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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 54, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2007

Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System for the Detection of Inter-Turn Insulation and Bearing Wear Faults in Induction Motor

Makarand S. Ballal, Zafar J. Khan, Member, IEEE, Hiralal M. Suryawanshi, Member, IEEE, and Ram L. Sonolikar

Abstract—The positive features of neural networks and fuzzy logic are combined together for the detection of stator inter-turn insulation and bearing wear faults in single-phase induction motor. The adaptive neural fuzzy inference systems (ANFISs) are devel- oped for the detection of these two faults. These faults are created experimentally on a single-phase induction motor in the labora- tory. The experimental data is generated for the five measurable parameters, viz, motor intakes current, speed, winding tempera- ture, bearing temperature, and the noise of the machine. Earlier, the ANFIS fault detectors are trained for the two input parameters, i.e., speed and current, and the performance is tested. Later, the three remaining parameters are added and the five input ANFIS fault detector is trained and tested. It observed from the simula- tion results that the five input parameter system predicts more ac- curate results.

systems

(ANFISs), bearing wear, induction motor, winding insulation.

Index

Terms—Adaptive

neural

fuzzy

inference

I. INTRODUCTION

B EARING wear and insulation faults are the most common types of faults in electric motors. If these faults are left un-

detected, they will eventually degenerate into a machine failure. When a machine failure occurs, it has the potential to inflict in- jury on nearby personnel. Further more, there is generally a sub-

stantial cost associated with downtime and repair of the failed machine. Therefore, it is always desirable to detect the fault at the inception stage. The various conventional methods are available with their merits and demerits. Model-based fault detection and diagnosis methods utilize an explicit mathematical model of the system under test. Nandi and Toliyat [1] reported a brief review of bearing, stator, and eccentricity related faults with their diag- nosis. The various fault detection techniques such as motor cur- rent signature analysis (MCSA), axial flux-based methods, vi- bration analysis, etc., are discussed. Haji and Toliyat [2] have

Manuscript received October 30, 2005; revised March 7, 2006. Abstract pub- lished on the Internet November 30, 2006.

M. S. Ballal is with Nagpur University, Nagpur 440022, India (e-mail:

msb_ngp@rediffmail.com).

Z. J. Khan is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Rajiv Gandhi

College of Engineering Research and Technology (R.C.E.R.T.), Chandrapur 442403, India (e-mail: khanzj1@rediffmail.com).

H. M. Suryawanshi is with the Department of Electrical Engineering,

Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur 440011, India (e-mail:

hms_1963@rediffmail.com).

R. L. Sonolikar is with the Department of Chemical Engineering, Laxmi-

narayan Institute of Technology (L.I.T.), Nagpur University, Nagpur 400019,

India (e-mail: sonolikr_ngp@sancharnet.in). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIE.2006.888789

presented the pattern recognition technique for rotor broken bar detection. Toliyat and Lipo [3] show through both modeling and experimentation that the winding insulation faults results in asymmetry in the machine impedance causing the machine to draw unbalanced phase currents. This is the result of neg- ative sequence currents flowing in the line due to this unbal- ance. However, negative sequence currents can also be caused by voltage unbalance, machine saturation, etc. A number of time-frequency domain techniques have been proposed including short-time Fourier transform (STFT), Wigner Ville distribution (WVD), and wavelet transform (WT) in the recent literature. Eren and Devaney [4] analyze the stator current via wavelet packet decomposition to detect bearing defects. However, one of the problems with envelope analysis and other frequency-domain approaches is that, they require the bearing defect frequencies be known or pre-estimated. The other shortcoming is the increasing difficulty in analyzing the vibration spectrum when the signal-to-noise ratio is low and the vibration spectrum has a large number of frequency components due to complexity of the system. The artificial neural network (ANN) has the capability of solving the motor monitoring and fault detection problem using an inexpensive, reliable, and noninvasive procedure. However, it does not provide heuristic reasoning about the fault detec- tion process. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can easily provide heuristic reasoning, while being difficult to provide exact solu- tions. By merging the positive features of ANN and fuzzy logic, a simple noninvasive fault detection technique is developed [5]. The fault detection system developed in this paper is based on the Chow’s approach [5]–[8] due to its various advantages such as; no need of mathematical modeling and primary knowl- edge of the motor. But it will be able to provide qualitative ex- pert knowledge of the motor through valid heuristics and give exact qualitative solutions to detect the motor faults. This ap- proach provides systematic way to formulate and incorporate information into the motor fault detection. In [5] and [6], two parameters, i.e., motor intake current ( ) and rotor speed ( ) are considered for the fault detection purpose. However, in this paper, three more parameters stator winding temperature ( ), bearing temperature ( ), and noise of the motor ( ) are in- cluded for the better fault detection. With the combined synergy of fuzzy logic and neural networks, a better understanding of the heuristic underlying the motor fault detection can be achieved. The experimental data is generated in laboratory on a spe- cially designed 0.5-hp single-phase induction motor. Two in- dividual neural-fuzzy fault detectors based on adaptive neural

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BALLAL et al.: ANFIS FOR THE DETECTION OF INTER-TURN INSULATION AND BEARING WEAR FAULTS IN INDUCTION MOTOR

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INSULATION AND BEARING WEAR FAULTS IN INDUCTION MOTOR 251 (a) Geometric winding placement of a split-phase
INSULATION AND BEARING WEAR FAULTS IN INDUCTION MOTOR 251 (a) Geometric winding placement of a split-phase

(a) Geometric winding placement of a split-phase squirrel cage induc-

tion motor. (b) Corresponding circuit diagram of a split-phase squirrel cage in- duction motor.

