TwoDimensional
Quantum
Cosmology*
ADRIAN
COOPER
LEONARD
THORLACIUS
ABSTRACT
Twodimensional quantum gravity coupled to conformally invariant matter gravity
with central charge c > 25 has been proposed as a toy model for quantum in higher dimensions. and unstable to forming The associated WheelerDewitt equation
is nonlinear
linear Wheeler
equation.
twodimensional
the nonlinear
dynamics.
In particular
Submitted
to Nuclear
Physics B
* Work supported by the Department of Energy, contract DEAC0376SF00515. t Supported in part by NSF grant PHY8917438
1. Introduction
This is a revised and expanded version of our previous preprint SemiClassical material conclusion gravity Limit of Quantum Gravity Isn t (SLACPUB5413). possibility entitled The
The new
to our previous
is inconsistent
According
to the traditional
H,,
The exact form of H,, includes both gravitational grangian is constrained this conventional is determined and matter
IS) = 0.
by the fieldtheoretic degrees of freedom. Lagrangian
(1.1)
which
of general covariance.
view has been challenged and a far richer picture equation is itself quantized and nonlinear
being subject to the rules of third quantization, determined condensates of uniof baby to
it has been argued that the emission and absorption constants, and even forces the cosmological
constant
In this paper we shall analyze these issues in the relatively twodimensional gravity coupled to conformally invariant matter.
to noncritical
Most of the effort has been focused central charge D 5 1, using either in terms of matrix models of ran
to matter
theories with
more closely resembles higher dimensional string theory with D > 25 [l&19].
2
In that
energy associated with the scale factor of the metric is negative, and familiar cosmological solutions (such as de
just as it is in higher dimensions, Sitter space with positive quantum cosmology, with
cosmological
constant)
WheelerDewitt vanish,
of the tachyon
field in
equation inevitably
with a background
of baby universes.
to zero as suggested by Coleman [13].$ This appears to be the case if the tachyon potential has a smooth minimum. minimum On the other hand, a very mild singularity at
leads to a large scale behavior with arbitrary model results of Moore et al.
Recent matrix
[21] vindicate
review how
leads to an essentially
In Section 3 we describe the continuum in the conformal fields. gauge, and show how it In Section 4 we consider Wheelerof
of twodimensional
leads to an effective action for the targetspace the cosmologically Dewitt interesting
couplings with scale, and examine the relation between the targetspace of motion and the renormalization
equations
group. In Sections 6 and 7 we discuss whether of the cosmological constant at large scale. using two
calculation
t This approach to twodimensional quantum cosmology was discussed by Banks in [20]. $ The Euclidean saddle point, of Baum [15], Hawking [16] and Coleman [13], has an analog in the twodimensional theory for D > 25 [19]. 3
different
renormalization
procedures.
speculations gravity.
about how
[22]. In partic
(2.1)
man diagrams with vertices depending on V. Diagrams of genus h are weighted by a factor of N2h, of a sphere. so in the N t oo limit the surviving graphs have the topology with a sum geometries, of Euclidean
By considering
of as a quantization
of length 1. The
bY
Z(Z)= s
I+; J
(2.2)
the ampli
gm+fCL
.qZl,Z2,
* ..,Zm) =
N2
dMN2 NtrM
...NtrM eNtrV(M).
(2.3)
It is a simple matter
equations corresponding
to a
Z(Z+1) + 4 2(1+3)
= $2
qp;zlp) p=o
(2.4)
ll
q+q
+ 4 Z(Z+3) = c
p=o
.qp)qZlp)
(2.5)
with boundary
condition
in terms of onedimensional
constant
appears as
in 2, or equivalently
of 2 with respect to g, can easily be derived from (2.5). It is these which should be identified with the conventional Although WheelerDewitt am
plitudes of the single universe theory. not look like a conventional fact shown that the continuum
WheelerDewitt limit
In the remainder of the paper we will be considering the continuum above calculations the importance
were presented in order to emphasize from another viewpoint effects in the WheelerDewitt equation.
