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solutions to petroleum geological problems

solutions to petroleum geological problems

solutions to petroleum geological problems
solutions to petroleum geological problems
solutions to petroleum geological problems
solutions to petroleum geological problems
solutions to petroleum geological problems
Founded in1987 ENRES International in the Netherlands provides specialised consultancy services for the petroleum
Founded in1987 ENRES International in the Netherlands provides specialised consultancy services for the petroleum

Founded in1987 ENRES International in the Netherlands provides specialised consultancy services for the petroleum industry.

As oil and gas exploration and production is moving towards more mature phases, innovative new concepts are needed in petroleum geology. To meet these challenging and rapidly changing demands put on the technical skills of petroleum geologists, ENRES focuses on the development of innovative methods, tools and concepts and is committed to R&D, with emphasis on sedimentary geology. ENRES pioneered research into the relationship of sequence stratigraphic concepts, cyclostratigraphy and sedimentology, and actively continues with research into methods to obtain improved near-isochronous high-resolution stratigraphic correlations in support of the construction of state-of-the-art exploration models, field development and reservoir characterisation.

ENRES has been providing its services worldwide to the petroleum industry for more than 10 years with success. The services are always carried out in close cooperation with clients. An important product of ENRES’ research is CycloLog , which is an innovative, Windows -based software package that can obtain stratigraphic and sedimentological information from log data.

innovative, Windows -based software package that can obtain stratigraphic and sedimentological information from log data.
innovative, Windows -based software package that can obtain stratigraphic and sedimentological information from log data.
GEOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF GEOPHYSICAL LOGS The trend towards more cost-efficient hydrocarbon exploration, field

GEOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF GEOPHYSICAL LOGS

The trend towards more cost-efficient hydrocarbon exploration, field development and production requires a detailed and accurate understanding of the geology of the subsurface. ENRES’ approach to this challenge is

to provide a tool, CycloLog

allows the geologist to obtain an accurate overview of the subsurface through a PC-based analysis of geophysical logs. In addition, the tool is cost-efficient and user-friendly, and has operational features to ensure a steep learning curve. Geophysical log data provide an excellent basis for computer applications for

geological interpretation. Log data meet the essential requirements for effective sampling such as continuity, resolution and

response to features of

conditions. Furthermore, the number of

data points from logs is very large in contrast to fossil abundance data or geochemical data.

in contrast to fossil abundance data or geochemical data. ,which in situ depositional WHAT IS CYCLOLOG

,which

in situ

depositional

WHAT IS CYCLOLOG ?

CycloLog

user-friendly mathematical software tool. It allows the user to characterise distinct parts of geophysical log data in an objective, quantitative and repeatable manner.

CycloLog

for the geological interpretation of

geophysical logs. It contains a number of log transforms that can be used in stratigraphic and sedimentary facies analysis. Some of these transforms operate in the depth domain, while others transform the data from the depth domain to the depth-wave number domain. One

of the specific features of CycloLog that all transform operations allow a continuous analysis in depth.

transform operations allow a continuous analysis in depth. is a Windows -based, interactive, is a specially
transform operations allow a continuous analysis in depth. is a Windows -based, interactive, is a specially
transform operations allow a continuous analysis in depth. is a Windows -based, interactive, is a specially

is a Windows -based, interactive,

is a specially designed toolboxanalysis in depth. is a Windows -based, interactive, is WHAT CAN CYCLOLOG CycloLog or tools for

Windows -based, interactive, is a specially designed toolbox is WHAT CAN CYCLOLOG CycloLog or tools for

is

WHAT CAN CYCLOLOG

CycloLog

or tools for the transformation of logs. These routines give the user relevant information needed for a whole range of geological interpretations.

needed for a whole range of geological interpretations. DO? incorporates a number of routines CycloLog in

DO?

needed for a whole range of geological interpretations. DO? incorporates a number of routines CycloLog in

incorporates a number of routines

CycloLog

in the following fields of geology:

of routines CycloLog in the following fields of geology: supports and enhances solutions Seismic stratigraphy

supports and enhances solutions

Seismic stratigraphy Sequence stratigraphy Cyclostratigraphy

Lithostratigraphy Chronostratigraphy Electrofacies / Lithofacies Sedimentary facies Petrophysical attributes

3700 3800 3900 4000 4100 WHERE ARE THE SEQUENCE 4200 BOUNDARIES ?? 4300 4400 4500
3700
3800
3900
4000
4100
WHERE ARE
THE SEQUENCE
4200
BOUNDARIES ??
4300
4400
4500
4600
4700
attributes 3700 3800 3900 4000 4100 WHERE ARE THE SEQUENCE 4200 BOUNDARIES ?? 4300 4400 4500
CYCLOLOG TOOLBOX The toolbox consists of basic and advanced tools. The basic tools incorporate elements
CYCLOLOG TOOLBOX The toolbox consists of basic and advanced tools. The basic tools incorporate elements

CYCLOLOG TOOLBOX

The toolbox consists of basic and advanced tools. The basic tools incorporate elements of basic mathematics and statistics. The advanced tools consist of more complex mathematics and a number of time-series analytical algorithms. The routines can be used in practically unlimited combinations as all the transform operations are always displayed in depth. All the results of the calculations are displayed on screen and are available for immediate geological interpretation. All transformed logs can be exported in ASCII format. The user can assign geological boundaries on screen together with their labels. All depth data of the boundaries can be saved in ASCII and imported into any spread sheet for further evaluation. Fonts and colours can be changed.

