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Information Technology Engineers Examination and its Skill Standards in Japan

May / 2001

Japan Information Technology Engineers Examination Center (JITEC) Central Academy of Information Technology (CAIT) are subordinate agencies of Japan Information Processing Development Corporation (JIPDEC)

1

(CAIT) are subordinate agencies of ・ J a p a n Information Processing Development Corporation (JIPDEC)
Information Technology Engineers Examination ( ITEE ) 2

Information Technology Engineers Examination ITEE

2

1.History Of Information Technology Engineers Examination 1968 1969 1970 1984 1994 1999 2000 2001

1.History Of Information Technology Engineers Examination

1968

1969

1970

1984

1994

1999

2000

2001

Establishment of CAIT (Central Academy of Information Technology)

Introduction of the Examination Program

Legislation of the Examinations

Establishment of JITEC (Japan Information Technology Engineers Examination Center)

Revamping of Examination Program in line with the recommendations of the Industrial Structure Council’s Subcommittee on Information Technology Personnel

New recommendations on the updating of JITEC examinations by the above-mentioned ISC Subcommittee

Official announcement of rationale for the current revision of the Information Technology Engineers Examinations

April 15th

NEW EXAMINATION

3

2.Basic Structure of the IT Engineers Examination Program as of April 2001 Independent AU Systems
2.Basic Structure of the IT Engineers Examination Program as of April 2001 Independent AU Systems

2.Basic Structure of the IT Engineers Examination Program as of April 2001

of the IT Engineers Examination Program as of April 2001 Independent AU Systems Auditor Examination FE

Independent

Engineers Examination Program as of April 2001 Independent AU Systems Auditor Examination FE Information System

AU

Systems Auditor Examination

FE
FE
of April 2001 Independent AU Systems Auditor Examination FE Information System Development and Operation Side
of April 2001 Independent AU Systems Auditor Examination FE Information System Development and Operation Side
of April 2001 Independent AU Systems Auditor Examination FE Information System Development and Operation Side
of April 2001 Independent AU Systems Auditor Examination FE Information System Development and Operation Side
of April 2001 Independent AU Systems Auditor Examination FE Information System Development and Operation Side
of April 2001 Independent AU Systems Auditor Examination FE Information System Development and Operation Side
of April 2001 Independent AU Systems Auditor Examination FE Information System Development and Operation Side

Information System Development and Operation Side

Information System User Side

Development and Operation Side Information System User Side AN PM AE Technical Engineer Examinations SS SD
Development and Operation Side Information System User Side AN PM AE Technical Engineer Examinations SS SD
Development and Operation Side Information System User Side AN PM AE Technical Engineer Examinations SS SD
Development and Operation Side Information System User Side AN PM AE Technical Engineer Examinations SS SD
Development and Operation Side Information System User Side AN PM AE Technical Engineer Examinations SS SD
Development and Operation Side Information System User Side AN PM AE Technical Engineer Examinations SS SD
Development and Operation Side Information System User Side AN PM AE Technical Engineer Examinations SS SD
Development and Operation Side Information System User Side AN PM AE Technical Engineer Examinations SS SD
Development and Operation Side Information System User Side AN PM AE Technical Engineer Examinations SS SD
Development and Operation Side Information System User Side AN PM AE Technical Engineer Examinations SS SD
Development and Operation Side Information System User Side AN PM AE Technical Engineer Examinations SS SD
Development and Operation Side Information System User Side AN PM AE Technical Engineer Examinations SS SD
Development and Operation Side Information System User Side AN PM AE Technical Engineer Examinations SS SD

AN

PM

AE

Technical Engineer Examinations

SS

SD

Application Systems Engineer Examination

Senior Systems Administrator Examination

Information Systems Security Administrator Examination

Project Manager Examination

Systems Analyst Examination

Systems Management

Embedded Systems

Database Systems

Network Systems

NW

DB

SM

ES

SW

SW Software Design & Development Engineer Examination (comparable to ex CLASS 1 Exam.)
SW Software Design & Development Engineer Examination (comparable to ex CLASS 1 Exam.)

