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Q: What are the qualities of a good research? 3M Ans: The qualities of a good research are as follows:  Well Defined: It should consist of well defined goals and a clear statement of objectives which it has to achieve  Systematic: It should also have a systematic plan of work which helps in monitoring and carrying out the research within a budgeted time and cost and with conclusive results.  Logical: A clear logical argument is required to communicate an ordered sequence of ideas and activities to support research conclusions.  Verifiable: The results of a good result should be verifiable and if replicated should yield same conclusions.  Frank: It lists the flaws in the research and also its impact. 2.Explain the term market research and marketing research Marketing research is the systematic and objective  identification  collection  analysis  dissemination  and use of information for the purpose of improving decision making related to the  identification and  solution of problems and opportunities in marketing Market research     Specifies the information necessary to address these issues Manages and implements the data collection process Analyzes the results Communicates the findings and their implications

3) Differentiate between market research and market intelligence?

Market Research - is a systematic, objective collection and analysis of data about a particular target market, competition, and/or environment. It always incorporates some form of data collection whether it is secondary research (often referred to as desk research) or primary research which is collected direct from a respondent. The purpose of any market research project is to achieve an increased understanding of the subject matter. Market intelligence - is the process of acquiring and analyzing information in order to understand the market (both existing and potential customers), to determine the current and future needs and preferences, attitudes and behavior of the market, and to assess changes in the business environment that may affect the size and nature of the market in the future. 7 Marks

1) .Explain the concept scientific research. Write down the difficulties in applying scientific research? y Scientific method in business research consists of systematic observation , classification and interpretation of data. y It is perhaps the best method available to us because t he knowledge collected through scientific method possess the following characteristics: 1. It is objective in nature ie free from bias 2. Verifiable and dependable 3. Systematic i.e. theory oriented and theory directed 4. Accurate to the extent that describes what really exists 5. Cummulative i.e. it allows for generalisations/theories to be corrected, rejected and new theories to be developed. Limitations of scientific research
y Reliability on scientific research should be exercised with caution. y The result of scientific method may reveal that a particular phenomenon is false or unacceptable but this shows the only the possibility of the outcome. However at no point it shows certainty. y Because all truths are provisional in science, scientific truth often creates difficulties for the practical world of business.

Businesses are forced to make policy decisions based on theories that are reliable i.e, hypothesis which have withstood numerous and rigourous tests, but are never absolutely certain.

2: What ate the difficulties in applying scientific methods in marketing research? 7M Ans: The difficulties in applying scientific methods are as follows:  The goal of marketing research is to gain insight into the mind of the customers and help understand them better which is a p ractical approach is but scientific method is purely theoretical based on some universal theories.  The information resulting from marketing research may help a manager to make decisions with regard to product profitability, new product development etc. But, any hypothesis that withstands the verification tests becomes known as theory.  This kind of information will aid the manager in understanding those attributes that constitute value in the mind of the customers. In case of scientific method the hypothesis verified by the test aids the researcher in decision-making but is not decisions in themselves which does not shows any difference in statistical data.  The perception of value is highly subjective and changes frequently with time. But the scientific methods once proved do not change with time and the results are same all over.  Moreover in marketing research we are not interested in merely developing theories or proving them wrong but are interested in identifying the reasons behind the decisions.  The marketing efforts can be measured by commissioning advertising evaluation research, or sales performance research by region or product. It does not require any scientific theories to prove the efforts and performance.  Marketing research purely includes field study which involves the customers to know about their satisfaction level from a product and also helps in knowing market share, market potential and sales analysis. While scientific methods, the research is conducted in laboratories which is not useful for marketing research.

3): Why cannot market research be considered scientific? Give reasons? 7M Ans: Market research cannot be considered scientific because of following reasons. They are as follows:  According to George Lundberg has defined scientific method as one consisting of systematic observation, classification, and interpretation of data. It is the means to discover or create empirical knowledge.

But in case of market research, which simply research into a specific market, its size and its trends, which may vary from market to market depending upon the size and its trends and the observation , classification, and interpretation of data col lected are not static. Verifiable and dependable: In case of scientific method the results obtained are static and it yields same conclusions in case if it is replicated and it is dependable because there is no variations. But in case of market research there may be variations in results with each replication and moreover the information collected is not dependable. Systematic: In scientific methods the conclusions derived are on the basis of some scientific theory i.e. theory oriented and theory di rected. While in market research the results obtained are not theory oriented or directed it basically depends upon market condition, its size and trends. Accuracy: The results obtained are accurate to the extent that describes what really exists. The accuracy level in market research is dependent on which types of data collection methods are employed. External reality: This states that scientific enquiry relies on evidence which is verifiable by observation to prove or disapprove its theo ries. There is no such evidence in case of market research where it can prove or disapprove its enquiry. Reliability: This assumption places credence on the power of human memory to provide reliable knowledge. In other words repeated i nquiry would yield the same response from the humans.

But it is not so in case of market research i.e. with each repeated inquiry the response will also change from the people.  Generality: In case of scientific method it states that what is true for a particular case investigated by the researcher is true for a general situation in the world at large. While in market research a particular case investigated by the researcher in one part of the country may not be applicable for other par t.

3) What are the salient features of market research? Market research refers to the systematic collection and analysis of data with the purpose of finding answers to problems facing the management. It can be carried out with the objective to explore, to de scribe or to diagnose a phenomenon. The salient features of market research are:

y A good research has a well defined goal. It should have a clear statement of objectives. y It should also have a systematic plan of work. A specific programme helps in monitoring and carrying out the research within a budgeted time and cost framework and at the same time yields conclusive results. y A good research contributes towards the existing knowledge bank . It aims at increasing the understanding of existing and new facts and ideas. y A good research is logical . A clear logical argument is required to communicate an ordered sequence of ideas and activities and hence support research conclusions. y The results of a good research should be verifiable . The research if replicated should yield same conclusions. A research that relies on concrete data collected from a real life situation would have good chances of yielding valid results. y A good research is frank. It should list the flaws in the result and also explain the impact of such flaws on research results.

4) .Explain the concept of marketing research. Write down the objectives, uses and limitations of marketing research. Or What is marketing research? Explain the areas of marketing research? Marketing research is a function that links consumer the public and the marketer through information. It is one of the tools that has helped in structuring the marketing activities, as marketing in a tricky task which involves cost and benefits. It provides the information, armed with which the managers can handle complex decisions with relative ease. It specifies the information, required to address organisational marketing issues, designs the method for collecting information, manages and implements the data collection process, analizes and communicates the findings and their implications. It includes not the market reasearch i.e research into a specific market, but also areas such as new product development research or research in discovering new methods of distribution etc. Thus, it covers a wide range of marketing problems. Objectives Companies make use of marketing research in wide variety of situations.

Eg: To assess market potential and market share, understand customer satisfaction etc. Some companies have their own research department that works on marketing research projects It is also needed before a product is introduced to the market, and on a regular periodic basis throughout its life cycle. Research is also conducted to answer questions about potential market segments, entire stores, brand names, prices and every other aspect of marketing. It plays an important role in providing marketing information system. It is also of great importance in various fields like.  Market and market segments  Marketing mix  Competitive analysis  Expectations and satisfaction  Channel decision Uses/ applications of marketing research Types of research 1. Consumer research Areas of application Consumer behaviour Buying influence Consumer profiles Brand switching Motivation Market potential Market profile Market share Market segments Sales forecasting Demand survey Product usage study Product line, design testing New products

2. Market/demand research

3. Product/brand research

Brand tracking,Brand preference 4. Competition research Competiton analysis Competiton structure Competiton product,prices Warehousing efficiency study Assessing price patterns industry Measuring PED

5. Distribution research


6. Price research

Evaluation of price strategy Distribution cost analysis Efficacy of different modes of transportation

7. Advertising and promotion Media research research Motivation research Appraisal of ad campaign 8. Sales method research testing new sales programme Target fixation Analysing sales problems Sales territory analysis

Limitations of marketing research 1. It provides only the indicators. It does not by itself provide the final solution. 2. There are chances of error creepy in the findings of research. 3. It is many a times very expensive and unaffordable to many small companies. 4. It has a limitation in terms of the time factor as well. 5. There are many qualitative & subjective factors which cannot be quantified. 6. Sometimes a person interviewed may not furnish the correct information or may refuse to co-operate.

5) What do you mean by Scientific Research? Give the differences 7 marks Between scientific and non scientific research. A scientific method of research is the one consisting of systematic observation, classification and interpretation of data. A scientific method discovers and creates empirical knowledge. A scientific Research is the one which yields the same results when repeated by different individuals. It basically consists of the following steps:  Observation: Observation of a set of important factors that is related to the problem.  Formulates Hypothesis: The Researcher formulates a hypothesis which will explain what he has observed  Future Predictions: The Researcher draws a logical conclusion.  Testing the hypothesis: The researcher will draw a conclusion based on the data. Distinction between Scientific and non scientific methods. There are basically 3 differences between Scientific and unsci entific methods:  Rationality and Objectivity  Accuracy and Measurement  Maintaining Continuity in investigation A. Rationality and Objectivity: The conclusions must be based on facts. Our mindsets should not influence the decision making. The researcher should not precede with any pre -conceived notions. Any research conducted with rationality (without any pre conceived notions), objectivity and unbiasedness would constitute a scientific research and the others would not. B. Accuracy of Measurement: Accuracy is possible through the use of scientific instruments. For the measuring instrument is valid and reliable. For eg: In a Marketing research, a questionnaire is used to measure these aspects such as attitude, preference etc. But this instrument is crude and such a research is concluded to be unscientific.

C. Maintaining Continuity in investigation: Science is marked by continuity. This is because every time there is an invention, the same is carried forward for further improving the same. Hence a scientific research is marked with the feature of maintaining continuity in investigation where as an unscientific research is not. D. Verifiable and Dependable: A scientific research is always verifiable, reliable and dependable.It yields the same results when repeated by different individuals. But an unscientific research does not necessarily yield the same results when repeated by different individuals. E. A scientific research is cumulative; i.e it allows for the generalizations/ theories to be corrected/rejected and new theories to be developed.

MODULE 2 3 marks questions

1. What is the significance of problem formulation in market research? Ans: Problem formulation involves stating the general problem and identifying the specific components of the marketing research problem. Only when the marketing research problem has been clearly defined can research be desi gned and conducted properly. All the effort, time and money spent from this point will be wasted if the problem is misunderstood or ill defined. Inadequate problem definition is a leading cause of failure of marketing research projects.

2. Differentiate management problem and research problem with two illustrations? Ans:
Management problem y Ask what the decision maker needs to do y Action oriented y Focus on symptoms Research problem y Ask what information is needed and how it should be obtained y Information oriented y Focus on the underlying causes

Examples: y Should a new introduced?

Examples: y To determine consumer preferences and purchase intentions for the product be proposed new product. y To determine the effectiveness of current advertising campaign. y Should the advertising campaign be changed?

3. What is research proposal? Ans: A research proposal is an outline, a draft plan of the research work proposed by the researcher. It is also termed as a synopsis. It contains a

statement of the problem, the proposed methodology, the benefits of the research and the resources required to conduct the research. The proposal is the outcome of continuous modification done in the light of constructive criticism and suggestions made by the experts. 4.Difference between qualitative and quantitative data. Quantitave <1>It involves measurement of . phenomenon in quantitative terms.