CycloLog algorithms:
CycloLog
algorithms:

has two specially designed analytical

Spectral transform using Maximum Entropy Spectral Analysis (MESA)CycloLog algorithms: has two specially designed analytical Multi-log cluster analysis to differentiate geophysical

Multi-log cluster analysis to differentiate geophysical lithofaciestransform using Maximum Entropy Spectral Analysis (MESA) Tentative program of CycloLog versions Version 2.0R:

Tentative program of CycloLog versions

Tentative program of CycloLog versions Version 2.0R: December 1999 Version 2.1B: November 2000 Version 2.1R: January

Version 2.0R: December 1999 Version 2.1B: November 2000 Version 2.1R: January 2001 Version 3.0B: May 2001

One of the unique features of CycloLog

One of the unique features of CycloLog is that all computations are displayed as log transforms

is that all computations

are displayed as log transforms in depth. Log transforms are logs whose pattern has been modified by processing, such as math calculations or spectral analysis. Log transforms operate in the depth domain as well as in the depth-wave number domain.

BASIC TOOLS

ADVANCED TOOLS

MEDIAN FILTER POROSITY MAXIMUM ENTROPY (DENSITY/SONIC) SPECTRAL ANALYSIS (MESA) EDGE ENHANCEMENT GR-INDEX
MEDIAN FILTER
POROSITY
MAXIMUM ENTROPY
(DENSITY/SONIC)
SPECTRAL ANALYSIS
(MESA)
EDGE ENHANCEMENT
GR-INDEX
PREDICTION ERROR
DERIVATIVE
V SH (in version 2.1)
FILTER ANALYSIS
(PEFA)
AVERAGE
N/G AND THICKNESS
(USING CUTOFF VALUES)
INTEGRATED PREDICTION
ERROR FILTER ANALYSIS
LOG DIVIDE
VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS
(INPEFA)
(IN VERSION 2.1)
LOG MULTIPLICATION
LOG ADD
MILANKOVITCH
CYCLICITY MODELLING
LOG SUBTRACT
(MIMOD)
MATH STUDIO
COMPLEX MATH
LOG FREQUENCY
LOG INTEGRAL
FUNCTIONS
SIMULATIONS
(SIMOD)
LOG LOGARITHMIC
e.g TOC calculations from logs
(IN VERSION 2.1)
LOG EXPONENTIAL
MULTI-LOG
CLUSTER ANALYSIS
FORCED LOG
STANDARD DEVIATION
CLUSTER ANALYSIS
FALSE COLOUR
LOG DISPLAY
ROOT MEAN SQUARE
(FORCING CLUSTER FROM
CORED TO NON-CORED WELLS)
(IN VERSION 2.1)
PROBABILITY DENSITY
2D / 3D CLUSTER
CROSS PLOT VIEWS
ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE
REFLECTIVITY
CROSS CORRELATION
OF LOG PATTERNS AND
PROCESSED LOG
PATTERNS
SEISMIC SYNTHETICS
SEISMIC LOG
LOG
ADVANCED
BASIC
LOG
CALCULATIONS
STATISTICS
MATH
MATH
FILTERS
COMPLEX MATH
PETROPHYSICAL
CALCULATIONS
ATTRIBUTES
LOG
LOG
SPECTRAL
LOG
NON-HIERARCHICAL
MODELLING
ANALYSIS
CORRELATION
CLUSTER ANALYSIS
CALCULATIONS ATTRIBUTES LOG LOG SPECTRAL LOG NON-HIERARCHICAL MODELLING ANALYSIS CORRELATION CLUSTER ANALYSIS
OBJECTIVES AND USED METHODS / CONCEPTS CycloLog geologists in support of the need to enhance

OBJECTIVES AND USED METHODS / CONCEPTS

CycloLog

geologists in support of the need to enhance and facilitate the geological interpretation of geophysical logs. The design of the program consists therefore of a number of relevant objectives with which the geologist has to deal in interpreting the subsurface:

the geologist has to deal in interpreting the subsurface: was designed primarily for Well zonation and

was designed primarily for

Well zonation and characterisation of stratal patterns.in interpreting the subsurface: was designed primarily for Recognition of boundaries and depositional trends in

Recognition of boundaries and depositional trends in sequence stratigraphy and cyclostratigraphy. Hierarchical pattern of boundaries, changes in basin accommodation versus depositional patterns.

Classificationchanges in basin accommodation versus depositional patterns. Determination of electrofacies units through lithological

Determination of electrofacies units through lithological log analysis. Inter-active calibration of the electrofacies units with lithofacies and sedimentary facies from cores. Prediction of lithofacies in non-cored wells by using the calibrated electrofacies units.

