intended to inform and advise at silver and bronze levels on the development of local plans. Local plans will need to dovetail into and form part of, the airport’s emergency plan and may include site specific pre-determined on arrival tactics.

1.24 The development of local plans should reflect the FRS policies, procedures and regional/local risk assessments developed at the strategic level. Local plans should also reflect other guidance within this manual.

1.25 Suitable arrangements should be put in place to gather relevant information to facilitate the

development of local plans for all foreseeable/predictable aircraft incidents and types of

aircraft that FRS may be called to deal with.

t t inci incid accommo tics a
t t
inci
incid
accommo
tics a

type of aircraft o

1.26 Plans should also be developed and flexible enough to

temporary activity. In particular, those affecting size and

accommodate any

accommodate any significant

type of aircraft operating

type of aircraft operating from the

airport or temporary loss of water supplies on or arou

weigh
weigh

nd the airport. Consi

nd the airport. Consideration

nd the airport. Consideration should

also be given to the effect of those changes on agreements.

Liaison

weight of attack,

weight of attack, tactics and previous

tactics and

1.27 Liaison with various stakeholders is essential to ensure that

1.28 Key to efficient and effective

sentia sentia l l to ensure that to ensure that imely
sentia
sentia
l l
to ensure that
to ensure that
imely

the the necessary ne information is

te, timely

secured to inform plans for adequate, timely

and effective respo

and effective response and to create SSoW

and effective res

ncidents.s.

when planning for and attending incidents.

res ncidents.s. when planning for and attending incidents. particular airport in quest operational response to aircraft

particular airport in quest

operational response to aircraft incidents is good and robust

operational response to airc

airport liaison. The level of airport liaison needs to be proportionate to the size and type of

airport liaison needs to be p

risk associated with the

particular airport in question.

particular airport in question.

Airport Emergency Planning Group

rgency Planning Gro

ncy Planning Gro

1.29 The CAA requires all airports to promulgate emergency plans, which among other things

The CAA

also recommends the establishment of an emergency planning group or liaison panel. The

airport li

aison officer together with other representatives from this group must ensure that

aison officer together ully aware of the rvices to the airp rvices to the air
aison officer together
ully aware of the
rvices to the airp
rvices to the air
from th
from th

uires all airports to promulga

to the air from th from th uires all airports to promulga include the arrangement for

include the arrangement for summoning external based emergency services.

arrangement for summonin

arrangement for summ

mmends the establishment

aison officer together with

each are f

arrangements arr for mobilising external based emergency and

supporting services to the airport in the event of an emergency.

1.30 The resultant plan from the emergency planning group must be agreed by all agencies and

tested on a regular basis as required by the CAA.

aass

1.31 The CAA requires that licensed category 3 airports and above have a full scale emergency exercise every two years.

1.32 The exercise should involve the attendance of all externally based emergency and supporting services. It is the role of the emergency planning group to arrange and coordinate the exercise to ensure their respective agencies play a full and active part.

1.33 If an airport operates at night it is a requirement of CAA that the airport's plan is tested in hours of darkness on alternate exercises.

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Part A – Preplanning Considerations

1.34 If an emergency/incident occurs in the time between airport exercises and the airport emergency plan is utilised, it is possible for the emergency planning group to request that the incident is used in lieu of a licensing exercise or part of the exercise. This request must be submitted to the CAA for consideration and supported with detailed logs of all activities undertaken by category 1 and category 2 responders and all interagency debrief learning outcomes.

1.35 The exercise will compose of two principle parts:

1) the operational response to an on/off airport aircraft accident, this will involve front line services dealing with a simulated accident – firefighting, rescues, casualty

triage, scene management gold/silver/bronze – multi agency

inci inci inci centre, frie ce res Inform res Information Ce ort. M
inci
inci
inci
centre, frie
ce
res Inform
res Information Ce
ort. M

d dent command

2) testing the airport plan for organising a survivor reception n n

centre, friends and family

centre, police casualty bureau, Emergency Procedures Information Centre (EPIC)

(See appendix A), media management etc

up for ary ary e Planning Gro
up for
ary
ary
e Planning Gro

1.36 Below is an example of an Emergency Planning Group for Gatwick Airport. Membership of

up for Ga twick Airport. Memb

these emergency planning groups at airports will vary

depending on risk and co

depending on risk and could include

depending on risk and c

Marine Coastguard Agency, MOD, Primary Care Trusts Representatives etc.