Fig. 1.

fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) are developed for the detec- tion of inter-turn insulation short-circuit fault and bearing wear fault. These fault detectors are trained and tested by the data generated. Initially, it is trained and tested for the two input pa- rameters ( , ) for the inter-turn insulation faults, as well as the bearing wear faults. Later, the ANFIS is trained and tested for all the ve input parameters ( , , , , and ) for both types of faults independently. These fault detectors are optimized and their performances are compared, it is observed that the system with ve inputs parameters gives better results.

system with fi ve inputs parameters gives better results. II. N ONLINEAR R ELATIONS OF M
system with fi ve inputs parameters gives better results. II. N ONLINEAR R ELATIONS OF M
system with fi ve inputs parameters gives better results. II. N ONLINEAR R ELATIONS OF M

II. NONLINEAR RELATIONS OF MOTOR PARAMETERS

The ux linkage in the stator winding of the motor is

and in the rotor is given as

, where the subscripts and represents the main and auxiliary winding of the machine, while the subscripts and represents the stator and rotor of the machine shown in Fig. 1. The dynamics of the split phase squirrel cage induction motor can be represented by state (1) and (2)

given as
given as
motor can be represented by state (1) and (2) given as (1) (2) where and The
motor can be represented by state (1) and (2) given as (1) (2) where and The
motor can be represented by state (1) and (2) given as (1) (2) where and The
motor can be represented by state (1) and (2) given as (1) (2) where and The
motor can be represented by state (1) and (2) given as (1) (2) where and The

(1)

(2)

where and The vector currents, rents,
where
and
The vector
currents,
rents,

.

represents the stator winding is the rotor winding cur- the stator winding voltages, and is the rotor winding voltages, which are

zero for the squirrel cage rotor motor [9]. At steady-state and/or small perturbation conditions, the ux linkages can be approximated by a linear relationship with respect to currents, expressed as

a linear relationship with respect to currents, expressed as (3) where is the stator inductance, is

(3)

relationship with respect to currents, expressed as (3) where is the stator inductance, is the rotor
relationship with respect to currents, expressed as (3) where is the stator inductance, is the rotor

where is the stator inductance, is the rotor inductance and is the mutual inductance between stator and rotor with re- spect to the corresponding rotor position. From the fundamental electromagnetic theory, the ux linkage of winding is a func- tion of number of equivalent turns of the winding. The equiv- alent turns for both main and auxiliary winding are expressed by a vector for the stator winding and for the rotor winding. The motor param- eters such as winding resistance and inductance will change due to changing values of equivalent turns. The same motor structure with different values of equivalent turns will yield a different performance. For a squirrel cage induction motor, the rotor is ro- bust, and is generally assumed to be constant, while will change value due to deterioration in the stator winding. When

value due to deterioration in the stator winding. When is variable, , , and become a
value due to deterioration in the stator winding. When is variable, , , and become a
value due to deterioration in the stator winding. When is variable, , , and become a
value due to deterioration in the stator winding. When is variable, , , and become a
value due to deterioration in the stator winding. When is variable, , , and become a
value due to deterioration in the stator winding. When is variable, , , and become a
value due to deterioration in the stator winding. When is variable, , , and become a
value due to deterioration in the stator winding. When is variable, , , and become a

is variable, , , and become a function of . This can be expressed as

, , and become a function of . This can be expressed as (4) The electrical
, , and become a function of . This can be expressed as (4) The electrical

(4)

The electrical torque of the motor ( parameters and given as

) is a function of motorThe electrical torque of the motor ( parameters and given as (5) Thus, is a function

the motor ( parameters and given as ) is a function of motor (5) Thus, is

(5)