of nonlinear
3. Twodimensional
Quantum
Gravity
formulation
and String
of noncritical
Theory
string theory. For the
We shall now review the continuum This will serve to fix our notation moment,
Xi,
s = $
/ d2a fi
(r&x
* &x
+ x0} ,
(34
where Tab is the twodimensional To carry out the path integral lowing steps are taken:
l
metric and As is the bare cosmological over metrics Tab and matter fields Xi,
Gauge fixing:
The overcounting
invarimetric
(3.2)
The remaining mode. degree of freedom, c$, is called the Liouville over metrics field or conformal over 4, with Liouville
reduces to an integral
(3.3)
Note that the couplings exactly of the conformal mode in the Liouville background. action are This is
field in a nontrivial
Regularization: regularized
The theory
by introducing
or shortest metric,
is defined with reference to the fiducial metric, Yab. Therefore the regularized
6
Renormalization:
In order to define the theory at some size scale, we have and matter field fluctuations on smaller
In particular
geometries, as measured in the original metric, Yab, which nevertheless appear as short distance fluctuations illustrated in Figure 1. on a scale set by 5&. An example of this is
The requirement that the original theory be covariant can be stated as a set of conditions, that the path integral does not depend on our choice of fiducial metric, on the allowed couplings of invariant
Tab. These turn out to place quite strong restrictions the fields, Xi and 4. In particular,
with respect to Tab, and if we consider variations of the conformal part of +ab, i.e. of det 9, we find that the path integral has to be conformally .,turn implies that betafunctions All this can be summarized of all couplings must vanish. as follows. We start with a generally covariant invariant, which in
theory of gravity coupled to scalar fields, X. In order to define the path integral we fix a gauge and regularize in a noncovariant manner. The resulting theory involves a scalar field, c$,in addition to the matter fields, and is in general quite complicated. The original covariance appears as a set of restrictions that all the betafunctions on the couplings, which
vanish.
This approach to
of twodimensional
authors [19,20,25,26,27]. The object of interest is thus some reparametrization invariant scalar field
s=
~Jd2~~{T(X)+4.)a,X ~bXYGpU(X)+2jl~(X)+...}.
(3.4)
including
fields, Xi,
been resealed to X0 = $5, terms of scaling dimensions possible couplings involving twodimensional curvature ii.
sequence of
investigated
theory, have the form of field equations in targetspace (tachy on, dilaton and graviton fields respectively),
and GfiV(X)
additional
the propagation
of the particlelike
strings in spacetime, or more to the point of this paper, onedimensional containing matter fields! The tachyon field, T(X), cosmological is of primary
interest because
constant.
T(X)
= XeGxo .
obtained by setting betafunctions
(3.5)
to
The string theory equations of motion, zero, are derivable from an action. theory, containing
For simplicity,
a truncated To
T(X),
Q(X)
and GPy(X).
I = .S
290J
where V(T)
dD+1Xfie2
~+R+~(v~)~(vT)~~V(T)+~~~},
(3.6)
The general
tensor field. Its presence would not qualitatively alter our cbnclusions. t We will use the string theory names for the targetspace fields, but the reader should keep in mind their cosmological interpretation. 8
is not known,
but we show how to obtain the leading terms from theory in Section 8. Our answer is, of course, not group betafunctions always depend on the reg
renormalization
not correspond
amplitude
7 and 8. The equations of motion which follow from the above action are
v2T  2vQ . VT =
V (T), + V(T),
WI
For D < 25 these equations have a simple solution, even when higher order terms in the betafunctions
are included
An important
background
of the
9 = 90,
=goe2
QXO
(3*9)
is
We can only expect the effective field theory to be simple where this coupling weak.
9
tachyon field can be added to the exact solution depends on the shape of the effective potential, If we assume that the background
V(T),
and is
in general.