Trusts Representatives etc.

Gatwick Resilience Planning Group

Police Police ort Ltd
Police
Police
ort Ltd

Sussex

Gatwick Airport Ltd

Group Police Police ort Ltd Sussex Gatwick Airport Ltd West Sussex Fire and Rescue Service Sussex

West Sussex Fire and Rescue Service

Sussex Fire and Rescu

Gatwick Airport Fire Se South East Port Health Por
Gatwick Airport Fire Se
South East
Port Health
Por
rvice
rvice

Surrey Fire and Rescue Se

Gatwick Airport Fire Service

tho line
tho
line

South East Coast Ambulance Service

Local Authority Emergency Planning Officer

Airline Operators Committee (AOC)

Co-opted Members

1.37 Each year there are over 300 air shows in the UK and these events require detailed planning and a dedicated plan, which will be over and above the airport’s emergency plan. It is essential that FRS airport liaison/planning officers are part of this planning process, which can start many months or years prior to the event. See appendix B for more details on air show planning.

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Part A – Preplanning Considerations

Regional and Inter Agency Liaison

1.38 Aircraft incidents are likely to be complex and resource intensive and may therefore require responses from a number of emergency services, specialist teams and neighbouring FRS. This should be taken into account and as a result close liaison between regional partners is essential for all aspects of preplanning.

Planning Information

1.39 Following relevant research, FRS should ensure that detailed local plans are prepared to

include some or all of the following information. It is imperative that this information is
include some or all of the following information. It is imperative that this information is
hat
hat
made available to all relevant personnel prior to and upon arrival at incidents. This will
al at
al at in
ensure that work activity is planned, supervised and carried out safe
t
t
safe
safe
ly. ly.
1) airport location and topography (including airport crash maps)
ash maps)
ash maps)
2) access
3) RVPs and marshalling areas
4) water supplies and drainage systems
5) RFFS response and capability (civil and military)
vil and military)
vil and military)
6) communications
7) ATC
8) aircraft associated hazards
azards
azards
9) complex locatio
ns/dif
ns/diffi cult environments
ns/difficult environments
nvironments
10) 7(2) (d) familiarisation
miliarisation
sation
visits required by
the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004
1) Airport Location and Topography (including airport crash maps)
cation and Topography (inclu
1.40 Detailed
airport maps should be av
airport maps should be available to personnel prior to and during any aircraft
incident on airfield. Airport
on airfield. Air port
on air
maps should include:
maps sh
ma
access points
ess points
ess p
RVPs
marshalling areas
secondary access points
water supplies
airport infrastructure
principal hazards, fuel storage facilities, armament stores etc

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Part A – Preplanning Considerations

Part A – Preplanning Considerations airport crash map covering runway, overshoot and undershoot areas normally overlaid

airport crash map covering runway, overshoot and undershoot areas normally overlaid with a broad grid reference system

2) Access

1.41 All practical and reasonable areas of access to the airport infrastructure and aircraft manoeuvring areas (airside):

designated access gates and access pointsinfrastructure and aircraft manoeuvring areas (airside): blue light routes landside to airside security gates due to

blue light routesareas (airside): designated access gates and access points landside to airside security gates due to height

landside to airside security gatesdesignated access gates and access points blue light routes due to height r iance provision of

due to height r iance
due to height r
iance

provision of airport escort vehicleslandside to airside security gates due to height r iance tunnels/roads/bridges that may restrict access due

tunnels/roads/bridges that may restrict access due to height restrictions, widthdue to height r iance provision of airport escort vehicles s due to height restriction restrictions

s due to height restriction

restrictions and weight restrictions

access to cargo areasto height restriction restrictions and weight restrictions access to airport infrastructure 3) Rendezvous Points on

access to airport infrastructurerestrictions and weight restrictions access to cargo areas 3) Rendezvous Points on Airport (RVPs) 1.42 When

3) Rendezvous Points on Airport (RVPs)

1.42 When determining the most suitable position for RVPs, consideration must be given to:

le positioitionn fforor RRVPVPs,s, ccononsisiddere

personnel safetyto : le positioitionn fforor RRVPVPs,s, ccononsisiddere nd other difficult locati cation l (lan nd other

nd other difficult locati cation l (lan
nd other difficult locati
cation l
(lan

nd other difficult locations.