<2>The results obtained are subjected to intensive quantitative & statistical analysis. Eg: survey conducted to document the demographic profile of an area;and establish patterns b/w various factors like income and residential area etc. Qualitative <1>It is concerned with qualitative phenomenon generally involving study of human behaviour. <2>It tries to measure the attitudes and opinions of people. Eg: opinion surveying being carried out by the firm to find out the response of the customers to its product using any of the techniques

7 marks

1. Describe the specific steps that are required to formulate a research problem? Ans: The following steps can be followed when defining the problem: i) The researcher should develop a conceptual framework of the problem. The background of the study, underlying theoretical and conceptual basis should be carefully understood. The researcher should make critical examination of the related studies. In the next step the researcher should state the unit of analysis. The unit of analysis could be an individual, a social structure like household or an organization etc. Eg. To study drug abuse, one may use students or labourers as their unit of analysis. It is important to keep in mind that the unit of analysis suits our purpose of study. The researcher should now determine the essential and relevant variables. A variable is something that can be observed, manipulated





and changes in value in response to certain stimuli. The variable that is to be predicted or explained is called the dependent variable and the variable that influences the dependent variable is called as the independent variable. The researcher also needs to identify the extraneous variables i.e. those variables that are not directly a part o f the study but may influence the outcome. Now the researcher must specify the relationship which in his opinion exists between the variables. Depending on the purpose of the study the researcher has to decide which relationship would form a part of the study and which are to be ignored. The last stage is of developing a hypothesis. Once the problem to be tackled has been finalized, the variables identified, the relationship stated, the researcher should now formulate a tentative solution to the problem. These proposed solutions are called as hypothesis, which the researcher would proceed to formulate on the basis of facts known or collected by him.

10 marks

1. Explain the business research process with examples? Ans: The research comprises of the following basic steps: i. Defining the problem ii. Review of literature iii. Formulation of hypothesis iv. Developing a research design v. Collection of data vi. Analysis of data vii. Drawing conclusions viii. Replicate the study for generalisations
1) Discovering the problem area: To start with a research, we first of all need to discover the problem which demands solution. The best way to identify the problem would be to look for an unresolved query, a gap in the existing knowledge or an unfulfilled need within the chosen subject. 2) Literature review: This involves a comprehensive review of the published and unpublished work from the secondary sources of data available in the relevant area of study. The researcher can use bibliographic databases, abstract databases, and full-text databases. 3) Problem definition:

A problem well defined formulated will alone yield fruitful results. It is the clear, precise, and concise statement of the matter that is to be investigated. The objectives of the study at this stage are clearly developed.
Discover the problem area Literature review Define and formulate the problem Develop a working hypothesis Research proposal RESEARCH DESIGN Pilot testing
y y y



Sampling design Data collection design Instrument design Data collection

Draw sample

Instrument revision

Data analysis

Hypothesis testing

Data interpretation & generalizations Reporting of results

4) Developing a working hypothesis: A hypothesis is a tentative assumption regarding the solution to the problem under study. The hypothesis is the focal point around which the future research efforts will be directed. Eg: a study conducted to find the amount of research investment being done by the companies will have the following hypothesis: Ho : companies invest 1% of their sales revenue in research activities. Ha : the companies spend lass than 1% of their sales revenue. Ho is called the null hypothesis and H a is called the alternative hypothesis. 5) Research proposal: It is brief summary outlining the objectives of study and the modus operandi of conducting the research. It is very important and should be carefully prepared especially when it is to be reviewed by the concerned authorities for approval to conduct the research. 6) Research design: Once the researcher is given the go -ahead, the next step is to work out the research design in detail. Research design outlines the conditions for collection and analysis of data. The what, when, where , how much and the method of data collection are detailed in the research design. It will specifically contain information about: y The sampling design y The data collection design y Instrument design 7) Execution of the project: This involves sending questionnaires to respondents, training field workers in interview and observation methods. A careful control over the data collection process is maintained. The basic aim of this stage is that the data is collected in the correct form and within the speci fied schedules. 8) Analysis of data: All the data gathered in the previous step has no meaning till the time it is not subjected to data analysis. Data analysis is concerned with reducing the bulk of accumulated data to a manageable size. It involves coding, editing, tabulation, statistical analysis. 9) Hypothesis testing:

Post analysis of data researcher will now move ahead to test the hypothesis that he had formulated in the beginning of the research process.
10) Data interpretation and generalisation: Data interpretation is done with the intention of seeking explanation for research results on the basis of existing theories. In case of hypothesis testing research studies, after the data has been analysed and tested repeatedly for arriving at conclusive results, generalisations are made to build new theory. 11) Reporting of results: The last step is concerned with bringing in public the results of the research so that findings can be put to some use. A research report should essentially have the preliminary sectio n, main text and end section.


Explain the steps involved in market research process?

Ans: Steps involved in market research process are as follows:

Step 1 : Problem definition:

The first step in any marketing research project is to define the problem. In defining the problem, the researcher should take into account the purpose of the study, the relevant background information, the information needed, and how it will be used in decision making.
Step 2 : Development of an approach to the problem:

Development of an approach to the problem includes formulating an objective or theoretical framework, analytical models, research questions, and hypothesis and identifying the information needed. This process is guided by discussions with management and industry experts, analysis of secondary data, qualitative research, and pragmatic considerations.

Step 3 : Research design formulation:

A research design is a framework or blueprint for conducting the marketing research project. It details he procedures necessary for obtaining the required information, and its purpose is to design a study that will test the hypothesis of interest, determine possible answers to the research questions, and provide the information needed for decision making.

Formulating the research design involves the following steps: i. Definition of the information needed ii. Secondary data analysis iii. Qualitative research iv. Methods of collecting quantitative data v. Measurement and scaling procedures vi. Questionnaire design vii. Sampling process and sample size viii. Plan of data analysis
Step 4 : Fieldwork or data collection

Data collection involves a field force or staff that operates either in the field, as in the case of personal interviewing, from an office by telephone, through mail, or electronically. Proper selection, training, supervision, and evaluation of the field force help minimize data -collection errors.
Step 5 : Data preparation and analysis

Data preparation includes the editing, coding, transcription, and verification of data. Each questionnaire or ob servation form is inspected or edited and corrected. The data are analyzed to derive information related to the components of the marketing research problem and, thus, to provide input into the management decision problem.
Step 6 : Report preparation and presentation

The entire project should be documented in a written report that addresses the specific research questions identified. The findings should be presented in a comprehensible format so that management can readily use them in the decision-making process. An oral presentation should be made to management using tables, figures, and graphs to enhance clarity and impacts.

3. What are the different kinds of research used in business? Explain with examples?
1) Basic research: Research for the sake of enhancing knowledge is termed as basic research. It is done with he intention of overpowering the unknown. It is primarily concerned with developing and formulating theories and generalisations. For example, basic science investigations probe for answers to questions such as:

How did the universe begin? What are protons, neutrons, and electrons composed of?
2) Applied research: The goal of applied research in terms of adding to scientific knowledge base acquires a secondary position. The basic aim of such research is to find solutions to the problems being faced by the society, government or the business. Since it is specific in nature, is result oriented and is driven by a clear aim, the time and the cost factors are well pl anned and budgeted. For example, applied researchers may investigate ways to : improve agricultural crop production treat or cure a specific disease improve the energy efficiency of homes, offices, or modes of transportation 3) Empirical research:

This is a data based research in which primary data is collected and the data is analyzed and subject to hypothesis testing. The findings from such a research are extrapolated to hold true for the world at large. E.g. we may study the effect of depreciating dollar on Indian export industry.
4) Qualitative research: It is concerned with qualitative phenomena generally involving study of human behaviour. Such a research tries to measure the attitudes and opinions of the people using the technique of interview and observ ation. E.g. opinion surveys being carried out by a firm to find out the response of the customers to its product and advertisement.

5) Quantitative research: It involves measurement in quantitative terms. The result of such research are subject to intensive quantitative and statistical analysis. E.g. survey conducted to document the demographic profile of an area and establish patterns between various factors like income and residential area, education and job profile etc.
6) Longitudinal research: It is generally spread over a long period of time. In this kind of study the problem is studied over a consecutive stretch of time e.g. in marketing research panel of potential customers can be chosen. Conclusive results are obtained after observing their behavi our over a considerable stretch of time.

7) Simulation research: It involves the creation of an artificial environment which is very similar to the real environment. Within this environment the variables are manipulated and studied, e.g. in order to study the consumers spending behaviour, he can give Rs.1000 and his buying behaviour can be recorded in an outlet very similar to an actual retail environment.

Business Research Design

Model Answers

3 MARKS 1. Write down the difference between exploratory research and descriptive research design?? Exploratory Research 1. Main objective is to discover insight into new areas and problem. It is concerned with the why? aspect of consumer behavior i.e. It tries to understand the problem and not measure the result. Descriptive Research 1. Main objective is to describe the characteristics of a phenomenon. It is concerned with what, when, and how often on the consumer behavior

2. This research design is flexible with 2. It is well-developed, pre-planned great versatility. and structured research process 3.This type of research does not 3. This needs large samples of require large samples respondents. 4.Sample need not represent the 4.Sample must be representative of population population 5. Data collection is not easy due to 5.Data collection vague research problem statement statement is precise is easy since

6. Characteristics of interest to be 6.Characteristics of interest to be measured are not clear. measured are clear 7. There is no need for a questionnaire 7. There should be a properly designed for collecting the data. questionnaire for data collection. 8. Uses non-probability sampling. 8. Uses probability sampling design with preplanned analysis techniques. 9. Data collection methods are: y Surveys

9. Methods of data collection are: y Survey of experts

y Pilot Surveys y Secondary data analyzed in a qualitative way y Qualitative research y Case studies

y Use of Panel data y Observational and other data y Secondary data analyzed in a quantitative as opposed to a qualitative manner.

2. What is before and after, with and without control design?

Before and after with Control Design is nothing but the Pre -test-post-test Control group design under True-experimental design. This basic aim of this experiment is to study the effect of a variable on a carefully controlled sample. In this testy The test units are randomly assigned to experimental and control group. y The pre-test scores are recorded and then the treatment is introduced. y Later, the post-test scores, after the experimental group has been exposed to the treatment is taken from both the groups.

Symbolically represented as EG : R CG : R O O X X O O

TE = ( O O ) ( O O )

Before and after without control is the One -group Pre-test-post-test Study which comes under pre-experimental design. This is same as that of one-shot case study which includes a pre-test score.
y Initially a pre-treatment measure ( o ) is taken y The treatment ( X ) is introduced y Then the post treatment measure (o ) is taken.

O TE = O - O

7 M RK 1. What does experi entation involve?? Explain after onl desi n and Latin square desi n. Experi ent l research is conducted o study the cause and effect relationship bet een variables under study. Here, the researcher maintains, controls, and manipulates the variables that affect his study. The steps involved in conducting an experimental design are:

y Identification and definition of problem y Formulation of hypothesis y Developing an experimental design o Select the sample objects o Group or pair subjects o Identify and control non experimental factors o Construct and validate an instrument to measure o Determine place, time and duration of experiment. y Conduct the experiment y Analyze the data and test the hypothesis y Report the findings There may be an extraneous variables which requires controlling to be done. Experimental design can be classified as-


l wit

t l d ig

After only with control design or static group deign involves two chosen groups, one which receives the treatment called as experimental group (EG) and

other which does not receive treatment is called as Control Group (CG).This design measures the score of groups after the treatment only. It is symbolically represented as EG : CG : X O O

TE = O - O Latin square desi n: It comes to picture in an experimental design when two extraneous factors are applicable. Each treatment appears equal number of times in any one ordinate position in each row and column. The two block factors or extraneous variables are represented through rows and c olumns. For example, consider passenger traffic (dependent variable) which is influenced by two extraneous variables viz. the residential area and the type of the bus. The effect of fare reduction on passenger traffic can be illustrated using a Latin square design as

Type of Bus Luxury Bus Deluxe Bus Regular Bus


City central area X X X

Sub- urban area X X X

Retirement area X X X

1. What do you mean by research design? Classify and explain research design with example. OR What are the types of research design? Give example.