Thus,

( parameters and given as ) is a function of motor (5) Thus, is a function

is a function of

motor can be written as

of motor (5) Thus, is a function of motor can be written as . The equation

. The equation of motion for the

of motor can be written as . The equation of motion for the (6) where is

(6)

motor can be written as . The equation of motion for the (6) where is the

where is the time derivative of rotor speed ( ), is the inertia of the rotor and connected load, is the damping coefcient of the motor, and is the load torque, which is assumed to be known. When the bearing starts to deteriorate, bearing friction will increase and it is directly reected in the damping coef- cient of the motor. Therefore, the damping coefcient is already taking care of the bearing friction. Hence, it is believed that there is perhaps no need to incorporate an extra param- eter for friction. If the machine bearing is healthy in that case, the motor intake current is normal. But as the bearing deterio- rates, to fulll the required load demand, the electrical torque in- creases. Therefore, the input current also rises. Thus, the motor intake current becomes the function of damping coefcient of the motor . This can be expressed as

coef fi cient of the motor . This can be expressed as (7) From the equation
coef fi cient of the motor . This can be expressed as (7) From the equation
coef fi cient of the motor . This can be expressed as (7) From the equation
coef fi cient of the motor . This can be expressed as (7) From the equation
coef fi cient of the motor . This can be expressed as (7) From the equation
coef fi cient of the motor . This can be expressed as (7) From the equation
coef fi cient of the motor . This can be expressed as (7) From the equation

(7)

From the equation of motion for the motor, it is clear that the

rotor speed is also a function of

it is clear that the rotor speed is also a function of and can be mentioned

and can be mentioned as

rotor speed is also a function of and can be mentioned as (8) Authorized licensed use

(8)

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 54, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2007

As the bearing condition becomes poor, the speed of the motor reduces and the torque rises. This can be expressed by the following function:

rises. This can be expressed by the following function: (9) A decrease in winding equivalent turns

(9)

A decrease in winding equivalent turns will increase stator-

winding current, thus causing increased heating due to addi- tional losses. The increased heating will cause a corre- sponding temperature rise in the stator, thereby decreasing the life expectancy of the stator winding insulation. Stator winding insulation failure will cause additional shorted turns, and further

increase in temperature and rate of deterioration of the stator winding insulation. From this, the relation exists between the stator equivalent number of turns, stator current, and tempera- ture of winding. Thus, the stator equivalent turns and be- comes the function of temperature ( ). This can be expressed as

the function of temperature ( ). This can be expressed as (10) From (10), it is
the function of temperature ( ). This can be expressed as (10) From (10), it is
the function of temperature ( ). This can be expressed as (10) From (10), it is
the function of temperature ( ). This can be expressed as (10) From (10), it is

(10)

From (10), it is clear that as the bearing condition deteriorates, the intake current rises, and thereby the winding temperature also rises. This can be expressed as

the winding temperature also rises. This can be expressed as (11) The bearing plays an important

(11)

The bearing plays an important role in the transformation of electrical energy into mechanical energy. If the inter-turn incipient fault occurs, this causes the shortening of motor winding turns and the imbalance in air-gap ux produces mechanical stresses over the shaft of motor. This corresponds to the additional eccentric loading caused by a worn bearing in the ac induction motor. This allows nondestructive emulation of worn or failed induction motor bearings. This results in

excessive friction at the motor bearing and it gives further rise in motor bearing temperature. Thus, the bearing temperature

(
(

) depends upon

temperature. Thus, the bearing temperature ( ) depends upon and it can be expressed as (12)

and it can be expressed as

temperature ( ) depends upon and it can be expressed as (12) If the bearing is

(12)

If the bearing is healthy, it causes less friction between the

motor stationary part and rotating shaft. On the other hand, if the bearing is either less lubricated or dry or damaged, the fric-

tion increases, and thereby the bearing temperature ( ). This relation is given as

the bearing temperature ( ). This relation is given as (13) There is a continuous audible
the bearing temperature ( ). This relation is given as (13) There is a continuous audible

(13)

There is a continuous audible noise in an electrical motor. The noise has a subjective nature. The audible noise is produced due to various reasons like magnetostriction/humming, friction between the motor stationary part and rotating parts, eccentric rotor, tightening of metallic enclosure, loose foundation bolts and lock nuts, etc. The noise is measured in decibels ( ) and it is a measure of power ratio

measured in decibels ( ) and it is a measure of power ratio (14) where and
measured in decibels ( ) and it is a measure of power ratio (14) where and

(14)

where and are the rms values of sound pressure at standard reference and other conditions, respectively. The noise of the electrical motor under standard condition is specied for a particular motor [10]. If the noise crosses this level, it means there is some problem in the motor. The noise increases due to both types of faults discussed above. Whenever, the inter-turn insulation fault occurs, it causes the imbalance in air-gap ux. This results into excessive humming. Similarly, the additional eccentric loading due to this fault also increases the noise. Hence, the noise ( ) of the motor depends upon the , and it is given as

noise ( ) of the motor depends upon the , and it is given as (15)
noise ( ) of the motor depends upon the , and it is given as (15)
noise ( ) of the motor depends upon the , and it is given as (15)
noise ( ) of the motor depends upon the , and it is given as (15)
noise ( ) of the motor depends upon the , and it is given as (15)

(15)

The motor causes less friction for healthy bearings and thereby less noise and vice versa. Therefore, the noise of the machine also depends upon the bearing condition and thereby the damping coefcient of the motor. This can be expressed as

coef fi cient of the motor. This can be expressed as (16) Under steady-state condition, the

