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# Study Unit

Heat Part 1
By

Maxine V. S. Nichols, P .E. Technical Editor: A. Manoharan, M.S., P .E. Assistant Professor of Engineering The Pennsylvania State University

iii

Preview
To help you make the most effective use of your study time, we have listed below your study objectives for this lesson. These objectives are your guideposts: they tell you where you are heading and what you can expect to learn. They keep you on track. The self-tests you find at intervals in the lesson will help you evaluate how well you are meeting your objectives and prepare you for the lesson examination. When you complete this study unit, youll be able to

Explain the nature of heat Calculate the different ways in which temperature is measured Describe the difference between Btus and joules Calculate the heat required to increase the temperature of a substance Explain vaporization, evaporation, sublimation and similar impacts on matter Calculate how heat is transferred between the various states of matter Describe how work is related to heat Apply elementary laws of gases such as Boyles Law

Contents
THE NATURE OF HEAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TEMPERATURE AND ITS MEASUREMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MEASUREMENT OF HEAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION CHANGE OF STATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 14 25 35 49 60 70 79 85 87

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

HEAT TRANSFER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HEAT AND WORK RELATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPANSION OF GASES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRACTICE PROBLEMS ANSWERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

## CHECK YOUR LEARNING ANSWERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Heat, Part 1
THE NATURE OF HEAT
Feeling Hot and Cold
You are familiar with the feelings of hot and cold. If you place your

hand in water, you feel that the water is hot, lukewarm, or cold. The cause of the difference between those feelings is known as heat. When water feels warm, it is said to have been heated or to have had heat added to it. When it feels cool, it is said to have been cooled or to have had heat removed from it.

## Heat Is a Form of Energy

Heat is not a substance. When you hold your hands over a fire, heat is

added to them and they feel warm. But they do not become heavier, as they would if a substance were added to them. In this text you will learn that heat is a form of energy. In order to do work, some form of energy is required. The energy of heat can be changed to work energy. For example, the work energy necessary to produce the motion of a car comes from a heat engine. Even our sources of water depend on the heat from the sun to evaporate water from the earths surface. Later the water vapor is precipitated to produce the water for our lakes, streams, and rivers. Work is a form of energy that can be changed to heat. For example, if a strip of iron is laid on an anvil and pounded repeatedly with a hammer, the iron will become hot. In that case, the energy of motion of the hammer is converted into heat energy in the strip of iron.

Molecular Vibration

## Heat is the energy that a body possesses because of the continuous

motion of the molecules of the body. According to modern theory, every substance is made up of a very large number of extremely small particles known as molecules. The molecules are always vibrating. Since each molecule has some weight, although very small, it has a certain amount of energy of motion. The total energy of all the molecules in a body due to the continuous molecular vibration is the heat energy of the body.

Heat, Part 1

When heat energy is added to a body, the molecules are made to vibrate more rapidly; but when a body is cooled, there is a slowing down of the molecular vibration. The hotness or coldness of a body is therefore due to the rate of vibration of the molecules.

Sources of Heat
is obtained from sources of three main kinds: physical, mechanical, 4 Heatchemical. Each source is briefly described in the following articles. and

Physical Sources
source of heat. Many scientists feel that 5 The sun is the most importantup by the earth came from the sun. The all the heat received or given unbelievable amount of energy radiated through space from the sun and received by the earth causes the change of seasons. That huge quantity of heat energy also causes the water in the rivers, lakes, and seas to evaporate and form clouds. The water in the clouds then precipitates as rain or snow. Without heat from the sun, no living thinganimal or vegetablecould exist on earth. The earth possesses a heat of its own, called terrestrial heat. At depths far below the surface of the earth, a gradually increasing warmth is found. The heat does not come from the sun, because the material composing the earth is such a poor conductor that the heat of the suns rays penetrates only a very short depth below the earths surface. The explanation usually given for the condition is that the core of the earth is molten. Compared with solar heat, however, terrestrial heat has only a slight effect on the earth and its inhabitants. When a substance undergoes a change of state, that is, when it changes its physical form, it either produces or absorbs heat. When a gas or vapor becomes a liquid, heat is produced. Also, when a liquid becomes a solid, heat is given off. The flow of electricity is always accompanied by the production of heat, because all wires or conductors offer some resistance to the flow of electricity. Because the resistance produces heat, it can be thought of as electrical friction. Electricity can produce large amounts of heat. For example, it can produce enough heat to melt iron and make it flow like water.

Mechanical Sources
energy heat by motion. The friction between any 6 Mechanical rubbedproduces produces heat. For example, Boy Scouts two bodies together know that a fire can be started by the friction of a bow-driven drill in

Heat, Part 1

the right kind of board. Another example of producing heat by friction is the meteor, or the so-called shooting star, striking the earths atmosphere. The meteors speed is so great that the friction of the atmosphere produces enough heat to cause the meteor to catch fire. Heat is also generated by percussion. As in the example of Article 2, the repeated blows of a hammer on a piece of iron make the metal become hot. Putting pressure on a substance, especially a gas, to compress it into a smaller volume will cause the substance to warm up. For example, the cylinder of an air compressor has fins to dissipate the heat generated during the compression of the air. Even a bicycle pump becomes warm with use. Heat is also produced by the compression of solids and liquids, but the amount of such heat is very small.

Chemical Sources
two or 7 Chemical changes produce heat when rusting more substances react together to produce new products. The of iron is such a chemical reaction; iron combines with the oxygen in the atmosphere to form the familiar red iron rust. The reaction proceeds very slowly, and therefore the heat produced is not noticeable. On the other hand, the burning of wood, oil, or coal is a chemical reaction that produces a large amount of heat. When the carbon in one of those fuels combines with the oxygen in the air to form new productscarbon monoxide and carbon dioxide heat is produced. That useful process is called combustion.

## TEMPERATURE AND ITS MEASUREMENT

Temperature
is measure of the hotness or coldness body, which 8 Temperaturetheaspeed of vibration of the molecules ofof a body. When depends on the we add heat to a body, the body becomes hot and we say that it has a high temperature. A rise in temperature indicates that the speed of molecular vibration has increased. When we remove heat from a body, the body becomes cold and we say that it has a low temperature. A drop in temperature indicates a decrease in the speed of molecular vibration. Temperature is a measure of the degree of heat, and it can tell us whether an object is gaining or losing heat or is at a steady state without gaining or losing heat. When an object is supplied with heat faster than it loses heat, its temperature rises until the heat lost is equal to the heat supplied. When that state of balance is reached, the temperature of the object remains constant. When an object loses heat faster than heat is supplied to it, the temperature of the object will fall until another

Heat, Part 1

state of balance is reached. Then the temperature of the object will remain constant at a new and lower value. A good way to remember the difference between temperature and heat is to consider the vibration of the molecules that make up a body. Temperature is a measure of the speed with which the molecules of the body vibrate, whereas the quantity of heat is the total energy of all of the molecules in that body.

Construction of a Thermometer
of some physical 9 Temperature can be measured by taking advantagewill produce. One change of a substance that a change in temperature such physical change is expansion or contraction. A common substance that expands and contracts with changes in temperature is mercury. Therefore, a simple temperature-measuring device, called a thermometer, can be constructed by using mercury. The thermometer consists of a glass bulb and a capillary tube, which has a very small inside diameter. Air is removed from the bulb and tube, and mercury is placed in the bulb. When the temperature of the bulb rises, both the mercury and the glass expand, but the mercury expands about twenty times as much as the glass does. Therefore, when the bulb of the thermometer is heated, the mercury expands and rises in the capillary tube a distance that is proportional to the amount of the temperature increase. When the temperature decreases, the mercury contracts and falls in the tube. Thus the height of the mercury column in the tube can be used as a measure of the temperature of the bulb. If the bulb is placed in intimate contact with a body, the height of the mercury column indicates the temperature of the body. A typical mercury thermometer is illustrated in Figure 1. It consists of a capillary tube extending from a glass bulb at the lower end. Before the upper end is closed, the tube is partially filled with mercury, and the air above the mercury is driven out by heating the mercury to near its boiling point. When the tube above the hot mercury has been filled with mercury vapor, it is sealed. When the tube and mercury cool, the vapor condenses and leaves a vacuum above the liquid mercury.

Heat, Part 1

FIGURE 1The mercury thermometer is made up of a bulb and a sealed tube partially filled with mercury. The mercury expands as the temperature increases, and it rises in the sealed tube. The temperature is read in either Celsius or Fahrenheit degrees from the graduated stem of the thermometer.