A research design is a map developed to guide the research. It is a part of the planning stage of the research and a blueprint for collection, measurement and analysis of data. It details the procedures necessar y for obtaining the information needed to structure or solve market research problems. It is a

purposeful scheme of action proposed to be carried out in a sequence during the process of research focusing on the management problem to be tackled. It is a guideline for the researcher to enable him to keep track of his actions and to know whether he is moving in the right direction in order to achieve his goal. Its features are:

y y y y y

It provides a blueprint. It limits the boundary of research activity. Optimum reliability is achieved Wastage of time and money is minimized Enables researcher to anticipate potential problems of data gathering etc..

Its components include:

y y y y y y

Defining the information needed Designing the exploratory, descriptive or casual phases of research Specifying the measurement and scaling procedures Construct and pre-testing a questionnaire Specifying the sample process and sample size Develop a plan of data analysis

Objectivity, reliability, validity, generalization are the characteristics of good research design.


Also termed as formulative research studies. The major emphasis in exploratory research is on converting broad, vague problem statements in to small, precise

sub-problem statement that specifies how to or more variables are related? This study is used in the initial stage of research. E.g. Formulation of the problem with more precise investigation. Methods of Exploratory Research are
y y y y

Survey of experts Pilot surveys Secondary data analyzed in a qualitative wa y Qualitative research

Conclusive Research Research designed to assist the decision maker in determining, evaluating, and selecting the best course of action to take in a given situation. It has clear defined objectives. The different types are y Descriptive /Diagnostic research y Experimental or Casual research

a. Descriptive Research It is a type of conclusive research which has its major objective as describing something usually market characteristics or functions. It provides association between two variables, like income and place of shopping, age, and preferences. Methods of Descriptive Research
y Secondary data analyzed in a quantitative as opposed to a qualitative manner y Surveys y Panels y Observational and other data

b. Causal Research This research design attempts to explore cause and affect relationships where causes already exist and cannot be manipulated. It uses what already exists and looks backward to explain why. E.g. Demand for a particular commodity and its effect on the price of that commodity. METHOD: Experiments Descriptive Research

1. Lon itudinal Desi ns In longitudinal design, a fixed sample (or samples) of population elements is measured repeatedly on the same variables. A longitudinal design differs from a cross-sectional design in that the sample or samples remain the same over time. E.g. - Survey of 3 brands A, B, C purchased in two periods 1 and 2 2. Cross-sectional desi ns A cross-sectional design involves the collection of information from any given sample of population element s only once. In single cross-sectional designs, there is only one sample of respondents and information is obtained from this sample only once. In multiple cross sectional designs, there are two or more samples of respondents, and information from each sample is obtained only once. Often, information from different samples are obtained at different times. E.g. - Survey of 3 brands A, B, C purchased in two periods 1 and 2

2. Distinguish between exploratory, descriptive and casual research designs.

E ploratory Objective



Discovery of Describe market Determine cause ideas and insights characteristics or and effect functions relationships

Characteristics Flexible, versatile Often the front end of total research design

Marked by the prior formulation of specific hypotheses Preplanned and structured design

Manipulation of one or more independent variables Control of other mediating variables Experiments


Expert surveys Pilot surveys Secondary data

Secondary data Surveys Panels

Qualitative research Stage of using the Used as an study introductory phase in larger study, where there is no sufficient knowledge Data Manipulation primary sources, secondary sources, and lots of qualitative data sources such as logs, diaries, official records, reports, etc. are made use of. The limitation is that the sources must be both authentic and valid.
4. Write short notes ona. b. c. d. Discriminatory Analysis Conjoint Analysis Correlation Chi-square test

Observation other data


Fact finding It explores the investigation at effect or cause on the later stages effect

Considerably less affect chances of data relationships being modulated where causes already exist and cannot be manipulated

a. Discriminatory Analysis y A statistical technique designed to predict the groups or categories into which individual cases will fall on the basis of a number of independent variables. y Discriminatory analysis attempts to identify which variables or combinations of variables accur ately discriminate between groups or categories by means of a scatter diagram or classification table called a confusion matrix.

y Statistical analysis used to predict the probability of the occurrence of an event. y For example, based on the demographic cha racteristics of the individuals on a promotion list, discriminatory analysis can predict the probability of a positive response to a promotion by measuring the degree of similarity between the individuals on the list and current customers. y Discriminatory analysis has applications in finance, for example, credit risk analysis, or in the prediction of company failure, and in the field of marketing, for market segmentation purposes. y Discriminatory function analysis is used to determine which continuous variables discriminate between two or more naturally occurring groups. For example, a researcher may want to investigate which variables discriminate between fruits eaten by (1) primates, (2) birds, or (3) squirrels. For that purpose, the researcher could collect data on numerous fruit characteristics of those species eaten by each of the animal groups. Most fruits will naturally fall into one of the three categories. Discriminatory analysis could then be used to determine which variables are the best predictors o f whether a fruit will be eaten by birds, primates, or squirrels. b. Conjoint Analysis y Conjoint analysis is a statistical technique used in business research to determine how people value different features that make up an individual product or service. y The objective of conjoint analysis is to determine what combination of a limited number of attributes is most influential on respondent choice or decision making. y A controlled set of potential products or services is shown to respondents and by analyzing how they make preferences between these products, the implicit valuation of the individual elements making up the product or service can be determined. These implicit valuations (can be used to create market models that estimate market share, revenue and even profitability of new designs. y The ability to analyze several attributes at once distinguishes conjoint analysis from traditional market research methods where each attribute is studied separately. y Conjoint analysis helps you discover how consumers make trade-offs between the various possible attribute combinations available.

y Usually, conjoint analysis consists of a main-effects analysis of variance with ordinally scaled dependent variables. Consumer preferences are the dependent variables, and product attributes are the independent variables. The following are some of the questions that can be answered with a conjoint analysis.

o o o o

*How important is each product attribute to consumers? *Which existing products do consumers prefer? *What combination of product attributes do consumers prefer most? *How well will my product do in the current market?

Developing a conjoint analysis involves the following steps: 1. Choose product attributes, for example, appearance, size, or price. 2. Choose the values or options for each attribute. For example, for the attribute of size, one may choose the levels of 5", 10", or 20". The higher the number of options used for each attribute, the more burden that is placed on the respondents. 3. Define products as a combination of attribute options. The set of combinations of attributes that will be used will be a subset of the possible universe of products. 4. Choose the form in which the combinations of attributes are to be presented to the respondents. Options include verbal presentation, paragraph description, and pictorial presentation. 5. Decide how responses will be aggregated. There are three choices - use individual responses, pool all responses into a single utility function, or define segments of respondents who have similar preferences. 6. Select the technique to be used to analyze the collected data. The part -worth model is one of the simpler models used to express the utilities of the various attributes. There also are vector (linear) models and i deal-point (quadratic) models. It is well-suited for defining a new product or improving an existing one.
c. Correlation

o A distribution in which each unit of the series assumes two values is known as bivariate distribution. Further, if we measure more th an two variables on each unit of distribution, it is called a multivariate distribution. o Thus, in bivariate if we are interested to find the relationship between the two variables under study, we go for correlation analysis.

o Correlation is a statistical tool which studies the relationship between the two variables and correlation analysis involves various methods and techniques for studying and measuring the extent of the relationship between the two variables. o Two variables are said to be correlated if the change in one variable results in a corresponding change in the other variable. E.g. :-Heights and weights of individuals in a locality. Sale of woolen garments and the day temperature o Correlation may be linear or non-linear, positive or negative. The high degree og correlation between the variables may be due to the following reasons: y Mutual dependence y Both the variables being influenced by the same external factors y Pure chance The commonly used methods for studying correlation between two variables are: 1. Scatter diagram Method 2. Covariance Method 3. Two way frequency table method 4. Rank method 5. Concurrent deviation method
d. Chi-square test

o The square of a standard normal variable is called a Chi=square variate with 1 degree of freedom. Thus if X is a random variable following normal distribution with mean and standard deviation , then (X - )/ is a standard normal variate..Chi-square variate is given by (X- ) o Applications of chi-square distribution 1. 2. 3. 4. Chi-square test of goodness of fit Test for independence of attributes To test if the population has a specified value of variance To test the equality of several population proportions.

o Karl Pearson in 1990, developed a test for testing the significance of discrepancy between the experimental values and the theoretical values obtained under some theory or hypothesis. This test is known as X -test of goodness of fit and is used to test if the deviation between the

observation(experiment) and the theory may be attributed to chance(fluctuations of sampling) or if it is really due to the inadequacy of the theory to fit the observed data. o Under null hypothesis there is no significant difference between the observed and the theoretical values. Conditions for the validity of the chi -square test: i. N, the total frequency should be reasonably large, say greater then 50. ii. The sample observations should be independent .no individual term nust be included twice or more in th e sample. iii. Each theoretical must be preferably large, greater than 10. iv. The given distribution should not be replaced by relative frequencies or proportions but the data should be given in the original units.

1) What is Survey? Survey is used most often to describe a method of gathering information from samples of individuals. A survey is conducted in a natural setting and seeks responses directly from respondants. A survey involves real world samples which often uses questionnaire or interview method for data collection. A survey is systematic, follows a specific set of rules, and is a formal and orderly logic of sequence. The main purpose of a survey is:  Information Gathering: It collects information for a specific purpose. For eg: Census, Customer Satisfaction, attitude, etc.  Theory testing and building: For eg: personality and social psychology testing.

2. Write a note on telephone survey? Telephone survey is a type of interview where the information is collected from the respondent by asking the questions on phone. Traditional telephone interviews call for phoning a sample of respondents, asking them questions written on paper and recording them with a pencil. Nowadays computers are used to administer and assist the teleph one surveys.
Computer assisted telephone interview - the computer randomly dials a number from the sample, upon contact the interviewer asks the qualifying questions and the answers are entered directly into the computer memory bank. Computer administered telephone survey - the interviewer is replaced by the computer. The questions are voice synthesized and the respondents answer and the computer timing decide whether to continue o not. Advantages : y Low cost y Faster collection of data y Reduces biases( caused by personal presence of interviewer)

3. What are the advantages of literature survey?

Literature survey involves a comprehensive review of published and unpublished work from the secondary sources of data available from in the relevant area of study. Literature review helps the researcher in many ways: y It helps the researcher to learn about the studies similar to his own study and the research design and the methodology adopted to carry out those studies by earlier researchers. y It provides useful source of data related to subject being studied. y It helps in introducing important and useful research personalities. y It provides an opportunity to see the study in a historical perspective. y It provides new ideas, methods and approaches to deal with research problems. y It helps the researcher to compare his own study with other relevant studies. y It helps in anticipating the problems arising during the collection of data. The researcher can therefore take precautions to overcome those problems.

7 & 10 Marks

1 .What are the types/sources of secondary data? The secondary data is of 2 types (a) Internal data:- The data which is available internally within the organisation conducting research is termed as internal data. The main advantage of this is that it is easily availab le and greater reliability can be placed on the degree of accuracy and relevance to the study. Eg: A social researcher belonging to an NGO might be carrying out a research on awareness of human rights in women. Then if the NGO database has any information on status of women, the awareness level, then this data would be classified as internal data. (b) External data:- It is the secodary data that is available from outside the organisation for which the research is being conducted. Classified into: 1. Published data 2. Computerised data

3. Syndicated data 1. Published data:- They are the most popular of the external sources of data. Different sources of published data are: Guides- They are a source of standard recurring data. Some useful guides are Asian Social Bibliography which covers an annual bibliography of selective english language publication. Directories- They generally contain a list of all the related organisations or sources of further data. Eg: the directoy of social science research. Government sources like the census data, economic survey are also good sources of external published data. 1. Computerised databases:- Computerised databases refer to the data which is available in an electronic form. Computer databases can be classified into various types on the basis of the form in which they are lying in the storage media such as online, internet and offline. Computer databases can be in the front of: Bibliographic database: They are composed of citation to articles in journals, magazines/newspaper, marketing research studies, technical reports, govt documents and the like. Numeric database: They are the numerical and statistical database. They may be economic data that is provided in a time series form. Eg: the census data is a type of numeric data. Full text database: They contain the complete text of the document Directory database: It provides a complete listing of individuals, organisations, or services. 2. Syndicated services: These refer to companies that collect and sell data to various clients having different information needs. The data collected by them has the ability to suit the requirements of a large number of individuals or organisations. Eg: In India, Centre For Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE)is an organisation that collects large amount of economic data.