(16)

Under steady-state condition, the auxiliary winding is discon- nected and the main winding of the stator is remaining in the operation. Therefore, the stator main winding equivalent turns and is used to replace . Thus, for simplicity of notation,

is used to replace , whereas will be ignored. Let be the rms value of
is used to replace
, whereas
will be ignored.
Let be the rms value of , be the average speed of
rotor, be temperature of motor winding, be the bearing
temperature of motor, and is the noise of the machine. At
steady-state,

. By combining and manipulating, all the function related equations [(4), (7)(13), (15), and (16)] with stator main winding equivalent turns , and damping coefcient , as vari- ables, the steady-state current ( ), rotor speed ( ), winding tem- perature ( ), bearing temperature ( ), and the audible noise

(
(
( ), bearing temperature ( ), and the audible noise ( ) can be represented by
( ), bearing temperature ( ), and the audible noise ( ) can be represented by
( ), bearing temperature ( ), and the audible noise ( ) can be represented by

) can be represented by a set of nonlinear algebraic equa- tions, . Therefore, the nonlinear equation can be given as

tions, . Therefore, the nonlinear equation can be given as (17) The steady-state motor torque basically

(17)

The steady-state motor torque basically has a quadratic re- lationship with respect to the rotor speed. Such type of speed- torque relation is very common and probably encompasses more than 80% of all loads driven by a motor [5][7]. Indeed from analysis, all these ve parameters are found to

be very sensitive to the changing condition of the stator winding and bearings. Moreover, these parameters are easily accessible and can be measured quite accurately. From the induction motor dynamics, there exist a relationship between ( , , , ,

motor dynamics, there exist a relationship between ( , , , , ) to ( ,
motor dynamics, there exist a relationship between ( , , , , ) to ( ,
motor dynamics, there exist a relationship between ( , , , , ) to ( ,

) to (

, )
,
)

(18)

This relation is highly nonlinear due to the nonlinearities present in the induction motor. An accurate mathematical model of is difcult to obtain. As stated before, the condition of the main winding is reected in the numerical values of the main winding equivalent turns and damping coefcient . For our application, the values of and ,

coef fi cient . For our application, the values of and , Authorized licensed use limited
coef fi cient . For our application, the values of and , Authorized licensed use limited
coef fi cient . For our application, the values of and , Authorized licensed use limited
coef fi cient . For our application, the values of and , Authorized licensed use limited

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BALLAL et al.: ANFIS FOR THE DETECTION OF INTER-TURN INSULATION AND BEARING WEAR FAULTS IN INDUCTION MOTOR

253

which quantitatively describes the motor, are quantized into three conditions (good, fair, and bad) to yield and , this qualitatively describes the motor condition [5]. This qualitative description of the motors condition is more suitable for the detection of winding insulation condition and bearing wear. A second relationship is used to denote the relationship from quantitative description and to qualitative description and , as given below

and to qualitative description and , as given below (19) As a result, the overall mapping
and to qualitative description and , as given below (19) As a result, the overall mapping
and to qualitative description and , as given below (19) As a result, the overall mapping
and to qualitative description and , as given below (19) As a result, the overall mapping
and to qualitative description and , as given below (19) As a result, the overall mapping
and to qualitative description and , as given below (19) As a result, the overall mapping
and to qualitative description and , as given below (19) As a result, the overall mapping

(19)

As a result, the overall mapping

) can be written as

( ,
(
,
As a result, the overall mapping ) can be written as ( , from ( ,

from (

, , , ,
,
,
,
,

) to

mapping ) can be written as ( , from ( , , , , ) to

(20)

where is complex and has a high degree of nonlinearity. Be- cause of the nonlinearity, an accurate result is rather difcult. But this complexity can be avoided using adaptive neural fuzzy mapping of nonlinear inputoutput relationship. The ANFIS has the capability of transforming heuristic and linguistic terms into numerical values for use in complex machine computations via fuzzy rules and membership functions [8].

computations via fuzzy rules and membership functions [8]. III. ANFIS F AULT D E T E