Petrophysical attributes.non-cored wells by using the calibrated electrofacies units. Calculation of petrophysical parameters for geological

Calculation of petrophysical parameters for geological interpretations. Porosity patterns for instance can be plotted against lithofacies variability or systems tracts in a sequence stratigraphic framework.

Depth-time conversionor systems tracts in a sequence stratigraphic framework. Depth to time conversion is carried out with

Depth to time conversion is carried out with the presence of Milankovitch cycles. The Milankovitch periodicities can be recognised by a special routine in the program. Subsequently, Net Accumulation Rates per Ka and Net Time Durations of pre-defined intervals can be estimated.

Multi-well correlationTime Durations of pre-defined intervals can be estimated. A cross correlation routine is available for the

A cross correlation routine is available for the correlation of original logs and log transforms.

Well-seismic integrationfor the correlation of original logs and log transforms. Seismic synthetics can be generated through the

Seismic synthetics can be generated through the calculation of acoustic impedance and reflectivity. The seismic synthetics are displayed in depth and can be correlated with lithofacies successions or sequence stratigraphic patterns

   
CYCLOLOG OBJECTIVES

CYCLOLOG OBJECTIVES

 
 

Stratal Patterns / Zonation

 

Classification

Petrophysical Atttributes

 

Depth-Time Conversion

Multi-Well Correlation

Well-Seismic Integration

Sequence Stratigraphy

Cyclostratigraphy

   

Electro-Facies

Sedimentary Facies

Petrophysics

Sedimentary Facies

 

Chronostratigraphy

Sequence Stratigraphy

Near-Synchronous

Stratigraphic Correlation

Inter-Well Stratigraphic and Facies Framework

Lithostratigraphy

 

Cyclostratigraphy

 

Framework

VISUAL ANALYSIS OF LOGS / MANUAL ASSIGNMENT OF BREAKS OR BOUNDARIES

VISUAL ANALYSIS OF LOGS / MANUAL ASSIGNMENT OF BREAKS OR BOUNDARIES

ANALYSIS OF LOGS / MANUAL ASSIGNMENT OF BREAKS OR BOUNDARIES AUTOMATED ATTRIBUTE GENERATION   MILANKOVITCH CROSS

AUTOMATED

ATTRIBUTEGENERATION

GENERATION

 
ASSIGNMENT OF BREAKS OR BOUNDARIES AUTOMATED ATTRIBUTE GENERATION   MILANKOVITCH CROSS SEISMIC GENERATION OF

MILANKOVITCH

ASSIGNMENT OF BREAKS OR BOUNDARIES AUTOMATED ATTRIBUTE GENERATION   MILANKOVITCH CROSS SEISMIC GENERATION OF

CROSS

SEISMICGENERATION OF

GENERATION OF

ASSIGNMENT OF

CYCLICITY

CORRELATION

 

INTERVALS

Shale Volume (V )SH

SH

 

MODELLING

 

AND LOG

 

SYNTHETICS

USING CLUSTER

PorosityUSING CLUSTER Detection of M-cycles for the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Tertiary SHIFTING IN DEPTH

Detection of M-cycles for the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and TertiaryUSING CLUSTER Porosity SHIFTING IN DEPTH

SHIFTING

IN DEPTH

ANALYSIS

Correlation ofANALYSIS Calculates acoustic impedance and reflectivity Generates seismic synthetics in single and multi-trace

Calculates acoustic impedance andreflectivity Generates seismic synthetics in single and multi-trace pattern

reflectivity

Generates seismic synthetics in single and multi-trace pattern pattern

Original Logs

Original Logs

 
Cluster Analysis

Cluster Analysis

ATTRIBUTEANALYSIS

ANALYSIS

original logs

Correlation oforiginal logs log transforms

log transforms

Single logs Overlays of multiple logs

Transformed Logs

 

Single and multiple logs

Single and multiple log transformsSingle and multiple logs

Log StatisticsNet/Gross

Net/GrossLog Statistics

Estimation of the Net DurationEstimation of the Net Accumulation Rate

Estimation of theEstimation of the Net Duration Net Accumulation Rate

Net Accumulation

Rate

 

METHODS / CONCEPTS

METHODS / CONCEPTS Basic log transforms 2D and 3D cluster cross plot diagrams Probability Density  

Basic log transforms

2D and 3D cluster cross plot diagramsMETHODS / CONCEPTS Basic log transforms Probability Density    

Probability DensityMETHODS / CONCEPTS Basic log transforms 2D and 3D cluster cross plot diagrams    

   

Spectral transforms of logs (MESA)

Spectral transforms of logs (MESA) Forced-Cluster

Forced-Cluster

Advanced transforms of logs (PEFA/INPEFA) Analysis

Advanced transforms of logs (PEFA/INPEFA)

Analysis

Analysis
 

Imposing a cluster matrix to other wells

   
    VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS     CORRELATION OF WELL DATA TO SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES

VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS

   

CORRELATION OF WELL DATA TO SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES    VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS    