3. Briefly explain different projective technique in qualitative research? I

The different projective techniques in qualitative research can be classified as:

Technique y Constructive techniques - Thematic apperception test - Item substitution test y Association techniques - Word associate test - Rorschach test - Cloud pictures y Completion techniques - Sentence completion test - Story completion study Response required Respondents respond to or describe a character in a stimulated situation. Respondent replies to a stimulus with the first word, image or thought that comes to his mind.

The respondent is asked to complete the sentence or picture.

In projective techniques, the respondents are asked to interpret the behavior of others and this way they indirectly reveal their own behavior in the same situation.
Thematic Apperception Test: the respondent is shown a set of pictures and then asked what he perceived from these pictures.

Eg: he might be shown a picture of students holding protest banners and his perception of what he interprets from the picture is sought.
Item substitution test: it involves creating of two groups of respondents, test group and the control group. The stimulus, presented as a list of items, is given to both the groups which are similar in all respect expect for the substitution of items relevant to the study.

Eg: a shopping list is given to both the groups with one list having magic noodles which gets substituted by Top Ramen noodles and the shoppers characteristics can be judged.
Word associate test: respondents are associated with a list of words one at a time and they are asked to respond immediately with the first things that come to their mind.

Eg: in a study on TV viewing habits the respondents can be presented with words like discovery, soap, star etc. This method allows respondents to reveal their inner feelings on that topic.

Rorschach test: it consists of ten cards that have print of ink blots that are although symmetrical but defy all meaning. The respondents are asked to interpret these cards and there responses are interpreted on the basis of some predetermined framework. Cloud pictures test: this shows two or more characters conversi ng with each other and cloud of one character is left empty as a resource to be filled by the respondent according to his interpretation of what the other character is saying. It could even be a single character with a empty cloud overhead indicating his would be response to a particular situation. Sentence completion test: it is similar to a word association test where instead of a word, a sentence is left incomplete and the respondent is asked to fill it with the first thought that comes to his mind.

Eg: people who enter politic are _______________________. Analysis of the response helps the researchers in concluding about the attitudes of the people to various objects and subjects. 4. Story completion study: in this a story is created by the researcher which defines the topic of research and the respondents are asked

4) What do you mean by MDS? Explain with Examples? Multidimensional scaling is an important tool in measuring the perception or preferences of people across a large number of attributes. It is a data reduction technique whose main objective is to uncover hidden structure of a set of data. These perceptions are represented spatially in a multidimensional plot and are called perceptual maps. This scaling is used to describe similarity and preference of brands. The respondents were asked to indicate their perception, or similarity between various objects and preference among objects. There are two methods of collecting the inputs data to plot perceptual mapping: y Non attribute method: researcher asks the respondent to make a judgement about the objects directly. The criteria for comparing the object are decided by the respondent himself. y Attribute method: instead of respondents selecting the criteria, they were asked to compare the objects based on criteria specified by the researcher.


B Courteous courteous C

A not

E D Convenient

For example to determine to determine the perception of a consumer: assume there are five insurance companies to be evaluated on two attributes namely (1) Convenient locality (2) Courteous personal service Customers perception regarding the five insurance companies is as follows: A, B, C, D and E are five insurance companies. According to the map B and E are similar insurance companies. C is being located very conveniently. A is less convenient in location compared to E. D is less convenient in location than C. E is less convenient in location compared to D. 5) Explain the advantages and disadvantages of secondary data? 7M Ans: The advantages and disadvantages of secondary data are as follows:

ADVANTAGES:  The most significant advantage that secondary data enjoys is on the savings on time and money front. In case the information required for a study is available, then all that a researcher has to do is access the source and this take no more than a few days and involve little cost.  The secondary data at times may provide enough information to solve the problem completely. For example: the number of potential customers on income basis.  Secondary data helps the researcher to better st ate the problem under the investigation. It helps in defining the problem and formulating the hypothesis.

 It helps in interpreting the primary data with more insight. It allows the researcher to provide comparative data, to set a reference base agains t which the validity and accuracy of primary data can be compared.     DISADVANTAGES: The main drawback of secondary data is that there is a mismatch between the original purpose and the purpose of current study . Another problem is in context of the time of data collection. Since the data collected in the past , the findings may not be relevant in the present time. Secondary data also has the drawback that the data may have been analysed in a different unit of measurement than what is required. For e.g. export figures can be presented in rupee terms and in dollar terms. The accuracy of the secondary data is difficult to judge. In case inaccurate data is incorporated into the research, then the entire results will be adversely affected.

Describe the steps of developing a questionnaire in a research. The various steps in developing a questionnaire are briefly discussed below:
PHASE 1: Developing a design strategy a. Specify the Information Sought. b. Determine the Communication approach c. Select the type of Questionnaire. The questionnaire may be either a Structured Undisguised Questionnaire Unstructured Disguised Questionnare Unstructured Undisguised Questionnaire Structured Disguised Questionnaire PHASE 2: Constructing the Questionnaire

d. Determine the question content: This step basically initiates the task of framing specific questions which would yield the data required for study. While framing the questions certain things shoud be kept in mind. Is the question necessary? Is the question complete?

Single question or multiple questions are required? Can the Respondent articulate? Can the respondent remember? e. Determine the Response Strategy: Once the content of the question has been decided upon, the next stage is to design the structured response strategy. (closed response using fixed alternative questions) or an unstructured response strategy(open response using open ended questions). Some of the response stretegies are: Dichotomous Questions Multichotomous Questions Checklist Questions Ranking Strategy Rating Strategy f. Determine the Question Wording: This stage is concerned with the phrasing of each question. The researcher needs to use utmost caution in framing the question While wording the question the following things shoud be kept in mind: Use simple words. Avoid using technical jargon Avoid using ambiguous questions Avoid biased wording. The level of personalization should be controlled.
PHASE 3: Drafting and refining the Questionnaire g. Decide on Question Sequence: Use simple and interesting questions first. The questions should be arranged in logical order. Classification Questions should be asked later on. Difficult and sensitive questions should not be asked right in the beginning Branching of questions shoud be done with care. h. Determine the Physical Characteristics

The physical appearance affects the way the respondents react to the questionnaire: Use a good quality paper with high definition ink Size of the questionnaire should be appropriate. The instructions should be written clearly and politely. i. Pre Testing the Questionnaire

6) What is Observation? Explain the different Observation Methods. Observation refers to the monitoring and recording of behavioral and non behavioral activities and conditions in a systematic manner to obtain information about the phenomena of interest. Types of Observation a. Structured vs. Unstructured Observation: In structured Observation the problem has been clearly defined. Hence the behaviour to be observed and the method by which it will be measured is specified before hand in detail. Unstructured analysis is used in situations where the problem has not been clearly defined and hence it cannot be pre specified that what is to be observed. b. Disguised vs Undisguised Observation: In a disguised Observation, the subjects are unaware of the fact that they are being observed or not. The behavior is observed using hidden camera, one way mirrors or other devices. The subjects hence behave in their natural way. In undisguised observation the subjects are aware that they are being observed. There is a fear that the subjects might show a typical activity. The entry of the observer mifht upset the subject. c. Participant vs Non Participant Observation: If the observer participates in the situation while observing, it is termed as participant observation. Eg: A researcher studying the lifestyle of slum dwellers, will himself stay in slums. In case of non-participant observation, the observer remains outside the setting and does not involve himself or participate in the situation. d. Natural vs. Contrived Observation: In natural observation, the behaviour is observed as it takes place in the actual setting. E.g.: Consumer preferences directly being observed at Pizza Hut where consumers are ordering Pizza. In contrived observation, the phenomena are observed in an artificial or simulated setting. E.g.: the consumers instead of being observed in a restaurant are made to order in a setting that looks like a restaurant but is not an actual one.
Classification on the basis of Mode of Observation

e. Personal Observation: Here, the observer himself monitors and records the behaviour as it occurs. It does not only record what has been specified but also records unexpected behaviours. f. Mechanical Observation: Mechanical Devices instead of humans are used to record the behaviour. These devices record the behaviour as it occurs and the data is sorted and analysed later on. g. Audit: It is the process of obtaining information by physical examination of data. The Audit, which is the count of physical objects is generally done by the researcher himself. An audi t can be a store audit or a pantry audit. h. Content Analysis: Content analysis is the objective, systematic and quantitative description of the manifest content of communication. This method consists of observations and analysis. It involves analysis of the contents of a communication spoken or printed. 6. Explain. The success of an interview depends on the way it is conducted.

The Success of an interview to a great extent depends on the way the interview is conducted This statement can be substantiated with the following reasons:  An interview is basically an interaction between the researcher and respondent. The main purpose of the interview is to elicit information from the respondent. Hence, the questioning should be adapted to the situation, asking the right question at the right time would contribute to the success of the interview because right answers to the questions would be given by the respondent only when it is asked at the right time appropriate to the situation and the m ood of the interviewee.  For an interview to be successful, the interviewer should properly explain to the respondent as to what is expected from him. The respondent must clearly know the subject matter. If the respondents answer is incomplete the researcher should rephrase the question and explain the same.  The researcher should also make sure that the respondent possesses the information required at the time of conducting the interview. The respondent may be facing several problems due to which he is unabl e to give the information.  It is the job of the interviewer to create trust and maintain a good rapport. The interaction between the interviewer and the respondent should not create a bias in the respondents replies.

 It is the job of the interviewer to motivate the respondent. If this step is not taken, the interview conducted maybe ineffective and unsuccessful.  Sometimes errors can occur due to inconsistencies in the reply of the respondent The interviewer should bring this to the notice of the respondent, the interviewer should probe further if necessary to correct these inconsistencies.  For an interview results to be successful it is necessary to a. Select and train the interviewers b. Set up supervision to check the interviewers work.  Initial Contact is very important to ensure respondents participation. If the Initial Contact is not proper, it may result in the loss of the respondent.  The interviewer must be trained in asking questions. Any change in word will result in getting a different answer from the respondents. The results would then be distorted leading to inappropriate conclusions.  If the respondent is deviating from the topic, it is the duty of the interviewer to lead the respondent back to the questionnaire. Only then would the main purpose of the interview be established.  The interviewer should avoid any change in his voice or express any feeling by way of body language or surprise on hearing an answer from a respondent, this would void bias and conditional responses from the interviewee.  For an effective interview an interviewer must speak slowly, clearly and understandably.  7.. Construct a 7 item scale to measure the perception of a product using likert and semantic scale.