III. ANFIS FAULT DETECTION SYSTEM

Basic denitions relating to ANFIS are given in literature [11]. Here, the main concept is to apply ANFIS for the detection of inter-turn insulation and bearing wear fault. The basic idea is taken from Chows paper [5][8] to develop the fault detectors. By collecting the real-time experimental data, the training and testing is carried out. The induction motor with associated com- ponents under test is shown in Fig. 2(a) and photographs of the setup shown in Fig. 2(b). An ammeter, temperature sensor, and tachometer are used to measure the stator current, stator winding temperature, and rotor speed, respectively. The winding tem- perature sensor is placed inside the motor over the surface of the main winding. The noise of the motor under performance is measured with the help of microphone receiver. The micro- phone assembly is mounted over the motor frame and its probes are directly connected to digital storage oscilloscope (DSO), Lecroy make (No. LT 342). The noise level was recorded in the form of waveforms for different conditions. It is observed that the peak value of the noise level increases as the severity of the fault increases. The bearing temperature is measured by calibrating a copper- constantan thermocouple. The thermocouple is calibrated with milivoltmeter for the measurement of bearing temperature. The experiment is performed on specially designed single-phase in- duction motor of 0.5-hp, 220 volts, having 172 main winding turns, equally distributed among its four poles. Four turns of one of the North Pole and South Pole (totally eight turns) are taken out on the panel to reduce the number of turns in steps. The stator winding has been modied by the addition of external wires attached to eight of the stator winding end turns, as shown in Fig. 3. The other end of these external wires is attached to a terminal strip located near the motor. By short-circuiting one or more pairs of these external connections at the terminal strip, it

of these external connections at the terminal strip, it Fig. 2. (a) Experimental setup. (b) Photograph
of these external connections at the terminal strip, it Fig. 2. (a) Experimental setup. (b) Photograph

Fig. 2.

(a) Experimental setup. (b) Photograph of experimental setup.

Experimental setup. (b) Photograph of experimental setup. Fig. 3. Main windings turns taken out for creating
Fig. 3. Main windings turns taken out for creating inter-turn short-circuit fault. Fig. 4. Different
Fig. 3.
Main windings turns taken out for creating inter-turn short-circuit fault.
Fig. 4.
Different types of bearing. (1) Healthy. (2) Less lubricated. (3) Dry.

(4) Damage bearings.

is possible to emulate stator winding turn-to-turn faults. There- fore, there is remote possibility to cause the motor to smoke

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ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 54, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2007 Fig. 5. Motor intake current and their

Fig. 5. Motor intake current and their respective FFTs. (a) Rated load, healthy bearing, two turns shorted. (b) Rated load, less lubricated bearing, four turns shorted. (c) Rated load, dry bearing, six turns shorted. (d) Rated load, damaged bearing, all turns shorted. (Scale: 100 volts/div, 4 Amp/div, 10 ms/div, 100 Hz/div).

with less number of turns shorted in this manner. This creates the experimental simulation of inter-turn shortening and it fur- ther corresponds to the additional eccentric loading caused by a worn bearing in the induction motor. Initially, the motor is not loaded and the healthy motor bearing is provided. The motor is started with starting winding in series and later this winding was disconnected. All the data of the ve parameters ( , , , , and ) were noted. The motor turns, which were taken out for the purpose of shortening are, shorted in steps and for each step the data was recorded. Thus, for each condition, a total of nine samples including normal condition (zero turns shortenings) are available. The same procedure was repeated for the motor under rated load and slightly overload conditions and the readings of all ve pa- rameters were recorded. Afterwards, the bearing was replaced by less lubricated, dry and damaged bearings and the complete data of all these ve parameters under no-load, full load, and slightly grater load conditions were recorded. Fig. 4 illustrates the different types of bearings under performance.

the different types of bearings under performance. The fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) is used to separate
the different types of bearings under performance. The fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) is used to separate

The fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) is used to separate funda- mental and harmonics components. It is clear that the amplitude of the component of FFT is a good indicator of the presence of fault. In this approach, the rms values for defective bands are compared with baseline readings to determine any degradation in motor health. The DSO is used for obtaining the FFTs of cur- rents and noise waveforms under various faults conditions. The FFTs for no-load conditions to severe fault conditions are an- alyzed. The experimental stator currents waveforms and their respective FFTs are shown in Fig. 5. The minimum motor in- take current recorded was 3.51 A and the maximum current under fault conditions when the motor was heavily loaded was 10.72 A. The speed drops from 1480 to 894 rpm corresponding to no-load healthy machine to heavily loaded faulty machine. The corresponding winding temperature rises from 41 C to

C. The variation for the motor bearing temperature is be-

88

tween 46 C50 C or in terms of calibrated milivoltmeter, it is in the range of 0.65.1 mv and for the noise level peak value

is between 50250 mv. These values correspond to the healthy

50 – 250 mv. These values correspond to the healthy Authorized licensed use limited to: Universita
50 – 250 mv. These values correspond to the healthy Authorized licensed use limited to: Universita
50 – 250 mv. These values correspond to the healthy Authorized licensed use limited to: Universita
50 – 250 mv. These values correspond to the healthy Authorized licensed use limited to: Universita

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BALLAL et al.: ANFIS FOR THE DETECTION OF INTER-TURN INSULATION AND BEARING WEAR FAULTS IN INDUCTION MOTOR

255

INSULATION AND BEARING WEAR FAULTS IN INDUCTION MOTOR 255 Fig. 6. less lubricated bearing, four turns

Fig. 6.

less lubricated bearing, four turns shorted. (d) Rated load, dry bearing, all turns shorted.