@TQdoT+2T=0,
and has solutions
(3.10)
T(XO)=Xe
Such a homogeneous background dimensional theory
(+q)xo 2
corresponds
configuration
is more important
this choice of sign makes the cosmological term (3.11) reduce to T = Aeaxo = Xe4, as it should. An important the strength In this limit feature of the D < 25 theory is that the coupling corrections gee governing
of quantum
(string loops) tends to zero when X0 + co. small. Furthermore, co. we can consider a backIn the vicinity disappear. of T = 0 On the strength wall
equations
the interaction
* Note that our X0 differs, by a sign, from the resealed Liouville field of Distler and Kawai. 10
4. Quantum
C osmology
in Two Dimensions
[ 191 and consider the case D > 25, which is more relevant to cosmology. of the targetspace equations (3.7) does not depend on the value of changes when D signature, a linear
The derivation
will no longer be a solution for D > 25. However, there exists It is given by
a solution
T=O,
G,,, = 17~
(44
Strictly
speaking, is
the worldsheet
if the targetspace
the twodimensional
ture in order to discuss the D > 25 case. Unfortunately to perform the steps involved in the quantization renormalization, that a consistent etc.). Our working assumption,
Lorentzian
formulation
target
tions inevitably
t Actually D 5 1, since the exponent in (3.11) is complex for D > 1, and the twodimensional action is unbounded from below. $ We are free to choose the sign of the dilaton background. This corresponds, in fact, to the choice of the direction of time. The physics just tells us that small universes are weakly coupled for D < 25 and strongly coupled for D > 25. Our solutions (3.8) and (4.1) reflect the convention that the universe was small at early times. 11
twodimensional
metric is singular.
These will be observable, or even catastrophic, the path integral receives contributions from the background, which also inspace
for onedimensional
observers. In addition,
from universes being absorbed or emitted volve twodimensional . the metric singularities
in Euclidean
use Euclidean
subsequent discussion of the cosmology takes place with Lorentzian The gravitational proper Planckscale. + coupling However, co in twodimensions is dimensionless,
so that
it by the point at which gse @ = 1 . The factor of go can be absorbed by a constant shift of the dilaton. The effective Planckscale is then set by ql, and depends on
the number of scalar fields in the theory. limit for gravitational fluctuations.
In particular,
D + 00 is a semiclassical
conditions is complicated
because the theory is strongly coupled at early times. The short distance physics is summarized by some unknown initial state at the Plancktime, which then evolves
In a quantum
@TqdoT+2T=0,
and is solved by
(4.2)
T(X)
= Xe (f*fi)X.
(4.3)
The tachyons.
One of the solutions decays with time, but the other one grows exponentially. system is unstable and is likely to form a condensate of background
12
of some field in the exponentially Take, for example, Ic. The targetspace
TB(X )
= X e(f+fi)XO*
(4.4)
for tachyons.
A fluctuation
Uk(X)
= 0.
is well approximated
WI
by the
of the potential
l + qXe (f+@ixouk
= 0.
{ (gJ2
Up to factorordering
+ (6a9
+ gJ2}U~
= 0.
equation
(4.7)
derived
ambiguities, Lagrangian
L = ( $2  $ [P  (2+$
+ $2]
(4.8)
and cosmological
The three terms in square brackets are the matter, constant energy densities.
curvature
It seems that we have recovered a more or less conventional description constant of large scale cosmology. In particular,
WheelerDewitt
is the usual one. In order to obtain vanishing increasing solution for T(X )
exponentially . 
must be finetuned
about the short distance physics, which is supposed to determine so we have no way of gauging how likely
principle. starts
it will eventually
roll into the region where the At that point it is enwill deviate in such a way
terms in V(T)
cannot be ignored.
tirely possible that the linear WheelerDewitt from (4.7). In particular, the cosmological
logical model will be presented in the following shall see in Section 6, an entirely conventional the linearized WheelerDewitt particular form. different
renormalization
prescriptions
in the
theory will lead to different evolutions for the tachyon background. term in V(T) is universal the different schemes will all agree near pictures. For The
T = 0, but away from the origin they can present very different
example, the question of whether V(T) h as a minimum key issue here is to identify sponding to WheelerDewitt the definition amplitudes
is schemedependent.
of the tachyon field most closely correin the twodimensional cosmology. This
is a nontrivial candidate
task which has not been carried out, but we will outline a promising
It should be emphasized that the nonlinear do not disappear and joining in the semiclassical limit
about
D + oo. In particular,
U(X')
[V2 + (2 + $)]U
= iev:xoU2.
(4.9)
the tachyon mass
As we move toward
the semiclassical
limit
q + 00, though,
squared increases as $, so that the unstable exponential the decreasing coupling strength. Since very little
growth of U compensates
in string theory,
we can only speculate about their detailed effect on the physics. However, the very existence of string interactions, usual Liouville along with the tachyon instability, shows that the
5. The Running
Before delving further connection
of Coupling
Constants
cosmology, we shall clarify the and the renormalization
field theory.