Software Design & Development Engineer Examination (comparable to ex CLASS 1 Exam.)

Fundamental Information Technology Engineer Examination (comparable to ex CLASS 2 Exam.)

Introductory

AD
AD

Systems Administrator Examination

4

Engineer Examination (comparable to ex CLASS 2 Exam.) Introductory AD Systems Administrator Examination 4
3.DATA -1 ( Applicants ) The number of applicants reaches almost 800,000, and it is
3.DATA -1 ( Applicants )
The number of applicants reaches almost 800,000, and it is growing.
Information Technology Engineers Examination
The Changes of the Applicants Numbers
800,000
The Total Numbers of
Applicants
700,000
(1969~2000Autumn)
SA
47,927
SU
120,133
PM
67,528
600,000
AE
492,424
SM
25,413
PE
84,245
500,000
NW
563,466
DB
71,983
ME
13,179
400,000
CLASS 1
1,616,014
CLASS 2
5,421,161
SD
40,965
300,000
AD
776,461
TOTAL
9,340,899
200,000
100,000
0
5
GRAND TOTAL
1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
3. DATA-2 ( Successful Candidates ) The number of Successful Candidates reaches 93,000 from year
3. DATA-2 ( Successful Candidates )
The number of Successful Candidates reaches 93,000 from year of 1999.
The Changes of the Successful Candidates Numbers
(up to 2000 Autumn)
100,000
The Total
Number of
the Successful Candidates
(1969~2000 Autumn)
SA
1,783
80,000
SU
4,233
PM
2,462
AE
19,419
SM
940
PE
4,321
60,000
NW
16,716
DB
3,086
ME
1,130
CLASS 1
133,600
40,000
CLASS 2
553,820
SD
1,648
AD
195,639
Total
938,797
20,000
0
1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
6
SPRING TOTAL
AUTUMN TOTAL
GRAND TOTAL

4. Objectives Of The Examination

(1)

To improve the technical competence of information technology engineers.

(2)

To ensure that competence levels established by the examinations meet performance requirements.

(3)

To ensure that objective criteria for evaluating competence are universally applied.

(4)

To provide the opportunity to gain a better understanding of information technology systems and applications to any persons interested.

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5. Characteristics Of The Examination System For the purpose of enhancing the quality of IT
5. Characteristics Of The Examination System
For the purpose of enhancing the quality of IT engineer's skill,
we provide the training system by combining instruction and qualification.
Image of ideal engineer
Qualification
METI
Certification
CAIT
JITEC
Examiantion
formulating & Updating
Skill Standard
Examiantion Scope
Educational Institution
Instruction
Training
n
Instruction in line with
Skill Standard
Improving practical ability
8

International Development of Skill Standards and Examination for Information Technology Engineers

Current status

Foreign governmental Exam certification METI agencies
Foreign
governmental
Exam certification
METI
agencies
Implementing exams that evaluate the degree to which the exam candidate has achieved the skill
Implementing exams
that evaluate the degree
to which the exam
candidate has achieved
the skill standards
Examination
JITEC
agencies
Mutual recognition
Cooperation
Formulating
skill standards
CAIT
Agency that
formulates skill
standards
agencies Mutual recognition Cooperation Formulating skill standards CAIT Agency that formulates skill standards 9
agencies Mutual recognition Cooperation Formulating skill standards CAIT Agency that formulates skill standards 9

9

6. Organization Structure Of JITEC

METI

Branch Offices & Local Offices

: All through Japan

: Distribute Applications

Headquarters
Headquarters
President : General Affairs div. : Total Management Technical : Conduct Exam. Accounting div. :
President
:
General Affairs div.
: Total Management
Technical
:
Conduct Exam.
Accounting div.
:
Accounting
Advisor
Administration div.
:
Receives Applications and issue Exam. tickets
:
Conducts Exam. with Branch Offices & Local Offices
Technical div.
:
Compiles the Exam. Questions / Marking answer sheets
( Directed by Committee )
:
Manages the Exam. Committee
Large human network in industry and academic world
Exam. Committee
:
Consists of about 400 committee members
Genaral WG
:
Consists of each WG leaders
Question-Preparation WGs
:
Each WG by exam. categories consists
of about 12 members
Question-Selection WGs
:
Each WG consists of about 3 members
Question-Check WGs
:
Each WG consists of about 10
Disabled WGs
:
Put questions into braille
10

