solutions to petroleum geological problems
Founded in1987 ENRES International in the Netherlands provides specialised consultancy services for the petroleum industry.
As oil and gas exploration and production is moving towards more mature phases, innovative new concepts are needed in petroleum geology. To meet these challenging and rapidly changing demands put on the technical skills of petroleum geologists, ENRES focuses on the development of innovative methods, tools and concepts and is committed to R&D, with emphasis on sedimentary geology. ENRES pioneered research into the relationship of sequence stratigraphic concepts, cyclostratigraphy and sedimentology, and actively continues with research into methods to obtain improved nearisochronous highresolution stratigraphic correlations in support of the construction of stateoftheart exploration models, field development and reservoir characterisation.
ENRES has been providing its services worldwide to the petroleum industry for more than 10 years with success. The services are always carried out in close cooperation with clients. An important product of ENRES’ research is CycloLog , which is an innovative, Windows based software package that can obtain stratigraphic and sedimentological information from log data.
GEOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF GEOPHYSICAL LOGS
The trend towards more costefficient hydrocarbon exploration, field development and production requires a detailed and accurate understanding of the geology of the subsurface. ENRES’ approach to this challenge is
to provide a tool, CycloLog
allows the geologist to obtain an accurate overview of the subsurface through a PCbased analysis of geophysical logs. In addition, the tool is costefficient and userfriendly, and has operational features to ensure a steep learning curve. Geophysical log data provide an excellent basis for computer applications for
geological interpretation. Log data meet the essential requirements for effective sampling such as continuity, resolution and
response to features of
conditions. Furthermore, the number of
data points from logs is very large in contrast to fossil abundance data or geochemical data.
,which
in situ
depositional
WHAT IS CYCLOLOG ?
CycloLog
userfriendly mathematical software tool. It allows the user to characterise distinct parts of geophysical log data in an objective, quantitative and repeatable manner.
CycloLog
for the geological interpretation of
geophysical logs. It contains a number of log transforms that can be used in stratigraphic and sedimentary facies analysis. Some of these transforms operate in the depth domain, while others transform the data from the depth domain to the depthwave number domain. One
of the specific features of CycloLog that all transform operations allow a continuous analysis in depth.
is a Windows based, interactive,
is a specially designed toolbox
is
WHAT CAN CYCLOLOG
CycloLog
or tools for the transformation of logs. These routines give the user relevant information needed for a whole range of geological interpretations.
DO?
incorporates a number of routines
CycloLog
in the following fields of geology:
supports and enhances solutions
Seismic stratigraphy Sequence stratigraphy Cyclostratigraphy
Lithostratigraphy Chronostratigraphy Electrofacies / Lithofacies Sedimentary facies Petrophysical attributes
CYCLOLOG TOOLBOX
The toolbox consists of basic and advanced tools. The basic tools incorporate elements of basic mathematics and statistics. The advanced tools consist of more complex mathematics and a number of timeseries analytical algorithms. The routines can be used in practically unlimited combinations as all the transform operations are always displayed in depth. All the results of the calculations are displayed on screen and are available for immediate geological interpretation. All transformed logs can be exported in ASCII format. The user can assign geological boundaries on screen together with their labels. All depth data of the boundaries can be saved in ASCII and imported into any spread sheet for further evaluation. Fonts and colours can be changed.
has two specially designed analytical
Spectral transform using Maximum Entropy Spectral Analysis (MESA)
Multilog cluster analysis to differentiate geophysical lithofacies
Tentative program of CycloLog versions
Version 2.0R: December 1999 Version 2.1B: November 2000 Version 2.1R: January 2001 Version 3.0B: May 2001
One of the unique features of CycloLog
is that all computations
are displayed as log transforms in depth. Log transforms are logs whose pattern has been modified by processing, such as math calculations or spectral analysis. Log transforms operate in the depth domain as well as in the depthwave number domain.
BASIC TOOLS
ADVANCED TOOLS
OBJECTIVES AND USED METHODS / CONCEPTS
CycloLog
geologists in support of the need to enhance and facilitate the geological interpretation of geophysical logs. The design of the program consists therefore of a number of relevant objectives with which the geologist has to deal in interpreting the subsurface:
was designed primarily for
Well zonation and characterisation of stratal patterns.
Recognition of boundaries and depositional trends in sequence stratigraphy and cyclostratigraphy. Hierarchical pattern of boundaries, changes in basin accommodation versus depositional patterns.
Classification
Determination of electrofacies units through lithological log analysis. Interactive calibration of the electrofacies units with lithofacies and sedimentary facies from cores. Prediction of lithofacies in noncored wells by using the calibrated electrofacies units.
Petrophysical attributes.
Calculation of petrophysical parameters for geological interpretations. Porosity patterns for instance can be plotted against lithofacies variability or systems tracts in a sequence stratigraphic framework.
Depthtime conversion
Depth to time conversion is carried out with the presence of Milankovitch cycles. The Milankovitch periodicities can be recognised by a special routine in the program. Subsequently, Net Accumulation Rates per Ka and Net Time Durations of predefined intervals can be estimated.
Multiwell correlation
A cross correlation routine is available for the correlation of original logs and log transforms.
Wellseismic integration
Seismic synthetics can be generated through the calculation of acoustic impedance and reflectivity. The seismic synthetics are displayed in depth and can be correlated with lithofacies successions or sequence stratigraphic patterns
CYCLOLOG OBJECTIVES 

