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Haji Muhammad Soeharto was brought a big name in the legacy of a national government of Indonesia.

He as the second Presiden of Indoneisa, was born on 8 June 1921 at a small village, Kemusuk, Yogyakarta. He is the son of Sukirah and Kertosudiro. Soeharto is the name given by his father. Soe stand for better and harto means wealth 1. Unfortunately, he was born on a poor of farming family. Besides, he also lived in deprivation of life . He and his family lived in small bamboo-walled house with a palm-leaf roof without running water and electricity.2

But, life is always unpredictable. He had to live with his uncle because his parents were divorced at Soeharto younger age. That is his faith and they do not have a long mate. His parents do not have any choice. Soehartos father gave his son under his sisters care, Mrs Prawirowihardjo. She will look after him the best from her. At that time, Soeharto just eight years old. Then, Soeharto stay with his aunty family at Wuryantoro, Wonorgiri, Jawa Tengah. Kertosudiro also hope that Soeharto will got a better education with his sisters family.

During he staying at his aunty house, he does not forget the responsibility as a muslim. And, his aunty also was give the best education to all her childrens including Soeharto. Mrs Prawirowihardjo taught Soeharto not only the importance of school but also the religious education and spirituality. Soeharto spend his evenings in a small mosque and learn to recite the Quran. 3 When we are look back for his backgrounds life, he was not from a rich family. Just a normal person, but have a big motivation to continues his life.

After a year, Soeharto was return back to his mother beacuse they were promised that Soeharto will be retured back to his family. Then, Soeharto was lived with his stepfather, Atmoprawiro. Atmopawiro was married with Soekarnos mother, Sukirah after she was divorced with Kertosudiro. Then, Soeharto continue his education with secondary school at Muhadiyah School. But, when he wants to continue his studies for upper secondary school, he faced with an economic promblem in his family. According this condition, he take another way to survive his future life. He come back for his aunty family and became a clerk at The Volk-bank.

But, in one day, he saw an advertisement that Koninklijk Nederlands Indisce Leger (KNIL) require military supplies and Soeharto take this oppurtunity to try his luck. The oppurtunity might be arose simply because, with the threat of approaching war, the Dutch were recruiting heavily for their colonial army, which numbered about 35,000 in 1938. Soeharto was not the first nor the last, to throw in his lot with the army when other prospects looked bleak and he began his service on 1 June 1940. 4 He started the basic military training in Gombong. Certainly, his leadership and strategic skills were honed in his military life. The Royal Dutch Army had two types of training which is a long one and a short one. The short one is the chosen of Soeharto where the training was very tough. The training started in the morning and ended late at night. He was sent to battalion XIII in Rampal, Malang after graduating as the best in his class. He received the rank of corporal on 2 December 1940. After his further training, he was promoted to the rank of sergeant.
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In 1944, he took up the officer training course to be a Company Commader ni Bogor. His lessons on military tactics and strategy were compeleted in that year. He was assigned to Seibu, the PETA (Pembela Tanah Air) headquarters in Solo, to take charge of its training. In 1945, a PETA battalion mutinied against the Japanese in Blitar in East Java. After the rebellion and a young PETA lieutenant was put down, the Japanese planned to clean the PETA officers but the Japanese felt that Soeharto was useful and assigned him to Brebeg, the southern part of Madiun.

However, on 17 August 1945, Bung Karno and Bung Hatta proclaimed Indonesias independence after the following of the Japanese surrender to the Allied Forces on 14 August 1945. Soeharto was in Brebeg when know about the proclamation, the new constitution and the election of Bung Karno as the countrys first president and Bung Hatta as the vicepresident from the daily newspaper Matahari. August 17 is the date that Indonesia celebrate as the birth date of their Replubic of Indonesia, taking the view that it is their declaration of independance taht should be celebrated rather than the date it was accepted.5 On 31 October 1945, open conflict started in Semarang and then in Magelang. Soeharto was in charge of Battalion X, the battalion which attacked Ambarawa and Banyubiru. The Allied Forces withdrew to Semarang.