Secure exam. Venues(286places) and Proctors etc (17,000persons)

Information Technology Engineers Skill Standards (ITESS) 11

Information Technology Engineers Skill Standards (ITESS)

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7. Objectives of ITESS

(1) In the industrial circles, to define the required level of knowledge, skills, and capability to be equipped with by IT personnel (engineers) who do actual jobs.

(2) In schools and other educational institutions, to define the models of IT engineers accepted internationally, and the ways how they should conduct education & training on the basis of these models.

(3) In government agencies, to grasp the technical level of the entire industrial world.

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8. Scope Of IT Examination and IT Skill Standard

The established Skill Standards describe Scope of Exam. more specifically by consulting actual jobs.

Scope of Examination Book Skill Standard Book Defined by each exam. categories Defined by each
Scope of Examination Book
Skill Standard Book
Defined by each exam. categories
Defined by each exam. categories
Image of IT engineer
Image of IT engineer
①Function and Job Requirement
① Key Activities
> Tasks > Job Outline
②Required Technical Levels
② Skill Criteria
> ( Tasks, Performance Indicators,
Required Knowledge, Required Skill )
Detail Scope of examination
Body of Knowledge
(
③ morning exam. )
(
IT Common body Of Knowledge
)
(
④ afternoon exam. )
(
④ Practical and Core Body Of Knowledge )

Structure of Skill

Standard

FE

 

SW

 

SD

Key Activities

Key Activities

Key Activities

Skill Criteria

Skill Criteria

Skill Criteria

Practical&Core body of knowledge

Practical&Core body of knowledge

Practical&Core body of knowledge

 

IT Common body of knowledge

 

image of IT engineer

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9. ① Key Activities ◆ Key activities refer to procedural items described about functions in

9. Key Activities

Key activities refer to procedural items described about functions in the job of system development, which is the major job area for XXX engineers. [example XXX : S]

In Skill Standards, this job area is called a "system development process."

The system development process are broken down into 7 basic "activities."

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<Structure of Activities - Activities> example SW   7 basic "activities.” of system development process

User requirements analysis & System requests definition

System development preparation

System design (External design)

Component design (Internal design)

Detailed design (Program design)

Program implementation

Software installation support

Activities performed chiefly by SW engineers

<Structure of Activities - Tasks >   Each 7 basic activities are broken down into detailed jobs called "Tasks".

Activities

Task

Job Outline

1. Act 1

1-1

Task 1

 

1-2

Task 2

 

1-3

Task 3

 

2. Act 2

2-1

Task 1

 

2-2

Task 2

 
 

2-3

Task 3

 
 

2-4

Task 4

 
    2-3 Task 3     2-4 Task 4   Activities performed chiefly by this

Activities performed chiefly by this engineers

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[example] extract from SW Key Activities

 

Activity

 

Task

Job outline

1.

User requirement

1-1

Collect and analyze information to define user requirements

To clarify user requirements, analyze the problems of the current system and users’ new requirements (including studying survey items, conducting a survey, classifying survey results, needs for systematization, preconditions, and restrictions, and studying solutions and the scope of systematization).

analysis and

systematization

 

requirement

definition

1-2

Determine the work scope

Define the aims and scope of the project, and estimate and present required resources to achieve user requirements such as time, material, and ability (including aims and scope of systematization, system functions, requirements from jobs, organizations, and users, system configuration, design conditions, qualification check items, development environment, and expected effect).