Mercury expands or contracts in proportion to the heating or cooling of the body with which the bulb is in contact. The expansion or contraction causes the upper end of the mercury column to rise or fall. For equal changes of temperature, the mercury column rises or falls equal distances. Therefore, the mercury thermometer indicates changes in temperature with accuracy.

mercury thermometer are 10 The graduations on afreezing and boiling points based on two fixed reference points: the of pure water; see Figure 1. The freezing point marks the temperature at which, under atmospheric pressure, water freezes to form ice or ice melts to form water. Water freezes and ice melts at exactly the same temperature as heat is removed or added. The boiling point marks the temperature at which water boils to form steam or steam condenses to form water under standard atmospheric pressure.

Heat, Part 1

The two fixed points on the tube therefore represent two very definite temperatures. Between the two points the tube is marked off into small equal divisions, or graduations, according to the temperature scale to be used. The inside diameter of the capillary tube of a thermometer must be the same throughout the entire length of the tube. Then the amount of mercury contained in the tube between any two graduations will be equal to the amount of mercury contained in the tube between any other two graduations. Thus each and every graduation will represent the same quantity of mercury. The equal graduations are called degrees.

Temperature Scales
two most widely used are 11 TheCelsius scales. Both are temperature scales twothe Fahrenheit and the based on the same fixed points: the freezing and boiling points of water. But the two scales differ in the number of degrees between the freezing and the boiling points, and they also differ in the starting or zero point. On the Fahrenheit scale the freezing point is marked 32 (degrees) and the boiling point is marked 212. The distance on the thermometer tube between those two points is then divided into 180 equal degrees. Consequently, there are 180 Fahrenheit degrees between the freezing and the boiling points of water. Thirty-two divisions are marked off from the freezing point downward. The lowest of the divisions is marked 0 and is called the zero point of the scale. The graduations may be extended below the zero point as well as above the boiling point so that temperatures below 0F (degrees Fahrenheit) and above 212 F can be measured. On the Celsius scale the freezing point of water is marked 0 and the boiling point is marked 100. The glass stem between the two marks is divided into 100 equal parts each of which represents one Celsius degree. Consequently, there are 100 Celsius degrees between the freezing and boiling points of water. As on the Fahrenheit scale, the divisions may be carried below the zero point and above the boiling point. The added markings make it possible to measure temperatures below 0C (degrees Celsius) and above 100C. Beginning with 0, the divisions on both the Fahrenheit and Celsius scales are numbered l, 2, 3, 4, and so on, both above and below the zero point. Therefore, in giving the lower readings of a thermometer, it is necessary to state the number of degrees and whether the degrees are above or below zero. To distinguish temperatures below zero from those above, the minus is always placed before the below-zero reading. On either scale, that is, 12 means 12 above zero and 12 means 12 below zero.

Heat, Part 1

Absolute Temperature
lost from a substance, the temperature substance 12 When heat isheat loss continues, a point at which thereof themore heat drops. If the is no to remove and no molecular energy remains will be reached. The substance will then have no heat energy and the molecules will have stopped vibrating and will be motionless. The temperature at which that occurs is called absolute zero, and all temperatures measured from that point are called absolute temperatures. Although absolute zero has never actually been reached, scientists have come very close to it in laboratory experiments. For measuring absolute temperatures, there is a special temperature scale based on absolute zero as the starting point. The special absolute scale is graduated in either Fahrenheit or Celsius degrees. Absolute zero on the Fahrenheit scale, 0, is 459.6 below zero and is written 459.6F. The absolute Fahrenheit scale of temperature is often called the Rankine scale, denoted by R. Thus, 362 degrees Fahrenheit absolute, 362F abs, may be written 362R. On the Celsius scale, absolute zero, or 0C, is 273 below zero and is written 273C. The absolute Celsius scale is commonly called the kelvin scale, denoted by K. For example, 515 degrees Celsius absolute, 515C abs, becomes 515 K. (Note that the degree symbol is NOT used with K. Also, one unit on the kelvin scale is called a kelvin rather than a degree.) The two Fahrenheit scales and the two Celsius scales are placed side by side in Figure 2 to illustrate the relative values of each scale on the other scales. If a certain temperature were to be measured on all four scales, four different numerical values would be obtained to represent it. For that reason it is important, when expressing a temperature, always to indicate the scale on which the temperature was measured. You will note in the illustration that if either absolute scale, Rankine or kelvin, is used, the value is always positive (+); there are no negative values. On the other two scales, F and C, values below zero are negative ().

Heat, Part 1

FIGURE 2The different temperature scales are shown side by side for ease of comparison.

Temperature Conversions
of degrees between the freezing points of 13 The numberon the Celsius scale and 180 on theand boilingscale. Since water is 100 Fahrenheit 100 on the Celsius scale is equal to 180 on the Fahrenheit scale, the span of one degree on the Fahrenheit scale is smaller than the span of one degree on the Celsius scale. Specifically, since 180 units on the Fahrenheit scale are required to equal the same amount of temperature change as 100 units on the Celsius scale, one degree on the Fahrenheit scale is only 100180 or 59 as large as a unit on the Celsius scale. Conversely, a unit on the Celsius scale is larger than a unit on the Fahrenheit scale; specifically, one unit on the Celsius scale is 180100 or 9 the size of one unit on the Fahrenheit scale. Therefore, a change of 1F 5 is equal to 100180 C or 59 C, and a change of 1C is equal to 180100 F or 95 F. Since 0C temperature corresponds with 32F temperature, an addition of 32 must be made when converting Celsius degrees to Fahrenheit degrees.

Heat, Part 1

## in which F = temperature in degrees Fahrenheit C = temperature in degrees Celsius

Example Problems
Problem 1: Calculate the Fahrenheit temperature corresponding to a) 160C, b) 50C, and c) 30C. Solution: a) In formula 1, C = 160 and F = (95 160) + 32 = 320F b) Here C = 50. Then F = (95 50) + 32 = 122F c) In this case C = 30 and 95C is the product of a positive quantity and a negative quantity. Since such a product is negative, F = 95 (30) + 32 = 54 + 32 = 22F The result is negative, so the Fahrenheit temperature is 22 below zero. Temperatures in degrees Fahrenheit may be changed to the corresponding temperatures in degrees Celsius by the use of the following formula: C = 59(F 32) in which C = temperature in degrees Celsius F = temperature in degrees Fahrenheit Problem 2: What will be the reading on a Celsius thermometer if a Fahrenheit thermometer indicates a temperature of a) 59F, b) 23F, c) 13F? Solution: a) By using formula 2, C = 59 (59 32) = 59 27 = 15C b) In this case, C = 59 (23 32) = 59 ( 9) = 5C Since the result is negative, the Celsius temperature is 5 below zero. c) Here the required Celsius temperature is C = 59 ( 13 32) = 59 ( 45) = 25C (2)

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Heat, Part 1

The symbol generally used to denote absolute temperature is T, and the symbol for Fahrenheit temperature is t. Fahrenheit temperature t can be converted to absolute Fahrenheit temperature or degrees Rankine T by adding 459.6. The formula is T = t + 459.6 (3)

in which T = temperature, in degrees Fahrenheit absolute or degrees Rankine t = temperature, in degrees Fahrenheit Celsius temperature t1 can be converted to absolute Celsius temperature, or kelvins, T1 by adding 273. The formula is T1 = t1 + 273 (4)

## in which T1 = temperature, in degrees Celsius absolute, or kelvins t1 = temperature, in degrees Celsius

Example Problems
At intervals throughout this text you will find one or more example problems solved to illustrate clearly the application of a principle, rule, or formula. Read each problem carefully and study its solution until you understand it perfectly. Problem 1: The temperature of a gas in a furnace was measured and found to be 2200F. What was the absolute temperature of the gas? Solution: Use formula 3. In this formula t = 2200F. Then T = 2200 + 459.6 = 2659.6R Problem 2: A temperature of 300C corresponds to what temperature on the absolute scale? Solution: Use formula 4 to find T1 = 300 + 273 = 573 K Problem 3: The boiling temperature of liquid oxygen at atmospheric pressure is 90 K. What is the equivalent temperature in degrees Fahrenheit? Solution: Since the given temperature is the absolute temperature, it can be converted to Celsius degrees by the use of formula 4. T1 = 90; therefore, 90 = t1 + 273 and t1 = 90 273 = 183C. Now use formula 1 to convert degrees C to degrees F. F = 9 ( 183) + 32 = 329.4 + 32 = 297.4 F 5

Heat, Part 1

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## Special Temperature-Measuring Devices

Since mercury freezes at 38.9C, 14 tube at or below that temperature. it will not be liquid in the thermometer Therefore, the mercury thermometer will not function at or below 38.9C (38.02F). With it, temperatures below 38.9C cannot be measured. Alcohol is sometimes used as the expanding fluid in a thermometer for measuring low temperatures because it does not solidify until it reaches 130C (202F). When alcohol is used in a thermometer tube, it is almost always colored, usually either red or black, for easy reading. Another type of thermometer uses an expanding and contracting gas in a sealed metal tube. There are special thermometers which do not make use of the property of thermal expansion. Instead they use electricity and light to measure temperature. The electrical types include the thermocouple, which consists of two dissimilar metals that generate voltage when subjected to temperature change. The electrical resistance thermometer is subjected to a change in electrical resistance when its temperature changes. The thermometer using light is called an optical pyrometer. It indicates temperature according to the brilliance of the light given off by the hot body. It is used for measuring high temperatures such as those of molten steel in open hearth furnaces.