Likert Scale constructed to measure the Perception of a product(television set)

Serial Likert Scale Strongly Disagree Neither Agree Strongly Number Items Disagree agree Agree nor disagree 1 Price of the TV set is reasonable

3 4 5

6 7

The product has got a strong brand image Appearance is good Good after sales service Excellent sound Quality Picture is sharp Timely delivery of the product is made

Semantic Scale constructed to measure the Perception of a product(television set) Sl No Semantic Scale Items 1 Price is reasonabl e 2 Strong brand image 3 Good appearanc e 4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Semantic Scale Items Price not reasonabl e Weak/poo r brand image Not a good appearan ce Poor Sound Quality Weak/dul l Picture

- - -

- - -

- -

Excellent Sound Quality Picture is sharp

- - -

- - -

Good after sales service Timely delivery of the product

- - -

- - -

Poor After Sales Service Untimely delivery of the product

8.) What are the criteria for evaluating secondary data? Explain? 7M Ans: The criteria for evaluation are as follows:
CRITERIA ISSUES Unit of measurement Class definitions Publication currency Data collection methodology Quality of data Purpose of publication Source of data



 SUITABILITY: It refers to the extent to which the data fits the problem defined. In certain cases the problem of fit becomes so acute that it is rendered inappropriate for the study. It can be studied on 3 forms:  Unit of measurement: This unit in which the underlying data has been measured may not meet the researcher criteria e.g. the industrial production may be available in units of goods instead of in rupee terms.  Class definitions: The criteria used to define the categories may not be suitable e.g. if the researcher wants to develop income groups with a class interval of Rs 10,000 and the information is available across income group with class interval of Rs 15000 then there is a mismatch.  Publication currency: Thirdly the secondary data may be outdated. It could be because of a large time lag between collection and publication or it could be due to lack of frequent updating. The more the time gap between the data available and the data required the less suitable it is for the research study.  ACCURACY: Accuracy involves a check on the errors in the data collected. These errors can arise due to faulty data collection method, wrong sampling

design, faulty analysis or reporting. Accuracy of secondary data is checked by:  Data collection methodology: The researcher should look into various methodological considerations like sampling technique, sample size, instrument choice and design, response rate and quality, data analysis a nd reporting procedures.  Purpose of publication: It has been seen that when the data is collected solely for the purpose of data collection, and not for specific purpose it will be of greater use as there would be no bias.  Quality of data: The quality of secondary data can be judged by evaluating the ability of supplying organisation to collect the data.  DEPENDABILITY: The dependability of data can be judged by examining the credibility, reputation, and expertise of the source. The previous users, which have used data provided by same source, can provide valuable input on how dependable their data has been in the past.

9 .Describe nominal, ordinal, internal and ratio scales as used in business research giving suitable examples? Nominal Scale
y Nominal data classifies a set into categories that are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive. y Each category is given a name or assigned a number and the numbers are just symbols used for labelling a group, eg., the political supporters in U.S.A. can be classified as Democrats or Republicans. These two groups are mutually exclusive i,e every member of the population will be covered in these two groups. The only operation possible on this data is counting of each member of a group. y Nominal scale is the least powerful of the four data types since it has no order, no distance and no arithmetic relationship. Statistical tests of significance like Chi square test, Fishers exact test etc. may be used. y It is primarily used in survey and ex post facto research where the objective of research is just to describe the population.

Ordinal Scale
y Ordinal data is the lowest level of ordered scale that ranks objects or individuals along the continuum of the attribute being scaled from the largest to smallest. y The use of ordinal scale implies a greater than or less thanrelationship between objects being measured without stating the degreeof greater or

less e.g., a respondent is asked to rank three books on the content matter.He may give the following ranks. RANKS BOOK A 2 BOOK B 3 BOOK C 1 y Thus an ordinal scale has placed them in the order of good to bad, however it does not imply the distance between rank 1,2,3, in other words it does not show the extent to which each is better than the other. y Actively used in marketing research Interval data
y Interval data is characterised by an order and distance but possess an arbitary origin. y It has all characteristics of nominal and ordinal data, in addition it has the property of equality of interval i,e.,the distance between 1 & 2 is same as the distance between 2 & 3. y Operationally this condition is satisfied by the existence of a common and constant unit of measurement. y Examples of interval scale are the calender time e.g; time elapsed between 1:00PM and 3:00PM is the time elapsed between 8:00PM and 10:00PM.Temperature scale e.g; Centigrade and Farhenheit are also interval scale. y In case of interval scale, arithmetic mean and standard deviation are the most appropriate measures of central tendency and dispersion respectively.Parametric test like t-test and F-test are best suited tests of significance.

Ratio data
y Ratio data is characterised by the presence of order, distance and unique origin. y It measures the amount of variables. y It is the most powerful of all scales as it has a unique origin y Height, weight, area are examples of ratio data. y Weighing machine is a good example of ratio scale. y It has an absolute zero and a person weighing 80kg is twice as heavy as a person weighing 40kg. y All statistical techniques applicable to previous three scales can be applied here too. In addition geometric mean, harmonic mean as a measure of central tendency and variance and co - efficient of variation as a measure of dispersion can also be used.

10) What are the different methods used in primar y data collection? Explain the merits and demerits of each method with example? 10M Ans: The following methods are used to collect primary data: QUALITATIVE VS QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH: Qualitative research is an unstructured, exploratory research methodology based on small samples that provides insights and understanding of problem setting. Which can be classified into 3 types.They are:  SURVEY METHOD  OBSERVATION METHOD  EXPERIMENTAL SURVEY METHOD can again be classified on the basis of 3 broad categories:  INTERVIEW  MAIL SURVEY/ QUESTIONNAIRE  EXPERIMENTAL

 INTERVIEW : Is a verbal communication conversation between two people with the objective of collecting research relevant information which includes?  Personal interview is a face to face two way communication between the interviewer and the respondent.  Telephone interview is collecting information from the respondent by asking him questions on phone.  Depth interview is non directive in nature where the respondent is given freedom to answer within the boundaries  Projective technique involves the presentation of an ambiguous, unstructured object, activity or person that a respondent is asked to interpret and explain.  Example: Door to door interviewing where the respondents are interviewed in their home or as planned formal executive meeting. ADVANTAGES  An interview allows for gathering information in more detail since the interviewer and the respondent are having communication.  Interview method can be used to collect qualitative facts. The att itudes, ideas, feeling, views, opinions, and behaviour can be recorded.  It allows greater flexibility in the process o questioning especially in unstructured interviews.

 The validity of the information can be readily checked. The interviewer is able to judge when respondent is not giving true answers.  There is little chance of misinterpretation of questions and answers.

DISADVANTAGES  The interview method requires a lot of time, first to seek out the respondents, then to ask questions and later on to analyze the answers.  Variability in the data collected by interview can be caused due to the interviewers characteristics.  When more than one interviewer has been used to collect data then the extent of variation would increase.  High cost involved in this interview. Expenses have to be incurred on selecting, training, and supervising the field staff conducting interviews.  The respondent may get affected by the presence of the interviewer.  Lastly, the interviewer faces the dilemma of choosing a method for recording the answers. MAIL SURVEY/ QUESTIONNAIRE: The questionnaire is a form containing a set of questions, which are filled by the respondents. OBJECTIVE:  To collect information from respondents scattered in a wide area.  To achieve success in collecting reliable and dependable information in a short span of time.  Example: This data collection method is used in case if a company wants to conduct a research on brand preference of soap segment in a particular area. ADVANTAGES:  The chief merit of questionnaire is that it is possible to cover a large number of respondents scattered in a large geographical area.  Questionnaire is one of the most economical methods of data collection. The cost involved is on preparing the questionnaire and on postage.  This method does not suffer from an interviewers bias. The questions to be asked are impersonal and standardized.  Questionnaires allow for anonymity. The respondent feels more secure, since they are not answering face-to-face but writing the response on a paper.

 The questionnaire method does not put pressure on the respondent to respond immediately.  The impersonal nature of questionnaire ensures uniformity from one measurement situation to another.  In case of mailed questionnaire, the supervision and control effort is not required, since there is no need to appoint field workers. DISADVANTAGES:  The level of questionnaire may not match the intelligence level of respondents. Even though simple words may have been used.  The non-response rate is high in questionnaire. Many people do not fill the questionnaire and some do not bother to send back.  In case of mail survey, it is very difficult to know who has filled the questionnaire. It can filled by anyone.  Since the questionnaire is filled by the responden t in his own hand, many times the writings are not legible.  In studies, where spontaneous answers are required, the questionnaire method is not suitable.  The researcher has to accept the responses as they are written. Questionnaire method does not allow th e researcher to clear the unambiguity.  In case of mailed questionnaire the researcher is unable to supplement the written replies with his own observation.

OBSERVATION: Observation is a popular method of data collection in behavioural sciences. Observation refers to the monitoring and recording of behavioural and non behavioural activities and conditions in a systematic manner to obtain information about the phenomena of interest. Example: The consumer preferences observed directly at PIZZA HUT where consumers are ordering pizza. TYPES OF OBSERVATION:  STRUCTURED VS UNSTRUCTURED OBSERVATION: In structured observation the problem are clearly defined. While unstructured analysis is used in situations where the problem has not been clearly defined and cannot be pre specified what is to be observed.  DISGUISED VS UNDISGUISED OBSERVATION: In disguised analysis the subject are unaware of the fact that they are being observed.

In undisguised the subjects are aware that they are being observed.  PARTICIPANT VS NON-PARTICIPANT: If the observers participate in the situation. In non-participant case the observer remains outside the setting and does not involve himself or participate in the situation.

ADVANTAGES:  This is the only method that allows for collection of data in natural setting.  Through observation not only the verbal but the non verbal behaviour can be observed. It allows for in-depth study of the phenomena.  In an observation survey there is no time elapse be tween the occurrence and recording of the behaviour.  Observation is a flexible method of data collection and is especially suitable for studying social processes in depth over an extended period of time.  The observation method is particularly used in situa tion where the respondents are either unwilling or unable to give the information. DISADVANTAGES:  The phenomena which are to be observed may not occur for a long time or it may occur sporadically.  When observation is being done in natural setting the resea rcher has little control over the variables that affect data.  Analysis of data collected through thus method is cumbersome.  It has been seen that many a times the observer gets emotionally attach to the subject.  The margin of interpretive error is greater than in interview or questionnaire method.  In certain cases it is difficult for an observer to gain entry into the study setting.  This method cannot be applied in situation where the size of sample is large.


Explain the different scales used for attitude measurement?

Name of the scale construction Name of the scale developed approach 1. Arbitrary approach Arbitrary scales 2. Consensus scale approach Differential scales ( such as Thurstone differential scale) 3. Item analysis approach Summated scales ( such as Likert scale ) 4. Cumulative scale approach Cumulative scale ( such as Guttmanns Scalogram) 5. Factor analysis approach Factor scales (such as Osgoods Semantic Differential, MDS, etc.) Differential scales for measuring attitudes of people
Arbitrary Scales Arbitrary scales are developed on an ad hoc basis and are designed largely through the researchers own subjective selection of items. The researcher first collects few statements or items which he believes are unambiguous and appropriate to the given topic. Some of these are selected for inclusion in measuring instrument and then people are asked to check in the list the statements with which they agree. Differential scales (or Thurstone differential scale) This is also known as an equal appearing interval scale. The following are the steps to construct a Thurstone Scale: y To generate a large number of statements, relating to the attitude to be measured. y These statements (75 to 100) are given to a group of judges, say 20 to 30, who were asked to clarify them according to the degree of favourableness and unfavourableness. y 11 piles are to be made by the judges. The piles vary from most favourable in pile 1 to neutral in pile 6 and most favourable statement in pile 11. y Study the frequency distribution of ratings for each statement and eliminate those statements, which different judges have given widely scattered ratings. y Select 1 or 2 from each of the 11 piles foe the final scale. List the selected statement in random order to form the scale. y The respondents whose attitudes are to be scaled were given the list of statement and asked to indicate their agreement or disagree ment with

each statement. Some may agree with one statement while some may agree with more than one statement.