 
STRATIGRAPHIC CLUSTER OF LOGS AUTOMATED ASSIGNMENT OF BREAKS OR BOUNDARIES

STRATIGRAPHIC CLUSTER OF LOGS AUTOMATED ASSIGNMENT OF BREAKS OR BOUNDARIES

  STRATIGRAPHIC CLUSTER OF LOGS AUTOMATED ASSIGNMENT OF BREAKS OR BOUNDARIES INTERACTIVE        

INTERACTIVE

       

VISUAL CHECKS

AND MANUAL

DEFINITION OF

ZONES

PREDICTION OFELECTROFACIES USING VELOCITY SURVEYS (incl. Neural network)

ELECTROFACIES

USING VELOCITY

SURVEYS

(incl. Neural network)

   

MATH STUDIO

     
 

FALSE COLOUR DISPLAY

   

Version 2.0  FALSE COLOUR DISPLAY    

     
 

SPECTRAL TRANSFORMS

Version 2.1  SPECTRAL TRANSFORMS

MAXIMUM ENTROPY

HADAMARD-WALSH

 

FFT

   

WAVELET CONTINUOUS SPECTRAL ANALYSIS

   

Version 3.0

HADAMARD-WALSH   FFT     WAVELET CONTINUOUS SPECTRAL ANALYSIS     Version 3.0
Assignment of boundaries coal porous Cursor line sand Position of the cursor progradational trend INPEFA
Assignment of boundaries coal porous Cursor line sand Position of the cursor progradational trend INPEFA
Assignment of
boundaries
coal
porous
Cursor line
sand
Position of
the cursor
progradational
trend
INPEFA log
Electrofacies
transform, displaying
Mirror image
Density-neutron
Sonic log
display with
accommodation vs.
of GR-log
overlay
GR-log outline
deposition

Depth position and GR-log value at cursor line

CYCLOLOG

PLATFORM FOR PETROLEUM GEOLOGISTS

CycloLog

easy handling of log transform operations. All original logs and log transforms can be displayed next to each other for an immediate overview and comparison of the log expressions. Some of the operational features can be summarised as follows:

of the operational features can be summarised as follows: THE USER-FRIENDLY WORKING is specially designed for

THE USER-FRIENDLY WORKING

is specially designed for fast and

THE USER-FRIENDLY WORKING is specially designed for fast and Fast displays of original logs and log

Fast displays of original logs and log transformsTHE USER-FRIENDLY WORKING is specially designed for fast and Vertical scale and the horizontal scale of

Vertical scale and the horizontal scale of each log can be set and saved by the userfast and Fast displays of original logs and log transforms Easy generation and adjustment of multi-log

Easy generation and adjustment of multi-log overlays, e.g for neutron-density combinationsscale of each log can be set and saved by the user Cursor line extends over

Cursor line extends over the displayed logs. Depth position and log value are displayed.of multi-log overlays, e.g for neutron-density combinations Boundaries can be drawn on screen. Boundary labels can

Boundaries can be drawn on screen. Boundary labels can be defined, modified or deleted. All boundary depths can be saved in an ASCII file.displayed logs. Depth position and log value are displayed. All the displayed logs and log transforms

All the displayed logs and log transforms can be edited in an output menu and printed.drawn on screen. Boundary labels can be defined, modified or deleted. All boundary depths can be

can be saved in an ASCII file. All the displayed logs and log transforms can be
LOG FILTERS Log filters may be used for the enhancement of the pattern of the

LOG FILTERS

Log filters may be used for the enhancement of the pattern of the original logs. Log pattern enhancement may support the visual correlation of wells. The smoothing log filters tend to “block” the log patterns, while enhancement log filters will display the higher frequency pattern of the log. Log filters are generally used in combination with other log transform operations.

Median Filter Analysis SMOOTHING LOG FILTERS Average Filter Analysis Edge Enhancement Filter Analysis ENHANCEMENT
Median
Filter Analysis
SMOOTHING
LOG FILTERS
Average
Filter Analysis
Edge Enhancement
Filter Analysis
ENHANCEMENT
LOG FILTERS
Derivative
Input of filter window size
Filter Analysis
ORIGINAL LOGS LOG TRANSFORMS
ORIGINAL LOGS
LOG TRANSFORMS

Mirror

GR

Wiggler

GR

Median

Filter

Filter size 3m

Average

Filter

Filter size 3m

Edge

Enhancement

Filter size 3m

Derivative

GR Median Filter Filter size 3m Average Filter Filter size 3m Edge Enhancement Filter size 3m
porous sands high Th/K ratios Thorium-Potassium ratio divide Th by K logs Acoustic Impedance curve,
porous sands high Th/K ratios Thorium-Potassium ratio divide Th by K logs Acoustic Impedance curve,
porous sands
high Th/K
ratios
Thorium-Potassium
ratio
divide Th by K logs
Acoustic Impedance
curve, divide
RHOB by DT logs
Electrofacies
Mirror image
Density-neutron
Sonic log
cluster analysis
of GR-log
overlay
of density-neutron

MATHEMATICAL CALCULATIONS WITH LOGS

A number of basic and advanced mathematical functions has been incorporated in the program. Mathematical operations can be performed with each log in a fast and easy way. The following mathematical operations can be performed:

Basic Math

Multiply logsmathematical operations can be performed: Basic Math Divide logs Add logs Subtract logs Advanced Math Integral

Divide logsoperations can be performed: Basic Math Multiply logs Add logs Subtract logs Advanced Math Integral calculation

Add logscan be performed: Basic Math Multiply logs Divide logs Subtract logs Advanced Math Integral calculation of

Subtract logsbe performed: Basic Math Multiply logs Divide logs Add logs Advanced Math Integral calculation of logs

Advanced Math

Integral calculation of logslogs Divide logs Add logs Subtract logs Advanced Math Logarithmic calculation of logs Exponential calculation of

Logarithmic calculation of logsSubtract logs Advanced Math Integral calculation of logs Exponential calculation of logs Using “Divide logs” for

Exponential calculation of logsIntegral calculation of logs Logarithmic calculation of logs Using “Divide logs” for spectral logs produces a

Using “Divide logs” for spectral logs produces a ratio curve which may give information on the lithological development

The combination of log ratio plots and log overlays of the density and neutron may be useful for having an overview on the lithological or porosity development in a well.

of the density and neutron may be useful for having an overview on the lithological or
LOG STATISTICS A number of statistical operations for the quantification of a single log has

LOG STATISTICS A number of statistical operations for the quantification of a single log has been included in the program. The interval can be defined by the user. The following statistical analyses can be made:

The average valueby the user. The following statistical analyses can be made: The Root-Mean-Square value (RMS) The Standard

The Root-Mean-Square value (RMS)statistical analyses can be made: The average value The Standard Deviation (STANDARD) Histograms of single logs

The Standard Deviation (STANDARD)be made: The average value The Root-Mean-Square value (RMS) Histograms of single logs can be generated

Histograms of single logs can be generated for a user- defined interval. The histograms plot the log values against frequency.

interval. The histograms plot the log values against frequency. GR-log SONIC-log GR-log histogram SONIC-log histogram

GR-log

SONIC-log

GR-log histogram SONIC-log histogram
GR-log histogram
SONIC-log histogram
interval. The histograms plot the log values against frequency. GR-log SONIC-log GR-log histogram SONIC-log histogram
SEISMIC LOG CALCULATIONS - SEISMIC SYNTHETICS Seismic synthetics can be generated from the acoustic impedance,

SEISMIC LOG CALCULATIONS - SEISMIC SYNTHETICS Seismic synthetics can be generated from the acoustic impedance, sonic and density. The seismic synthetic display is in the depth domain and can be correlated with the original logs as well as the log transforms.

SEISMIC SYNTHETICS FROM ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE

ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE

density

sonic

REFLECTIVITY

data

data

(N) - data

(N) + data

(N+1)

(N+1)

data data (N) - data (N) + data (N+1) (N+1) CALCULATE SEISMICS input seismic wavelength SEISMIC

CALCULATE SEISMICS

input seismic wavelength

SEISMIC SYNTHETICS FROM SONIC LOG

INVERTED SONIC

1

sonic

REFLECTIVITY

data

data

(N) - data

(N) + data

(N+1)

(N+1)

data data (N) - data (N) + data (N+1) (N+1) CALCULATE SEISMICS input seismic wavelength SEISMIC

CALCULATE SEISMICS

input seismic wavelength

SEISMIC SYNTHETICS FROM DENSITY LOG

DENSITY LOG

REFLECTIVITY

data

data

(N) - data

(N) + data

(N+1)

(N+1)

data data (N) - data (N) + data (N+1) (N+1) CALCULATE SEISMICS input seismic wavelength INPEFA

CALCULATE SEISMICS

input seismic wavelength

INPEFA log Electrofacies transform, displaying Seismic Mirror image Density-neutron Sonic log display with
INPEFA log
Electrofacies
transform, displaying
Seismic
Mirror image
Density-neutron
Sonic log
display with
accommodation vs.
synthetics in
of GR-log
overlay
GR-log outline
deposition
multi-trace mode
log display with accommodation vs. synthetics in of GR-log overlay GR-log outline deposition multi-trace mode
PETROPHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES Petrophysical attributes are used to support the geological interpretation of logs, and to

PETROPHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES Petrophysical attributes are used to support the geological interpretation of logs, and to evaluate the relationship between petrophysical parameters and geological features.

Attribute generation

GR/Th-indexparameters and geological features. Attribute generation Sonic / density derived porosity Attribute analysis Log

Sonic / density derived porosityand geological features. Attribute generation GR/Th-index Attribute analysis Log statistics Net/Gross calculations

Attribute analysis

Log statisticsSonic / density derived porosity Attribute analysis Net/Gross calculations Single log histograms N/G calculation

Net/Gross calculations/ density derived porosity Attribute analysis Log statistics Single log histograms N/G calculation with cutoff GR-log

Single log histogramsAttribute analysis Log statistics Net/Gross calculations N/G calculation with cutoff GR-log value of 30 API N/G