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Heat, Part 1

Practice Problems 1
Practice problems are included in this text to test your ability to apply a rule or a formula. Work each problem carefully and check your answer against the answer given at the end of this text. 1. Express 68F in degrees Celsius. 2. Change 40C to degrees Fahrenheit. 3. Mercury boils at 357C. What is the corresponding Rankine temperature? 4. Convert 95F to kelvins. Check your answers with those on page 79.

Heat, Part 1

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Heat, Part 1

MEASUREMENT OF HEAT
Units of Heat
not material 15 Since heat issomeaother unitsubstance, it cannot be measured in pounds, gallons, or of physical measurement. In contrast, it must be measured by the effects that it produces. We may use pure water and observe the effects of adding heat to it. If a quart of water is placed over a steady gas or oil flame, five times as long is required to raise the temperature of the water 5 as to raise it l. That is because five times as much heat must be added to the water as in the first case. If instead of 1 qt (quart), 2 qt of water is placed in a container over the same flame, twice as long will be required to raise the temperature of the 2 qt 1 as to raise the temperature of 1 qt l. The burning oil or gas is giving off heat at a uniform rate, and twice as much of that heat has been absorbed by the 2 qt of water as by the 1 qt in getting up to the same temperature. Of any given substance it may be said that the total amount of heat contained in any quantity of the substance is proportional to the product of the weight and absolute temperature of the given quantity. But if we consider only the heat added to the substance during our time of observation, we note that the heat added to a quantity of the substance is proportional to the weight of the quantity and to the number of degrees of temperature rise. Some sort of a specifically defined unit is required for a quantitative measurement of the heat effect. In the English system, the heat unit commonly used is the British thermal unit, abbreviated Btu. The Btu is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of pure water one degree Fahrenheit. Therefore, 10 Btu will heat 1 lb of water 10F or 10 lb of water 1F. The heat necessary to raise the temperature of a pound of water one degree is not exactly the same at all temperatures. Therefore, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers has more precisely defined a Btu as 1180 of the heat required to raise the temperature of a pound of water from 32F to 212F at standard atmospheric pressure. In the metric system, the unit of heat is the joule. There are 1055 J (joules) in one Btu, or 1 Btu = 1055 J.

Heat, Part 1

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## Heat Capacity and Specific Heat

heat 16 Different substances require different amounts ofequalto raise the temperatures of equal weights of them one degree. If weights of two different substances are heated under exactly the same conditions to a certain temperature, it will take longer to heat one than to heat the other. If at the same higher temperature, the two substances are plunged into equal quantities of cold water at the same starting temperature, the temperature of the water will be raised more by the substance that originally required the longer heating time. For example, more heating time is required to raise the temperature of 1 lb of iron from 70F to 300F than to raise the temperature of 1 lb of lead from 70F to 300F under the same conditions. If each metal is then cooled in a separate container of, say, 5 lb of water at 70F, the water in which the iron cools will be heated to a higher temperature than that in which the lead cools. That indicates that more heat is required to raise the temperature of a pound of iron a certain number of degrees than to raise the temperature of a pound of lead the same number of degrees. It further indicates that the iron, at the same temperature as the lead, holds more heat than the lead. The ability of a material to absorb heat is called thermal capacity or heat capacity. When expressed in units, heat capacity is defined as the quantity of heat necessary to raise the temperature of a body of unit weight one degree. The same quantity of heat must be removed from the body of unit weight to permit the temperature of the body to fall one degree. The temperature of a body depends only on the average vibrational energy of the molecules of the body, but the total amount of heat in a body depends on the temperature of, weight of, and type of material composing the body. The heat capacity of a substance is expressed in English units as Btu per pound per degree Fahrenheit and in metric units as joules per kilogram per kelvin. Because water, compared with equal weights of most other substances, requires more heat to raise its temperature one degree, it is used as a standard of comparison. The standard makes it more convenient to speak of the specific heat of a substance. Specific heat is defined as the ratio of the heat capacity of a substance divided by the heat capacity of the same weight of water. In other words, specific heat is the ratio obtained by dividing the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a certain weight of the substance one degree by the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of the same weight of water one degree. Since equal weights and the same temperature units are used for both of the thermal capacities, the ratios will be without units. Therefore, specific heat is sometimes treated as an abstract number without any units of measurement written after it. For example, 0.0314 Btu is required to

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Heat, Part 1

raise the temperature of 1 lb of lead 1F and 1 Btu is required to raise the temperature of 1 lb of water 1F. Consequently, the specific heat of lead is 0.0314 Btu/(lb F) 1 Btu/(lb F) or simply 0.0314

Different materials have widely different values of specific heat. For example, although lead has a low specific heat of 0.0314, lithium has a specific heat higher than that of water. The specific heats of some common solids, liquids, and gases are shown in Table l. The specific heats of most materials vary with temperature, but the values given in Table 1 are suitable from room temperatures to the boiling point of water.

## Table 1 SPECIFIC HEATS OF SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, AND GASES

Specific Heat Solids Specific Heat Liquids Specific Heat Gases At Constant Pressure 0.23751 0.21751 0.248 3.450 0.248 0.2070 0.518 0.123 At Constant Volume 0.16902 0.15507 0.177 2.450 0.177 0.1570

Coal Copper Gold Aluminum Wrought iron Steel (soft) Steel (hard) Zinc Brass Glass Cast iron Lead Nickel Platinum Silver Tin Ice Sulfur Charcoal Graphite Granite Asbestos Limestone Sand Rubber Wood

0.314 .0951 .0324 .2143 .1138 .1165 .1175 .0956 .0939 .1937 .1298 .0314 .1089 .0324 .0570 .0562 .5040 .2026 .2410 .201 .192 .195 .216 .191 .481 0.327

Water Alcohol Methyl alcohol Ethyl alcohol Mercury Benzine Lead (melted) Sulfur (melted) Tin (melted) Sulfuric acid Turpentine Glycerine Sea water Petroleum

1.0000 0.6200 .680 .601 .0333 .4500 .0402 .2340 .0637 .3350 .4260 .5550 .9400 0.5110

Air Oxygen Nitrogen Hydrogen Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Ammonia Argon

Heat, Part 1

17

## Heat Required for a Change of Temperature

of heat, in must be added to a raise the 17 The quantityof the bodyBtu, that number of degrees, body tomust be temperature a given or that removed from a body in order to lower the temperature of the body a given number of degrees, is found as follows: Multiply the weight of the body, in pounds, by the specific heat of that body, and multiply that product by the change in temperature, in degrees Fahrenheit. When expressed as a formula, that becomes Q = cw(t2 t1) in which Q = quantity of heat absorbed or given up, in Btu c = specific heat of the substance w = weight of the body, in pounds t2 = final temperature, in degrees Fahrenheit t1 = original temperature, in degrees Fahrenheit Put into words, formula 1 means that the heat absorbed or given up by the body is equal to the weight times the specific heat times the change in temperature. If the final temperature t2 is lower than the original temperature t1, then the value of the quantity t2 t1 is negative because t2 is a smaller number than t1. Therefore, the value of the term cw(t2 t1) also is negative. Then the value of Q is negative. A negative Q means that the body became cooler and lost heat. A positive Q would mean the reverse, that is, that the body became warmer and absorbed heat energy. The weight w, in pounds, of a given substance that can be changed from one temperature to another by adding or removing a certain quantity of heat is found by dividing the given quantity of heat, measured in Btu, by the product of the specific heat and the change in temperature of the body, as shown by the formula. w= Q c(t2 t1) (2) (1)

in which the letters have the same meaning as in formula 1. Formula 2 is simply a rearrangement of formula 1. The change of temperature (t2 t1) produced in a body of known weight w by adding or removing a given quantity of heat Q is found by dividing the given quantity of heat, in Btu, by the product of the specific heat and the weight of the body, in pounds, as expressed by the formula t2 t1 = Q cw (3)

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Heat, Part 1

in which the letters have the same meaning as in formulas 1 and 2. Formula 3 is, again, a rearrangement of formula 1.