access to airside and other difficult locations.locati cation l (lan nd other difficult locations. suitable and sufficient access for appliances and other

suitable and sufficient access for appliances and other responding agencieslocations. access to airside and other difficult locations. fficient access for appliance ufficient access for appl

fficient access for appliance

ufficient access for appl

effective communication location (landlines – fire ground radios)fficient access for appliance ufficient access for appl communication location upplies and Drain s s should

communication location

upplies and Drain s s should i should i Preplann ing ing ing should s
upplies and Drain
s s
should i
should i
Preplann
ing
ing
ing
should s s

shelter (inclement weather) with access to airport maps, general airport informations s should i should i Preplann ing ing ing should s s er (inclement weather)

er (inclement weather) with a

er (inclement weather) w

ccess to suitable and effecti

access to suitable and effective water suppliesa er (inclement weather) w ccess to suitable and effecti 4) Water Supplies and Drainage Systems

4) Water Supplies and Drainage Systems

upplies and Drainag

1.43 Emergency plans should identify all suitable and usable water sources on or adjacent to

and

airports.

augmented water supplies organised as and when or where appropriate:

account

for

seasonal

variations

in

water

levels

public hydrantsappropriate: account for seasonal variations in water levels private hydrants dirty water mains open water supplies

private hydrantsfor seasonal variations in water levels public hydrants dirty water mains open water supplies elevated water

dirty water mainsvariations in water levels public hydrants private hydrants open water supplies elevated water tanks 10 PDF

open water supplieslevels public hydrants private hydrants dirty water mains elevated water tanks 10 PDF created with pdfFactory

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Part A – Preplanning Considerations

drainage facilities on airfield including interceptors and differentiation between foul water and surface water drainagePart A – Preplanning Considerations water relay strategy where required 5) RFFS Response and Capability (civil

water relay strategy where requiredbetween foul water and surface water drainage 5) RFFS Response and Capability (civil and military) 1.44

5) RFFS Response and Capability (civil and military)

1.44 Preplanning must include the type and design of equipment that can be expected to be provided by the RFFS and this should include:

interoperability with FRS equipmentexpected to be provided by the RFFS and this should include: hand over proto hand o

hand over proto hand o
hand over proto
hand o

interoperability of SOPsinteroperability with FRS equipment hand over proto hand o MoU with regard to incident command procedures

MoU with regard to incident command procedures andequipment hand over proto hand o interoperability of SOPs hand over protocols FRS familiarisation of personnel

hand over protocols

FRS familiarisation of personnel with regard to familiarisation ofto incident command procedures and hand over protocols and equipment carried amiliarisation of FFS and FRS

and equipment carried

amiliarisation of

FFS and FRS FFS and FR
FFS and FRS
FFS and FR

RFFS ap

RFFS appliances

clear expectation of initial actions by both RFFS and FRSof FFS and FRS FFS and FR RFFS ap RFFS appliances communications p 6) Communications 1.45

communications p

6) Communications

1.45 As with any type of operational incident management of the incident:

communications play a key role in the successful

communications play a key r

channels between t t RVPs to t RVPs to the R FFS watch ro FS
channels between
t t
RVPs to t
RVPs to the R FFS watch ro
FS
channels where necessary
sessmen
t t
of the aiirp
should be
s s

interoperability of radio channels between FRS, RFFS and other respondingwhere necessary sessmen t t of the aiirp should be s s s between FRS, RF

s between

FRS, RF

FRS, RF

agencies

land line provision at RVPs to the RFFS watch room or ATC where possibleand other responding s between FRS, RF FRS, RF agencies dedicated radio channels where necessary communication

dedicated radio channels where necessaryat RVPs to the RFFS watch room or ATC where possible communication assessmen ation assessmen of

communication assessmenATC where possible dedicated radio channels where necessary ation assessmen of the airport and airport infrastructure

ation assessmen

of the airport and airport infrastructure to identify blind

spots; corrective action

a key agency in airport familia airport familia e e incident incident ll inc ll
a key agency in
airport familia
airport familia
e e
incident
incident
ll inc
ll inc

corrective action

should be taken where necessary to overcome poor

munication areas such a

communication areas such a

base bas stations, booster stations and leaky feeders

7) Air Traffic Control (ATC)

affic Control (ATC)

1.46 ATC will be a key agency in any emergency plan and site specific plan. ATC should be a

ATC will be able to provide critical

commander and FRS mobilising centre from the outset of the

a key agency in an

focus for any airport familiarisation visit 7(2) (d).

