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Physics 212

Lecture 21

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 1

Who is the Artist?

 A) Earth, Wind & Fire B) War Tower of Power D) Average White Band E) Chicago

Why?

Topic for today = Power

Why not Tower of Power ???

Memories from Bay Area ……

Music

“There was an overwhelming amount of
formulas for the average power in RLC circuits.
It would be nice if you gave us some methods
to remember all of them.”
We’ll do our best to restate the
Big Ideas and give examples
“quality factor, what is the motivation behind
it to study?and please checkpoints, as i m
confused”
But of course!
“I learned in differential equations that if
there is resonance is a system, the
system is then destroyed, such as bridges
and buildings. Does the same things
happen in circuits? ”
Depends on the quality factor, e.g.
V
L,max =Qε max
“Wow this is still really hard - can you
go over in great detail how to describe
and work with rlc ckts using phasors and
phase vectors?”
ABSOLUTELY
We will review today
“the transformers were a tad bit
confusing”
Short review + demo
05
Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 3

What Did We Learn in Office Hours Yesterday?

PHASORS ARE THE KEY !! FORMULAS ARE NOT !

ε

I max X C
C
L
max
R

I max R

I max X L

ε max = I max Z
I max (X L -X C )
I max R
X L -X C
φ
R

DEVELOP FORMULAS FROM THE DIAGRAM !!

V = Projection along Vertical
I max X L
ωωωω
I max R
I max X C

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 4

Peak AC Problems

• “Ohms” Law for each element

– NOTE: Good for PEAK values only)

V gen

V Resistor

V inductor

V Capacitor

=

= I max R

I max Z

= I max X L

= I max X C

• Typical Problem

2

(

L

Z = R + X X

C

) 2

X

L

= ωL

X =

C

1

ωC

C

L

R

A generator with peak voltage 15 volts and angular frequency 25 rad/sec is connected in series with an 8 Henry inductor, a 0.4 mF capacitor and a 50 ohm resistor. What is the peak current through the circuit?

X

L = ωL =

200

1

 X = = 100 Ω

C

ωC

2
2
Z = R + X − X =
(
)
112
L
C
V gen
=
0.13 A
I max =
Z
X L
R
X
C

07

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 5

Peak AC Problems

12

• “Ohms” Law for each element
C
2
=
I Z
Z = R + X − X
(
) 2
– V gen
L
C
L
= I R
– V Resistor
R
= I X L
X
= ωL
– V inductor
L
1
= I X C
X
– V Capacitor
C =
ωC
• Typical Problem
A generator with peak voltage 15 volts and angular frequency 25 rad/sec is
connected in series with an 8 Henry inductor, a 0.004 Farad capacitor and a 50
ohm resistor. What is the peak current through the circuit?
X
= ωL =
200

Which element has the largest peak voltage across it?

A) Generator

E) All the same.

B)
Inductor
C)
Resistor
D)
Capacitor

V

max

= I X

max

L

1

 X = = 100 Ω

C

ωC

X L

2

(

L

C

)

2

Z = R + X X

=

112

I max =

V gen

Z

=

0.13 A

R

X C

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 6

Peak AC Problems

12

• “Ohms” Law for each element
C
2
=
I Z
Z = R + X − X
(
) 2
– V gen
L
C
L
= I R
– V Resistor
R
= I X L
X
= ωL
– V inductor
L
1
= I X C
X =
– V Capacitor
C
ωC
• Typical Problem
A generator with peak voltage 15 volts and angular frequency 25 rad/sec is
connected in series with an 8 Henry inductor, a 0.004 Farad capacitor and a 50
ohm resistor. What is the peak current through the circuit?

Which element has the largest peak voltage across it?

A) Generator

E) All the same.

B)
Inductor
C)
Resistor
D)
Capacitor

V

max

= I X

max

X

L

= ωL =

200

1

 X = = 100 Ω

C

ωC

X L

2

(

L

C

)

2

Z = R + X X =

112

I max =

V gen

Z

=

0.13 A

R

X C

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 7

Peak AC Problems

14

• “Ohms” Law for each element
C
2
=
I Z
Z = R + X − X
(
) 2
– V gen
L
C
L
= I R
– V Resistor
R
= I X L
X
= ωL
– V inductor
L
1
= I X C
X
– V Capacitor
C =
ωC
• Typical Problem
A generator with peak voltage 15 volts and angular frequency 25 rad/sec is
connected in series with an 8 Henry inductor, a 0.4 mF capacitor and a 50 ohm
resistor. What is the peak current through the circuit?
X

What happens to the impedance if we decrease the angular frequency to 20 rad/sec?