 

1-3

Define systematization requirements

Document systematization requirements and classify them (define requirements such as job processing procedures, input-output data requirements, system functions and performance requirements, execution environment requirements, peripheral interface requirements, database requirements, and system transition requirements).

1-4

Define security requirements

Define security requirements according to the kind of risks and the security policy.

1-5

Define operation requirements

Extract and define operation requirements.

1-6

Define maintenance requirements

Extract and define maintenance requirements.

1-7

Establish performance evaluation criteria

Define the required system performance level and the key points of the performance evaluation criteria.

1-8

Define test requirements

Select test methodology and determine the scope of tests and persons to make the tests.

1-9

Prepare and review requirements specification

Document user requirements and systematization requirements, security requirements, operation requirements, maintenance requirements, performance evaluation criteria, and test requirements to achieve the user requirements. Prepare requirements specification, and review them with the user.

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10. Skill Criteria

<What are Skill Criteria?>

Indicators of:

- [Product-critical] Checking the degree of achievement of the system development process in the key activities by the defined level of competent performance

- [Process-critical] Determining whether SW has done the task completely and consistently according to sound disciplines, by using exact tools & methods, and by applying specific knowledge & skills;

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<Structure of Skill Criteria> Task Performance Required Required skill indicators knowledge

<Structure of Skill Criteria>

Task

Performance

Required

Required skill

indicators

knowledge

"Task" :

Duty done in each activity

"Performance indicators" :

Indicators of describing more concretely

what quality of outcome needs to be obtained as a result of job execution for each

"task" of each activity

"Required knowledge" : Knowledge required for doing the task competently

"Required skill" :

Skills required for doing the task competently

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[example] extract from SW Skill Criteria

1. User requirement analysis and systematization requirement definition

 

No.

Task

Performance indicators

Required knowledge

Required skill

1-1

Collect and

Details of requirements are reliable and reflect the present situation. The methodology to capture the source of information and requirements are proper. Information is correct and perfect. Information has been collected using a standard interview technique adopted by the corporation. Information is collected efficiently and continuously. User requirements have been analyzed properly, and persuasion has been performed for opposite requirements.

Knowledge about details of user jobs and terms Knowledge about information

Ability to identify the major information source of the user’s needs Ability to implement information collection techniques and sequence Ability to determine the required amount of information to be collected Ability to analyze replies from individuals and groups Ability to select and obtain collected information and to identify needs Ability to put together and to summarize requirement information items Ability to let other people discuss important issues freely and to derive various solutions Ability to collect and present cost data

analyze

information to

define user

 

requirements

collection methods Knowledge about problem analysis methods

1-2

Determine the

The aims and scope of the systematization project have been established and agreed on. The criteria for the achieved aims of the systematization project have been defined. The work scope that satisfies the budget, quality, and delivery date requested by the user has been identified. Resources that satisfy requested details have been identified. Resources can be assured and have been estimated. Risk has been analyzed, and proper measures against emergency have been planned. The work scope has been documented

Knowledge about system environment Knowledge about system architecture, hardware, and software Knowledge about availability of system resources and the project delivery date Knowledge about calculating man-hours Knowledge about technical restrictions Knowledge about risk analysis technology

Ability to document the work scope for user requirements clearly Ability to negotiate with requesting persons about the achievement criteria for the systematization project Ability to calculate man-hours for each work items of the systematization project Ability to estimate the completion status of system development Ability to survey, analyze, and compare marketed products and to determine applicability for systematization Ability to create document on technical restrictions Ability to think nonsequentially and globally

work scope

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11. Body of Knowledge <What is Body of Knowledge?> ・ Knowledge which is needed to

11. Body of Knowledge

<What is Body of Knowledge?>

Knowledge which is needed to perform the key activities successfully and to solve various critical problems happened frequently Knowledge is divided into groups according to technical and problem = solving concepts, and is classified in a hierarchical structure. Here, the various critical problems may include quality degradation, cost overrun, development delay (or schedule overrun), effort overexpenditure, and avoidable rework.

