Physics 212
Lecture 21
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 1
Who is the Artist?
A) 
Earth, Wind & Fire 

B) 

War Tower of Power 

D) 
Average White Band 

E) 
Chicago 
Why?
Topic for today = Power
Why not Tower of Power ???
Memories from Bay Area ……
Music
What Did We Learn in Office Hours Yesterday?
PHASORS ARE THE KEY !! FORMULAS ARE NOT !
START WITH PHASOR DIAGRAM
^{ε}
^{I} max ^{R}
^{I} max ^{X} L
DEVELOP FORMULAS FROM THE DIAGRAM !!
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 4
Peak AC Problems
• “Ohms” Law for each element
– NOTE: Good for PEAK values only)
^{–} ^{V} gen
^{–} ^{V} Resistor
^{–} ^{V} inductor
^{–} ^{V} Capacitor
^{=}
^{=} ^{I} max ^{R}
^{I} max ^{Z}
^{=} ^{I} max ^{X} L
^{=} ^{I} max ^{X} C
• Typical Problem
2
(
L
Z = R + X − X
C
) ^{2}
X
L
= ωL
X =
C
1
ωC
C
L
R
A generator with peak voltage 15 volts and angular frequency 25 rad/sec is connected in series with an 8 Henry inductor, a 0.4 mF capacitor and a 50 ohm resistor. What is the peak current through the circuit?
X
L = ωL =
200
Ω
1
X = 
= 
100 
Ω 
C
ωC
07
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 5
Peak AC Problems
12
Which element has the largest peak voltage across it?
A) Generator
E) All the same.
V
max
= I X
max
L
1
X 
= 
= 
100 Ω 
C
ωC
X L
2
(
L
C
)
2
Z = R + X − X
=
112 Ω
I max ^{=}
V gen
Z
^{=}
0.13 A
R
X C
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 6
Peak AC Problems
12
Which element has the largest peak voltage across it?
A) Generator
E) All the same.
V
max
= I X
max
X
L
= ωL =
200
Ω
1
X = 
= 
100 Ω 
C
ωC
X L
2
(
L
C
)
2
Z = R + X − X =
112 Ω
I max ^{=}
V gen
Z
^{=}
0.13 A
R
X C
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 7
Peak AC Problems
14
What happens to the impedance if we decrease the angular frequency to 20 rad/sec?
A) Z increases
B) Z remains the same
(X _{L} X _{C} ) ^{:} (200100) Ø (160125)
L
Z 25
R
X C
^{Z} 20
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 8
Resonance
Theremin demo
Concert Friday 7:30pm Indi Go Artist CoOp
http://thereminensemble.com/
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 9
Resonance
Frequency at which voltage across inductor and capacitor cancel
R is independent of ω X _{L} increases with ω
X
L = ω L
X _{C} increases with 1/ω
Resonance in AC Circuits
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 10
10
Off Resonance
In general
Q ≡
2π
U max
∆ U
U _{m}_{a}_{x} = max energy stored _{∆}_{∆}_{∆}_{∆}_{U} = energy dissipated in one cycle at resonance
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 11
Off Resonance
Demo: RLC on Scope
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 12
B. V _{I} = V _{I}_{I}
C. V _{I} < V _{I}_{I}
Checkpoint 1a
Consider two RLC circuits with identical generators and resistors. Both circuits are driven at the resonant frequency. Circuit II has twice the inductance and 1/2 the capacitance of circuit I as shown above.
Compare the peak voltage across the resistor in the two circuits
A. V _{I} > V _{I}_{I}
“Z will end up being smaller in circuit 2 and which will cause circuit two to have a smaller max current, which will mean V1>V2.”
“at resonance Xl=Xc since the resistance is the same in both of them, the peak voltage is the same”
“Since the voltage across L increases by a factor of 2 and the voltage across c increases by a factor of two, the peak should be higher as well.”
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 13
C. V _{I} < V _{I}_{I}
Checkpoint 1a
Consider two RLC circuits with identical generators and resistors. Both circuits are driven at the resonant frequency. Circuit II has twice the inductance and 1/2 the capacitance of circuit I as shown above.
Compare the peak voltage across the resistor in the two circuits
A. V _{I} > V _{I}_{I}
Resonance: X _{L} = X _{C}
Z = R
Same since R doesn't change
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 14
Consider two RLC circuits with identical generators and resistors. Both circuits are driven at the resonant frequency. Circuit II has twice the inductance and 1/2 the capacitance of circuit I as shown above.
Compare the peak voltage across the inductor in the two circuits
A. V _{I} > V _{I}_{I}
B. V _{I} = V _{I}_{I}
C. V _{I} < V _{I}_{I}
Checkpoint 1b
“The first one has less inductance so less resistance. ”
“The peak voltage in the inductor is just the XsubL*Imax. Since XsubL is half ”
as big in case 1, but Imax is bigger in case 2, they cancel out
I think
“Circuit 2 has a Q that is twice as large as that of circuit 1. This increases the maximum voltage across the inductor by 2.”
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 15
Consider two RLC circuits with identical generators and resistors. Both circuits are driven at the resonant frequency. Circuit II has twice the inductance and 1/2 the capacitance of circuit I as shown above.
Compare the peak voltage across the inductor in the two circuits
A. V _{I} > V _{I}_{I}
B. V _{I} = V _{I}_{I}
