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Endocrine System

Endo- = within -crine = secretion

Primary Glands

System Endo- = within -crine = secretion Primary Glands Functions of Endo crine System • Produce

Functions of Endocrine System

Produce and secrete hormones.

Chemical messengers with specific functions.

Greek “excite or urge on ”.

and secrete hormones . • Chemical messengers with specific functions. • Greek “ excite or urge

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Endocrinologist

en-doh-krih-NOL-oh-jist

Endo- = within

crin/o = to secrete

-logist = specialist

Specialist in diagnosis and treatment of

disorders of glands of internal secretion.

Endocrinopathy

En-doh-krih-NOP-ah-thee

Disease due to disorder of endocrine system.

Hypersecretion: condition caused by excessive secretion of a gland

Hyposecretion: deficient secretion of any gland

Combining Forms

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Ad- = near

Renal = kidney

Adrenal glands

ah-DRE-nal-glanz

• Renal = kidney Ad renal glands ah- DRE -nal-glanz Glands that are located above (near)

Glands that are located above (near) each kidney.

Adren/o, adrenal/o = adrenal glands

Produce the hormones adrenaline & cortisone.

glands • Produce the hormones adrenaline & cortisone. Adren o pathy ah-dre- NOP -ah-the • Adren

Adrenopathy

ah-dre-NOP-ah-the

Adren/o = adrenal glands

-pathy = disease condition

Disease of adrenal glands.

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Adrenalectomy

ah-dre-nal-EK-to-me

-ectomy = removal, excision

Removal of adrenal glands.

-ectomy = removal, excision Removal of adrenal glands. Pituitary Gland pih- TU -ih-tare-e “ Master Gland

Pituitary Gland

pih-TU-ih-tare-e Master Gland of Body”

Located at base of brain.

Controls activity of other organs & endocrine glands.

Controls activity of other organs & endocrine glands. Hypophys /o, Pituitar/ o = pituitary gland •

Hypophys/o, Pituitar/o = pituitary gland

Acts in response to stimulus from hypothalmus

Consists of an anterior & posterior lobe

o = pituitary gland • Acts in response to stimulus from hypothalmus • Consists of an

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Hypophyseal

hi-po-FIZ-e-al

Hypophys/o = pituitary gland

-eal = pertaining to

Pertaining to pituitary gland.

Hypopituitarism

hi-po-pi-TU-ih-tah-rizm

Hypo- = deficient, less than normal

Pituitar/o = pituitary gland

-ism = condition, process

Decrease of hormonal secretion by pituitary gland.

Pancreat/o = Pancreas PAN-kre-us

Feather-shaped organ behind stomach

Produces digestive enzymes & secretes hormones that control glucose levels & metabolism throughout body.

• Produces digestive enzymes & secretes hormones that control glucose levels & metabolism throughout body. 5

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Pancreatic Hormones

Insulin: IN-suh-lin

Secreted in response to

• Insulin : IN -suh-lin – Secreted in response to – blood glucose blood glucose (sugar)

blood glucose

IN -suh-lin – Secreted in response to – blood glucose blood glucose (sugar) • Allows glucose

blood glucose (sugar)

Allows glucose to enter cells

Stimulates liver to convert glucose to glycogen

Glucagon: GLOO-kah-gon

blood glucose by stimulating the liver to convert glycogen to glucoseglucose to glycogen • Glucagon : GLOO -kah-gon – Pancreat ectomy pan-kre-ah- TEK -to-me • -ectomy

Pancreatectomy

pan-kre-ah-TEK-to-me

-ectomy = removal, excision

Excision (removal) of the pancreas.

Thym/o = Thymus Gland

THI-mus

Located in middle of chest (mediastinum).

THI -mus • Located in middle of chest (mediastinum). • Produces thymosin that aids in immune

Produces thymosin that aids in immune system by promoting maturation of T-lymphocytes.

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Thymoma

thi-MO-mah

-oma = tumor, mass

Tumor of thymus.

thi- MO -mah • -oma = tumor, mass Tumor of thymus . Thyroaden /o, Thyroid /o

Thyroaden/o, Thyroid/o = Thyroid Gland THI-royd

Lies in neck on either side of trachea.

Regulates metabolism:

(rate at which body uses energy & speed at which body functions work)

body uses energy & speed at which body functions work) Thyroid Hormones • Triiodothyronine = T

Thyroid Hormones

Triiodothyronine = T 3

Tetraiodothyronine = T 4 or thyroxine

Secretion controlled by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secreted by pituitary gland.

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Thyroadenitis

thi-ro-ah-deh-NI-tis

Aden/o = gland

-itis = inflammation

Inflammation of thyroid gland.

• -itis = inflammation Inflammation of thyroid gland . Thyroid ectomy thi-roy- DEK -to-me • -ectomy

Thyroidectomy

thi-roy-DEK-to-me

-ectomy = removal

Surgical removal of the thyroid gland.

= removal Surgical removal of the thyroid gland . Para thyroid /o = Parathyroid Gland •

Parathyroid/o = Parathyroid Gland

Para- = beside

4 glands behind/beside thyroid gland

Regulate calcium levels in blood and bones

Gland • Para- = beside • 4 glands behind/beside thyroid gland • Regulate calcium levels in

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Parathyroid Hormone

par-ah-THIGH-roid

PTH

Regulates calcium levels

↓ in blood calcium levels stimulates secretion of PTH

Hyperparathyroidism

high-per-par-ah-THIGH-roid-izm

Hyper- = excessive

Parathyroid/o

-ism = condition, process

• Parathyroid /o • -ism = condition, process Excessive secretion of PTH. Hypo parathyroid ism •

Excessive secretion of PTH.