The body of knowledge which XXX engineers must have consists of the following two kinds :

[1] IT common body of knowledge (IT-BOK) [2] Practical & core bodies of knowledge (P-BOK & C-BOK)

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12. ③ IT Common Body of Knowledge

<What is the IT Common Body of Knowledge?>

IT-BOK shows structurally the knowledge which is commonly evaluated in all categories(applicable persons) in ITEE.

Reflecting the knowledge shown in the "ITEE : Scope of Examinations," this IT-BOK has been produced by extracting and arranging these elements which are often made use of on the actual jobs in the development of IS, and which are effective to be taken up as study items in information processing education & training.

<Structure of IT-BOK>

Knowledge

Major

Intermediate

Major technical item

field(area)

classification

classification

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Table 1: “Examination in the morning: Table of questions classified by examination categories” Examination category

Table 1: “Examination in the morning: Table of questions classified by examination categories”

Examination category

 

Software

 

Technical engineer

           

Application systems engineer Project manager Systems analyst

design

Information

Senior

Fundament

       

Field

develop-

ment

engineer

Network

Database

Systems

manage-

ment

Embedded

systems

systems

security

administ-

rator

systems

administ

-rator

Systems

administ

-rator

Systems

auditor

al

information

technology

engineer

Computer science fundamentals

 

°

               

°

Computer system

°

°

◎Ⅱ

°

◎Ⅱ

◎Ⅲ

°

°

°

°

°

System development and operation

             

     

◎Ⅲ

°

°

°

◎Ⅲ

°

°

°

°

°

Network technology

 

°

◎Ⅲ

 

°

°

°

     

°

Database technology

 

°

 

◎Ⅲ

°

         

°

Security and

°

°

°

°

°

°

◎Ⅲ

°

°

°

°

standardization

Computerization and management

             

     

◎Ⅲ

°

◎Ⅰ

◎Ⅱ

°

Audit °Ⅱ ◎Ⅲ
Audit
°Ⅱ
◎Ⅲ

Notes:

A field marked with a circle “°” is included in the scope of the examination in the particular category, and a field marked with a double circle “” is an important field in the scope of the examination.

Technical levels are marked with , and .

Level is the most advanced and covers level and ,

and level

covers level

.

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[example] extract from SW IT-BOK

2. IT Common Body of Knowledge

(MVS, UNIX, LINUX, Windows, MacOS, and Java are the trademarks of their manufacturers, vendors or organizations.)

Knowledg

 

Major

 

Intermediate

Major technical item

 

e field

classification

classification

I. Computer science fundamentals

 
 

1.

Basic theories of information

 
 

1.1

Numeric conversion and data representation

Radix conversion, numeric representation (including complement representation and fractional number representation), non-numeric value representation (character representation, voice representation, and image representation), operation and precision (single precision, double precision, fixed point precision, floating point precision, shift operation, overflow and underflow)

1.2

Information and logic

Logical operation (true, false, logical product, logical sum, negation, exclusive OR, negative AND, and De Morgan theorem), proposition logic, logic function, information logic and coding theory (channel coding, source coding, encryption, decoding, Humming code, Huffman code, CRC, parity check), predicate logic (deduction and induction, inference), automaton (finite automaton, Turing machine, state transition), formal language (definition, operation, type and grammar, Chomsky’s production rule, BNF, Polish notation, regular expression, syntax-directed transfer method, attribute context-free grammar, context-free language),

 

graph theory (directed/non-directed graph, Eulerian graph), computational c omplexity (large O notation), information content (entropy), correctness theory (partial correctness, termination, full correctness)

1.3

Mathematical

Numeric calculation (matrix and determinant, approximate solution, and interpolation), probability and statistics (permutation, combination, probability, addition and multiplication theorem, probability distribution, expectation, Markov process, estimation, testing, regression analysis), optimization problem (linear programming method, PERT, shortest path problem, and queuing theory)

applications

2.