Stratal Patterns / Zonation 
Classification 
Petrophysical Atttributes 
DepthTime Conversion 
MultiWell Correlation 
WellSeismic Integration 

Sequence Stratigraphy Cyclostratigraphy 
ElectroFacies Sedimentary Facies 
Petrophysics Sedimentary Facies 
Chronostratigraphy Sequence Stratigraphy 
NearSynchronous Stratigraphic Correlation 
InterWell Stratigraphic and Facies Framework 

Lithostratigraphy 
Cyclostratigraphy 
Framework 

VISUAL ANALYSIS OF LOGS / MANUAL ASSIGNMENT OF BREAKS OR BOUNDARIES 

AUTOMATED 
ATTRIBUTE GENERATION 

MILANKOVITCH 

CROSS 
SEISMIC GENERATION OF 

ASSIGNMENT OF 
CYCLICITY 
CORRELATION 

INTERVALS 
Shale Volume (V ) SH 
MODELLING 
AND LOG 
SYNTHETICS 

USING CLUSTER 
Porosity 
Detection of Mcycles for the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Tertiary 
SHIFTING 
IN DEPTH 

ANALYSIS 
Correlation of 
Calculates acoustic impedance and reflectivity Generates seismic synthetics in single and multitrace pattern 

Original Logs 
Cluster Analysis 
ATTRIBUTE ANALYSIS 
original logs Correlation of log transforms 

Single logs Overlays of multiple logs Transformed Logs 
Single and multiple logs Single and multiple log transforms 
Log Statistics Net/Gross 
Estimation of the Net Duration Estimation of the Net Accumulation Rate 

METHODS / CONCEPTS 

Basic log transforms 
2D and 3D cluster cross plot diagrams 
Probability Density 

Spectral transforms of logs (MESA) 

ForcedCluster 


Advanced transforms of logs (PEFA/INPEFA) 
Analysis 

Imposing a cluster matrix to other wells 


VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS 
CORRELATION OF WELL DATA TO SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES 

STRATIGRAPHIC CLUSTER OF LOGS AUTOMATED ASSIGNMENT OF BREAKS OR BOUNDARIES 

INTERACTIVE 

VISUAL CHECKS AND MANUAL DEFINITION OF ZONES 
PREDICTION OF ELECTROFACIES USING VELOCITY SURVEYS (incl. Neural network) 