information to the incident

emergency. This will include:

number of persons on boardinformation to the incident emergency. This will include: type of emergency type of aircraft airline involved

type of emergencyemergency. This will include: number of persons on board type of aircraft airline involved crash location

type of aircraftwill include: number of persons on board type of emergency airline involved crash location (utilising airport

airline involvedof persons on board type of emergency type of aircraft crash location (utilising airport crash map)

crash location (utilising airport crash map) for accidents on or adjacent to airportson board type of emergency type of aircraft airline involved 11 PDF created with pdfFactory trial

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Part A – Preplanning Considerations

access to handling agent reference hazardous cargo’sPart A – Preplanning Considerations 8) Aircraft Associated Hazards 1.47 There are many different types of

8) Aircraft Associated Hazards

1.47 There are many different types of aircraft in use across the country with wide variations in physical dimensions, capabilities and construction materials. This degree of variation can significantly affect the risks to firefighters, and it is therefore imperative that plans and training strategies include the risk critical aspects of aircraft that are likely to be encountered.

1.48 The use of the Communities and Local Government (CLG) Generic Risk Assessment

for aircraft incident

ess

(GRA) 4.3 and 4.5 should be incorporated into the planning process

and associated hazards.

9) Complex locations/difficult environments

ess

for aircraft a rabili
for aircraft a
rabili
tions tions
tions
tions

1.49 Planning should take into consideration all possible locations

pabil y y incl incl ude:
pabil
y y
incl
incl
ude:

for aircraft accidents

for aircraft accidents on or off

airfield and the difficult environments in which FRS

personnel will be ask

personnel will be asked to

personnel will be asked to operate.

Liaison with RFFS in regard to equipment and capabilities and interoperability with FRS

pabilities and in teroperability

about difficult environments is essential. This may include:

water and mud rescuesabout difficult environments is essential. This may include: rescue from height access to remote locations access

rescue from heightis essential. This may include: water and mud rescues access to remote locations access to exposed

access to remote locationsThis may include: water and mud rescues rescue from height access to exposed locations such as

mud rescues rescue from height access to remote locations access to exposed locations such as hillsides

access to exposed locations such as hillsides and cliffsmud rescues rescue from height access to remote locations for visits to airports, FRS to airp

for visits to airports, FRS to airp pe ly to accessing the infrastr ly to
for visits to airports, FRS
to airp
pe
ly to accessing the infrastr
ly to accessing the
ans, arrangem
ans, arrangem
ents should be
ents shoul
rt o

aircraft into buildinarrangem ans, arrangem ents should be ents shoul rt o tions such as hillsides and cl

tions such as hillsides and cl

rt o aircraft into buildin tions such as hillsides and cl gs/highly populated areas gs/highly populated

gs/highly populated areas

gs/highly populated areas

10) 7 (2) (d) Familiarisation Visits required by the

risation Visits requi red by the

sation Visits required by the

Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004

1.50 When arranging for visits to airports, FRS personnel need to be mindful of the limitations

that may apply to accessing the infrastructure and airside locations. When developing

ble, the impact on afety information is ke
ble, the impact on
afety information is ke

detailed plans, arrangem

ents should be made to ensure visits are arranged to limit, as far

as possible, the impact on airport operations. Collaboration with the RFFS in gathering

ible, the impact on ai rport o

critical safety information is key in this process.

afety information is key in t

12

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Part A – Preplanning Considerations

Availability of Plans/Training/Review

Availability of Plans

1.51 Local plans should be readily available in appropriate formats to support the needs of first strike personnel, incident commanders (IC), command support and elsewhere within the FRS incident management chain. Where appropriate, consideration should also be given to sharing plans with other agencies and organisations and should form part of the airport’s emergency plan, as required by the CAA.