Log statistics Net/Gross calculations Single log histograms N/G calculation with cutoff GR-log value of 30 API
N/G calculation with cutoff GR-log value of 30 API N/G = 15.97 Total thickness =
N/G calculation with
cutoff GR-log value
of 30 API
N/G = 15.97
Total thickness = 30.3 m
value of 30 API N/G = 15.97 Total thickness = 30.3 m N/G calculation of porous
value of 30 API N/G = 15.97 Total thickness = 30.3 m N/G calculation of porous

N/G calculation of porous sand N/G = 46.4 Total thickness = 88.2 m

value of 30 API N/G = 15.97 Total thickness = 30.3 m N/G calculation of porous
SPECTRAL TRANSFORM OF LOGS Spectral transform of logs is uses a specially- designed version of

SPECTRAL TRANSFORM OF LOGS

Spectral transform of logs is uses a specially- designed version of Maximum Entropy Analysis (MESA). The program is a predictive tool in which part of a series of data points is analysed in order to attempt to predict the next point in the series. Essentially the analysis is performed on a portion of the data series. In a downhole log data series, this portion is known as the window of analysis.

Window size is defined by the user. A cycle pattern or spectrum and prediction error value is produced for that window. The analysis is then repeated on another, over- lapping portion of the data series.

on another, over- lapping portion of the data series. MESA SPECTRUM BANDS WITH DIFFERENT WINDOW SIZES
MESA SPECTRUM BANDS WITH DIFFERENT WINDOW SIZES 0.5 WINDOW = 15 m SPECTRUM BREAK FREQUENCY
MESA SPECTRUM BANDS
WITH DIFFERENT WINDOW SIZES
0.5 WINDOW = 15
m
SPECTRUM BREAK
FREQUENCY RANGE
LOW
HIGH
MESA
MESA
MESA
MIRROR
GR/W30
GR/W50
GR/W40
GR
ACO=8m
ACO=10m
ACO=9m
small
large
K = WAVE NUMBER
large
small

WAVE LENGTH

SPECTRUM BAND AMPLITUDEsmall large K = WAVE NUMBER large small WAVE LENGTH HIGH AMPLITUDE (RED) = PRONOUNCED CYCLICITY

HIGH AMPLITUDE (RED) = PRONOUNCED CYCLICITY LOW AMPLITUDE (YELLOW) = WEAK CYCLICITY NO AMPLITUDE (BLUE) = NO CYCLICITY OR NOISE

CYCLE HIERARCHY= WEAK CYCLICITY NO AMPLITUDE (BLUE) = NO CYCLICITY OR NOISE LOW FREQUENCY / LARGE =

LOW FREQUENCY / LARGE = TO THE LEFT OF SPECTRUM BAND SCALE HIGH FREQUENCY / SMALL = TO THE RIGHT OF SPECTRUM BAND SCALE

SPECTRUM BREAKS (Cycle Interval Boundaries / CIB)FREQUENCY / SMALL = TO THE RIGHT OF SPECTRUM BAND SCALE IN GEOLOGY = MISSING SECTIONS,

IN GEOLOGY = MISSING SECTIONS, CONDENSED SECTIONS, STACKED EROSIONAL SURFACES, LARGE-SCALE CHANGE IN DEPOSITIONAL PATTERN, LOG DATA ERRORS

DEPTH SHIFT RELATED TO WINDOW SIZE POSITION OF BREAK IN THE DEPTH SCALE = 0.5 WINDOW SIZE

PATTERN, LOG DATA ERRORS DEPTH SHIFT RELATED TO WINDOW SIZE POSITION OF BREAK IN THE DEPTH
SPECTRAL TRANSFORM OF LOGS - MILANKOVITCH CYCLICITY PREDICTION Prediction of M-cycles is part of the

SPECTRAL TRANSFORM OF LOGS - MILANKOVITCH CYCLICITY PREDICTION Prediction of M-cycles is part of the spectral transform operational algorithm. The predicted M-periodicities from the Carboniferous to the present have been stored in the memory dataset of the program.

We use these predicted values to derive the ratios between ancient climatic cycles and then compare those ratios between the cycle wavelengths detected by MESA. This is done interactively on screen with the program.

E A= 6.94m WAVELENGTH = APPROX. 6.9m D C INFORMATION BAR
E
A= 6.94m
WAVELENGTH =
APPROX. 6.9m
D
C
INFORMATION BAR
A= 6.94m WAVELENGTH = APPROX. 6.9m D C INFORMATION BAR GEOLOGICAL PERIOD NET ACCUMULATION RATE RATIO

GEOLOGICAL

PERIOD

NET ACCUMULATION RATE
NET
ACCUMULATION
RATE
RATIO MATCH NUMBER
RATIO
MATCH
NUMBER

NET ACCUMULATION

RATE (N)

INCREASE

RATE RATIO MATCH NUMBER NET ACCUMULATION RATE (N) INCREASE DECREASE USING THE MESA CURSOR FOR PREDICTING

DECREASE

USING THE MESA CURSOR FOR PREDICTING MILANKOVITCH CYCLES

 

A

4

 

A

 

C

 

E

F

MESA CURSOR

       
         

MILANKOVITCH

             

RATIOS

 

4.13

 

1

0.37

0.21

0.18

MILANKOVITCH

             