Audible noise and their respective FFTs. (a) No load, healthy bearing, no turns shorted. (b) Rated load, healthy bearing, two turns shorted. (c) Rated load,

and no-load condition to severe fault and heavily loaded condi- tion. The few samples of noise waveforms and corresponding FFTs obtained from DSO are shown in Fig. 6. It is observed from Figs. 5 and 6 that the FFTs of the current and noise wave- forms increase with the severity of faults. The harmonics con- tents get introduced and continuously rise with this type of fault. The losses in the motor continuously rise as the intensity of the faults increases and it reduces motor efciency. The complete experimental data for all the ve measurable parameters ( , , , , and ) under different conditions for insulation fault and bearing fault is normalized for the training and testing of fault detection systems, and it also gives the numerical stability. One hundred and forty-four training and testing data patterns have been generated according to uniform

data patterns have been generated according to uniform distribution over the operating conditions on the laboratory
data patterns have been generated according to uniform distribution over the operating conditions on the laboratory

distribution over the operating conditions on the laboratory test stand. The 108 patterns are used for training the systems and the 36 patterns are used for testing the systems. The experiment is performed for the constant load condition and not for the varying loads condition, therefore, the patterns obtained for the fault conditions are totally different than those obtained for the no-fault condition.

IV.

COMPARATIVE RESULTS BETWEEN TWO AND FIVE INPUTS SYSTEM

The neural-fuzzy architecture takes into account both ANN and fuzzy logic technologies. The system is a neural net- work structured upon fuzzy logic principles, which enables the neural-fuzzy system to provide qualitative descriptions

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TABLE I

SUMMARY AND SPECIFICATIONS OF THE ARCHITECTURE

S PECIFICATIONS OF THE A R C H I T E C T U R E

about the motor condition and fault detection process. This knowledge is provided by the fuzzy parameters of membership functions and fuzzy rules. The fault detector based on ANFIS, which is a fuzzy inference system implemented on ve layers feed-forward network. The ANFIS is implemented for the fault detection process due to its knowledge extraction feasibility, domain partitioning, rule structuring, and modications [8]. Extracted knowledge

The ANFIS motor fault detector is trained to learn insula- tion failure and bearing wear. The insulation and bearing con- ditions were classied into three categories: good, fair, and bad. These classications were made based upon the experimental data. Life expectancy of the insulation depends upon the stator winding temperature. The temperature of the windings is a di- rect result of operating environment (room temperature), the motor current ( ), and stator winding temperature ( ) becomes

current ( ), and stator winding temperature ( ) becomes is the knowledge acquired from the
current ( ), and stator winding temperature ( ) becomes is the knowledge acquired from the

is

the knowledge acquired from the system after training. It

a

major contribution factor.

is

in terms of membership functions and TakagiSugeno type

The bearing wear can affect many variables such as the motor

fuzzy if-then rules. The training procedure is an unsupervised

damping coefcient, the motor current, and the rotor speed, etc.

(self-organized) learning scheme. It provides the partitioning for each and every input and output domain parameter. This is called domain partitioning. By using a hybrid learning proce- dure, ANFIS can construct an inputoutput mapping in the form

As bearing wear increases, the coefcient of friction and motor current also increases, while the rotor speed decreases. Conse- quently, the winding temperature and bearing temperature also increases. The ANFIS insulation level and bearing wear detec-

of

TakagiSugeno type if-then rules. The membership functions

tors and their performances are described as follows.

that correspond to the fuzzy antecedents as well as functions

that form the consequence parts are parameterized. The hybrid learning proposed is composed of a forward pass and a back- ward pass. In forward pass, by keeping the antecedent param- eters xed, consequence parameters are optimized by a least square estimation. A fuzzy logic control/decision network is constructed automatically by learning from the training data. The ANFIS architecture enables a change in rule structure during the evaluation of fuzzy inference system. The ANFIS

optimized itself in given the number of iterations by providing

a change in rules, by discarding unnecessary rules, and by

changing shapes of membership functions, this is called modi- cations. It is an inherent characteristic of ANFIS architecture. The use of least square estimation is due to the fact that the network output is linear function of the consequence parameters [8]. A summary of the ANFIS architecture is given in Table I. Once the system is trained for specic data over a wide range,

it can be applicable to similar types of motor use in plants,

and thus there is no need to train the model for each and every motor. The ANFIS tool box in the MATLAB environment is used

for fault detection purposes [11]. The limitation of this toolbox

is that the output parameter should be limited to one despite

the input parameters. Therefore, two independent ANFIS fault detectors are developed: 1) ANFIS insulation condition de-

tector and 2) ANFIS bearing condition detector. Each detector

is trained and tested individually. Initially, both the detectors

are developed with two input parameters (speed and current). Afterwards, the remaining three parameters (winding temper- ature, bearing temperature, and the noise of the motor) are included and the results are compared.