The equations of motion for the targetspace fields are that the betafunctions of all twodimensional couplings vanish. From this one might conclude that the
couplings seen by a twodimensional the correct interpretation. as renormalization renormalization hence determines
We can think of the equations for the targetspace identified with the logarithm
scale. The X0 dependence of the coupling functions their evolution with scale.
15
T, @, G,, . . .
of motion
are
in X0 derivatives, equations.
by firstorder
The secondorder nature of the flows is a special where the scale itself is a dynamical variable.
gravity
in the WheelerDewitt
of quantum
H,,
IQ) = 0 which
seems to imply that no time evolution tells us how the wave function The WheelerDewitt order. limit The firstorder
equation, like the equations of motion for T, a GPv, is second, Schrodinger equation is only recovered in a semiclassical [36]. In our twoD + 00 or field equations
fluctuations
dimensional equivalently
this semiclassical
to taking
renormalization
We consider first the case of fluctuations at the top of the tachyon potential
background A field A, at
$
0
/ fiC2
{ (vA,)~  2(1n)A;
+ . . a} .
(5.1)
background
is
1
for large D.
A,=O.
(5.2)
this equation has unstable solutions for n = 0, which describe Note, however, that the solutions graviton and
for n 2 1 are stable for all values of Q. In other words, the dilaton, higher couplings do not become tachyonic
16
Now, recalling
we can rewrite
(5.2) as
YQ 8 2i~~~+k22(1n)

1
A,.
A,=().
(5.3)
equation
a $ A, = (k2 + 2(n1))
(5.4)
k2 as expected.
of several
sector, consisting
test of the above ideas should involve an interacting free sigmamodel coupled to gravity. Expe
rience in flat space indicates that such a model will generate a new massscale and renormalize the vacuum energy accordingly. To investigate this, we consider the
example of a theory in which three the targetspace dimensions are compactified of to a sphere of timedependent dinates are left flat. dependence of r(X) in the semiclassical renormalization radius r(X ). coupling The remaining constant D  3 spatial coorand the X0
is then l/r,
of the coupling with scale. We find that of motion (3.7) reproduce the standard
the equations
(5.5)
ds2 = (dX)2
+ TV
dfl; + &dXi)2
4
(5.6)
The equations
of motion
then become
(5.8)
constant
corresponding
mass
conditions.
indeed satisfies
group equation
The equations of motion (5.7) g overning the targetspace gravitational valid only to first order in Xderivatives. of the oneloop betafunction X0 N c, the sigmamodel gravitational equations
tachyon field.
dynamics
to generate a twodimensional
energy, which manifests itself as a source term in the tachyon equation of motion. To see this consider the effect of the nontrivial logical constant. As explained matter couplings on the cosmo
field as it rolls off the top of the hill that gives rise to the cosmological term in the WheelerDewitt equation
(4.7). W e might imagine that it would be so that the tachyon stays balanced at
conditions
18
was flat, we saw that this could indeed be done. Now, to the twodimensional gravity will make
To see this, consider the higher order terms in the effective action One such term will be of the general form TvvRR. we should calculate the twoloop graviton betafunction, To but
T and G,,.
it properly
it will suffice to note that there must be some term of this form vertex. There will As the
because string theory has a nonzero gravitongravitontachyon thus be an extra source term VVRR threesphere contracts, in the tachyon equation
of motion.
this will knock the tachyon from the top of the potential. conditions to make
We would therefore
to account for the matter vacuum energy is just the familiar problem.
Note that we are not able to use these techniques to follow the system into the strongly coupled regime in which r becomes small. However, since we know that [37], we may speculate
ple. This would correspond to the effective central charge of the matter smaller at some point in the evolution of the universe.
6. A Vanishing
Cosmological
Constant
In this section and the next we will follow the evolution of the cosmological constant as the twodimensional universe expands. Recall that the spacetime equation
of motion for the tachyon field is obtained from the tachyon betafunction
PT = v2T  2vQ.vT
 V (T) + . . . .
(64
in a particular
19
regularization,
potential
contributions
to the betafunction
As we discussed at the end of Section 4, the evolution ground depends on the regularization field theory.
of the tachyon
the tachyon field continues to be closely connected to the WheelerDewitt tude as T rolls off the top of the potential. as speculations about the nonlinear
dynamics
cosmology is very sensitive to the form of the interesting to consider the case when of V(T),
V(T).