Example Problems
Problem 1: How much heat is required to heat 20 lb of lead from 50F to 400F? State the answer in both Btu and joules. Solution: From Table 1, the specific heat c of lead is 0.0314. Substitute the given values in formula 1, and Q = 0.0314 20 (400 50) = 219.8 Btu From Article 15, 1 Btu = 1055 J; then 219.8 Btu = 219.8 1055 = 231,889 J Problem 2: A bar of wrought iron weighing 60 lb has a temperature of 800F. How much heat must be removed to cool it to 50F? Solution: Apply formula 1, from Table 1, c = 0.1138 for wrought iron. From the information given, t1 = 800F, t2 = 50F, and w = 60 lb. Then Q = 0.1138 60 (50 800) = 5121 Btu Problem 3: How many pounds of water can be raised from 48F to 192F by 12,960 Btu? Solution: Apply formula 2. The specific heat of water, by definition, is c = 1; Q = 12,960 Btu; t2 = 192F; and t1 = 48F. Then w= 12,960 12,960 = = 90 lb 144 1(192 48)

## Mixing Substances of Unequal Temperature

substances having different and different 18 If quantities ofare mixed and no change ofspecific heats in any of the temperatures state occurs substances (such as a vapor condensing into a liquid), the resulting temperature of the mixture will depend on the weight, specific heat, and temperature of each of the substances. If a certain quantity of water having a temperature of 40F is mixed with a like quantity having a temperature of 100F, the temperature 40 + 100 = 70F. But if 5 lb of copper having a after mixing will be 2 temperature of 100F is immersed in 5 lb of water having a temperature of 40F, the resulting temperature will not be 70F because the specific heat of copper is different from that of water.

Heat, Part 1

19

To find the final temperature of such a mixture, we first find the product of the weight, the specific heat, and the temperature of each substance and then add the products. The sum is used as the numerator of a fraction. Next we find the product of the weight and the specific heat of each substance and add the products. That sum then becomes the denominator of the fraction. The resulting quotient is the final temperature of the mixture. t= w1 c1 t1 + w2 c2 t2 + w3 c3 t3 + . . . w1 c1 + w2 c2 + w3 c3 + . . .

in which t = final temperature of mixture, in degrees Fahrenheit w1, w2, w3 = weight of the first, second, and third bodies, respectively in pounds c1, c2, c3, = specific heat of the first, second, and third bodies, respectively t1, t2, t3, = original temperature of the first, second, and third bodies, respectively, in degrees Fahrenheit Let us apply that formula to the case of the copper immersed in water. The specific heat of water is 1, and the specific heat of copper, from Table 1, is 0.0951. Then the final temperature is found from the formula t= (5 1 40) + (5 0.0951 100) = 45.2F (5 1) + (5 0.0951)

Example Problems
Problem 1: If 21 lb of water at a temperature of 52F is mixed with 40 lb of water at a temperature of 160F, what is the temperature of the mixture? Solution: By applying the formula, we have t= (21 1 52) + (40 1 160) = 122.8F (21 1) + (40 1)

Problem 2: A wrought-iron ball weighing 1 lb is placed in a furnace. When it has attained the temperature of the furnace, it is taken out and placed in a copper vessel that weighs 12 lb and contains exactly 2 lb of water at a temperature of 75F. Assume that no water escapes as steam and that the temperature of the ball, the water, and the vessel after mixing is 156F. What is the temperature of the furnace?

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Heat, Part 1

Solution: Let t1 = the temperature of the furnace and also the original temperature of the ball. Use Table 1 to find the required values of the specific heats. Substitute them and the given values in the formula. 156 = =

## (1 0.1138 t1) + (2 1 75) + (0.5 0.0951 75) (1 0.1138) + (2 1) + (0.5 0.0951)

0.1138t1 + 153.566 2.16135

When we clear the fractions, 156 2.16135 = 0.1138t1 + 153.566 Hence, 0.1138t1 = (156 2.16135) 153.566 = 183.604 t1 = 1613.3F

## Determination of Specific Heat

for determining the specific 19 The method of mixtures is commonly used we assume that no appreciaheat of a substance. In using the method, ble quantity of heat will flow from the outside surroundings into the mixture or from the mixture to the outside. Then when hot and cold substances are mixed thoroughly, none of the energy is lost. The heat energy must go somewhere even though, for all practical purposes, it cannot escape from the experimental apparatus. Within the apparatus, the heat energy passes from the hot body to the cold body, and the heat gained by the cold body is equal to the heat lost by the hot body. The apparatus used for heat measurements by the method of mixtures is called a calorimeter. One type of calorimeter is shown in Figure 3. It has been designed with features that will minimize the flow of heat to or from the inner container in which the mixture is placed. In the illustration, the outer container 1 can be filled with water 2 at a temperature near that of the inner container 3. An air space 4 between the inner and the outer containers contributes to the heat insulation of the unit. Also, the surfaces of the containers are highly polished, which reduces the heat loss by radiation. The pedestals 5 on which the inner container rests are made of hard rubber or some other heat-resistant material. The stirring rod 6 is used to agitate the mixture 7 to assure a uniform temperature before the final temperature as read on the thermometer 8 placed in the inner container is recorded.

Heat, Part 1

21

MIXTURE

## FIGURE 3The cross section of a typical calorimeter is shown here.

The procedure for determining the specific heat of a solid material consists in placing a sample of the material of known weight and temperature in the inner container, in which there is a certain quantity of pure water at a known initial temperature. The final temperature of the mixture is then measured. By using the formula given in Article 18, the specific heat of the substance may be calculated. Thus, in the formula t= w1 c1 t1 + w2 c2 t2 + w3 c3 t3 + . . . w1 c1 + w2 c2 + w3 c3 + . . .

suppose that the specific heat c3 is required and that all the other quantities, including t, are known or have been measured. If the given equation is solved for c3, t(w1 c1 + w2 c2) + tw3 c3 = w1 c1 t1 + w2 c2 t2 + w3 c3 t3 tw3 c3 t3 w3 c3 = w1 c1 t1 w1 c1 t + w2 c2 t2 w2 c2 t w1 c1 (t1 t) + w2 c2 (t2 t) c3 = w3 (t t3)

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Heat, Part 1

Example Problem
Problem: A silver vessel weighing 13 oz (ounces) is suspended by a string, and 1 lb 4 oz of water having a temperature of 120F is poured into it. Into the water is then placed a piece of metal that weighs 14 oz and has a temperature of 100F. If the original temperature of the vessel is 72F and the final temperature is 117F, what is the specific heat of the piece of metal? Solution: First all weights must be reduced to either pounds or ounces. The specific heat of silver can be found in Table 1. Use the formula and let w1, c1, and t1 represent weight, specific heat, and temperature, respectively, of the silver vessel. The symbols w2, c2, and t2 will stand for the same quantities for the water, and w3, c3, and t3 will represent the same quantities for the piece of metal. c3 = = [13 0.057(72 117)] + [20 1(120 117)] 14(117 100) 33.345 + 60 = 0.112 238

## Variations in Specific Heat Values

Table 1 would seem to indicate that the specific 20 Although constant, there is a slight increase in specific heatheats of many solids are with increase of temperature. For example, the mean specific heat of pure iron between 32F and 212F has been found to be 0.1098, but between 212F and 570F it has been found to be 0.1218. Different substances are different in this respect, and there does not seem to be any common law or principle governing them. The specific heat of a substance also varies with its state, whether solid, liquid, or gaseous. The specific heat of water, for example, is nearly twice as great as that of ice and is more than twice as great as that of steam at constant pressure. In general, a substance in the solid state has a smaller specific heat than in the liquid state. All gases have two specific-heat values. One value is for the gas heated at constant pressure, and one value is for the gas heated at constant volume. The specific heat of a gas at constant pressure is greater than that at constant volume. See Table 1.

Heat, Part 1

23

Practice Problems 2
1. How much heat is required to change the temperature of a 300-lb block of ice from 20F to 32F? 2. The water in a tank weighs 640 lb and has a temperature of 65F. What will be its temperature after 51,200 Btu is added? 3. To raise the temperature of 20 lb of iron from 62F to 63F requires 2.276 Btu. a) What is the specific heat of the iron? b) Is the iron cast or wrought? 4. In order to determine the specific heat of a certain alloy, a piece weighing 1212 oz was heated to a temperature of 320F and was then immersed in 2 lb 6 oz of water contained in a lead vessel that weighed 4 lb 7 oz. The initial temperature of the water and of the vessel was 70F. What was the specific heat of the alloy if the final temperature was 79F? Check your answers with those on page 80.