Hypoparathyroidism

Hypo- = deficient

Parathyroid/o = parathyroid gland

-ism = condition, process

Less than normal secretion of PTH.

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Oophor/o, Ovari/o = Ovary

OH-vah-re

Produce eggs to be fertilized by sperm.

Produces female hormones estrogen & progesterone.

• Produces female hormones estrogen & progesterone. Hormones Secreted by Ovaries Estrogen Progesterone

Hormones Secreted by Ovaries

Estrogen Progesterone ES-tro-jen Pro-JES-the-rone Promotes development of female secondary sex characteristics.
Estrogen
Progesterone
ES-tro-jen
Pro-JES-the-rone
Promotes development of
female secondary sex
characteristics.
Prepares and maintains
uterine lining during
pregnancy.

Oophoritis

oh-ahf-oh-RYE-tis

Inflammation of the ovaries.

and maintains uterine lining during pregnancy. Oophor itis oh-ahf-oh- RYE -tis Inflammation of the ovaries. 10

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Ovarian Cyst

o-VAR-e-an sist

Sac containing fluid or semi-solid material.

VAR -e-an sist Sac containing fluid or semi-solid material. Orchi /o, Orchid /o = Testes TES

Orchi/o, Orchid/o = Testes

TES-tez

Testicle (TES-tih-kl)

One of 2 paired organs in scrotal sac

Produce sperm cells & male hormone testosterone.

• Produce sperm cells & male hormone testosterone. Testosterone tes -TOS -the-rohn Hormone that produces male

Testosterone

tes-TOS-the-rohn

Hormone that produces male secondary characteristics.

& male hormone testosterone. Testosterone tes -TOS -the-rohn Hormone that produces male secondary characteristics. 11

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Orchitis

or-KI-tis

Inflammation of testes.

10/31/2011 Orch itis or- KI -tis Inflammation of testes. Orchi o pexy or-ke-o- PEK -se •

Orchiopexy

or-ke-o-PEK-se

-pexy = fixation, surgical

Surgical fixation of a testicle.

Corrects cryptorchism

(undescended testicle)

Surgical fixation into its proper location within the scrotum

cryptorchism (undescended testicle) • Surgical fixation into its proper location within the scrotum Path o logy

Pathology

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Acromegaly

10/31/2011 Acro megaly Enlargement of extremities caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH) from pituitary

Enlargement of extremities caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH) from pituitary gland before puberty.

Cushing Syndrome

Group of symptoms produced by excessive secretion of cortisone from adrenal cortex.

Obesity, hyperglycemia, osteoporosis, moon-like fullness of face.

hyperglycemia, osteoporosis, moon-like fullness of face. Diabetes mellitus di-ah- BE -tez MEL -li-tus • Dia- =

Diabetes mellitus di-ah-BE-tez MEL-li-tus

Dia- = through

-betes = to go

Disorder of pancreas that causes defect in insulin secretion or action resulting in:

Hyperglycemia

Polyuria

Polydipsia

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Type 1 Diabtes

Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM)

Type 1 Diabetes

Complete lack of insulin

Require insulin injections

Onset usually in childhood

10% of diabetics are Type 1

Type 2 Diabetes

Noninsulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM)

Type 2 Diabetes

Some insulin deficiency

Insulin is not adequate

resistance of tissues to action of insulin

Onset usually in adulthood

Treated with diet, exercise, oral medication

Goiter

Thyromegaly

Abnormal enlargement of thyroid gland.

adulthood • Treated with diet, exercise, oral medication Goiter Thyr o megaly Abnormal enlargement of thyroid

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Hyperthyroidism

Overactivity of thyroid gland.

Graves disease or exophthalmic (eye bulge outward) goiter

Increased metabolic rate, sweating, weight loss

Exophthalmos

eck-sof-THAL-mos

sweating, weight loss Ex ophthalm os eck-sof- THAL -mos Hypo thyroid ism • Deficient • Fatigue,
sweating, weight loss Ex ophthalm os eck-sof- THAL -mos Hypo thyroid ism • Deficient • Fatigue,

Hypothyroidism

Deficient

Fatigue, depression, sensitivity to cold

Decreased MR

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Lab Tests & Diagnostic Procedures

Computed tomography (CT scan)

Cross-sectional x-rays

Computed tomography (CT scan) • Cross-sectional x-rays Fasting Blood Sugar FBS • Measures blood glucose levels

Fasting Blood Sugar FBS

Measures blood glucose levels after an 8 hour fast.

Reference range: 70-110 mg/dL

Preferred screening test for Diabetes mellitus.

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

10/31/2011 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Radioactive Iodine Uptake • Measures ability of thyroid gland to trap

Radioactive Iodine Uptake

Measures ability of thyroid gland to trap and concentrate radioactive iodine.

Localization of iodine is necessary for making thyroid hormones.

of iodine is necessary for making thyroid hormones. Serum and Urine Tests • Measurement in blood

Serum and Urine Tests

Measurement in blood and urine of:

Hormones

Electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate)

Sugar (glucose)

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Thyroid Function Tests

Measures blood levels of:

T 3 (triiodothyronine)

T 4 (tetraiodothyronine or thyroxine)

TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone)

Thyroid Scan

Radioactive compound, injected intravenously.

Localizes in thyroid & images are produced

Used to detect tumors

compound, injected intravenously . • Localizes in thyroid & images are produced • Used to detect