Summated scales (or Likert-type Scales) It is known as summated rating scale. This consists of a series of statements concerning an attitude object. Each statement has 5 points, Agree and Disagree on the scale. They are also summated scales because scores of individual items are summated to produce a total score for the respondent. The Likert scale consists of two parts item part and evaluation part. Item part is usually a statement about a certain product, event or attitude. Evaluation part is a list of responses like strongly agree to strongly disagree. The 5 point scale is used here. The numbers like +2, +1, 0, -1, -2 are used. The Likert scale must contain an equal number of favourable and unfavourable statements.

Strongly agree strongly agree 1 4 2 5




Cumulative scale (or Guttmanns Scalogram) It is a cumulative scale. A cumulative scale consists of a set of items with which the respondents indicates agreement or disagreem ent. There is a cumulative relation between items and total scores of individuals. An individuals total score is calculated by counting the number of items answered favourably. Cumulative scales rest on the idea that if individuals can be ranked along a unidimentional continuum, then if A is most favourably inclined than B, then he should endorse all the items that B does plus at least one other them.

Item number Respondents score 4 3 2 1 X X X X 4 X X X 3 X X 2 X 1 0 RESPONSE PATTERN IN SCALOGRAM ANALYSIS

Factors scale

Factors scales are developed through factor analysis or on the basis of intercorrelation of items which indicate that a common factor accounts for the relation between them. Factor scales are particularly useful in uncovering latent attitude dimensions and approach scaling through the concept of multi-dimension attribute space. Important factor scale based factor analyses are y Semantic Differential Scales y Multi dimensional Scaling Semantic Differential Scales: this is an attempt to measure the psychological meanings of an object to an individual. This scale is based on the presumption that an object can have different dimensions of connotative meanings which can be located in multi dimensional property space, o r what can be called semantic space in the context of S.D. scale. This scaling consists of a set of bipolar rating scales, usually of 7 points, by which one or more respondents rate one or more concepts on each scale item. Successful unsuccessful Severe lenient 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3

Multidimensional scaling: it is an important tool in measuring the perception or preferences of people across a large number of attributes. It is a data reduction technique whose main objective is to uncover hidden structure of a set of data. These perceptions are represented spatially in a multidimensional plot and are called perceptual maps. This scaling is used to describe similarity and preference of brands. The respondents were asked to indicate their perception, or similarity between various objects and preference among objects. Inconvenient

B Courteous courteous C

A not



Convenient Explain the different qualitative techniques for data collec tion?

The different qualitative techniques for data collection are:

y y y y y

Focus group interview Depth interview Delphi technique Projective techniques Protocol analysis

Focus group interview: It is a kind of unstructured interview. It involves a moderator leading a discussion between small groups of respondents on a specified topic. It involves 8 to 12 respondents having homogeneous characteristics. The interview generally continues for 1 to 3 hours during which the respondents develop a rapport and share their views. The proceedings are recorded on an audio or visual device. The moderator keeps the discussion going on and probes the respondents whenever necessary to elicit insightful responses. These responses are better analyzed to derive conclusive results.

Advantage: provides more sophisticated data, saves cost, time and resources during data collection stage. Disadvantage: the results can be wrongly interpreted, since the response is to any specific question. Focus group interviewers make coding and analysis of data very difficult. It is difficult to find a moderator who can conduct these interviews successfully.
Depth interview: it is an unstructured type of interview used to collect qualitative data. It involves a one to one interaction between the intervie wer and the respondent. It can be non directive in nature where the respondent is given freedom to answer within the boundaries of the topic of interest.

The other form of depth interview is semi structured in nature where the interviewer covers a specific list of topics and the linking, the sequence and the wordings of each question is left to the interviewers discretion. In this, the interviewer asks the initial questions and thereafter it is the response of the respondents from which further questions may be generated. The interviewer uses probing techniques for more elaboration. He only follows a rough outline of questions. Advantage: uncovers much deeper feelings and insights than focus group interviews, since they are dealing with just one respondent.

Disadvantage: expensive, time consuming and demands skilled interviewers.

Delphi technique: this is a process where a group of experts in a field gather together. The group members are asked to make individual judgments about a particular subject. These judgments are compiled and returned to the group members, so that they can compare their previous judgment with those of others. Then they are given the opportunity to revise their judgments, especially if it differs from the others. After 5 to 6 rounds of interaction, the group members reach conclusion.

Advantages: forecasting can be made quickly and inexpensively. Viewpoints of different sector people are weighted. This is the only alternative if the basic data is inadequate or not available. Disadvantages: Experts opinion and facts may be different. Good and bad estimates are given equal weight age.
Projective techniques: it is a highly unstructured and indirect form of questioning. The central feature of all projective techniques is the presentation of an ambiguous, unstructured object, activity or person that a respondent is asked to interpret and explain. These techniques are best su ited in situation where the respondent is not sure of his feelings and hence cannot express his answers directly. The projective techniques can be classified as y Constructive techniques - Thematic apperception test - Item substitution test

Respondents respond to or describe a character in a stimulated situation.

y Association techniques - Word associate test - Rorschach test - Cloud pictures

Respondent replies to a stimulus with the first word, image or thought that comes to his mind.
y Completion techniques - Sentence completion test - Story completion study The respondent is asked to complete the sentence or picture.

Thus projective techniques try to project the respondents needs, motives or attitudes using stimulating pictures, words, sentences etc. These

techniques are very useful in extracting response from respondents who are willing to answer by disguising the purpose of study.
Protocol analysis: in this, people are placed in decision making situations and ask them to speak about everything that they will consider whi le making a choice of a product or service. Researcher will gain insight into a consumers decision making process.

Advantages: it is useful when decision making process is very long involving several factors.

13) : Prepare a suitable questionnaire for cond ucting research on brand preference of soap segment in your area? 10 M Ans:  Which soap you presently use? Medimix Lifebuoy Dove  Which soap do you prefer? Domestic International  What kind of fragrance do you want? Mild Strong

 How long do you expect your soap to last for? 1 week 2 week 1 month  What kind of ingredients/ qualities do you want in your soap? Herbal Antiseptic Beauty  What price range are you comfortable with? Low Medium High  How many soaps do you use in a month?

No of soaps  What kind of soap you prefer? Liquid Single  What will be your opinion towards the present soap you are using? Satisfied Dissatisfied  Would you like to change the present soap if you were provided a soap with all the qualities? Yes No

 Would you like to give some suggestions?

Module 5

7 MARKS :1.What do you mean by hypothesis? Write down the characteristics of hypothesis. Ans:- Hypothesis is an assumption made about a population parameter.

Hypothesis are questions asked about the object of research and at the same time about the facts gathered by obs ervation and proposals for answers to these questions. This hypothesis is then proved or disproved by using the information from the sample to decide the likelihood of the hypothesized population parameter to be correct or not. Thus hypothesis testing is a screening exercise.

1. A hypothesis must be valid.It must be closely related to the phenomenon it is trying to explain. 2. A hypothesis should be clearly and precisely stated. There should be no ambiguity in the hypothesis statement. 3. Hypothesis has a doubtful aspect associated with it. There is always a doubt associated whether the hypothesis is correct or not and it is this doubt which is to be tested. 4. It follows that hypothesis should be capable of being tested. A hypothesis is testable if other deductions can be made from it which in turn can be confirmed or disproved by the observation. ----- by C. William Emory. 5.A hypothesis is a transitory phase of a research process since it is provisional. It is yet to be proved that the hypothesis is correct and it can be stated as a scientific fact or it is incorrect and hence it is to be dropped. 6.A hypothesis should be consistent with a considerable body of established facts so that there is no option but to accept it as the most likely option. 7.A good hypothesis is accessible to all. The hypothesis should be such that any researcher can use it further with all of them interpreting it in the same way. It should be understood by other researchers equally and unequivo cally.

8.It should not take a long space of time to test a hypothesis. if it requires a lot of time to test then the value of the results may decline as the h has become obsolete in changed condition. 9.A hypothesis should have empirical reference. It sho uld explain clearly what it claims to explain. One should be able to extract the original problem condition.

2. Explain the procedure of testing hypothesis. ANS:Formulate the null and alternate hypothesis

Choose the relevant test and appropriate probability distribution.

Determine the significance level.

Choose the critical value

Determine the degrees of freedom

Collect data and calculate the test statistic

Compare the test statistic and critical value.

Does the test statistic fall in the critical region

Accept the null hypothesis.

Reject null hypothesis.


1. Formulate the hypothesis :-

The researcher undertaking research starts with defining the problem clearly. Once that has been achieved the researcher is in a position to define the null and alternative hypothesis. The researcher then tests the null hypothesis and it may be accepted or rejected. And the acceptance of nul l hypothesis will leads to rejection of alternative hypothesis and vice versa.

2. Select relevant test and probability distribution : -

It is necessary to select a statistical technique and probability distribution. The choice of probability distribution dep ends on the purpose of hypothesis test. The researcher should carefully see how the test statistic is computed and which sampling distribution is it following i.e normal or t or chi square.

3. Choosing the critical value :-

Decide upon the criteria for acc epting or rejecting the null hypothesis. This involves a decision on :- a) significance level. b) degree of freedom c) one or two tailed test. Significance level should be calculated in terms of percentage. It indicates the number of sample means out of 100 that outside the cut off limits. The degree of freedom refers to the free data used in calculating a sample or statistic. Mathematically it can be calculated as : d.f = n-k n = number of information items available. K= number of linear constraints.

It has to be decided if it is a - two tailed test (it will have 2 rejection regions) - one tailed test (rejection region lies on one side of the curve only).

4. Collect data and test statistic :-

Draw a sample and collect data using a data collection strategy that suits the purpose of study. From this data the test statistic is computed. It is this test statistic that determines how close the sample is to null hypothesis.

5. Compare the test statistic and critical value :-

This is the crucial stage where the test statistic computed earlier is compared with the critica value specified.

6. Taking the final descision :-

The researcher has to now make a decision of accepting or not accepting a null hypothesis.

3. Explain the circumstances where the following statistical analysis techniques are relevant. i) chi square test :-

- It is appropriate for situations in which test for differences between samples is required. - It is especially valuable for nominal data but can be used with ordinal measurements. - Typical are cases where persons, events or objects are grouped into 2 or more nominal categories such as yes no, favour undecided against, or class A, B, C, D.

- It is useful in cases of 1 sample analysis, 2 independent samples or k independent samples. - It must be calculated with actual counts rather than percentages. - Using this technique we test for significant differences between the observed distribution of data among categories and the expected distribution based on the null hypothesis.

ii) F Test :-

- It is used to find out if 2 normal population have same variance. - It is used for testing the significance of an observed sample multiple correlation. - It is used for testing significance of an observed sample correlation ratio. - It is used for testing equality of several population means.

iii) Rank order test :-

- It was developed by Charles Edward Spearmann. - It is used for obtaining correlation coefficient between the ranks of individuals and the two attributes under study. - It is mainly used when the variables under consideration are not capable of quantitative measurement but can be arranged in serial order . - It is used when dealing with qualita tive characteristics like honesty, beauty, character, morality.etc. - Eg :- when we have to find out if intelligence and beauty are related or not.


Explain the type 1 and type 11 error. (7 marks)

While testing the null hypothesis, a researcher can commi t two types of errors: 1. Of rejecting a null hypothesis when it is correct - type I error 2. Of accepting a null hypothesis when it is wrong - type II error 1. Type I error: When a null hypothesis that is true is accepted, then it is termed asa correct decision. However when it is true and still rejected then it is termed as Type-I error. Comparing it to legal analogy, one can say that if an innocent person is unjustly declared not guilty then it is a correct decision, however when an innocent is unjustly declared guilty and convicted it is a type I error. The probability of type - I error is known as significance level and is determined in advance. E.g. If level of significance is 10% i.e. type - I error is fixed at 10% then it means that there are about 10 changes i n 100 that we will reject a null hypothesis that is true. The chances of committing type-I error can be controlled by fixing the significance level at a lower level e.g. at 1% 2. Type II error: However when a null hypothesis is false, then rejecting it is th e correct decision. However if a null hypothesis that is false is accepted, it is wrong decision and type II error has been committed. Taking the same example, if a guilty person is convicted then it is correct decision, however if a guilty person is allowed to go Scott free then it is a wrong decision and type II error has been committed. There is a trade off between the two type error i.e. in a fixed sample size n if the probability of type- I error is reduced then the probability of committing type II error is increased. Hence while fixing the type I error the cost associated with both the errors should be analysed.