24

Heat, Part 1

1. In the English system, the unit of heat is the _______. 2. A(n) _______ is the apparatus used to determine the specific heat of a substance. 3. Generally speaking, a substance in the solid state has a (smaller, larger) _______ specific heat than in the liquid state. Check your answers with those on page 85.

Heat, Part 1

25

## EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION

Forms of Expansion
body (solid, liquid, or that 21 The volume of awhen the temperature ofgas) bodyisisfree to expand always changes the changed. If other conditions remain the same, nearly all bodies expand when heated and contract or shrink when cooled. The expansion of solids may be considered in three ways: The first is expansion in one direction, such as the elongation of a metal rod; it is called linear expansion. The second is surface expansion, which refers to the increase in area. The third is cubic expansion, which refers to the general increase in the whole volume. When expansion of solids is spoken of, linear expansion is usually meant, although we must not forget that solid bodies expand in all directions. In the case of liquids and gases, which have no definite forms, only cubic expansion can be considered. As a rule, the expansion of liquids for a given rise of temperature is greater than that of solids and the expansion of gases is considerably greater than that of liquids. There are exceptions to the rule, however. Some liquids with very low boiling points, such as liquefied gases, expand very rapidly. For example, liquid carbon dioxide expands four times as much as air for a given change of temperature. When equal amounts of heat are added, a solid or liquid will expand by equal increases of volume. That is not a rigid rule, but it applies to most substances. Consequently, the expansion and contraction of a substance is a reasonably good guide to changes of temperature. That is true as long as the temperature does not closely approach that at which a change of state is produced, as from the solid to the liquid state or from the liquid to the gaseous state. The change in volume of any substance caused by a change of temperature bears a fairly definite and constant relation to the change of temperature. That does not mean, however, that all substances expand and contract at the same rate. Different solids and liquids expand and contract at different rates. For example, for the same change of temperature, copper expands and contracts much more than platinum, and alcohol expands and contracts more than water.

Demonstrating Expansion
exhibiting the linear a 22 An apparatus for4. A metal rod is fixedexpansion ofby solid body is shown in Figure at one end a setscrew, and its other end passes freely through a supporting fork. The free end of

26

Heat, Part 1

the rod presses against the short arm of an indicator, which is free to swivel on a pin. The rod is heated by a flame and, as a result of the temperature rise, expands in all directions. Its increase in length causes the indicator to move along the graduated arc.

## FIGURE 4A setup to demonstrate the linear expansion of metals is shown here.

Cubic expansion may be illustrated by means of the apparatus shown in Figure 5. The outside diameter of the metal ball is very nearly the same as the inside diameter of the metal ring when both the ring and the ball are at room temperature. At room temperature the ball will freely, but just barely, pass through the ring. But when the ball is heated by a flame, the volume of the ball increases so much that the ball will no longer pass through the ring. When the ball is allowed to cool down to room temperature, it shrinks in volume and once again will pass through the ring.

FIGURE 5After it is heated, the metal ball will not pass through the ring as it did when it was at room temperature. The reason is that the ball expanded in all directions upon being heated.

Heat, Part 1

27

## Expansion in Practical Applications

the change dimensions when a body is 23 Because of engineeringinparts must bethat occurs and assembled heated or cooled, designed to take the change into account. If they are not, the stresses caused by change in dimensions can damage the parts. For example, the grate bars that support the fuel in the furnace of a boiler must not fit tightly at their ends. If they do, the expansion resulting from the heat absorbed from the wire may cause them to bulge or crack the brickwork of the fire chamber. Long, straight pipes carrying steam, water, or gas must be provided with slip joints or with bends of sufficient flexibility to take up the expansion or contraction due to change of temperature. Long outdoor sections of pipe carrying natural gas are fabricated with a flexible loop, as shown in Figure 6, to take up the expansion and contraction of the pipe caused by daily and seasonal changes in temperature. A similar device is often used in steam pipeline construction to prevent excessive strain on the pipes when large changes in temperature occur, especially during start-up and shutdown of the boilers.

FIGURE 6To compensate for the expansion and contraction of long pipelines, pipe loops should be provided at periodic intervals.

The engineer who designs a steel bridge must provide for expansion and contraction of the steel caused by the seasonal temperature changes. One end of the bridge may be mounted on rollers that roll along a steel plate on top of the foundation as the bridge expands and contracts. Machine shops, particularly locomotive shops, take advantage of expansion when metal tires are to be fitted onto wheels. The tire is bored a little smaller than the wheel diameter, heated until it expands enough

28

Heat, Part 1

to go over the wheel, and then cooled with cold water. That causes it to contract and tend to regain its original size, but it is prevented from doing so by the wheel, which is a trifle larger. The tire is thus caused to bind around the wheel with great force. The strong friction between the tire and the wheel prevents the two from separating. We have already seen how advantage is taken of the expansion of liquidsmercury and alcoholin the construction of thermometers.

## Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

by expansion 24 To solve the practicaltoproblems posedaccurate means and contraction and to use the effects advantage, an of calculating the amount of expansion is required. The coefficients of thermal expansion are used for the purpose. When a solid expands because of a rise in temperature, it expands in all directions; each dimension of the solid object increases. For example, when a steel wire is heated, it increases in volume because of increases in both its length and diameter. The rule of linear expansion of a wire can therefore be applied to both the length and the diameter. But since the length of a wire is usually many times greater than the diameter, the increase in length due to expansion is usually the more important one to consider. The expansion of a body for each degree of increase in temperature bears a definite relation to the original length of the body. The linear coefficient of thermal expansion represents the increase in length of a piece of material one unit long due to a temperature change of 1F. The linear coefficients of thermal expansion Cl of some solid substances are listed in Table 2. The coefficient for solids changes slightly with temperature, but the change is so slight that it can be assumed to be constant. The coefficients given in Table 2 for solids are the mean values between 32F and 2l2F. The coefficient of surface expansion is the numerical relation between the increase of area and the original area for an increase of one degree in temperature. Surface expansion is expansion in two directions, and the coefficient of surface expansion, for all practical purposes, can be taken as equal to twice the linear coefficient of expansion. The coefficient of cubic thermal expansion is the numerical relation between the increase of volume and the original volume for an increase of one degree in temperature. The cubic thermal expansion of solids and liquids is a result of expansion in three directions: length, width, and thickness. The coefficient of cubic thermal expansion, for all practical purposes, is three times the linear coefficient. Values of the coefficients of cubic expansion of some liquids are given in Table 2. The coefficients given are mean values at room temperature.

Heat, Part 1

29

## Table 2 COEFFICIENTS OF THERMAL EXPANSION

Solids Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, Cl 0.000013 .000010 .0000094 .0000005 .0000050 .00000044 .0000059 .0000065 .0000106 .0001230 .0000049 .0000056 .0000073 0.000017 Liquids Cubic Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, Cc 0.00061 .00077 .00092 .00028 .00010 .00050 .00054 0.000115

Aluminum Brass Copper Diamond Glass (plate) Invar Iron (cast) Iron (wrought) Silver Tin Platinum Steel (soft) Steel (hard) Zinc

Alcohol (ethyl) Benzine Ether Glycerine Mercury Petroleum (Penna.) Turpentine Water

## Calculation of Expansion or Contraction

of expansion or contraction of a body due or 25 The amount be found by multiplying the length, area, or to heating the cooling may volume of body, as the case may be, by the appropriate coefficient of expansion and that product in turn by the change in temperature. To find the change in length, that is, the linear expansion or linear contraction due to a change in temperature, use the following formula: l = Cl L(t2 t1) (1)

in which l = change in one dimension Cl = linear coefficient of thermal expansion L = original length of the material t2 = final temperature of the material, in degrees Fahrenheit t1 = original temperature of the material, in degrees Fahrenheit The symbols L and l must be expressed in the same dimensional units, as in inches or feet. If L is in inches, then l will be found in inches; if L is in feet, then l will be found in feet.