PERIODICITIES

413 Ka

100 Ka

37.0 Ka

21.0 Ka

18.0 Ka

(TRIASSIC)

USED CODES

 

A

4

 

A

B

 

C

D

 

E

 

F

MILANKOVITCH

       

PARAMETERS

 

ECCENTRICITY

OBLIQUITY

PRECESSION

  F MILANKOVITCH         PARAMETERS   ECCENTRICITY OBLIQUITY PRECESSION
PREDICTED TOP CARBONIFEROUS 3500 OR BASE ROTLIEGEND 3600 3700 PREDICTED STRATIGRAPHIC BREAKS CAUSED BY MAJOR
PREDICTED TOP CARBONIFEROUS 3500 OR BASE ROTLIEGEND 3600 3700 PREDICTED STRATIGRAPHIC BREAKS CAUSED BY MAJOR
PREDICTED TOP CARBONIFEROUS
3500
OR BASE ROTLIEGEND
3600
3700
PREDICTED STRATIGRAPHIC
BREAKS CAUSED BY MAJOR
FLOODING SURFACES
3800
3900
4000
4100
PREDICTED STRATIGRAPHIC
BREAKS OR EROSIONAL SURFACES
4200
NEGATIVE PREDICTED ERROR
VALUE / FREQUENCY DISCONTINUITY
PRODUCED BY A JUMP FROM HIGH TO
LOW GR VALUES
ACCOMMODATION INCREASE < SEDIMENT SUPPLY

PREDICTION ERROR FILTER ANALYSIS (PEFA) Prediction Error Filter Analysis (PEFA) is based on the comparison of measured log values and predicted log values. If we assume a certain predictability in (part of) the dataset, this predictability may be expressed in terms of a prediction filter. This filter, when applied to the log values within a depth window, will predict the log values just outside of that depth window. If a prediction filter that was derived for a specific part of a dataset is applied to another part of the dataset, and the difference between predicted and measured log values is determined, this difference can be used to quantify how well the two log-parts resemble each other. Thus high output values of PEFA can often be found to correspond to sudden changes in log characteristics. These changes may be related to geological events, such as changes in climate or basin dynamics.

POSITIVE PREDICTED ERROR

VALUE / FREQUENCY DISCONTINUITY PRODUCED BY A JUMP FROM LOW TO HIGH GR VALUES ACCOMMODATION INCREASE > SEDIMENT SUPPLY

MIRROR PEFA PEFA PEFA PEFA GR GR/MF1 GR/MF3 GR/MF5 GR/MF7
MIRROR
PEFA
PEFA
PEFA
PEFA
GR
GR/MF1
GR/MF3
GR/MF5
GR/MF7
EROSIONAL HIATUS
EROSIONAL HIATUS

SEDIMENT DYNAMICS

EUSTATIC CHANGES

EUSTATIC CHANGES / TECTONICS

 
CORRELATION LEVEL
CORRELATION LEVEL

LOCAL

SUB-REGIONAL

REGIONAL

EUSTATIC CHANGES EUSTATIC CHANGES / TECTONICS   CORRELATION LEVEL LOCAL SUB-REGIONAL REGIONAL
INPEFA Cumulative difference between the predicted log values and actual log values MAIN FLOODING SURFACE
INPEFA Cumulative difference between the predicted log values and actual log values MAIN FLOODING SURFACE
INPEFA
Cumulative difference
between the predicted
log values and actual
log
values
MAIN FLOODING
SURFACE
OTHER MAJOR
NEGATIVE OR
THICKENING-UPWARD
EROSIONAL SURFACES
TREND
DECREASE OF EROSIONAL
SURFACES / INCREASE OF
ACCOMMODATION
MAIN
EROSIONAL
SURFACE
+5
-5
0
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0

INTEGRATED PREDICTION ERROR FILTER ANALYSIS (INPEFA)

The INPEFA curve is the integration of all PEFA values. INPEFA therefore is related to PEFA and represents the cumulative difference between the predicted log values and actual log values. High PEFA values will be presented as

a major change in the INPEFA pattern. These major changes are defined as Cycle Interval Boundaries (CIB).

A stacked succession of negative

PEFA values will show a negative or, in geological terms, a thickening- upward or progradational trend. Positive PEFA values will show a positive or retrogradational trend. The negative trends are separated from the positive trends by major CIB’s.

INPEFA shows the following features:

A distinct hierarchical cyclic pattern of sedimentary successions. Depositional trends - negative trends (to the left) are related to progradational / aggradational depositional systems, while positive trends (to the right) are linked to retrogradational systems.

Geological events, such as sequence boundaries and flooding surfaces are clearly displayed.