On 18 December 1945, Colonel Soedirman, the TKR (Tentera Keamanan Rakyat) leader who was promoted to the rank of General came to know of Major Soehartos success. In December 1945, General Soedirman appointed Major Soeharto the Commander of Regiment III, Yogya and upgraded his rank to Lieutenant Colonel. Soeharto was then in charge of the Yogya region and responsible for overseeing four battalions.6

During he steping his feet on military wolrd, he was got many achivement and thrown for appricating his contribution on this military constitution. For the example, in 3 June 1956, he was take over as a Head of Staff Panglima Tentera and Teritorium IV Diponegoro in Semarang. Then, he got a Panglima Tentera Teritorium IV Dipengoro. In January 1957, he was promoted to the rank of Colonel.7

Life is unpredictable. On 17 October 1959, he was fired by Jenderal Nasution because Kolonel Soeharto was take an oppurtunity on military institution to get a donation from many companies. Soeharto should faced this problem and he probably will end up his life in the jail. But, he got a chance to espace from this case by transfering him to Sekolah Staf Komando Angkatan Darat (SESKOAD) in Bandung, Jawa Barat.

His carrier on the military world continues until he got rank as a Major General on 1 January 1962. During his lagacy on his military, he also as a Panglima Komander Mandala Pembebasan Irian Barat. Besides, he also as a Deputi Wilayah Indonesia Timur in Makassar.

Indonesia become more worst because of G-30-S (Gerakan 30 September) on 30 September 1965 whereby the murder of six generals and the declaration of a revolutionary government took the replubic to be brink again.8 This movement is under Tjakrabirawa. According this condition, Soeharto take an action to handle it by organizing Komando Operasi Pemulihan.

Soehartos journey as a president began when he received the March 11 Executive Order and disbanded the Communist Party in 1966 after he take an duty as Menteri Panglima Angkatan Darat.

Under the great pressure, on 11 March 1966, Sukarno signed an order popularly known as Supersemar (Executive Order of March 11, 1966) that transferred presidential authority although not the office, to then General Soeharto. Michael on his book said, 11 March letter authorizing the transfer of power to Soeharto was never part of the military plan, adding some what wistfully.9 On 12 March 1967, a special session of the Provisional Peoples Consultative Assembly (MPR(S)) unanimously lifted its mandate from Sukarno and named Soeharto acting president. The MPR confirmed Soeharto as its Mandatory, electing him Indonesias second president at its March 1968 regular session.10

After he take over the Soekarnos duty, there are many changes that was planed by him. On his legacy he was structured Orde Baru whereby on 10 June 1968, he was rearrange the Cabinnet on Parliament and he also was planed Pembangunan Rencana Lima Tahun. Besides, he also make a new team for Ahli Ekonomi Presiden. They are Prof Dr Widjojo Nitisastro, Prof Dr Ali Wardhana, Prof Dr Moh Sadli, Prof Dr Soemitro Djojohadikusumo, Prof Dr Subroto, Dr Emil Salim, Drs Frans Seda, dan Drs Radius Prawiro. He also give a warn to seven newspaper publisher because they were seperated the news that was brought the bad perseption of Soeharto. They were crities all the changes that was made by Presiden of Soeharto. The seven of newspaper publishers are Kompas, Sinar Harapan, Merdeka, Pelita, The Indonesia Times, Sinar Pagi, and Pos Sore.