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Heat, Part 1

Example Problems
Problem 1: A steel bridge 1 mile long is subjected to a temperature change from winter to summer. The highest temperature recorded in summer was 105F, and the lowest temperature recorded in winter was 25F. Determine the maximum change in the length of the bridge from the coldest day in winter to the hottest day in summer. Solution: In formula 1, Cl from Table 2 = 0.0000056, L = 5280 ft (feet), and t2 t1 = 130F. By substitution of those values, l = 0.0000056 5280 130 = 3.84 ft Thus the steel bridge would have been 3.84 ft longer on the hottest day than it was on the coldest day. The following formula can be used to compute surface expansion or contraction, that is, change in area due to temperature change: a = Ca A(t2 t1) (2)

in which a = changes in area Ca = area coefficient of thermal expansion, or Ca = 2Cl A = original area of surface of the material t2 = final temperature of the material, in degrees Fahrenheit t1 = original temperature of the material, in degrees Fahrenheit The quantities A and a must be expressed in the same units. Problem 2: The linear coefficient of thermal expansion of copper from Table 2 is 0.0000094. Compute a) the area coefficient of thermal expansion and b) the increase in area of a sheet of copper 10 ft square when the temperature changes from 50F to 100F. Solution: a) Ca = 2Cl = 2 0.0000094 = 0.0000188 b) The surface area A = 10 10 = 100 sq ft (square feet). Then, by formula 2, a = 0.0000188 100(100 50) = 0.094 sq ft The change in volume, or cubic expansion or contraction, can be calculated by using the following formula: v = Cc V(t2 t1) (3)

in which v = change in volume Cc = cubic coefficient of thermal expansion, or Cc = 3Cl V = original volume of the material t2 = final temperature of the material, in degrees Fahrenheit t1 = original temperature of the material, in degrees Fahrenheit

Heat, Part 1

31

Again, you must remember to express V and v in the same dimensional units. For example, if V is in cubic inches, v will be found in cubic inches. Problem 3: A brass casting has a volume of 1 cu ft (cubic foot) when its temperature is 70F. What volume will it have when it is heated to 200F? Solution: From Table 2, Cc = 3Cl = 3 0.00001 = 0.00003. Then by formula 3, v = 0.00003 1 (200 70) = 0.0039 cu ft increase in volume Then the final volume will be v + V = 0.0039 + 1 = 1.0039 cu ft

## Using Differences in Expansion

for the same change in temperature, 26 Table 2 shows that, differently. The unequal expansion ofdifferent substances expand two metals, called bimetallic expansion, is often used to advantage in the construction of temperature-sensitive devices. The result of the unequal expansion of two dissimilar metals that are rigidly fastened together is shown in Figure 7. If the two metals are brass and wrought iron, for example, the coefficients of expansion in Table 2 show that the Cl for brass, 0.000010, is more than the Cl for wrought iron, 0.0000065. In fact, the two coefficients of expansion demonstrate that brass will expand nearly 54% (percent) more than wrought iron for the same amount of temperature increase: 0.000010 0.0000065 100% = 54% 0.0000065 In Figure 7A is shown a straight strip of iron riveted to a straight strip of brass to form a bimetal strip. If the bimetal strip is heated, the brass will expand more than the iron and will bend the strip as shown in Figure 7B; the brass will be on the larger outside of the curve. If the strip is cooled to the original temperature at which the metals were fastened together, it will return to the original shape as shown in Figure 7A. If the strip is cooled to a lower temperature, it will take the form shown in Figure 7C because the brass will contract more than the iron. The brass will then be on the smaller inside of the curve. The principle of bimetallic expansion is used in many machines and instruments. A common example is the thermostat used to control temperature. When a thermostat is used to control house temperature, the bimetal strip bends to cause an electrical switch to open or close, which in turn causes the furnace to start or stop. If the temperature is too low, the strip bends one way to open the switch to start the furnace so

32

Heat, Part 1

that heat will be added to the air in the house. When the temperature returns to normal, the bimetal strip moves in the opposite direction as it warms up. In that way, the strip closes the switch, stops the furnace, and stops the addition of heat.

FIGURE 7Iron and brass expand at different rates as shown by the bimetal strip in (B) and (C).

Expansion of Water
when they freeze 27 As a rule, liquids shrink or contractmarked exception and most solids expand when they melt. Water is a to the general rule. If water is cooled from its boiling point, it continuously contracts until it reaches 39.1F. Then it expands until it freezes at 32F. On the other hand, if water at 32F is heated, it contracts until it reaches 39.1 F, when it begins to expand. Therefore, water is most dense at the point where the change occurs, that is, at 39.1F. Therefore, water has more weight per volume at that temperature than at any other. The importance of that exception to the general rule of expansion and contraction is that ice forms on the surface of water because the ice is less dense than the warmer water lying at varying depths below it. Were it not so, all the large bodies of water would freeze solid and would thereby so seriously affect the climate that the earth would be uninhabitable. From the exceptional behavior of water it is not surprising that we find the values of the coefficient of expansion of water vary through a wide range depending on the temperature of the water.

Heat, Part 1

33

Practice Problems 3
1. How much will a 14-ft-long bar of untempered or soft steel expand if its temperature is raised 80F? 2. A brass rod 112 in. (inches) in diameter and 10 ft long is securely fastened to two rigid supports on a cargo boom during a warm day in summer when the temperature is 110F. On a cold day in winter, when the thermometer registers zero, how much will the bar have tended to shorten owing to the change in temperature? 3. What is the decrease in volume of a copper cylinder 30 in. long and 22 in. in diameter if the cylinder is cooled from 212F to 0F? 4. An aluminum wire measures 1000 ft in length on a summer day when the temperature is 90F. What will be its length on a winter day when the temperature is only 10F? Check your answers with those on page 80.

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Heat, Part 1

1. The expansion of a solid in one direction is known as _______ expansion. 2. A thermometer works because of the _______ and _______ of a liquid with changes in temperature. 3. For practical purposes the coefficient of cubic thermal expansion is considered to be (two, three) _______ times the coefficient of linear expansion. 4. Liquids usually shrink as they freeze, and solids usually expand as they melt. What substance is an exception to the general rule? Check your answers with those on page 85.

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CHANGE OF STATE
Three States of Matter
substances may exist in any one the states of matter: solid, 28 Common gas. If a substance changes fromofone of the three to another, liquid, or it undergoes a change of state. A change of state occurs when a solid changes into a liquid, when a liquid changes into a gas, when a gas changes into a liquid, when a liquid changes into a solid, and when a solid changes directly into a gas. Thinking about the molecular action within a substance will help you understand what is happening when a substance undergoes a change of state. All substances are composed of many molecules in motion. The rate of molecular motion depends on the particular substance considered and on the heat content of that substance, which is indicated by the temperature of the substance. Furthermore, the molecules of a substance are mutually attracted to one another in varying degrees, depending on the particular substance considered. The molecular attraction tends to pull the molecules closer together. The forces of molecular attraction in a solid are greater than those in a liquid; therefore, the molecules in a solid are more tightly bound together than are those in a liquid. In a liquid the forces of molecular attraction are greater than in a gas; consequently, the molecules in a liquid are more tightly bound than are those in a gas. A change in state therefore involves a change in the relative molecular distances of the substance. In turn, that means a change in heat energy is also involved.

Melting Point
a solid body move with comparative slowness in 29 The molecules ofpaths are thought not to change as long as the body fixed paths. The remains solid. That is due to the fact that the molecules in a solid are close together and attract one another very strongly. When a solid is heated, its molecules vibrate faster. The forces of attraction between them have been partially overcome and reduced by the energy supplied by the heating. If the heating is continued, a point at which the solid will melt and change from a solid to a liquid will finally be reached. The heat added to the solid has caused the molecules to vibrate so fast that the molecular forces are reduced and the molecules have greater freedom of movement. In that way the condition of the substance is changed from solid to liquid. The temperature of the solid (a measure of the speed of molecular vibration) at which the change occurs is called the temperature of fusion, or more commonly, the melting point of that solid. The melting point of a pure substance or compound is always the same under standard atmospheric conditions. The melting points of

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Heat, Part 1

a number of different substances are given in Table 3, and the melting points of a few compounds are given in Table 4.