It is particularly
V(T)
This is consistent
which we have found at leading order, but the minimum higher order corrections. First
Figure 3). There will then be another exact solution of the targetspace given by
equations
T To, =
(6.2)
of the potential
minimum is stable.
at T = 0, this solution
the linearized
(6.3)
of
the fluctuation.
(6.4)
and graviton
mode, corresponding
The fluctuations
must be a field theory with no unstable fluctuations. have no exponentially will not contain growing mode,
equation
a cosmological
constant
do not know theexact form of the field theory seen by a onedimensional we can say that he measures a zero cosmological Having studied the solutions the potential constant. of the stationary
in the neighborhood
points of
V(T),
rolls toward T G To. Because of the timedependent off as CD(X) = ix0 and eventually becomes )
W)
qx> = ix0 )
there will be a varying friction term in the equation of motion for T(X ).
(6.6)
Initially
N X e (f+&)XO
(6.7)
T  To + p ,(z+$%%jx
In the semiclassical limit,
,
equation will
(6.8)
thus
evolve from
{ (;u$
for small a toward
+ (k22;)
+ ;Xa2}V
= 0
(6.9)
. 
Y (p&
82
+ (k2+V(To)$)
+ V(To)paV(To)}V
inflate, constant. the quantum
= 0
(6.10)
for large a. Th is means that the universe will initially settle down to a behavior with vanishing cosmological Although system, we have not yet thoroughly that investigated
the quantum
wave functional
which will shrink with X0, since the quantum 9x0 are of order e we 2 at late times. This behavior is in marked in the D 5 1 case in which the string coupling grows become
to that encountered
with the scale factor a. In those theories the effects of higher topologies increasingly important
as a increases, whereas for D > 25 their effect diminishes. that as the universe evolves, a condensate of constant to zero. We If they
The picture
that is suggested is
are then faced with the question of the size of the corresponding turn out to be macroscopic, the real world (The since the background
wormholes.
then this scenario loses its appeal as a toy model for Problem). Naively one might suppose that large values of
Giant Wormhole
between the scale size and the metric is more subtle than this, since size. It is not clear to us how to
physical size depends on both $ and the fiducial correctly Whilst derive the distribution of wormhole
large scales, has some appeal, there are reasons to doubt its consistency. ticular one may ask what twodimensional minimum. Kutasov
22
field theory can describe the stationary and Seiberg [35,38] have argued that a
conformal
field theory coupled to gravity that the theory at the bottom degrees of freedom.
7. A NonVanishing
In the previous
Cosmological
Constant
cosmological model
behavior at large scales from what one would naively considerations in minisuperspace. It turns out
expect based upon semiclassical that an apparently can lead to drastic potential
minor modification
about the tachyon background cosmological constant term In other words, with having a
In this case, we can ignore the effect of a nonvanishing linear dilaton background, i.e. q N t.
(74
mode $ = :X0
we have
$tY;T
+ 2&T + V (T) = 0 .
(7.2)
In the q + a firstorder
00 limit equation
the secondorder
term can be dropped and we are left with Fluctuations about this back
28,~ + V(T)7
= 0.
(7.3)
= 2 + 51~4 throughout
V(T) =
TOT
+ fr2
 Ti(l
 &) ln (I  $,
(7.4)
point at T = To, which is singular (V N 00). The potential past that singularity but, as we shall see, the tachyon
284T + 2To,(l  i)
ln(l  $)
= 0.
V5)
(1  6)
= es, so that
aa,s
= s
v*6)
T = To(1  ei)
The cosmological constant of a twodimensional
. universe interacting
A, which is determined
by the initial
on T. The equation for S is linear so we see that this example provides a realization of the fact that tachyon field redefinition equation of motion. WheelerDewitt can eliminate the nonlinear terms in the to the
amplitude
(4.4).
24
(7.3) is precisely that of minisuperspace 21, 351. It is interesting satisfies a linear equation,
Zi)d(ToT)+ze
This suggests the alternate definition
(ToT)=O.
(7.8)
W)
the following
(7.10)
is equivalent equation
to (7.8).