MATH STUDIO 

FALSE COLOUR DISPLAY 
Version 2.0 

SPECTRAL TRANSFORMS 
Version 2.1 

MAXIMUM ENTROPY 
HADAMARDWALSH 

FFT 

WAVELET CONTINUOUS SPECTRAL ANALYSIS 
Version 3.0 
Depth position and GRlog value at cursor line
CYCLOLOG
PLATFORM FOR PETROLEUM GEOLOGISTS
CycloLog
easy handling of log transform operations. All original logs and log transforms can be displayed next to each other for an immediate overview and comparison of the log expressions. Some of the operational features can be summarised as follows:
THE USERFRIENDLY WORKING
is specially designed for fast and
Fast displays of original logs and log transforms
Vertical scale and the horizontal scale of each log can be set and saved by the user
Easy generation and adjustment of multilog overlays, e.g for neutrondensity combinations
Cursor line extends over the displayed logs. Depth position and log value are displayed.
Boundaries can be drawn on screen. Boundary labels can be defined, modified or deleted. All boundary depths can be saved in an ASCII file.
All the displayed logs and log transforms can be edited in an output menu and printed.
LOG FILTERS
Log filters may be used for the enhancement of the pattern of the original logs. Log pattern enhancement may support the visual correlation of wells. The smoothing log filters tend to “block” the log patterns, while enhancement log filters will display the higher frequency pattern of the log. Log filters are generally used in combination with other log transform operations.
Mirror
GR
Wiggler
GR
Median
Filter
Filter size 3m
Average
Filter
Filter size 3m
Edge
Enhancement
Filter size 3m
Derivative
MATHEMATICAL CALCULATIONS WITH LOGS
A number of basic and advanced mathematical functions has been incorporated in the program. Mathematical operations can be performed with each log in a fast and easy way. The following mathematical operations can be performed:
Basic Math
Multiply logs
Divide logs
Add logs
Subtract logs
Advanced Math
Integral calculation of logs
Logarithmic calculation of logs
Exponential calculation of logs
Using “Divide logs” for spectral logs produces a ratio curve which may give information on the lithological development
The combination of log ratio plots and log overlays of the density and neutron may be useful for having an overview on the lithological or porosity development in a well.
LOG STATISTICS A number of statistical operations for the quantification of a single log has been included in the program. The interval can be defined by the user. The following statistical analyses can be made:
The average value
The RootMeanSquare value (RMS)
The Standard Deviation (STANDARD)
Histograms of single logs can be generated for a user defined interval. The histograms plot the log values against frequency.
GRlog
SONIClog
SEISMIC LOG CALCULATIONS  SEISMIC SYNTHETICS Seismic synthetics can be generated from the acoustic impedance, sonic and density. The seismic synthetic display is in the depth domain and can be correlated with the original logs as well as the log transforms.
SEISMIC SYNTHETICS FROM ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE
ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE
density
sonic
REFLECTIVITY
data
data
(N)  data
(N) + data
(N+1)
(N+1)
CALCULATE SEISMICS
input seismic wavelength
SEISMIC SYNTHETICS FROM SONIC LOG
INVERTED SONIC
1
sonic
REFLECTIVITY
data
data
(N)  data
(N) + data
(N+1)
(N+1)
CALCULATE SEISMICS
input seismic wavelength
SEISMIC SYNTHETICS FROM DENSITY LOG
DENSITY LOG
REFLECTIVITY
data
data
(N)  data
(N) + data
(N+1)
(N+1)
CALCULATE SEISMICS
input seismic wavelength
PETROPHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES Petrophysical attributes are used to support the geological interpretation of logs, and to evaluate the relationship between petrophysical parameters and geological features.
Attribute generation
GR/Thindex
Sonic / density derived porosity
Attribute analysis
Log statistics
Net/Gross calculations
Single log histograms
N/G calculation of porous sand N/G = 46.4 Total thickness = 88.2 m
SPECTRAL TRANSFORM OF LOGS
Spectral transform of logs is uses a specially designed version of Maximum Entropy Analysis (MESA). The program is a predictive tool in which part of a series of data points is analysed in order to attempt to predict the next point in the series. Essentially the analysis is performed on a portion of the data series. In a downhole log data series, this portion is known as the window of analysis.
Window size is defined by the user. A cycle pattern or spectrum and prediction error value is produced for that window. The analysis is then repeated on another, over lapping portion of the data series.
WAVE LENGTH
SPECTRUM BAND AMPLITUDE
HIGH AMPLITUDE (RED) = PRONOUNCED CYCLICITY LOW AMPLITUDE (YELLOW) = WEAK CYCLICITY NO AMPLITUDE (BLUE) = NO CYCLICITY OR NOISE
CYCLE HIERARCHY
LOW FREQUENCY / LARGE = TO THE LEFT OF SPECTRUM BAND SCALE HIGH FREQUENCY / SMALL = TO THE RIGHT OF SPECTRUM BAND SCALE
SPECTRUM BREAKS (Cycle Interval Boundaries / CIB)
IN GEOLOGY = MISSING SECTIONS, CONDENSED SECTIONS, STACKED EROSIONAL SURFACES, LARGESCALE CHANGE IN DEPOSITIONAL PATTERN, LOG DATA ERRORS
DEPTH SHIFT RELATED TO WINDOW SIZE POSITION OF BREAK IN THE DEPTH SCALE = 0.5 WINDOW SIZE
SPECTRAL TRANSFORM OF LOGS  MILANKOVITCH CYCLICITY PREDICTION Prediction of Mcycles is part of the spectral transform operational algorithm. The predicted Mperiodicities from the Carboniferous to the present have been stored in the memory dataset of the program.
We use these predicted values to derive the ratios between ancient climatic cycles and then compare those ratios between the cycle wavelengths detected by MESA. This is done interactively on screen with the program.
GEOLOGICAL
PERIOD
NET ACCUMULATION
RATE (N)
INCREASE
DECREASE
USING THE MESA CURSOR FOR PREDICTING MILANKOVITCH CYCLES
A 4 
A 
C 
E 
F 

MESA CURSOR 

MILANKOVITCH 

RATIOS 
4.13 
1 
0.37 
0.21 
0.18 

MILANKOVITCH 

PERIODICITIES 
413 Ka 
100 Ka 
37.0 Ka 
21.0 Ka 
18.0 Ka 

(TRIASSIC) 