## Table 3 MELTING POINTS OF SOME SUBSTANCES AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

Melting Point Substance Aluminum Gold Lead Platinum Silver Sulfur Tin Tungsten Wrought Iron Zinc F 1220.4 1945.4 621.2 3224 1761 223 449.4 6120 2912 787.2 C 660.22 1063 327.33 1773.33 960.55 106.11 231.99 3382.22 1600 419.55

## Table 4 MELTING POINTS OF COMPOUNDS

Melting Point Substance Acetic acid Aluminum oxide Ammonium sulfate Beeswax Benzoic acid Benzol Borax Calcium chloride Camphor Carbolic acid Glycerine Naphthalene Olive oil Oxalic acid Potassium chlorate Sodium chloride (salt) Sodium carbonate Sodium sulfate Sugar Sulfuric acid Tartaric acid Zinc chloride Zinc sulfate F 61.5 3722.0 329.0 143.6 249.8 41.8 1365.8 1425.2 348.8 109.4 68.0 176.0 60.0 374.0 674.6 1472.0 1565.6 1623.2 320.0 49.7 338.0 689.0 122.0 C 16.38 2050.00 165.00 62.00 121.00 5.44 741.00 774.00 176.00 43.00 20.00 80.00 15.55 190.00 357.00 800.00 852.00 884.00 160.00 9.83 170.00 365.00 50.00

Heat, Part 1

37

If a liquid is allowed to lose heat, the molecules in it will vibrate more and more slowly. The original molecular forces will take over more and more, and the liquid will again become a solid. The temperature at which the change occurs is called the freezing point or point of solidification. It is the same temperature as the melting point. Let us take water and ice as an example. The melting point of ice is 32F, and the freezing point of water is 32F also. If a piece of ice is placed in a container and heat is applied, the temperature of the ice gradually increases until it reaches 32F and the ice begins to melt. If the mixture is stirred well, the temperature remains at 32F until all of the ice is melted. Then the temperature of the liquid begins to rise. If heat is removed from the water, the temperature of the water will fall until it reaches 32F. At that point ice begins to form. The temperature remains at 32F until the water in the container is completely frozen solid. Then the temperature of the solid ice begins to fall. For all pure crystalline solids with regular and definite patterns of molecular structure, the melting point and the freezing point are the same. Noncrystalline, or amorphous, solids do not have a patterned molecular structure, so materials such as glass, wax, and butter do not have definite fixed melting points. They soften gradually to liquids over a range of temperature of a few degrees.

## Latent Heat of Fusion

at a 30 When a solid substance is heatedmelt.constant rate, its temperature will rise steadily until it starts to When that happens, the temperature of the substance will remain constant until the substance passes completely from the solid state to the liquid state. Only then will the temperature begin to rise again. Although the solid is absorbing heat continuously during the transformation, the temperature remains constant while the solid is changing to a liquid. That means none of the heat energy entering the substance is used to increase the temperature; instead, it is used to pull the molecules of the solid apart to form the liquid. In the reverse process, when a liquid changes to a solid, the molecules come closer together to produce the solid. In that case the molecular activity is reduced and the energy of motion is changed to heat and given off by the substance. It is therefore apparent that heat energy is involved whenever matter changes from solid to liquid or from liquid to solid. In the case of a change from solid to liquid, heat energy must be supplied to and absorbed by the substance. In the case of a change from liquid to solid, heat energy is given up by the substance.

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Heat, Part 1

The amount of heat energy absorbed by the substance at the critical point of change from solid to liquid is called the latent heat of fusion or of melting. The amount of heat given off by a liquid changing to a solid is called the latent heat of freezing or of solidification. For the same pure substance, the latent heat of freezing and the latent heat of fusion are numerically equal. To measure the latent heat of fusion, we use the number of heat units required to melt a unit mass of a solid without temperature change. If the unit of mass is the pound, then the heat of fusion is given in Btu per pound (Btu/lb). In the metric system, the heat of fusion is given in joules per kilogram (J/kg) or kilojoules per kilogram (kJ/kg). The equivalents are 1 Btu/lb = 2326 J/kg or 2.326 kJ/kg. The heat of fusion of ice, for example, is 144 Btu/lb, which means that 144 Btu of heat energy must be absorbed to change a pound of ice at 32F to water at the same temperature. Also, a pound of water at 32F must give up 144 Btu of heat to change to ice at the same temperature. Every substance capable of being liquefied has its own particular latent heat of fusion. The latent heat of fusion of some common substances is given in Table 5.

## Table 5 LATENT HEAT

Latent Heat of Fusion Substance Aluminum Antimony Beryllium Bismuth Cadmium Copper Gold Ice Iron (cast) Iron (pure) Lead Mercury Nickel Paraffin Silver Sulfur Tin Water Zinc Btu/lb 170 68.9 470 22.5 23.8 91.1 29 144 12 117 10.0 4.9 133 63.2 45 16.7 26.1 144 43.36 kJ/kg 395.42 160.26 1093.22 52.33 55.36 211.90 67.45 334.94 27.91 272.14 23.26 11.40 309.36 147.00 104.67 38.84 60.71 334.94 100.85

Heat, Part 1

39

## Change of Volume During Solidification

substances expand slightly when they change 31 Mostcontract when they change from liquid to solid.from solid to liquid and A few substances, such as water and type metal, are important exceptions; they expand when they solidify. For example, about 10% of the volume of a piece of ice extends out of the water in which the ice floats, which shows that, for equal weights of ice and water, the volume of ice is about 10% greater than the volume of water. When water freezes, the molecules arrange themselves into crystals. If a piece of ice is examined under a microscope, there are many places where the ice is not compact and tiny spaces between the crystals can be seen. Since a piece of ice is made up not only of tiny ice crystals but also of tiny air spaces, the total volume is greater than that of an equal weight of water. Water pipes and automobile engine blocks are often broken under the stress of the ice forming and expanding in a confined space. However, we must remember that water is only an exception to the general rule that most materials contract when they solidify. In most pure substances the molecules draw closer together into crystals as solidification takes place. But most liquid substances or compounds do not ordinarily entrap and hold tiny air bubbles. When they freeze, there is no entrapped air between the crystals. Hence, almost all liquids contract when they freeze and then occupy less volume in solid form.

Boiling Point
a liquid is heated, 32 When temperature risesthe speed of the molecular vibration increases as the until finally the attractive forces that hold the molecules together are overcome and the molecules pass off into space. The substance has thus changed from a liquid into a gas. The molecules of the gas vibrate much more rapidly than do the molecules of the liquid. Furthermore, the molecules of the gas have no fixed paths of motion. Consequently, when one molecule strikes another at random, it rebounds and keeps moving in the direction of the rebound until it strikes still another molecule. These random collisions cause the gas to expand indefinitely unless it is enclosed in a container. The temperature at which the liquid changes to a gas is called the temperature of vaporization or more commonly, the boiling point of that liquid. If a gas or vapor is allowed to lose heat, its molecules will vibrate more slowly. The original molecular forces take over more and more, and the vapor will again become a liquid. The temperature at which this occurs is called the point or condensation or liquefaction. This point is the same temperature as the boiling point if surrounding conditions are kept the same. The boiling points of a few liquids at standard atmospheric pressure are given in Table 6.

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Heat, Part 1

## Table 6 BOILING POINTS

Boiling Point Liquid Alcohol (ethyl) Ammonia Mercury Nitrogen Oxygen Sulfur Sulfur dioxide Tin Water Zinc Turpentine F 172 28 675 320 297 823 14 4118 212 1680 320 C 77.77 33.33 357.22 195.55 182.77 439.44 10.00 2270.00 100.00 915.55 160.00

If heat is added to a quantity of water in an open container, the temperature of the water will gradually increase. When it reaches 212F, boiling will begin. As further heat is added, the temperature of the water and the resulting vapors will remain at 212F until all of the water has been boiled away as vapor. Then the temperature of the vapor will begin to rise. If heat is removed from the vapor, the temperature of the vapor will fall until it reaches 212F. At that point the vapor will begin to condense back into liquid. The temperature of the vapor and liquid will remain at 212F until all of the vapor has become liquid. Only then will the temperature fall as heat continues to be removed. The boiling point of a pure liquid is always the same under standard atmospheric conditions. However, if the liquid is under a pressure greater than that of the atmosphere at sea level, as in a steam boiler or pressure cooker, its boiling point will become higher as the pressure increases. The reverse is also true. If the liquid is under a pressure less than that of the atmosphere at sea level, its boiling point will be lower. The boiling point of pure water at atmospheric pressure at sea level is 212F; but the boiling point of water is only 156F on top of Mount Everest, where the atmospheric pressure is about two-thirds less than at sea level. Pressure cookers take advantage of the pressure-boiling point relation. The pressure built up inside the cooker is in excess of atmospheric pressure and causes an increase in the cooking temperature. The higher cooking temperature reduces the cooking time of any particular food substance. Different liquids have different boiling points. Some liquids, such as mercury and molten sulfur, boil at high temperatures; other liquids,

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such as ammonia and liquid oxygen, boil at very low temperatures. For example, if liquid oxygen is poured into an open container at atmospheric pressure, it will boil at 297F. The heat necessary to boil the liquid oxygen is supplied by the surrounding atmospheric air.