Equation
(4.6) by the term due to the bare dimension that the SL(2,C) vacuum of string theory
to identify
that state with the most symmetric universe [ 19,391. illustrate that having
or HartleHawking
a onedimensional
a tachyon
potential
with
cosmological
constant.
Apparently
a very special form of potential A deeper understanding of the tachyon eventually the relation
betafunction,
turn out to be as described in this section. We need to be able to identify between the tachyon field and the WheelerDewitt prescription in the twodimensional amplitudes for a
is particularly momentum
straightforward.
the betafunction
for zero
(7.4). For D 5 1 th ere is further evidence to this effect coming from matrix models.
Consider the nonlinear the background linear equation
ll
amplitude
Fluctuations
z(Z+1) + 42(1+3) = 2 c
p=o
+)2(1lp)
(7.11)
Moore et al. [al] h ave recently shown that in the continuum of the minisuperspace vanishing cosmological WheelerDewitt constant. conformal
limit
z(Z) is a solution
field theory, if any, corresponds to a tachyon field one. matter By the theory
at rest at T = To, but we suspect it to be a rather trivial of Kutasov and Seiberg [35,38] i t cannot be a standard
arguments
Apparently
an expanding
universe long after all relevant scales (e.g. the cosmologdegrees of freedom are
matter fields from which the scale of the metric decouples. The situation
is analogous to that in QCD at very large distance scales where the only degrees of freedom are massless pions. onematrix a matrix matrix model. potential Another closer example is provided constant by the D = 0 corresponds to
Gaussian
presented in this section is correct then there is nothing space dynamics which favors vanishing topologies cosmological
constant this.
Recall
decreases with
scale in the D > 25 at small scales and its for the target space
evolve classically.
constant
conditions
to be infinitely
wr continue to rapidly 11
tachyon field will act as a source for all other fields, and the renormalization
of the higher order couplings, which we discussed in the Section 5, will be disturbed even at late times. This would even be true in the semiclassical limit of large q.
8. The Tachyon
In this section, we present a calculation .to the tachyon betafunction. linear terms, since individual
BetaFunction
of the leading nonlinear contribution
diagrams in the loop expansion for the product of two On the other hand, we are interested since we want the theory to be exactly
normal ordered tachyon vertices are finite. in the exact renormalization independent of couplings,
divergent cutoff dependence. When this is done, a nonvanishing indeed emerge. We shall not rigorously method originally in the strength carry out this procedure,
of the tachyon field, but sums all orders of the loop expansion. momenta
short
distance divergences from which the betafunction the results to the region of interest analytic in the k;. reference [40] our starting
Following
group
(8.1)
ator which carries the coupling gi. The flow equation (8.1) can easily be integrated Let g (O) be th e value of g at some infrared scale,
g(t)
= eXitgi(0)
+ C j,k
[e(XjfXk)teXit]
$k x ,+xkx, 3
g (0)gk(O)
2
+ * * .
(8.2)
For the time being, we are primarily will assume a flat targetspace
interested
in tachyon
backgrounds,
so we
with vanishing
dilaton field.
background.
momentum
T(k) di
effective action using standard around some classical = X,(g) +rp(a). The
which varies slowly on the cutoff scale: Xp(a) is performed over the quantum field up,
D, eXp ; x exp(&
J
/
d2a fi
dza fi/
+abda&$,~p
dD+lk T(k) ,ik.Xb ,ik.if) . (8*4)
The effective
action
is given by S,.f[Xb]
28
= log
Z[X,].
The twodimensional
propagator
is
(7P(a+?(c4)
= 2?y
log (101021).
diagrams with ever increasing numbers of interaction form of the operator multiplied
of the exponential
full answer at a given order in T(k) ( see Figure 4). There are divergences which do not show up at any finite order in the standard twodimensional loop expansion,
but only appear when the diagrams are added up. To regulate these divergences, we need a welldefined cutoff procedure. In general, the exact betafunction will
Our assumption
scheme can be found in which the target space fields are identified amplitudes. For reasons of simplicity and tractability,
WheelerDewitt
defined by cutting
off position
space integrals
allows us to view the renormalized approach that should satisfy calculations of zero
Another
in this scheme, but we able to compute the betafunction re tachyons to all orders, and that allows us to determine
contribution
s&x,]
=sO[xb]
+ &
d2a
=sO[xb] + ;
d2a
We want to compare this with the integrated to identify c with ewt, so that the
It is natural
29
(8.7)
for a tachyon of
anomalous
dimension
Xk = 2k2
k.