Voltage in second circuit will be twice that of the first because of the 2L compared to L
Checkpoint 1b
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 16
Consider two RLC circuits with identical generators and resistors. Both circuits are driven at the resonant frequency. Circuit II has twice the inductance and 1/2 the capacitance of circuit I as shown above.
Compare the peak voltage across the capacitor in the two circuits
A. V _{I} > V _{I}_{I}
B. V _{I} = V _{I}_{I}
C. V _{I} < V _{I}_{I}
Checkpoint 1c
“Case 1 has a larger capacitance, and a larger peak voltage”
“since the two circuits have identical generators and resistances, the peak voltage is the same”
“Since circuit two has half the capacitance, then its voltage is higher:
V(capacitance) = I(max)*(1/(w*C))”
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 17
Consider two RLC circuits with identical generators and resistors. Both circuits are driven at the resonant frequency. Circuit II has twice the inductance and 1/2 the capacitance of circuit I as shown above.
Compare the peak voltage across the capacitor in the two circuits
A. V _{I} > V _{I}_{I}
B. V _{I} = V _{I}_{I}
The peak voltage will be greater in circuit 2 because the value of X _{C} doubles.
Checkpoint 1c
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 18
Consider two RLC circuits with identical generators and resistors. Both circuits are driven at the resonant frequency. Circuit II has twice the inductance and 1/2 the capacitance of circuit I as shown above. At the resonant frequency, which of the following is true?
A. Current leads voltage across the generator
Checkpoint 1d
B. Current lags voltage across the generator
C. Current is in phase with voltage across the generator
“This is because the this will be a positive phase angle which means that it will lead the voltage across the generator. ”
“At resonant frequency, the current should lag the voltage of the generator by 90 degrees, so that it obtains a maximum value when the voltage of the generator is zero.”
“At resonance, the circuit acts as if it only has a resistor. ”
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 19
Checkpoint 1d
Consider two RLC circuits with identical generators and resistors. Both circuits are driven at the resonant frequency. Circuit II has twice the inductance and 1/2 the capacitance of circuit I as shown above. At the resonant frequency, which of the following is true?
The voltage across the inductor and the capacitor are equal when at resonant frequency, so there is no lag or lead.
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 20
Power
• P = IV
instantaneous always true
– Difficult for
– Resistor I,V are ALWAYS in phase!
Generator, Inductor and Capacitor because of phase
C
R
L
P = IV = I ^{2} R
• Average Power
Inductor and Capacitor = 0 Resistor <I ^{2} R> = <I ^{2} > R = ½ I ^{2} _{p}_{e}_{a}_{k} R
( < sinωtcosωt > = 0 )
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 21
Power Line Calculation
• If you want to deliver 1500 Watts at 100 Volts over transmission lines w/ resistance of 5 Ohms. How much power is lost in the lines?
– Current Delivered: I = P/V = 15 Amps
– Loss = IV (on line) = I ^{2} R = 15*15 * 5 = 1,125 Watts!
• If you deliver 1500 Watts at 10,000 Volts over the same transmission lines. How much power is lost?
– Current Delivered: I = P/V = .15 Amps
– Loss = IV (on line) = I ^{2} R = 0.125 Watts
DEMO
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 22
Transformers
(Robots in Disguise, as many of you said)
• Application of Faraday’s Law
– Changing EMF in Primary creates changing flux
– Changing flux, creates EMF in secondary
V
p
=
V
s
N N
p
s
• Efficient method to change voltage for AC.
– Power Transmission
– Power electronics
Loss = I ^{2} R
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 23
Follow Up from Last Lecture
V
C
X
(D)
(V = 0)
V _{L} < V _{C} if current leads generator voltage
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 24
Follow Up: Resonance
(A) decrease ω
C
V
(C) Not enough info
Original ω
φ
At resonance _{(}_{ω} _{0} _{)}
At resonance X _{L} = X _{C}
X _{L} increases X _{C} decreases
ω increases
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 25
(B)
f
= 2
X _{L} increases by factor of f X _{C} decreases by factor of f
C
L
R
~
(D)
At resonance X _{L} = X _{C}
f
2 40
=
15
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 26
Current Follow Up
Consider the harmonically driven series LCR circuit shown. V _{m}_{a}_{x} = 100 V I _{m}_{a}_{x} = 2 mA
V _{C}_{m}_{a}_{x} = 113 V (= 80 sqrt(2)) The current leads generator voltage by 45 ^{o} (cos=sin=1/sqrt(2)) L and R are unknown.
X
C
=
40
2 k
Ω
V
What is the maximum current at resonance ( I _{m}_{a}_{x} (ωωωω _{0} ) )
(A)
I max
(ω ) =
0
2 mA
(B)
I max
(ω ) = 2
0
2 mA
(C)
C
R= 25
2 k Ω
X
L
=
15
2 k
Ω
I max
(ω ) =
0
8/3 mA
2
2 mA
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 27
ω =
0
ω
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