Training and Exercising

ersonnel erson f raft incidents. raft in in conj conj conj
ersonnel
erson
f
raft incidents.
raft in
in
conj
conj
conj

1.52 Effective and realistic training programmes will prepare FRS personnel for the variety of

challenges, which may be encountered when dealing with aircraft incidents. Training takes

many forms and can include:

7(2) (d) familiarisation visits, lectures and presentations for FRS respondersincidents. Training takes many forms and can include: tations for FRS responders rt’s emerge airport operators

tations for FRS responders

rt’s emerge airport operators airport operator involved in in
rt’s emerge
airport operators
airport operator
involved
in
in

tations for FRS resp

on site testing of FRS aspects of the airport’s emergency plan inairport operator involved in in tations for FRS resp rt’s emergency plan u unction with RFFS,

rt’s emergency plan

u unction with

RFFS, other emergency responders and airport operators

table top exerciseswith RFFS, other emergency responders and airport operators full scale multi agency exercises s possible FRS

full scale multi agency exercises sresponders and airport operators table top exercises possible FRS uld be y services and ai elop

possible

FRS

uld be y services and ai elop a elop a elop a
uld
be
y services and ai
elop a
elop a
elop a
FRS uld be y services and ai elop a elop a elop a testing gold, silver

testing gold, silver and bron

testing gold, silver and bronze Commanders

1.53 Where

responders rs

participation of RFFS, other emergency services and ai

emergency serv ices and ai

should should

services and ai emergency serv ices and ai should should the rport operators in order that

the

rport operators in order that

greater greater understanding, confidence and

training

that

includes

personnel from the relevant services dev

service services dev nd functions. d functions ort are subject to sig ke y mile
service
services dev
nd functions.
d functions
ort
are subject to sig
ke
y mile

awareness of their roles and functions.

Review

1.54 Large parts of the airport

he airport

nificant on-going change and modification.

Therefore FRS should ensure that local plans are regularly reviewed and updated. This

any significant inci andard Operating ese reviews ese reviews airport’s airport’s
any significant inci
andard Operating
ese reviews
ese reviews
airport’s
airport’s

should ensure t

should ensure that local pl

may be either periodically or at key milestones in the case of refurbishment/construction

er periodically or at ke

projects.

1.55 Following any significant incident involving an aircraft, a full and robust review of all FRS

P Procedures (SOPs) and MoUs should be undertaken. The

should result in all FRS policies, SOPs and MoUs being emergency plan updated.

any significant incident

policies, Standard Operating

outcome of these reviews

amended and the airport’s

1.56 Key lessons learnt should be shared through Chief Fire Officers Association (CFOA) via the Aircraft Liaison Group (ALG) to enable wider dissemination to all UK FRS.

13

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Part A – Preplanning Considerations

Significant Incident Review Chart

Preplanning Considerations Significant Incident Review Chart 14 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version

14

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Part B Operational Considerations

Part B Operational Considerations e e e e Fire and Rescue Servic Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents
Part B Operational Considerations e e e e Fire and Rescue Servic Operational Guidance Aircraft Incidents
e e e e
e
e
e
e

Fire and Rescue Servic

Operational Guidance

Aircraft Incidents

Section 8 –

Operati Operations
Operati
Operations

Fire Service Operations

Part B –

neric Standa P)P)
neric Standa
P)P)

Operational Considerations

rational Considera

rational Consid

Generic Standard Operating Procedure

neric Standard

(GSOP)

1

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Introduction

Part B Operational Considerations

1.1 It is useful to see the emergency incident response phases in the context of the typical stages of an incident as referred to in Volume 2 Fire Service Operations Incident Command Operation Guidance and the Fire Service Guide - Dynamic Management of Risk at Operational Incidents, this is shown below:

Stages of an Incident ICS Decision Making Model Links GSOP Response Phases (Dynamic Management of
Stages of an Incident
ICS Decision Making Model Links
GSOP Response Phases
(Dynamic Management
of Risk)
1. 1.
Mobilising and
M
En
En
-route
Incident information
2
. Arriving and Gathering
. Arriv
Initial Stage
Resource information
Informati
rmati
on
Hazard and safety and information
ormation
ormati
Think
3.
Planning the Tactical
Prioritise objectives
es
Plan
Plan
Development Stage
Communicate
nicate e
4. Implementing the
Tactical Plan
Control
trol
5. Evaluating the Tactical
Evaluate the outcom
Plan
Closing Stage
6. Closing the Incident
1.2 The GSOP
has been derived by breaki
has been derived by
has been derived by breaking down an incident into six clearly identified
phases which have been taken directly from the decision making model.
ich have been taken direct
ich have been taken directly
1.3 The purpose of this section is to cover possible actions that may need to be undertaken at
pose of this section is to co
pose of this section is
each of the six stages of the
six stages of the
inc
incident and then offer up some possible considerations that
the Incident Commander (IC) and other FRS personnel may find useful in tackling the
Commander (IC
Commander (IC
challenges and tasks that they are faced with.
tasks that t
tasks that t
1.4 This GSOP is not i
nntt
ntended to cover every eventuality however it is a comprehensive

document that can be used by planning teams, who need to write SOPs, and responding personnel alike.

