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What is microorganisms?

Microorganisms also known as microbes. Microorganisms are living things which are so small that they cannot be seen with the naked eye and are only visible under the microscope.

Who discovered the first microorganism?

Anton Van Leewenhoek (1632-1732) was the first person to discover the existence of microorganisms, when he used the simple microscope that he himself invented to view a drop of rainwater which he collected from his roof.

Types of Microorganisms
Based on their characteristics ( appearance, shape, size, method of reproduction, nutrition and habitat), microorganisms can be classified into 5 groups: 1)Bacteria 2)Fungi 3)Protozoa 4)Virus 5)Algae

BACTERIA

-Unicellular organisms -They have cell wall made of peptidoglycan -Some have additional slimy capsule outside their cell wall for added CHARACTERISTICS protection -Beneath the cell wall is its plasma membrane SEE BACTERIA CELL -Bacteria do not have nuclear membrane STRUCTURE -Some bacteria have one or more tail-like structure called 'flagella' which are used for swimming -Some bacteria also have hundreds of hairlike structures known as pilli -Classified according to their shapes SHAPE -They can be spherical known as cocci, rod-shaped known as bacilli, comma shaped known as vibrios and spiral known as spirilla -Diameter ranges from 0.5 -1.0 micrometres SIZE -Only visible using a high powered micoscope Sexually by a process called conjugation or Asexually by formation of spores METHOD OF REPRODUCTION or binary fission Photosynthesis, Chemosynthesis, Saprophytic and Parasitic. Bacteria stores NUTRITION food in the form of glycogen granules in its cytoplasm. Can be found almost everywhere (foods, air, water, soil, on any surfaces HABITAT (such as table tops), on the outside as well as inside of organisms especially in the intestines). -Some are aerobic, requiring oxygen to survive MODE OF RESPIRATION -Some are anaerobic, do not need oxygen to survive -Some can live in the presence or absence of oxygen

FUNGI

CHARACTERISTICS SIZE METHOD OF REPRODUCTION NUTRITION HABITAT EXAMPLE

Do not contain the green pigment chlorophyll, so they have to take in nutrients from external. Fungi may be unicellular or multicellular. 10 - 100 micrometres Asexually through budding or formation of spores and sexually through conjugation parasitism and saprohytism Dark, moist, warm environment Yeast, Mucor/ Mould

PROTOZOA

-Unicellular organisms CHARACTERISTICS -Move with the help of cillia which continuously beat against the water in diagonal pattern METHOD OF REPRODUCTION NUTRITION HABITAT EXAMPLES Asexually through binary fission or sexually by conjugation -Parasitism, saprophytism or autotrophs -Cilia/ cilium (hair like structures) send food to oral groove Soil, moist area, live in water ( Amoeba) or inside the body of organisms (Plasmodium) Amoeba, Plasmodium, Paramecium
ALGAE

-Simple aquatic plant CHARACTERISTICS -No proper roots, stems, leaves or vascular system -contains chlorophyll SIZE METHOD OF REPRODUCTION NUTRITION HABITAT EXAMPLE 1 - 10000 micrometres Asexually through binary fission or Sexually by conjugation Photosynthesis (most algae have pigments which use the wavelength that penetrate water) Freshwater and marine (saltwater), soil, bark of trees chlamydomonas (unicellular), spirogyra