At second order we have to sum over the graphs on the right in Figure 4. Their contribution to z[Xb] is given by
d2al d2a2
(8.8)
terms, involving
derivatives
of X:,
contribute
to terms
higher than zero in the effective action, and do not affect the renorThe dimension zero piece of the effective action
of tachyon couplings.
r
(&)2/d20/
(8.10) *
The y integral
is convergent for ICI . k2 < 1 and one can define its value outside continuation Using this prescription we
dDS1kl dD+1k2~~~~~2.~~)~o(k~)~o(k2)]
. (8.11)
This is to be compared
with
(8.2).
Xkl + Xk,  Xkl+kz, but we appear to be missing the ecxkl +&It explained as follows.
The integral in (8.10) is convergent for ICI . k2 + 1 < 0, which as Xkl+kz > Xkl + Xkz. As the cutoff is removed, t P co, and
coupling
(8.11) therefore only contains the leading divergence. However, we still have enough information to read off the value of the secondorder coefficient in (8.1), giving integrals
41k2 = $Y(D+l)(kl
trivial,
 $ r(X)2
+ *** .
(8.12)
Setting this equal to zero gives an equation of motion for the tachyon background. Near the massshell our results essentially agree with those of Das and Sathiapalan [41]* and those of Brustein The above calculation treatment et al. [42]. only considered tachyons, whereas a more comprehensive couplings such as gravitons and dilatons. but for our present purposes it Cp= %X0,
to consider the simple case of a linear dilaton background, The tachyon betafunction
in flat targetspace.
before. The dilaton term in the twodimensional we write the fiducial metric as a conformal
+ The nonlinear term in the tachyon equation of motion obtained in [41] has the opposite sign to ours, but the important feature, that this term has no derivatives, agrees. 31
metric,
tq, 0, *  * ,O). This term is linear in Xfi and its effect in the path integral is taken into account by including graphs with external legs which carry a factor of qp (see
Figure 5). The contribution of each such external leg is given by
&
where G(a~0)
= ; k . q[(ao) ,
(8.14) of
is the twodimensional
the tachyon vertex from which the leg emanates. To leading order in T(k) the effective action is given by the graphs on the left in Figure 5,
f2 &j&G]= So[&,] J d2c dD+lk + & .J
,+ J((C) T(k) ,ik.xb .
(8.15)
The anomalous dimension of the renormalized properties with as the fiducial conformal metric, factor
so it scales as E N eg, and we find the The condition that this vanish is the
anomalous linearized
XI, = 2ikaqk2.
(4.2).
tachyon equation
comes from the graphs on the right in Figure 5. theory and one finds that
involves the same steps as in the critical coupling to second order is now
dDi?61k:~~~.~2k)Ta(k,)Ta(k2)]
.
(8.16)
Apparently
lous dimensions.
coefficient
as before.
Thus we find that the leading terms in the tachyon betafunction string theory are
in noncritical
f(X)
 ; T(x)2
+ * * )
in agreement with (3.7). Note that the nonlinear vanishing term has no derivatives potential and corresponds to a noncon
V(T).
sequences. In particular
it implies that a uniform tachyon field will have nontrivial group flow of tachyon fluctuations since, according a cnumber, with nonzero
This is surprising
to (3.4), a constant
This is perhaps too simple a view to take. In fact, the excluded integrals introduces function nontrivial effects even
. d2gn
(8.18)
 ac2) + . . . )
where the integrals are over unit area and the thermodynamic the limit E+ 0. The free energy is F = c2 log 2. The running the partition function
limit
is obtained in T
of the coupling
to be independent
of the cutoff
33
P(T) = $
= 2%.