To illustrate, let us take the example of a pharmaceutical firm which has to set the significance level for accepting a batch of medicines. In such a situation, the cost associated with committing a type I error is the cost and time involved in reworking a new batch of medicines, when the earlier batch should have been accepted. For type II error, the cost of this error would be the lives of people who will consume the wrong batch of medicines. It is obvious that in such a situation the probability of type II error should be very low, hence we fix the significance level at a high value.


Explain the application of hypothesis in research . (7 marks)

a. Hypothesis is an assumption made about a population parameter this hypothesis is then proved or disapproved by using the information from the sample to decide the likelihood of the hypothesized population parameter to be correct or not b. Hypothesis testing is a screening exercise. Hypothesis is questions asked about the object of research and at the same time about the facts gathered by observation and proposal for answer to these questions. c. Hypothesis is sometimes a predictive statement that rela tes independent variable to a dependent variable and this relation is open to testing. d. The purpose of testing is not to question the findings obtained from sample but to judge the truth behind the difference between either two sample values or between a sa mple value and population parameter. e. A hypothesis is a transitory phase of a research process since it is provisional. It is yet to be proved that hypothesis is correct and can be stated as a scientific fact or it is incorrect and hence it is to be dropped . f. A hypothesis is an empirical reference, which explains clearly what it claims to explain and it helps in extracting the original problem condition. g. A hypothesis gives a definite point to the investigation and it guides the direction on the study. It directs our research for the order among facts.

h. It determines the data needs. It defines which facts are relevant and which are not. i. It suggests which type of research and technique of analysis is likely to be most appropriate j. Above all it aids in the charting of a research design.

1.What are the characteristics of good sampling ?


Ans. A good sample is that which fulfils the objective of should possess the following characteristics:-

1. REPRESENTATIVENESS it should possess the characteristics of the population with greatest possible accuracy. 2. ADEQUACY since the results are governed by representative units, the size of the sample should be adequate. 3. UNBIASEDNESS.- selection of sample should be free from all biases and prejudices, to obtain accurate and dependable results. 4. NO SUBSTITUTION- the researcher should take care that there is no substitution of original unit. 5. HIGH PRECISION - a good sample will have high degree of precision.

2. Distinguish simple and stratified random sampling. 3M Ans. Simple random sampling 1.SRS is a technique in which every sample is so drawn that each and every unit in the population has an equal and independent chance of bein g included in the sample. 2.It can be drawn using random number tables or lottery method. Stratified random sampling Stratified sampling involves developing strata which are distinctly different from each other but are homogeneous within.

It is of two types :- proportionate stratified sampling and disproportionate sampling. 3.It involves lots of time and effort and It provides a representative sample of is impractical. the population and results in less variability.


Name two types of errors in sampling and briefly explain them. ( 3 marks)

The two types of errors in sampling are: 1. Sampling error: The error which are due to sampling and of which the average magnitude can be determined are called sampling error. The extent of the sampling errors depends on factors like nature of universe, the techniques of sampling etc. Sampling error can be biased or unbiased. a. Biased error: It arises due to any bias or prejudice of the researcher in selecting a sample e.g. use of convenience sampling technique introduces bias in the result. Since bias forms a constant component of error it increases with an increase in the size of the sample. It may arise due to any of the following: a. Faulty process of selection b. Faulty collection of data c. Faulty analysis b. Unbiased error: It is also known as random sampling errors, which are due to chance difference between the members of the population included in the sample and those not included. These are unavoidable errors which may be purely due to selecting an individual or object randomly who may be high, low or average in the trait under consideration. 2. Non sampling error: Non sampling error arises due to reasons other than sampling, like error in scale, instrument, data collection, editing, coding or tabulating. These errors would occur in sampling as wel l as census survey. Data obtained through complete enumeration i.e. census survey will have no sampling errors but will suffer from non sampling errors. These errors can occur at any stage of the research process i.e. from planning to execution to interpre tation. These errors are of two types: a. Response error:

These errors arise when the respondents give inaccurate answers or their answers are not recorded properly. Response error can be accounted to three sources: a. Researcher error b. Interviewer error c. Respondent error

b. Non response error: They arise when some of the respondents do not respond. The general impact of non response is that it alters the size and composition of original sample. Non response could be due to failure in locating the respondents , or their unwillingness to respond or because they lack the information desired. These tend to introduce bias in the research.


What is non probability sampling? (3marks)

Non probability sampling is any procedure in which elements will not have equal opportunities of being included in a sample. The selection proves is at least, partially subjective. Judgemental sampling, quota sampling convenience sampling, snowball sampling are all examples of non probability sampling. In non probability sampling, since items are chosen arbitrarily, there is no way to estimate the probability of any one element being included in the sample. Also, no assurance is given that each item has a chance of being included, making it impossible either to estimate sampli ng variability or to identify possible bias.


What are the characteristics of good sample design? (3marks)

A good sample is that which fulfils the objective of research. It should possess the following characteristics: 1. Representative:

A representative sample alone is useful for research. It means that it should possess the characteristics of the population with the greatest possible accuracy. 2. Adequacy: Since the result of the entire study are governed by the representative units, it is therefore necessary that necessary that their number i.e. the size of the sample should be adequate. The sample can be small or large, but it should be adequate enough to properly represent the characteristics of the people. 3. Unbaisedness: The selection of sample units should be done objectively. It should be free from all bias and prejudices; only then dependable results can be obtained. The higher the degree of absence of bias the more accurate is the sample. 4. No substitution: While conducting a sample survey the chances of non -response are very high. The researcher should take care that there is no substitution of the original units by some convenient method. 5. High precision: A good sample will have a high degree of precision. Precision is measured by the standard error of estimate. The smaller the standard error, the higher is the precision. These features make up a good sample, which when described in measurement terms produces valid results.

2. Explain the various non- sampling errors? Non sampling errors arise due to reasons other than sampling, like error in scales, instruments, data collection, editing, coding or tabulation. These errors will occur in sampling and census survey. Data obtained through complete enumeration ie census survey will have no sampling errors but will suffer from non- sampling errors. These errors can occur at any stage of research process ie from planning to execution to interpretation. These errors are of two types: 1) Response errors

2) Non response errors 1) Response errors: These errors arise when the respondents give inaccurate answers or their answers are not recorded properly. Response errors can be accounted for three sources. a) Researcher Error: A researcher can introduce errors by recording the wrong information that does not suit the purpose. He may use a faulty scale of measurement, define the population wrongly, developed an incorrect sampling frame or use inappropriate statistical proc edures. b) Interviewer Errors: These errors occur when interviewer select respondents other than those specified in the sampling design. They may ask question in the wrong manner and further introduce errors due to faulty hearing. Interpreting and recording the respondents answers. Th e interviewer may also commit the error of fabricating answers. c) Respondents Error: Such errors arise on behalf of respondents activities one reason could be that the respondents may be unable to provide correct answers because of many reasons like lack of knowledge, fatigue, shyness etc... . Respondents may also deliberately provide wrong answers to cover the embarrassing question or provide socially correct answers.

2) Non response errors: a. They arise when some of the respondents do not respond. The general impact of non response is that it alters the size and composition of original sample. Non response could be due to failure in locating the respondents, or their unwillingness to respond or because they lack the information desired. These errors tend to increase bias in the research results.

3) Distinguish between probability and non probability sampling?

PROBABILITY SAMPLING 1) Every individual has a known and equal chance of being selected. 2) We refer to both sample as well as population. Sampling frame is used. 3) Parametric tests are mostly used 4) A sample is more representative of population characteristics

NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING 1) No probability is associated with an individual being selected 2) Sampling frame is not developed. 3) Non parametric tests are preferred. 4) Nothing definite can be said about the representativeness of non probability sample.

1. Explain the steps involved in sampling process with examples?

The important aspects of each of these steps are discussed in detail as below:

Defining the Population

Defining the sample unit

Determining the Sampling Frame

Selecting the Sampling Technique

Determining the Sample Size

Execution of sampling process

1. Defining the Problem: The first step is most critical step where a researcher has to give an operational definition for his relevant population. Population is the most common form implies the total number of individuals in the area of study from whom information is being sought, but depending on the nature of study the population can be events, workplaces, etc.

2. Defining the sample unit: The sampling unit is the person, place or object about which the information is required for research. Ex: in case of study conducted on newspaper readership an entire household could be sampling unit. 3. Determining the Sampling Frame: It is also referred as Source List. It is comprehensive listing of all members of the population. Ex: a telephone directory is a good sampling frame, as association directory. If the sampling frame is not available, then the researcher needs to prepare the list. 4. Selecting the Sampling Technique: The researcher must decide the type of sample, i.e. a probability or non probability based sampling techniques. The decision as regard to the technique to be used is affected by the objectives of study, the level of accuracy desired, time and cost, etc. 5. Determining the Sample Size: A misconception is that a large sample size is a more representative sample. A sample size is considered optimum if it fulfils the requirements of efficiency, representativeness, reliability and flexibility, number of subjective factors like nature of population, nature of respondents etc influence the decision of sample size. 6. Execution of Sampling process:

The last step involves working out the details of drawing the sample. Procedures for selecting each unit must be worked out. In case of non response, the procedure to be adopted for filling the vacant unit should be stated clearly.

3 marks

1. Write a short note on chi-square test? Ans- The Chi square test is represented by the symbol 2 and owes its origin to Greek letter chi. This test was first used by Karl Pearson and is one of the mostly used test today. The chi-square test can be used as a parametric as well as non parametric test for comparing the variance of population; as a test of independence or as a test of goodness of fit. It is basically useful in tests involving nominal data but can be used for higher scales. Through the 2 we are able to determine the extent of difference between the theory or expected value and the observed or the actual value. 2. Write a short note on cluster analysis? Ans- The term cluster analysis was used by Tryon in 1939. Cluster analysis is a set of techniques for grouping similar objects or people. It is a technique used for combining observations into groups such that each group is homogenous with respect to certain characteristic and each group is different from other group with respect to same characteristics. This technique is applied when there is no class to be predicted but rather when the instances are to be divided into groups. It is an exploratory data tool, used for subjective segmentation of data. 3. What is cross tabulation? Give an example? Ans- Cross tabulation is a technique for comparing data from two or more categorical from two or more categorical variables such as gender and selection by ones company for an overseas assignment. Cross-tabulation is used with demographic variables and the studys target variables. The techniques use tables having rows and columns that correspond to the levels or code values of each variables categories. An example of cross tabulation is shown below:

Wages and numbers of workers in different plants No. Of workers Wages Plant A Plant B Total number of workers 0-100 07 01 08 1000-2000 10 09 19 2000-3000 11 16 27 3000-4000 05 10 15 4000-5000 02 09 11 Total 35 45 80
4. Write a short note on factorial design?

Factorial designs are designs that allow for the simultaneous study of the effects that several factors may have on a process. When performing an experiment, varying the levels of the factors simultaneously rather than one at a time is efficient in terms of time and cost, and also allows for the study of interactions between the factors. Interactions are the driving force in many processes. Without the use of factorial experiments, important interactions may remain undetected.