A. ANFIS Detector With Two Inputs

The two inputs training data ( , ) is applied for training the insulation detector. The optimize architecture obtained after training is illustrated in Fig. 7(a). The nine membership func-

tions are developed for each input and output. The training error

is 0.068, and after training, the detector is tested by the 36 testing

samples. The testing performance is illustrated in Fig. 7(b). The

thick bullets indicate the desired target and the stars indicate the corresponding output results. The 94.03% accuracy was ob- tained after testing. After developing the insulation detector, the ANFIS is trained by training data for the bearing condition. The opti- mized structure contains two inputs having 15 membership functions, as shown in Fig. 8(a). The training error obtained in very few epochs and it is 0.0905. The testing is made by the testing samples illustrated in Fig. 8(b) and the 90.5% accuracy is obtained.

B. ANFIS Detector With Five Inputs

Training data of all the ve parameters ( , , , , and ) is applied to the ANFIS toolbox for obtaining the optimize ar- chitecture for the detection of insulation level. The ANFIS de- tector is illustrated in Fig. 9(a). The seven membership functions all Gaussian in nature are developed for each input. The training error is 0.001209 and after training, the detector is tested and the testing performance is illustrated in Fig. 9(b). The 96.67% accuracy was obtained after testing for the prediction of insula- tion level. The training data for the detection of bearing con- dition with ve inputs is applied to the ANFIS toolbox. The optimized structure contains ve inputs having seven Gaussian

structure contains fi ve inputs having seven Gaussian Authorized licensed use limited to: Universita degli Studi
structure contains fi ve inputs having seven Gaussian Authorized licensed use limited to: Universita degli Studi
structure contains fi ve inputs having seven Gaussian Authorized licensed use limited to: Universita degli Studi

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BALLAL et al.: ANFIS FOR THE DETECTION OF INTER-TURN INSULATION AND BEARING WEAR FAULTS IN INDUCTION MOTOR

257

INSULATION AND BEARING WEAR FAULTS IN INDUCTION MOTOR 257 Fig. 7. (a) Two input insulation level
INSULATION AND BEARING WEAR FAULTS IN INDUCTION MOTOR 257 Fig. 7. (a) Two input insulation level

Fig. 7.

(a) Two input insulation level ANFIS detector. (b) Testing performance.

insulation level ANFIS detector. (b) Testing performance. Fig. performance. 8. (a) Two input bearing condition ANFIS
insulation level ANFIS detector. (b) Testing performance. Fig. performance. 8. (a) Two input bearing condition ANFIS

Fig.

performance.

8.

(a)

Two

input

bearing

condition

ANFIS

detector.

(b)

Testing

(a) Two input bearing condition ANFIS detector. (b) Testing Fig. 9. (a) Five input insulation level
(a) Two input bearing condition ANFIS detector. (b) Testing Fig. 9. (a) Five input insulation level

Fig. 9.

(a) Five input insulation level ANFIS detector. (b) Testing performance.

insulation level ANFIS detector. (b) Testing performance. Fig. performance. (a) 10. Five input bearing condition ANFIS
insulation level ANFIS detector. (b) Testing performance. Fig. performance. (a) 10. Five input bearing condition ANFIS

Fig.

performance.

(a)

10.

Five

input

bearing condition

ANFIS

detector.

(b)

Testing

membership functions, as shown in Fig. 10(a). The training error obtained is 0.000945 and the testing performance is shown in Fig. 10(b). The accuracy obtained is 98.77%. It is observed that the improvement is achieved for the prediction of insulation condition, as well as for the prediction of bearing condition. The ANFIS toolbox in the MATLAB environment is used in this study for the detection of winding insulation and motor bearing condition. It is observed that, the accuracy of the system

is increased, as three more input parameters are included. The maximum accuracy obtained is more than 96%. Table II illus- trates the comparison between the two and ve input ANFIS fault detectors. It is observed that the fault detector with ve in- puts provides more accurate results as compare with two inputs. The results of this paper are as follows. 1) It provides a simple noninvasive technique for the fault detection.

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258

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 54, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2007

TABLE II

COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO AND FIVE INPUTS SYSTEM

T WO AND F I V E I N P U T S S Y S

2) ANFIS has its unique advantages and these are applicable for the fault detection. 3) In earlier research work, the measurable input parameters are restricted to speed and current of the motor under per- formance. However, in this paper, three more parameters, viz., stator winding temperature, bearing temperature, and the noise of the motor under running conditions are con- sidered better fault detection. 4) It is observed from the performance results that the ve inputs ANFIS technique provides more accurate results in comparison with the two input system. 5) The technique is applied to the actual faulty motor of the same capacity (0.5 hp, 220 v), the performance obtained is quite good with accuracy more than 96% and the fault detection results are found to be satisfactory. In fact, it indicates that the ANFIS system is capable of good detection with the ve measurable parameters.