1.5 Further detailed and technical information on specific aircraft related hazards are covered in Section 8 part C of this operational guidance.

1.6 The decision making model comprises of two major components. These are the deciding and acting stages.

DECIDING

ACTING

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Part B Operational Considerations

1.7 In seeking to resolve an incident involving aircraft the IC will use their knowledge and experience to identify the objectives to be achieved and formulate an appropriate tactical plan of action.

Emergency Incident Response Phases

1 Mobilising and En-route 2 Arriving and Gathering Information 3 Formulating the Tactical Plan 4
1
Mobilising and En-route
2
Arriving and Gathering Information
3
Formulating the Tactical Plan
4
Implementing the Tactical Plan
lan
5
Evaluating the Tactica
l l
Plan
Pla
6
Closing the Incident
the Tactica l l Plan Pla 6 Closing the Incident 3 PDF created with pdfFactory trial

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Part B Operational Considerations

Phase 1 Mobilising and En-route

Managing Incident – Decision Making Model INCIDENT Information GATHERING RESOURCES and Information THINKING
Managing Incident – Decision Making Model
INCIDENT
Information
GATHERING
RESOURCES
and
Information
THINKING
Hazards and
Safety
Information
DECIDING
Phase 1 - Actions
Mobilising and En-route
1.1
Initial call handling
1.2
Assess the level and scale of the incident
el and scale of the incident
el and scale of the inciden
1.3
Mobilise appropriate resources to the incident, marshalling areas and/or
appropriate resources to
opriate resources to t t
predete e
rmined rendezvous points (RVPs)
rmined rendezvous points (R
rmined rendezvo
1.4
Access incident specific info
ccess incident specific info
rmation en-route
rm
1.5
Notify relevant agencies
Notify relevant agencies
Notify relevant agenc

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1.1.

1.2.

1.3

Considerations

Initial Call Handling

Part B Operational Considerations

As with any incident the handling of the initial call is of critical importance to
As with any incident the handling of the initial call is of critical importance to ensure that
the correct predetermined attendance (PDA) is mobilised. In handling the call the
mobilising centre operator will need to gather as much information from the caller as
possible. If there is any doubt as to the size and scale of the incident, the PDA should be
scaled up rather than down. In determining the correct PDA the following may be
considered:
informed call, coming from reliable source such as Air Traffic Control (ATC)
s s
Air Tr affic
Air
or other category 1 responder (Civil Contingencies Act)
ies Act)
ies Act)
uninformed call, vague call from the member of the public, or hoax call
of the public, or hoax c
of the public,
Assess the Level and Scale of the Incident
FRS mobilising controls should try to assess th he scale, size, and location
e e
scale, size, and location of the incident
scale, size, a
prior to and during the mobilisation of FRS personnel. This will provide quality information
ersonnel. This wi ll provide q
nnel. This w
for the first FRS personnel on the scene. Information may be received from:
nformation may be received f
may b
Rescue Fire Fighting Serv
erv
ice (RFFS) personnel
ATC
the airport control centre (larger airports)
centre (larger airports)
ger airports)
the caller or subsequent callers
bsequent callers
bsequent callers
other emergency control centres (Police, Ambulance, Marine
ency control centres (Police,
Coastguard Agency, Military (Ministry of Defence (MOD), Royal Air Force
rd Agency, Military (Ministry
rd Agency, Military (Minis
(RAF), Royal Navy, Army))
Royal Navy, Army))
oyal Navy, Army))
local know
know
ledge of responding FR
ledge of responding FRS crews
information based on what can be seen visually
formation based on what can
ormation based
Mobilise Appropriate Resources
Appropriate Resources
On Airport Scenario
t Scenario
t Sce
FRS
control
l
centres
shoul
should
should
utilise
any
site
specific
plans
to
enhance
mobilising
information to
personnel, p
personnel, p
personnel, particularly when mobilising to complex locations within the
airport boundaries or adjacent to airports. This will often form part of predetermined
s s
or ad
or ad
intervention strategies f
es f
es f
or known locations on and around airport sites.

Off Airport Scenario FRS control centres may decide to mobilise to a geographical RVP/location until further information has been received to confirm incident location.