5. What is Conjoint Analysis?

Conjoint analysis is a decompositional method used to evaluate objects presented as a combination of attributes. It is a multivariate technique used in situations where there are more than one non metric dependent variables. This method or approach is better than asking respondents to rate the object on each of number of attributes.
Ex: Conjoint analysis can be used to understand how respondents develop preferences for products or services.

6. What is Univariate and Bivariate analysis? Univariate analysis is the analysis of data for a single variable. Univariate analysis provides descriptions of variables. Univariate analysis begins with examination of the frequency distribution of each variable. This tells how many times each attribute occurred. It is designed to draw out potential patterns in the variation in order to provide better answers to statistical questions.

Bivariate analysis is concerned with the simultaneous analysis and relationship between pairs of variables. It is usually undertaken to see if one variable, such as gender, is related to another variable. It explores the concept of association between tw o variables. Association is based on how two variables simultaneously change together - the notion of covariation.

1. Explain the problems during editing of data?

Editing is the process of examining the collected data to detect errors and omissions with t=a view of correcting when possible. In other words, editing is the process by which data are prepared for subsequent coding. It involves careful scrutiny of the completed questionnaires and schedule or schedules. It is a highly subjective process a nd therefore it should be undertaken only by the persons who are well qualifies and authentically trained for the editing job.
The major problems that an editor faces during editing are those relating to: y Fictitious Interviews: Sometimes most of the researchers are unclear about the questions and the data available. Hence every researcher has to have a thorough knowledge of the collected data and the analysis to be done that includes even edition.

y Inconsistence: The editor has to do proper eliminat ion of the data which is not reliable so that the required results are obtained. y Incorrect answers: The responses from the respondents are incorrect due to lack of interest or lack of knowledge. Such responses should be properly edited by the researcher a nd only the correct answers should be taken for further analysis. y Incomplete answers: Researcher should be able to analyse the incomplete answers given by the respondents which should be edited before analysis. y Unclear responses: Researcher should properly edit the ambiguous, or statements which are liable to more than one interpretation, or not clearly and explicitly defined . y Dont know and No answers:

10 Marks: 1. Explain the circumstances, the following are employed: a) Data warehousing and data mining b) Factor analysis c) E-mail survey d) Judgement sampling a) Data warehousing and data mining:

Data mining refers to the finding of relevant and useful information from databases. Data mining and knowledge discovery in databases is a new interdisciplinary field merging ideas from statistics, machine learning, databases and parallel computing. Data mining or knowledge discovery in databases, as it is also known is then on trivial extraction of implicit,

previously unknowed and potentially useful in formation from the data. Data mining potential can be enhanced if the appropriate data has been collected and stored in a data warehouse. A data warehouse is a relational database management system (RDBMS) designed specifically to meet the need of transaction processing systems. It can be loosely defined as any centralised data repository which can be queried for business benefit. Both these techniques are useful in service industries like credit card analysis, banking, medical applications and the like whe re customer information is sought. Data mining and data warehousing is been used by several industries including banking and finance retail, insurance telecommunication, etc. other possible applications include database marketing, sales forecasting, call b ehaviour analysis and churning management in telecommunications, forecasting of demand for utilities, such as energy and water; simulation of chemical and other process reactions, finding critical factors in discrete manufacturing, CPU usage and forecasting. Enterprises use their techniques to minimise purchasing costs, score suppliers by rating the quality of their goods and services, identify the most effective promotions, and address numerous other organizational needs, including fraud detection, failure analysis, predictive maintenance, risk management and demand forecasting.

b) Factor Analysis:

it is a statistical technique for determining the underlying factors amo0ng a large number of interdependent variables or measures. It groups the number of variables into a smaller set of uncorrelated factors potentially conveying great deal of information. It tells what variables belong together which ones virtually measure the same thing. The factor analysis is appropriate techniques for cases where the variabl es have a high degree of inter correlation. Factor analysis is used in developing psychological tests, media readership profiles of people, for condensing and simplifying multivariate data, for providing a classification scheme for clustering products, media or people and so on.

Research Examples: y Factor analysis has been used as a part of multivariate analysis employed for a study on the prediction of financial health of business corporations. y It was used in a study made for testing the two factor theory of job satisfaction in Indian context. y It was employed along with discriminant analysis in a study made for developing a taxonomic model for risk rating of residential mortgages. y It has been used in a study of infant mortality in rural India, generation gap in value system existing between old and young industrial workers, in study of psychological and traditional determinants of organization structure of business firms and to find out whether the dimensions of fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration, seeing problems, inquisitiveness, and pe rsistency where fundamental dimensions of creativity.

c) E-mail Survey:

It is a survey conducted by sending a questionnaire by email to list of email addresses; respondents are asked to complete and return the questionnaire by email. It can be used under the following circumstances:
y Gather market intelligence regarding opinions, trends and competitors. y Gauge interest in products and service offering. y Generate a targeted list of potential new customers.

d) Judgement Sampling:

It is a common non probability method. The researcher selects the sample based on judgement:

y When a small sample of a few units is to be selected a judgement sample is suitable, as the errors of judgement are likely to be less than random errors of a probability sample. y When we want to study some unknown traits of a population some of whose characteristics are known, we may then stratify the population according to these known properties and select sampling units from each stratum on the basis of judgement. y In solving everyday business problems and making public policy decisions, executive and public officials are often pressed for time and cannot wait for probability sample designs.

Judgment sampling is then the only practical; method to arrive at solutions.

Module 8

3 marks 1. What are the visual devices used in research report? Ans- Research can use variety of AV media with good results. The visual aid can be divided on the basis of : Low Tech High Tech Low tech: 1. Chalkboards and white boards- are inexpensive and easy to use. 2. Handout Materials- inexpensive but can have a professional look if done carefully. 3. Flip charts- Can be used to show pictures, and large letters with these. 4. Overhead transparencies- available in different sizes, can be made easi ly with different colour markers. 5. Slides- somewhat difficult to make. They are relatively inexpensive and colourful and present a professional-look image if done well.

High Tech: 1. Computer- drawn visuals- for transparencies and slides, the draw and paint programs for personal computers provide the presenter with limitless options for illustrating the message. 2. Computer animation- the development of larger and faster processors, memory chips, and disks has made it possible to store voice and image data in quantity in personal computers.

2. What are the uidelines for makin oral presentation more effective? Ans- An oral report is the presentation of information through spoken word. Few guidelines for making oral presentation more effective are following: a. The first thing is a good preparation. b. The lacuna of oral report i.e. lack of hard copy can be covered to a large extent by the use of graphs, tables and diagrams. c. Make an eye contact with the audience.

d. Another point to remember is body language. e. Avoid reading. f. When you must present theoretical or abstract material, use specific examples. g. Use visual aids- wherever necessary. h. While delivering the report the two extremes, memorization and reading should be avoided. Memorization creates a speaker -centred approach whereas reading makes the presentation dull and listless.

Question: How should a research report be organised? Explain the contents of each section? Or Explain the elements of business research report with examples. Or Discuss in detail the various components of a redearch report.

A research report is a documentary evidence of the research effort. It serves as a guide for the authorities to evaluate the qualities of entire research effort and decisions. Hence research report should be organized keeping the following points in mind.
A. Communicate with the reader.

A report is of some worth only if its contents are easily understood by the reader. The report should be specific to the readers in terms of details mention, presentation and te chnical language used.
B. Completeness A report is considered complete if it provides all the relevant information and answers the problem adequately. It is not the length but the content which determines the completeness. C. Concise

While writing a report the researcher should resist the temptation of trying to impress the reader with all that he has found through this research.To be concise is to express a thought completely and clearly in the fewest words possible.
D. Accurate

It is possible that despite the input being accurate, the output i.e. the report may develop inaccuracies. These inaccuracies result due to grammatical errors, concept phrasing etc.
E. Objective

It is a the hallmark of a good report.While writing a report the researcher should desist from the proclivity of presenting the output in the line with the expectation of the authorities sponsoring the research.
F. Logical

A good report should be structured and there should be a logic and flow in whatever is written. A logically written report will be a clear report. The sequence of various sections should be logical and an outline of the major points should be prepared.
G. Professional Appearance

Lastly the quality of paper print and cover should be good. Standardization should be maintained throughout the report. The basic format of a report has to be discussed and a researcher should follow a general logical sequence, which is as follows. I.

These preliminary pages introduce a reader to the research project. It includes the following

a. Title page: This should include the title of report, the name the address of the researcher or organization that is conducting the research, the name of the client or organization to whom the report is to be submitted and the date of submission.

b. Preface: It states the usefulness of the research project and includes the acknowledgement of all the people who have contributed in accomplishing the project. c. Letter of transmittal: This is included only when the relationship between the researcher and client is formal.It summarizes the overall experience of the researcher with the project without mentioning the findings. d. Letter of authorization: It is a letter from the client to the researcher authorizing him to conduct the report eg. NGO while preparing a report for the government would attach a letter of auth orization. e. Table of content: This covers the list of all topics with their page numbers. It is generally followed by a list of graphs, tables and appendices. f. Executive summary: It is a very important part of this section which summarizes the problem, research design and the major findings and conclusions.


MAIN BODY The main body of the report contains all the details and includes the following sections. a. Problem statement: It explains the need for research by detailing the background of the proble m. It contains a clear statement of the dilemma. b. Research Objectives: This section clearly outlines the objectives of research. In case of experimental or causal studies this section would also include the hypothesis statement. c. Research methodology: This section details the methodology adopted to collect the relevant information. It includes the sampling design, data collection design, instrument design and the data analysis design. The analysis design should outline the statistical procedures adopted to analyze data and justify their use. d. Findings: This section is longest section as analyzed data is explained using graphs, diagrams and tables. A good strategy is to clearly state each finding in a numbered paragraph form, or to present one finding per page.

e. Limitations: A professional report always contains a section devoted to limitations. These limitations are caused due to time and budget constraints, sampling limitations etc. This section should be thought fully prepared with the significant limitations stated concisely. f. Conclusion and recommendations: This section interprets the findings stated earlier by correlating the different variables. The results are interpreted in the light of the problem being handled in the project and then draw significant conclusions. Recommendation will flow from these conclusions which will act as useful inputs to decision making. These recommendations should be feasible and practical. In academic research these recommendations are often in the form of suggestion for further research areas opening up unexplored avenues of research. In case of applied research these recommendations are in the form of suggestions for action.


END SECTION The end section contains all the information that supports the main body of research.It may include the following a. Bibliography: As stated earlier the bibliography is the list of all sources arranged in alphabetical order that the researcher has used while conducting research. b. Appendices: The appendices contain all the technical information. It could be in the form of exhibits, tables, instruments used for data collection and other supporting documents.

10 marks

3. Explain the contents of market research report? Ans- Following are the content of a market research report: 1. Introduction- the research report should start with the objective of study, the statement of problem, definition of concepts and hypothesis. The introduction should clearly explain the nature and background of the problem chosen for investigation. The researcher must also explain the importance of the problem in order to justify the research undertaken. The researcher must know about all the previous work done in the field. It should also contain the title of the report, name of the author, sponsoring organization, place and data of publication and publishers.
2. Method- the researcher should explain the methodology adopted in carrying out the research. He should mention the methods, tool and technique employed for data collection. A summary of stimulus items, a sample of questionnaire items and scale items and scale items should be included. 3. Analysis and results- this will include report of facts- nature, volume and dimension, statistical analysis of data, interpretation, generalization and conclusions, summary of findings and recommendations. This will also consists of classification and tabulation of data, analysis and interpretation, testing of hypothesis, inductions, and deduction etc., presented in a systematic way, including diagrammatic or graphic presentation of data.

4. Supplementary material the final section of the report includes bibliography, appendices, extra statistical tables, charts and materials. This is expected to help a person who would like to replicate the study. Thus, the contents and style should be complementary to the format.