V. CONCLUSION

This paper presents an ANFIS approach for the detection of two types of incipient faults, i.e., inter-turn insulation failure of the main winding and bearing wear of the single-phase in- duction motor. The accurate detection of insulation level and bearing is achieved by obtaining the correct experimental data- base. Initially, the detectors are developed with two inputs, i.e., motor intake current and rotor speed, and the performance is tested. Later, the remaining three input parameters, i.e., motor winding temperature, bearing temperature, and the noise of the motor were added, and the new detectors were developed. It is found that the performance with ve inputs gives results more than 96%.

REFERENCES

[1] S. Nandi and H. A. Toliyat, Condition monitoring and fault diag- nosis of electrical machines-A review,in Proc. IEEE-IAS 1999 Annu. Meeting, Phoenix, AZ, Oct. 37, 1999, pp. 197204. [2] M. Haji and H. A. Toliyat, Pattern recognition-A technique for induc- tion machines rotor broken bar detections,IEEE Trans. Energy Con- vers., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 312317, Dec. 2001.

[3]

chines under stator, rotor bar and end ring faults,IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 10, pp. 241247, Jun. 1985. [4] L. Eren and M. J. Devaney, Bearing damage detection via wavelet packet,in Proc. 19th IEEE Instrum. Measure. Technol. Conf., May 2123, 2002, vol. 1, IMTC/2002, pp. 109113. [5] P. V. Goode and M.-Y. Chow, Using a neural/fuzzy system to extract heuristic knowledge of incipient faults in induction motors: Part I and II,IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 131146, Apr. 1995. [6] M.-Y. Chow and P. V. Goode, Adaptation of neural/fuzzy fault detec-

H. A. Toliyat and T. A. Lipo, Transient analysis of cage induction ma-

tion system,in Proc. IEEE Conf. Decision and Control, Dec. 1993, pp. 17331738.

[7] M.-Y. Chow, S. Altung, and H. J. Trussell, Set theoretic based neural- fuzzy motor fault detector,in Proc. IEEE 24th Annu. Conf. Ind. Elec- tron. Soc., Aug.-Sep. 31-4, 1998, vol. 4, pp. 19081913. [8] ——, Fuzzy inference system implemented on neural architectures for motor fault detection and adiagnosis,IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 10691079, Dec. 1999. [9] S. A. Nasar, Handbook of Electric Machines, Substitutes. New York:

McGraw-Hill, 1987, pp. 127219. [10] F. Ishibashi, K. Kamimoto, S. Noda, and K. Itomi, Small induction motors noise calculations,IEEE Trans. Energy Conserv., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 357361, Sep. 2003. [11] J. R. Jang, ANFIS: Adaptive-neural-based fuzzy inference system,IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 665685, May/Jun.

1993.

Cybern. , vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 665 – 685, May/Jun. 1993. Makarand S. Ballal was

Makarand S. Ballal was born in Nagpur, India, on July 1, 1972. He received the B.E. degree in electrical engineering from the Government College of Engineering, Aurangabad, India, in 1993 and the M.Tech. degree in integrated power systems from Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur, India, in 1997. He is a Research Scholar at Nagpur University, Nagpur. His research interests include the eld of incipient fault detection in electrical machines and HT TOD metering.

fault detection in electrical machines and HT TOD metering. Zafar J. Khan (M ’ 02) was

Zafar J. Khan (M02) was born in 1962. He received

the B.E. degree in electrical engineering in 1986 and the M.Tech. degree in electrical engineering from the Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur, India, and the Ph.D. degree from Regional Engineering College, Warangal (A.P.), India, in

1996.

He was the Dean of the Faculty of Engineering and Technology and also the Chairman of the Board of Studies at Nagpur University from 2001 to 2006. He is currently working as a Professor and Head of the Department of Electrical Engineering, Rajiv Gandhi College of Engineering, Research and Technology, Chandrapur, India. His area of research interests are

power electronics, power system modeling/analysis, and energy audit.

power system modeling/analysis, and energy audit. Hiralal M. Suryawanshi (M ’ 03) was born in Nagpur,

Hiralal M. Suryawanshi (M03) was born in Nagpur, India, on January 1, 1963. He received the B.E. degree in electrical engineering from the Walchand College of Engineering, Sangli, India, in 1988, the M.E. degree in electrical engineering from the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, in 1994, and the Ph.D. degree from Nagpur University, Nagpur, India, in 1998. He is currently working as an Assistant Pro- fessor in the Department of Electrical Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur, India. His research interests include the eld of power electronics, emphasizing developmental work in the area of resonant converters, power factor correctors, active power lters, FACTs devices, multilevel converters, and electric drives.

FACTs devices, multilevel converters, and electric drives. Ram L. Sonolikar was born in 1942. He received

Ram L. Sonolikar was born in 1942. He received the B.Tech., M.Tech., and Ph.D. degrees in chemical engineering from Laxminarayan Institute of Tech- nology, Nagpur University, India. He worked as a Scientist at the Technical Univer- sity, lodz, Poland, in 1986. His research interests in- clude the eld of mass transfer with chemical reaction and effects of magnetic eld on various chemical en- gineering operations.

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