Specific incident types will attract a range of different mobilising solutions; these will normally be determined in the planning stage and will include variations in speed and weight of attack, attendance to specific locations, dual attendances. For example:

5

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Part B Operational Considerations

aircraft incident large/smallPart B Operational Considerations military aircraft aircraft incident on airport aircraft incident off airport 1.4 Access

military aircraftB Operational Considerations aircraft incident large/small aircraft incident on airport aircraft incident off airport

aircraft incident on airportaircraft incident large/small military aircraft aircraft incident off airport 1.4 Access Incident Specific

aircraft incident off airportlarge/small military aircraft aircraft incident on airport 1.4 Access Incident Specific Information En-route A key

1.4 Access Incident Specific Information En-route

A key aspect for dealing with aircraft incidents is securing effective access to the scene. However, aircraft incidents are not always on or near to airports and it is therefore essential to narrow down the possible location so that an appropriate access point can be

identified.

nformation fr

nform

RVPs and marshalling areasnformation fr nform strategic holding areas, should a regional response be required site specific plans, crash

strategic holding areas, should a regional response be requirednformation fr nform RVPs and marshalling areas site specific plans, crash maps, blue routes ee rrououtes

site specific plans, crash maps, blue routesholding areas, should a regional response be required ee rrououtes onanall reressponponssee bebe requrequiirreedd

ee rrououtes

onanall reressponponssee bebe requrequiirreedd

(MoU)

s aass per Memorandum of

per Memo

points for initial information gathering on arrivalrequrequiirreedd (MoU) s aass per Memorandum of per Memo water supplies access/egress with a view to

water suppliesper Memo points for initial information gathering on arrival access/egress with a view to achieving one

access/egress with a view to achieving one way systemsfor initial information gathering on arrival water supplies 7(2) (d) familiarisation visits gagatthhereriingng onon

7(2) (d) familiarisation visitsaccess/egress with a view to achieving one way systems gagatthhereriingng onon aarrrrivival view ttoo

gagatthhereriingng onon aarrrrivival

view ttoo aacchhiieevivinngg oneone wwaayy sys

tion visitss

rreeququeestst iinnfformaormattiioonn on and

ey are likely to face when m

ey are likely to face w

maintain contact details o

maintain contact det

occasions airport mana

occasions airport m

ncidents bein

ncidents bein

cciidd

Mobilised personnel should access site/incident specific information from on board

systems whilst en route to identify:

predetermined on arrival tactics as per Memorandum of Understandingfrom on board systems whilst en route to identify: the hazards and control measures they are

the hazards

and control measures they are likely to face when mobilised to different types of aircraft

Mobilised personnel should request information on and begin to think about,

incidents.

1.5 Notify Relevant Agencies gencies

FRS should maintain contact details of all airports/ATCs and be familiar

emergency cycy ppllananss plans fforor for aallll all aaiirporports airports that tthhaatt are ar within their area.

with airport

On most occasions airport managers will be aware of incidents occurring on their airport,

however it is ss gogooodd good prpraactctiiccee practice fo for FRS control centres to inform/confirm with the relevant

airport for any incidents being attended by their FRS.

Resolving aircraft incidents will involve a multi agency effort. FRS control centres should

share relevant details about calls being attended by their FRS with other relevant agencies.

FRS control centres should have early dialogue with:

airport control centresFRS control centres should have early dialogue with: category 1 responders ATC Military - MOD, RAF,

category 1 respondersshould have early dialogue with: airport control centres ATC Military - MOD, RAF, Royal Navy, Army

ATCdialogue with: airport control centres category 1 responders Military - MOD, RAF, Royal Navy, Army Aeronautical

Military - MOD, RAF, Royal Navy, Armywith: airport control centres category 1 responders ATC Aeronautical Rescue Coordination Centre (ARCC) RAF Kinloss

Aeronautical Rescue Coordination Centre (ARCC) RAF Kinloss1 responders ATC Military - MOD, RAF, Royal Navy, Army Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB) 6

Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB)Aeronautical Rescue Coordination Centre (ARCC) RAF Kinloss 6 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version

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Part B Operational Considerations