(8.20)
,6(T) = 2T  $T2,
in agreement with (8.17). W e expect this agreement between analytic and the hard sphere gas to hold to all orders in T. Another point of interest is that statistical
continuation
have
at negative fugacity
at some positive values of T. However, the behavior of the betafunction at these points, which suggests that cusps in V(T) of the
in Section 7 can occur. outline a regularization into the renormalcoordinate space by the
To conclude this section we would like to schematically scheme in which the WheelerDewitt ization with process. Begin by introducing amplitudes a lattice
lattice
spacing E. In each cell we define an amplitude over the twodimensional fields in the interior
integrating
This defines an effective theory that lives on the lattice over the boundary values of the fields yields the
integration
The integrand
Z=
The amplitudes targetspace
rD~boundary~(~boundary)
(8.22)
4 are by construction
WheelerDewitt
amplitudes.
To introduce
Then
1c,= (1 T(k)+
G,,(i)&~)$o,
(8.23)
By requiring the long wavelength behavior to for the target space fields calculations tachyon
T,G,,....
This is certainly
Z=
Jn (1 obO(h)
cells
(8.24)
= (l
T)?Z(T
= 0),
to $. Requiring 2 to be inde
where the total number of cells N is proportional pendent of E gives the betafunction
/3(T) = 2(l
 T) ln(1  T) .
(8.25)
Which
betafunction
singular potential
9. Conclusion
We conclude gravity. with some observations and speculations about 4dimensional gauge unless
in this case we can not choose the conformal to conformally flat geometries.
we restrict
such a restricted
g,, = 42qPV
J
This is just ordinary ory, thus requiring case, targetspace
d*a: { (3Fd)2
+ Ad4 + matter}
(94
term. The original field the
a negative kinetic
covariance requires the path integral to result in a conformally the vanishing of all betafunctions. by allowing
invariant
of betafunctions interest
by the more general expression T( 4). R emoving the restriction geometries makes things more complicated, regulating,
logic of gaugefixing,
field equations to be satisfied will make sense. Can one expect the nonlinearities roe in four dimensions of the targetspace theory to play a similar be
equation
is a WheelerDewitt and
Hamiltonian,
!P is a functional
of matter
and
geometry. In the twodimensional case, f is replaced by the coupling strength ecp = 9x0 =aq e2 . Because of tachyonic instabilities, the WheelerDewitt amplitude in (9.2) increases like ez 9xo. Thus the background to overcome the decrease of the coupling strength. In four dimensions, timated the coupling for universes splitting considerations. and joining can be esfield increases at a sufficient rate
from dimensional
geometry
is N iVia2
for a
constant
on dimensionless
However,
the case.
To see this,
H,,Q
= 0. In four dimensions,
[&.l;2]
For large a the solution Dewitt strength amplitude is 8 N eza2.
Q=O.
Hence it is possible that
(9.3)
the Wheeler
grows sufficiently
rapidly
in four dimensions
also. On the other hand, we have seen in Section 7 the usual conclusions of the
WheelerDewitt
It should be stressed, however, that they are not connected over spacetime topologies. Such sums imply quantiza
with the issue of summing tion of the targetspace level. Third is large. quantization
at small scales where the coupling strength at small distances would provide
quantization
of these would remain at the unstable point T = 0 where the cosmological is naively zero and the nonlinearities region. W. Fisare small. The remainder would
37
REFERENCES
1. B. S. Dewitt, Phys. Rev. 160 (1967), 1113; and J. A. Wheeler
J. A. Wheeler, in Batelle Recontres, eds. C. M. Dewitt (W. A. Benjamin, 2. S. W. Hawking, S. W. Hawking, inc., New York, 1968).
(1980), 283;
3. K. Kuchar, J. Math. Phys. 22 (1981), 2640; also in Quantum Gravity, Vol. 2, C. J. Isham, R. Penrose and D. W. Sciama eds., (Clarendon 1981).
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Phys. Rev. D38 (1988), 3031, Phys. Rev. D39 (1989), 2229.
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Hopkins preprint,
35. N. Seiberg, Notes on Quantum Liouville Rutgers preprint, RU9029, 1990. (1985), 332.
RU9060, 1990.
Phys. B301
40
FIGURE
1) Once a fiducial
CAPTIONS
the short
distance fluctuations
affect the renormalization. 2) A Lorentzian geometry with singular points corresponding to the splitting
at T = To.
in a
41
/ / / /
/ /
/ / / //
/ /
/ / /
/A/ /
//
//
191 6607Al
Fig. 1
491
6607A6
Fig. 2
191 6607A5
Fig. 3
. .
l91
6807A2
Fig.
qq
l91 6807A3
Fig. 5
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