Enhances the sequence stratigraphic or cyclostratigraphic interpretation of a well.

surfaces are clearly displayed. Enhances the sequence stratigraphic or cyclostratigraphic interpretation of a well.
NON-HIERARCHICAL MULTI-LOG CLUSTER ANALYSIS INPEFA of the GR-log The non-hierarchical multi-log cluster analysis

NON-HIERARCHICAL MULTI-LOG CLUSTER ANALYSIS

INPEFA of the GR-log The non-hierarchical multi-log cluster analysis includes a number of operational routines
INPEFA of
the GR-log
The non-hierarchical multi-log cluster
analysis includes a number of
operational routines which enable
the user to define a number of input
parameters. These input parameters
enhance the results of the cluster
analysis and may also recognise
discrete horizons such as paleosols or
thin coal layers.
In addition, a whole range of routines,
such as changing the cluster colours,
editing the interpretation labels, a 2D
and 3D cluster cross plot display are
available to the user.
Electrofacies from
the cluster analysis
of GR, RHOB and
NPHI
Cluster matrix display
Cluster parameters input
user. Electrofacies from the cluster analysis of GR, RHOB and NPHI Cluster matrix display Cluster parameters
COPPER SHALE ZEZ1K GEOLOGICAL EVENT IN THE ROTLIEGEND TOP CARBONIFEROUS TRANSGRESSIVE BOUNDARY SURFACE (TBS) BASE
COPPER SHALE ZEZ1K GEOLOGICAL EVENT IN THE ROTLIEGEND TOP CARBONIFEROUS TRANSGRESSIVE BOUNDARY SURFACE (TBS) BASE
COPPER SHALE
ZEZ1K
GEOLOGICAL EVENT
IN THE ROTLIEGEND
TOP CARBONIFEROUS
TRANSGRESSIVE BOUNDARY
SURFACE (TBS)
BASE WESTPHALIAN D
GEOLOGICAL EVENT
INDICATING THE ONSET
OF A SAND-PRONE
DEPOSITION
BASE WESTPHALIAN C
"RETROGRADATIONAL"
TRANSGRESSIVE
SHALE-PRONE AND
COAL-BEARING INTERVAL
WESTPHALIAN B / MAURITS FM
TRANSGRESSIVE BOUNDARY
SURFACE (TBS)
"PROGRADING"
SAND-PRONE
INTERVAL
WESTPAHLIAN
B SANDS
GEOLOGICAL EVENT
INDICATING A CHANGE
IN DEPOSITIONAL
PATTERN
BASE WESTPHALIAN B
300
300
1.95
3.05 -0.50
0.55
GR
RHOB
(ACC<SED)
INPEFA - GR
(ACC>SED)
0.45
-0.15
NPHI
140
40
DT

EXAMPLES OF CYCLOLOG

INPEFA LOG TRANSFORMS AND

INTERPRETATIONS

Well data courtesy NITG-TNO

TRANSFORMS AND INTERPRETATIONS Well data courtesy NITG-TNO SINGLE WELL ZEZ1K Cycle Interval Boundary (CIB) D

SINGLE WELL

ZEZ1K Cycle Interval Boundary (CIB) D SILVERPIT TREND UPPER SLOCHTEREN TREND MID-C C FLOODING MID-B
ZEZ1K
Cycle Interval Boundary (CIB)
D
SILVERPIT
TREND
UPPER SLOCHTEREN
TREND
MID-C
C
FLOODING
MID-B
FLOODING
AMELAND
B
TREND
MID-A
FLOODING
LOWER SLOCHTEREN
A TREND
ROSLL
TREND MID-C C FLOODING MID-B FLOODING AMELAND B TREND MID-A FLOODING LOWER SLOCHTEREN A TREND ROSLL
EXAMPLE OF CYCLOLOG USING INPEFA LOG TRANSFORMS Well data courtesy NITG-TNO WELL CORRELATION APPROX. 10

EXAMPLE OF CYCLOLOG

USING INPEFA LOG TRANSFORMS

Well data courtesy NITG-TNO

USING INPEFA LOG TRANSFORMS Well data courtesy NITG-TNO WELL CORRELATION APPROX. 10 km ZEZ1K ZEZ1K 3700

WELL CORRELATION

APPROX. 10 km ZEZ1K ZEZ1K 3700 3750 SILVERPIT TREND 3750 3800 UPPER SLOCHTEREN TREND MID-C
APPROX. 10 km
ZEZ1K
ZEZ1K
3700
3750
SILVERPIT
TREND
3750
3800
UPPER SLOCHTEREN
TREND
MID-C
FLOODING
3800
3850
3850
3900
MID-B
FLOODING
AMELAND
TREND
3900
3950
MID-A
FLOODING
LOWER SLOCHTEREN
TREND
ROSLL
3950
4000
RESERVOIR CORRELATION AND CHARACTERISATION
USING INPEFA FREQUENCY CURVES
ROSLL
CORRELATION OF INDIVIDUAL SAND UNITS
PLATFORM(S)
Windows
95 / 98 / NT 4.0 or higher

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS

Intel Pentium II

Memory 32 Mb RAM (minimum) Colour graphics card with 8 Mb memory Recommended 17 inch SVGA 1024 x 768, 75Hz and 0.28 dpi colour monitor

300mHz or higher

RECOMMENDED PLOTTERS

EPSON Stylus 1520

HP Designjet 750C

1024 x 768, 75Hz and 0.28 dpi colour monitor 300mHz or higher RECOMMENDED PLOTTERS EPSON Stylus
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