The above liaison will assist with the identification of:

location/crash map coordinatesThe above liaison will assist with the identification of: incident type aircraft type and registration number

incident typewith the identification of: location/crash map coordinates aircraft type and registration number seating capacity,

aircraft type and registration numberof: location/crash map coordinates incident type seating capacity, passenger numbers and aircraft crew nature

seating capacity, passenger numbers and aircraft crewincident type aircraft type and registration number nature of incident hazards and/or potential hazards involved

nature of incidentnumber seating capacity, passenger numbers and aircraft crew hazards and/or potential hazards involved actions currently

hazards and/or potential hazards involvedpassenger numbers and aircraft crew nature of incident actions currently ongoing possible multi-site large area

actions currently ongoingnature of incident hazards and/or potential hazards involved possible multi-site large area involvement 7 PDF created

possible multi-site large area involvementand/or potential hazards involved actions currently ongoing 7 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version

currently ongoing possible multi-site large area involvement 7 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version
currently ongoing possible multi-site large area involvement 7 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version

7

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Part B Operational Considerations

Phase 2 Arriving and Gathering Information

Managing Incident – Decision Making Model INCIDENT Information GATHERING RESOURCES and Information THINKING
Managing Incident – Decision Making Model
INCIDENT
Information
GATHERING
RESOURCES
and
Information
THINKING
Hazards and
Safety
Information
DECIDING
Incident information
Inc
Phase 2 - Actions
Arriving and Gathering Information
Resource information
Hazard
and
Safety
and
information
Confirm location of incident
ocation of incident
2.1
Approach the incident safely
proach the incident safely
e inciden
2.2
Assess hazards and
risks risks and implement an inner cordon (this will be
2.3
continuously reviewed s
continuously reviewed subject to risk assessment)
Cordon consider
Cordon considerations
Cordon consideratio
2.4
Liaison with RFFS if already in attendance
ison with RF
ison with RF
2.5
Consider possible Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, Explosives
er
er
2.6
(CBRNE) – terrorist involvement
Estimate the resource requirements
2.7
Implement the Incident Command System (ICS)
2.8
Crime scene
2.9

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Considerations

2.1. Confirm Location of Incident

Part B Operational Considerations

The first FRS personnel in attendance will need to confirm an accurate location of the incident and broadcast this information to on-coming FRS appliances and to mobilising control centres. Mobilising control centres will inform other emergency service control centres and category 1/2 responders of:

the incident locationservice control centres and category 1/2 responders of: RVPs marshalling areas safe access and egress routes

RVPsand category 1/2 responders of: the incident location marshalling areas safe access and egress routes best

marshalling areasand category 1/2 responders of: the incident location RVPs safe access and egress routes best approach

safe access and egress routesresponders of: the incident location RVPs marshalling areas best approach routes, nature of ground conditions ions

best approach routes, nature of ground conditionsRVPs marshalling areas safe access and egress routes ions ions onsideration at slowly rewn rewn rewn

ions ions
ions
ions
onsideration at slowly rewn rewn rewn
onsideration at
slowly
rewn
rewn
rewn

2.2. Approach the Incident Safely

The following points may need to be taken into consideration at

consideration at aircraft incid

aircraft incidents:

FRS drivers should approach the incidentat consideration at aircraft incid aircraft incidents: he incident slowly and with gr slowly and with

he incident

slowly and with gr

slowly and with great care

avoid driving across slide paths or debris sthe incident slowly and with gr slowly and with great care aths or debris st aths

aths or debris st aths or possible possible possible have bee hrown he ter
aths or debris st
aths or
possible
possible
possible
have bee
hrown
he ter

areas, keeping appliances to

areas,

ere

one side of debris trail where

there may be a considerableappliances to areas, ere one side of debris trail where derable amount of debris to be

derable

amount of debris to

be avoided and there is a

from the aircraft or wandering

alties may have been thrown

possibility that casualties may have been thrown

on or around the crash site

crash site crash sit tanders will gather qui d d to be manag to be
crash site
crash sit
tanders will gather qui
d d
to be manag
to be managed
hould be parked upw
ke plumes
ke plumes

spectators/bysto be managed hould be parked upw ke plumes ke plumes tanders will gather quickly and

tanders will gather quickly and will present an additional hazard

tanders will gather quickly a

that will need to be managed

considerati titanders will gather quickly a that will need to be managed appliances should be parked upw

appliances should be parked upwgather quickly a that will need to be managed considerati ti nces should be parked upw

nces should be parked upw

on must be made of the terrain and wind direction

parked upw on must be made of the terrain and wind direction ind and uphill to

ind and uphill to avoid the danger of free

crash site cr crash site keep clear of recog consider additiona nsider additiona ervation of