A) Z increases

B) Z remains the same

C) Z decreases

(X L -X C ) : (200-100) Ø (160-125)

L

Z 25

R

X C

X
L
R
X C

Z 20

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 8

Resonance

Theremin demo

Concert Friday 7:30pm Indi Go Artist Co-Op

http://thereminensemble.com/

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 9

Resonance

Frequency at which voltage across inductor and capacitor cancel

R is independent of ω X L increases with ω

X

L = ω L

X C increases with 1/ω

1
X =
C
ω C
2
2
Z =
R
+
(
X
− X
)
L
C
is minimum at resonance

Resonance in AC Circuits

ZZZZ ==== RRRR atatatat resonanceresonanceresonanceresonance
ZZZZ
RRRR
XXXX CCCC
XXXX LLLL
frequency
ωωωω 0000
Impedance
1
Resonance: X L = X C
ω
=
0
LC

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 10

10

Off Resonance

Z

In general

Q

2π

U max

U

U max = max energy stored U = energy dissipated in one cycle at resonance

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 11

Off Resonance

Demo: RLC on Scope

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 12

B. V I = V II

C. V I < V II

Checkpoint 1a

Consider two RLC circuits with identical generators and resistors. Both circuits are driven at the resonant frequency. Circuit II has twice the inductance and 1/2 the capacitance of circuit I as shown above.

Compare the peak voltage across the resistor in the two circuits

A. V I > V II

“Z will end up being smaller in circuit 2 and which will cause circuit two to have a smaller max current, which will mean V1>V2.”

“at resonance Xl=Xc since the resistance is the same in both of them, the peak voltage is the same”

“Since the voltage across L increases by a factor of 2 and the voltage across c increases by a factor of two, the peak should be higher as well.”

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 13

B. V I = V II

C. V I < V II

Checkpoint 1a

I max X L
I max R
Case 2
I max X C

Consider two RLC circuits with identical generators and resistors. Both circuits are driven at the resonant frequency. Circuit II has twice the inductance and 1/2 the capacitance of circuit I as shown above.

Compare the peak voltage across the resistor in the two circuits

A. V I > V II

I max X L
I max R
I max X C
Case 1

Resonance: X L = X C

Z = R

Same since R doesn't change

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 14

Consider two RLC circuits with identical generators and resistors. Both circuits are driven at the resonant frequency. Circuit II has twice the inductance and 1/2 the capacitance of circuit I as shown above.

Compare the peak voltage across the inductor in the two circuits

A. V I > V II

B. V I = V II

C. V I < V II

Checkpoint 1b

“The first one has less inductance so less resistance. ”

“The peak voltage in the inductor is just the XsubL*Imax. Since XsubL is half ”

as big in case 1, but Imax is bigger in case 2, they cancel out

I think

“Circuit 2 has a Q that is twice as large as that of circuit 1. This increases the maximum voltage across the inductor by 2.”

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 15

Consider two RLC circuits with identical generators and resistors. Both circuits are driven at the resonant frequency. Circuit II has twice the inductance and 1/2 the capacitance of circuit I as shown above.

Compare the peak voltage across the inductor in the two circuits

A. V I > V II

C. V I < V II
I max X L
I max R
I max X C
Case 1

B. V I = V II

Voltage in second circuit will be twice that of the first because of the 2L compared to L

Checkpoint 1b

I max X L
I max R
Case 2
I max X C

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 16

Consider two RLC circuits with identical generators and resistors. Both circuits are driven at the resonant frequency. Circuit II has twice the inductance and 1/2 the capacitance of circuit I as shown above.

Compare the peak voltage across the capacitor in the two circuits

A. V I > V II

B. V I = V II

C. V I < V II

Checkpoint 1c

“Case 1 has a larger capacitance, and a larger peak voltage”

“since the two circuits have identical generators and resistances, the peak voltage is the same”

“Since circuit two has half the capacitance, then its voltage is higher:

V(capacitance) = I(max)*(1/(w*C))”

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 17

Consider two RLC circuits with identical generators and resistors. Both circuits are driven at the resonant frequency. Circuit II has twice the inductance and 1/2 the capacitance of circuit I as shown above.

Compare the peak voltage across the capacitor in the two circuits

A. V I > V II

C. V I < V II
I max X L
I max R
I max X C
Case 1

B. V I = V II

The peak voltage will be greater in circuit 2 because the value of X C doubles.

Checkpoint 1c

I max X L
I max R
Case 2
I max X C

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 18

Consider two RLC circuits with identical generators and resistors. Both circuits are driven at the resonant frequency. Circuit II has twice the inductance and 1/2 the capacitance of circuit I as shown above. At the resonant frequency, which of the following is true?

A. Current leads voltage across the generator

Checkpoint 1d

B. Current lags voltage across the generator

C. Current is in phase with voltage across the generator

“This is because the this will be a positive phase angle which means that it will lead the voltage across the generator. ”

“At resonant frequency, the current should lag the voltage of the generator by 90 degrees, so that it obtains a maximum value when the voltage of the generator is zero.”