Data structures and algorithms

 
 

2.1

Data structures

Arrays (dimension, static arrays and dynamic arrays), lists (linear list, uni-directional list, bi-directional list, ring list, linked list), stacks (LIFO, push and pop), queue (FIFO, enqueue and dequeue), trees (binary tree, balanced tree, ordered tree, multiway tree, search tree, heap), hash (calculation of storage location, and collision handling)

2.2

Algorithms

Various algorithms (searching, sorting, recursive algorithm, genetic algorithm, approximate algorithm, probability algorithm, natural language processing algorithm, language processor, linkage editor, memory management, data compression algorithm, collation, file processing, character string processing, graph, numeric calculation, and algorithms related to

 

diagram s), relationships between algorithm and data structure, algorithm efficiency, algorithm design method, flowchart, and decision table

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13. ④ Practical and Core Body of Knowledge ( P-BOK ),( C-BOK ) ◆ Practical

13. Practical and Core Body of Knowledge ( P-BOK ),( C-BOK )

Practical Body of Knowledge ( P-BOK )

A. External design : Have sufficient knowledge on requirements for external design, artifacts to be produced, and activities to be performed ; correctly understand contents of external-design documents.

B. Internal design & C. Program design : SW should show their competency most in areas B and C

Core Body of Knowledge ( C-BOK )

D. Software engineering : The knowledge area is where SW need to have the most technical excellence.

E. Object-oriented development (OOD) : The adoption of OOD is expected to expand comprehensively in the near future, with the consequence that the radical paradigm may be shifted to object orientation

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[example] extract from SW IT-PBOK A

[Practical body of knowledge and core body of knowledge for design and development engineers]

Knowledge field

Major classification

Intermediate classification

Minor classification

A.

External design

 

1

External design process

 

1.1

Preparing for system development

 
 

1.1.1

Determining a life cycle model for development work

1.1.2

Preparing the development environment

1.1.3

Preparing a plan for executing the development process

1.2

External design activities

 

1.2.1

Understanding system requirements definitions

1.2.2

Designing system functions

1.2.3

Designing data models

1.2.4

Preparing external design documents

1.2.5

Design review

2

Designing system functions

 

2.1

Selecting a system structure (architecture)

 

2.1.1

Hardware configuration

2.1.2

Software configuration

2.1.3

Application packages

2.1.4

Scope of systematization

2.1.5

Architecture candidates

2.2

Designing subsystem functional specifications and interfaces

 

2.2.1

Decomposition into subsystems

2.2.2

Defining subsystem functional of specifications

2.2.3

Defining subsystem interfaces

2.3

Designing security

 

2.3.1

Security policy

2.3.2

Security requirements

2.3.3

Security implementation method

2.4

Designing job models

 

2.4.1

Preparing detailed job flow

2.4.2

Preparing detailed data flow

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[example] extract from SW IT-CBOK D

Knowledge field

Major classification

Intermediate classification

Minor classification

D.

Software engineering

 
 

1

Outline of software engineering

 
 

1.1

Origin of software engineering

 

1.1.1

Software crisis

1.2

Definition of software engineering

 

1.2.1

Software production

1.2.2

Industrializing management process

1.3

Outcome of software engineering

 

1.3.1

Methodologies

1.3.2

Techniques

1.3.3

Logic-oriented paradigm

1.3.4

Function-oriented paradigm

1.3.5

Object-oriented paradigms

1.3.6

Agent-oriented

2

Software process and cost models

 
 

2.1

Software process models

 

2.1.1

Waterfall model

2.1.2

Spiral model

2.1.3

Prototyping model

2.2

Software cost models

 

2.2.1

Halstead model

2.2.2

Function point (FP) model

2.2.3

Constructive cost model (COCOMO)

3

Defining software requirements

 
 

3.1

Software requirements

 

3.1.1

Aims of systematization

3.1.2

Configuration

3.1.3

Functions

3.1.4

Performance

3.1.5

Restrictions

3.2

Analyzing software requirements

 

3.2.1

Kawakita Jiro (KJ) method

3.2.2

Analyzing functions

3.2.3

Analyzing responses to events

3.2.4

Analyzing structure

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