Besides, West Papua officially is aprovince since 1969 due to politics conducted by the Central Governments since the intergration of the Western half of New Guniea, resistance emerged against the Indonesian state.11 He duty as a Presiden of Replubis of Indonesia for second period on 22 Mac 1978 and Adam Malik as a Vice President of Indoesia on that time. Based on the residents trusts, he was selected as a Presiden of Republic Indonesia again on 1 March 1983 by MPR (Majlis Permusyarawatan Rakyat) and he was Father of Development in Replublic Indonesia. He also make a changes on infrastructural. For the example, he was planed for upgrading for school infrastructure so that all Indonesias citizens can got a better education. Besides, in the poor provinces most of the DAU (Dana Alokasi Umum) was spent on salaries and basic services in education and health.12 The salaries meant by teachers salaries. In addition, he also upgrades the transportation such, he was expanding the railway in Indonesia. The New Order reinforced this growth by building roads, bridges and dams, as the U.S and Japan pledged US $ 65 milion in aid.13
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He always make a changes on his administration. In 16 March 1983, he was rearranged the Development of Cabinet IV. 21 ministers, 3 coordinators, 8 Young Ministers, and 3 Office of Ministers. The other brave action that was taken by him is break off diplomatic relation with Replubic of China and make a better relation with west countries and PBB (Persatuan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu). Moreover, he was rising the donation in military constitution and established two inteligent agency. There were Komendo Pemulihan Keamanan & Ketertiban (KOPKANTIB) and Badan Koordinasi Inteligen Nasional (BAKIN). Around 1960, the new president, Soeharto took the advice of his team of profesional economits, the so-called Berkeley Mafia under leadership of Professor Wijoyo Nitastro.14 One by one transformation was making by him so that Indonesia became one of the best country on this world even though Indonesia have a large number of residents. Indonesia got an attention from the eyes of the world when Indonesia was helping an African citizens that was faced with starvation. Indonesia under Soehartos leadership was donating one milion tones of paddy to them. We can see this donation ceremony during the The 23rd Confrotation of Food and Agriculruted Organization (FAO) on 14 November 1985 in Rome, Italy. In September 1997, he was ranked as Bintang Lima and Pangkat Jenderal Besar. ASEAN faced one big problem against the economic condition whereby it was start by Thailand.15 And, Indonesia do not have any choice except ask for help from World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF). He believe that this situation will over, soon. In the same time, he and his higher officers also donate their one year salaries to the country. The aim of this action is to stabilizes and handling this financial problem. Besides, during this conflict, World Bank was analyzing that 20 until 30 percents of donation for expanding development country was misused by him. Even tough that we able to continue his carrier as a Pesident of Replubic Indonesia untuil 2003, he take an action to resign from this job. Then, his duty was placed with Habibi whereby he as a Vice President of Replubic Indonesia during leadership of Soeharto. No body on this world are perfect. We just a normal person. Same like Soeharto. Even he was resigned as a Presiden of Repulbic of Indonesia, he should faced many issues mainly about corruption during his take over during his 32 years power in administration. President of Republic of Indonesia on that time, Habibi had asked for Jaksa Agung Am Ghaib to find out all the corruption issues about Yayasan donation, National Automobil Program, and the biggest issues is Soeharto was indicted accused of having embezzling money with the greatest number. It is around 15 until 35 miliyar AS Dollar. This case beating other world leaders who had embezzled money. Government must work out a strategy to handle demands for expropration of Soeharto family assets.16 When he had defend against instead of various issues, he's got a mild stroke and was got a treatment in Rumah Sakit Pusat Pertemina (RSPP) for ten days. It was happened in 20 July 1999. However, he compulsary to get a treatment again in 14 August 1999 beacuse he got bleeding on his intestine. We can said that every years he compulsary and must do an operation among his health was not in unstable. Since the first treatment he got many operation and these continously until 245days he is on the hospital, he died due to multi organ failure . He was died on 27 January 2008. 13.10 WIB. Its around 12.10 noon in Malaysia time. And the Presiden of Replubic Indonesia on that time, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono clarified to mourn for seven days after the death of Soehato as a sign of respect for Soeharto death. Besides, banner markes Selamat Jalan for
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Soeharto scattered in some place. For the example, banner that wrote Selamat Jalan Pak Harto, Kami Selalu Mengenang Jasamu, placed significantly in the middle of the roundabout Teunku Omar, about 100 meters from hujung Cendana Road. All the citizens can feel the missing of Soeharto including the artist whereby Gugur Bunga song and created exclusive from Ismail Marzuki was playing continously on television and electronic media.17 As a president that was holding the reins of government for the longest periods, we trusted that we know this world, well.