“At resonance, the circuit acts as if it only has a resistor. ”

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 19

Checkpoint 1d

I max X L
I max R
Case 2
I max X C

Consider two RLC circuits with identical generators and resistors. Both circuits are driven at the resonant frequency. Circuit II has twice the inductance and 1/2 the capacitance of circuit I as shown above. At the resonant frequency, which of the following is true?

A.
B.
C.
Current leads voltage across the generator
Current lags voltage across the generator
Current is in phase with voltage across the generator

The voltage across the inductor and the capacitor are equal when at resonant frequency, so there is no lag or lead.

I max X L
I max R
I max X C
Case 1

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 20

Power

• P = IV

instantaneous always true

– Difficult for

– Resistor I,V are ALWAYS in phase!

Generator, Inductor and Capacitor because of phase

C

R

L

P = IV = I 2 R

• Average Power

Inductor and Capacitor = 0 Resistor <I 2 R> = <I 2 > R = ½ I 2 peak R

( < sinωtcosωt > = 0 )

RMS = Root Mean Square
I peak = I rms sqrt(2)
< I 2 R > = I rms 2 R

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 21

Power Line Calculation

• If you want to deliver 1500 Watts at 100 Volts over transmission lines w/ resistance of 5 Ohms. How much power is lost in the lines?

– Current Delivered: I = P/V = 15 Amps

– Loss = IV (on line) = I 2 R = 15*15 * 5 = 1,125 Watts!

• If you deliver 1500 Watts at 10,000 Volts over the same transmission lines. How much power is lost?

– Current Delivered: I = P/V = .15 Amps

– Loss = IV (on line) = I 2 R = 0.125 Watts

DEMO

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 22

Transformers

(Robots in Disguise, as many of you said)

• Application of Faraday’s Law

– Changing EMF in Primary creates changing flux

– Changing flux, creates EMF in secondary

V

p

=

V

s

N N

p

s

• Efficient method to change voltage for AC.

– Power Transmission

– Power electronics

Loss = I 2 R

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 23

Follow Up from Last Lecture

Consider the harmonically driven series LCR circuit shown.
V max = 100 V
I max = 2 mA
V Cmax = 113 V (= 80 sqrt(2))
The current leads generator voltage by 45 o (cos=sin=1/sqrt(2))
L and R are unknown.
What does the phasor diagram look like at t = 0?
(assume V = V max sinωωωωt)

V

C

~
L
R
(A)
X
V = V max sinωt
V=V +V +V
L
C
R
(B)
(C)
ﬂ V is horizontal at t = 0

X

(D)

X

(V = 0)

V L < V C if current leads generator voltage

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 24

Consider the harmonically driven series LCR circuit shown.
V max = 100 V
I max = 2 mA
V Cmax = 113 V (= 80 sqrt(2))
The current leads generator voltage by 45 o (cos=sin=1/sqrt(2))
L and R are unknown.
How should we change ωωωω to bring circuit to resonance?

(A) decrease ω

(B) increase ω

C

~
L
R

V

(C) Not enough info

Original ω

φ

At resonance (ω 0 )

At resonance X L = X C

X L increases X C decreases

ω increases

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 25

Consider the harmonically driven series LCR circuit shown.
V max = 100 V
I max = 2 mA
V
X
=
40
2 k
C
V Cmax = 113 V (= 80 sqrt(2))
The current leads generator voltage by 45 o (cos=sin=1/sqrt(2))
L and R are unknown.
By what factor should we increase ωωωω to bring circuit to
resonance? i.e. if ωωωω 0 = fωωωω, what is f?
(A)
f =
2
If ω is
increased by
a factor of f:

(B)

f

= 2

2
8
(C) f =
3

X L increases by factor of f X C decreases by factor of f

C

L

R

R= 25
2 kΩ
X
=
15
2 k
L
8
f =
5

~

(D)

X
→ f ⋅ 15
2
L
X
(1/
f
)
40
2
C

At resonance X L = X C

40
15 f =
f

f

2 40

=

15

8
f =
3

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 26

Consider the harmonically driven series LCR circuit shown. V max = 100 V I max = 2 mA

V Cmax = 113 V (= 80 sqrt(2)) The current leads generator voltage by 45 o (cos=sin=1/sqrt(2)) L and R are unknown.

X

C

=

40

2 k

V

What is the maximum current at resonance ( I max (ωωωω 0 ) )

(A)

I max

(ω ) =

0

2 mA

(B)

I max

(ω ) = 2

0

2 mA

(C)

At resonance
X L = X C
100
( ω
V max
Z = R
)
=
=
=
I max
0
R 25
2

C

~
L
R

R= 25

2 k

X

L

=

15

2 k

I max

(ω ) =

0

8/3 mA

2

2 mA

Physics 212 Lecture 21, Slide 27

ω =

0

ω