USED CODES 
A 
4 
A 
B 
C 
D 
E 
F 

MILANKOVITCH 

PARAMETERS 
ECCENTRICITY 
OBLIQUITY 
PRECESSION 
PREDICTION ERROR FILTER ANALYSIS (PEFA) Prediction Error Filter Analysis (PEFA) is based on the comparison of measured log values and predicted log values. If we assume a certain predictability in (part of) the dataset, this predictability may be expressed in terms of a prediction filter. This filter, when applied to the log values within a depth window, will predict the log values just outside of that depth window. If a prediction filter that was derived for a specific part of a dataset is applied to another part of the dataset, and the difference between predicted and measured log values is determined, this difference can be used to quantify how well the two logparts resemble each other. Thus high output values of PEFA can often be found to correspond to sudden changes in log characteristics. These changes may be related to geological events, such as changes in climate or basin dynamics.
POSITIVE PREDICTED ERROR
VALUE / FREQUENCY DISCONTINUITY PRODUCED BY A JUMP FROM LOW TO HIGH GR VALUES ACCOMMODATION INCREASE > SEDIMENT SUPPLY
EROSIONAL HIATUS

SEDIMENT DYNAMICS 
EUSTATIC CHANGES 
EUSTATIC CHANGES / TECTONICS 
CORRELATION LEVEL

LOCAL 
SUBREGIONAL 
REGIONAL 
INTEGRATED PREDICTION ERROR FILTER ANALYSIS (INPEFA)
The INPEFA curve is the integration of all PEFA values. INPEFA therefore is related to PEFA and represents the cumulative difference between the predicted log values and actual log values. High PEFA values will be presented as
a major change in the INPEFA pattern. These major changes are defined as Cycle Interval Boundaries (CIB).
A stacked succession of negative
PEFA values will show a negative or, in geological terms, a thickening upward or progradational trend. Positive PEFA values will show a positive or retrogradational trend. The negative trends are separated from the positive trends by major CIB’s.
INPEFA shows the following features:
A distinct hierarchical cyclic pattern of sedimentary successions. Depositional trends  negative trends (to the left) are related to progradational / aggradational depositional systems, while positive trends (to the right) are linked to retrogradational systems.
Geological events, such as sequence boundaries and flooding surfaces are clearly displayed.
Enhances the sequence stratigraphic or cyclostratigraphic interpretation of a well.
NONHIERARCHICAL MULTILOG CLUSTER ANALYSIS
EXAMPLES OF CYCLOLOG
INPEFA LOG TRANSFORMS AND
INTERPRETATIONS
Well data courtesy NITGTNO
SINGLE WELL
EXAMPLE OF CYCLOLOG
USING INPEFA LOG TRANSFORMS
Well data courtesy NITGTNO
WELL CORRELATION
HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
Intel Pentium II
Memory 32 Mb RAM (minimum) Colour graphics card with 8 Mb memory Recommended 17 inch SVGA 1024 x 768, 75Hz and 0.28 dpi colour monitor
300mHz or higher
RECOMMENDED PLOTTERS
EPSON Stylus 1520
HP Designjet 750C
Ruysdaellaan 3 3712 AP Huis ter Heide Netherlands
Phone: 31.30.693 1922 Telefax: 31.30.693 2149
Email: enres@euronet.nl Web: www.enres.nl
ENRES has cooperative agreements with a number of consulting companies. They act as resellers for CycloLog and we support each other in consulting services. Please contact the company in your region for more
information on CycloLog
or consulting services
Netherlands Panterra Geoconsultants B.V. Veerpolder 5
2361 KX Warmond Netherlands Phone: 31.71.301 9307 Fax: 31.71.301 0802
Contact: Greg van de Bilt Email: g.van.de.bilt@panterra.nl
United Kingdom
StrataData Ltd.
17 The Bothy, Ottershaw Park Chobham Road, Ottershaw Surrey KT 16 0QG UK Phone/Fax: 44.1932.872041
Contact: David Smith Email: smithdg@cwcom.net
United States Seacon Computer Systems, Inc.
11381 Meadowglen, Suite F Houston, Texas 770822647 USA Phone: 1.281.2939565 Fax: 1.281.2939504
Contact: Neil Moore Email: seacon@scscomputers.com
Egypt Earth Resources Exploration (EREX)
El Salam Tower Misr Helwan Agricultural Road MaadiCairo Egypt
Phone: 20.2.5253989 Fax: 20.2.5254277 Contact: Nazih Tewfik Email: erex@ritsec1.com.eg
United States Digital Formation 6000 East Evans Avenue, Suite 1400
Denver, Colorado 802225415 USA Phone: 1.303.7704235 Fax: 1.303.7700432 Contact: Christian P. Bach Email: Christian.Bach@DigitalFormation.com
Indonesia PT. GEOSERVICES (Ltd.) Jl. Taman Matraman Timur 11
Jakarta 10320 Indonesia Phone: 62.21.3904118 Fax: 62.21.3196295 Contact: Ms. Fitri Nurrahmah Email: software@geoservices.co.id
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