Picture1: The president places a medal on the Major General chest.18

Picture 2: A picture of President Sukarno is taken down to be replaced by that of Soeharto.19

Picture3: Inaugurating the use of a railway tresle in Karawang, Jawa Barat.20

Picture4: Soeharto, when he just leaving for RSPP after 7days got a traetment. 11 May 2005.21

Picture5:Yudhoyono expresses sympathy over Soeharto's death.22

1 Retnowati Abdulgani. 2007. Soeharto: The Life and legacy of Indonesias Second Presiden: An Authorised Biography. Marshall Cavendish International (Asia) Ptv Ltd. Page 20. 2 Robert Edward Elson. 2001. Suharto: A Political Biography. Cambridge University Press. 2001. Page 1. 3 Retnowati Abdulgani. 2007. Soeharto: The Life and legacy of Indonesias Second Presiden: An Authorised Biography. Marshall Cavendish International (Asia) Ptv Ltd. Page 22. 4 Robert Edward Elson. 2001. Suharto: A Political Biography. Cambridge University Press. 2001. Page 8. 5 Steven Drakely. 2005. The History of Indonesia. Greenwood Publishing Group. Page 75. 6 Retnowati Abdulgani. 2007. Soeharto: The Life and legacy of Indonesias Second Presiden: An Authorised Biography. Marshall Cavendish International (Asia) Ptv Ltd. Page 25. 7 Retnowati Abdulgani. 2007. Soeharto: The Life and legacy of Indonesias Second Presiden: An Authorised Biography. Marshall Cavendish International (Asia) Ptv Ltd. Page 35. 8 Michael R. Vatkiotis Routledge. 2004. Indonesian Politics Under Suharto:The Rise and Fall of The New Order. Routledge. Page 64. 9 Michael R. Vatkiotis Routledge. 2004. Indonesian Politics Under Suharto:The Rise and Fall of The New Order. Routledge. Page 22. 10William C. Younce. Indonesia:Issues, Historical Background and Bibiography. Nova Publisher. Page 65. 11 Esther Heidbuchel. 2007. The West Papua Conflict in Indonesia: Actos [i.e.actors], Issues and Appraches. Johannes Herman Verlag. Page 5. 12 Harold Crouch. 2010. Political Reform in Indonesia After Soeharto. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. Page 102. 13 John H. Mc Glynn, Hermawan Sulistyo. 2007. Indonesia in the Soeharto Years: Issues, Incidents and Image. NUS Press. Page 68. 14 Adam Schwarz & Jonothan Paris. 1999. The Politics of Post Suharto Indonesia. Foreign Relation. Page 22. 15 The administration of Thailand, want floating their Bath against US Dollar. The currentcy devaluation were occurs in ASEAN region. Source: http://www.ekonomirakyat.org/edisi_3/artikel_3.htm 16 Geoff Forrester, R.J May, Ronald James Mat, & etc. 1998. The Fall of Soeharto. C. Hurst & Co Publisher. Page 64. 17 Detikcom files. 2008. Hari-hari Terakhir Jejak Soeharto Setelah Lengser 1998-2008. MediaKita. Page 31 &32. 18 John H. Mc Glynn, Hermawan Sulistyo. 2007. Indonesia in the Soeharto Years: Issues, Incidents and Image. NUS Press. Page 25. 19 John H. Mc Glynn, Hermawan Sulistyo. 2007. Indonesia in the Soeharto Years: Issues, Incidents and Image. NUS Press. Page 37. 20 John H. Mc Glynn, Hermawan Sulistyo. 2007. Indonesia in the Soeharto Years: Issues, Incidents and Image. NUS Press. Page 72.

21 Detikcom files. 2008. Hari-hari Terakhir Jejak Soeharto Setelah Lengser 1998-2008. MediaKita. Page 4. 22 http://www.nowpublic.com/politics/yudhoyono-expresses-sympathy-over-soeharto-s-death-0