## Latent Heat of Vaporization

liquid is heated at constant rate, its temperature rise will be 33 When auntil it starts to boil.aWhen that happens, its temperature will steady remain constant until it passes completely into the vapor state. Only then will the temperature begin to rise again. Although the liquid is absorbing heat continuously during the heating process, its temperature remains constant while it is changing to a vapor. That means that none of the heat energy entering the material is used to increase the temperature. Instead of causing the molecules of liquid to vibrate with more energy, the heat supplied is used to pull the molecules of liquid farther apart and into vapor form. In the reverse process, when a vapor changes to a liquid, the molecules come closer together to produce a liquid. The molecular activity is reduced, and the energy of motion is changed to heat and is given off by the substance. Thus it is apparent that heat energy is involved whenever a substance changes from liquid to gas or from gas to liquid. In the case of a change from liquid to gas, heat energy must be supplied to and absorbed by the substance. In the case of a change from gas to liquid, heat energy is produced or given up by the substance. The amount of heat energy absorbed by the liquid from the time it begins to vaporize until all of it reaches the gaseous state is called the latent heat of vaporization. The amount of heat given up by a gas or vapor from the time it begins to condense or liquefy until all of it is liquid is called the latent heat of liquefaction. The latent heat of liquefaction is numerically equal to the latent heat of vaporization for the same pure substance at standard conditions. To measure the latent heat of vaporization, we use the number of heat units required to vaporize a unit mass of a liquid without a temperature change. If the unit of mass used is the pound, then the latent heat of vaporization is given in Btu per pound. In the metric system, the unit for latent heat of vaporization is joules per kilogram (J/kg) or kilojoules per kilogram (kJ/kg). The latent heat of vaporization of pure water, for example, is 970 Btu/lb, which means that, under standard atmospheric conditions, 970 Btu of heat must be absorbed to change a pound of water at 212F to steam at the same temperature. Also, 970 Btu of heat must be given up by a pound of steam at 212F to change it to water at the same temperature.

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Each liquid has a heat of vaporization which varies with the pressure. The heats of vaporization at standard atmospheric pressure for some common substances in liquid form are listed in Table 7.

## Table 7 LATENT HEAT OF VAPORIZATION

Latent Heat of Vaporization Substance Alcohol (ethyl) Ammonia Freon (F12) Mercury Nitrogen Oxygen Sulfur dioxide Water Turpentine Btu/lb 367.7 589.3 71.9 127.4 86.0 91.8 167.0 970 130 kJ/kg 855.27 1370.71 167.24 296.33 200.04 213.53 388.44 2256.22 302.38

The absorption of heat energy by a boiling or vaporizing liquid is used to advantage in mechanical refrigeration. Ammonia or Freon, a gas at room temperature, is compressed until the gas liquefies. Then the liquid enters the cooling coil at about atmospheric pressure. The coil is in contact with the relatively warm surrounding air, and the liquid changes to a gas. The heat energy necessary for vaporization is removed from the surrounding air, and the air is chilled.

Example Problem
Problem: How much heat will be required to vaporize 10 lb of water at atmospheric pressure if the water temperature is 212F? Solution: Since 970 Btu (Table 7) is required to vaporize 1 lb of water at 212F, 10 lb of water will require 10 970 = 9700 Btu.

Evaporation
of a liquid due to the heat 34 The moleculesliquid. The are in constant motion that is colliding with energy in the molecules are continuously each other because there is very little space in the liquid in which a molecule can move without bumping another molecule. The collisions prevent the molecules from traveling at the same speed. Therefore, if a certain molecule is traveling upward at high speed, it may be able to break through the surface and escape from the liquid. In that way, it becomes a part of the gas above the liquid. When that happens, the liquid is said to evaporate.

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Vaporization or evaporation is the process of changing a liquid into a vapor. Nearly all liquids evaporate, even at ordinary temperatures, but the higher the temperature of the liquid, the faster the molecules move, the greater the number of them that can escape, and the faster the liquid evaporates. Evaporation therefore takes place at temperatures below the boiling point and is thus slower than boiling. During boiling, little pockets of vapor form through the body of the liquid as well as at the surface, but evaporation can occur only at the surface of the liquid. The evaporation of a liquid requires heat. Thus when water evaporates from a dish in the open air, the heat required to cause the evaporation comes from the surrounding air. The warmer the air, the faster the water will evaporate. If the surrounding air does not supply heat rapidly enough, heat for the evaporation will be taken from the liquid itself and the liquid will then be cooled. That, of course, will further slow down the rate of evaporation. The cooling effect of an evaporating liquid on its surroundings is noticed in public parks or recreation areas where fountains, streams, or natural bodies of water are located. The evaporation of water molecules from the surface of the water requires heat energy. The heat is drawn from the surrounding air. Some buildings are constructed to be cooled by a shallow pond or layer of water on a flat roof. Besides providing an insulating barrier between the suns heat and the roof, the evaporation of the water helps to maintain a lower temperature in the building. The rate of evaporation depends on the nature of the liquid as well as on the temperature. For example, a cupful of alcohol left standing in the open air will soon disappear because of evaporation. A dish of water under the same conditions will evaporate much more slowly. The adjective volatile is commonly applied to liquids that evaporate rapidly, especially at room temperature. Therefore, the process of evaporation is sometimes referred to as volatilization.

Sublimation
solid state is 35 In a few substances, the molecular activity in the surface of thesuch that occasionally a molecule can escape from the solid into space. The reverse process also can occur; that is, the molecules of vapor can lose energy and form a solid. Such a direct change from a solid to a gas or from a gas to a solid, without going through the liquid state, is called sublimation. A common example of sublimation is the evaporation of snow in cold, dry weather. When the sublimated snow recondenses directly, without taking the form of water, it forms hoar frost. Camphor and iodine crystals also sublime and recondense at room temperature without going through the liquid state.

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Saturation
the surface 36 A molecule of water that evaporates from Since it has of a lakeofor a river becomes a molecule of gas or vapor. energy motion, it moves from one collision to another among the molecules of the air. After a few thousand collisions near the surface of the water, it may reenter the water, that is, recondense. Or it may be carried away by a breeze and become a temporary part of the air; it will then help form the water vapor in the air. However, if the molecule of water evaporates into a confined space, as in the cylinder shown in Figure 8, it will eventually return to the water at the bottom of the cylinder. As more and more molecules evaporate from the water, the space above the water becomes more and more crowded with water molecules; and the rate at which the molecules return to the liquid is increased. In time, there will be as many molecules returning to the water (condensing) per second as there are evaporating from the surface per second. At this balanced stage the rate of evaporation and the rate of condensation are equal, and the vapor in the space above the water is said to be saturated. Each unit volume of the space holds as many molecules of vapor as it can.

FIGURE 8A setup to study the saturation of water vapor is shown here. The saturation point of the vapor depends on the temperature of the vapor.

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Now suppose that the piston is suddenly moved downward a short distance. The number of water molecules per unit volume is increased, and the vapor is said to be supersaturated. The increase of molecules per unit volume causes a greater number of molecules to hit the water surface per second than escape from it. The rate of condensation is greater than the rate of evaporation, but the unbalanced condition cannot last. As a result, the active balance or equilibrium of saturation is soon regained. If there is no air in the space above the water, the equilibrium condition of saturation will be attained almost instantly. Suppose the piston is moved upward until the space above the water is doubled. Then the number of water molecules per unit volume is reduced by half, and the rate of condensation will be less than the rate of evaporation. Again this is an unbalanced condition that cannot last. Evaporation will continue to exceed condensation until saturation is again established. At the point of saturation, the rate of evaporation and the rate of condensation will again be equal. The saturation point of any given vapor depends on the temperature. If the temperature is increased, more vapor will be formed because the rate of evaporation has been speeded up. Thus the amount of vapor per unit volume in the space (vapor density) will be increased. The vapor density will increase until the rate of condensation increases enough to again equal the rate of evaporation. On the other hand, a reduction in temperature will cause a portion of the vapor to condense. Because of the increased rate of condensation, the vapor density will decrease until the rate of evaporation decreases enough to equal the new rate of condensation. Thus the vapor density at saturation depends upon the temperature. The higher the temperature of the liquid, the greater the vapor density. An increase in the quantity of vapor in a given space causes an increase in pressure; a decrease in the quantity of vapor in a given space causes a decrease in pressure. Therefore, the pressure at which saturation occurs depends on the temperature. The pressure exerted by any vapor in its saturated state is frequently spoken of as the vapor pressure for that temperature.

Vapor Pressure
liquids, that is, liquids that vaporize 37 In a perfect vacuum all volatilebegin to evaporate at once. As soon as readily at room temperatures, part of the liquid has passed into vapor, the space in the containing vessel ceases to be a perfect vacuum. For example, if a quantity of water is placed in a vacuum, a portion of the water instantly passes into vapor. The vacuum then, instead of being absolute, becomes only partial, since the space contains a certain amount of water vapor. After a time, when saturation occurs, no further vapor will be given off; and there will be a certain definite pressure in the vessel.

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Every vapor exerts a certain amount of pressure, although the pressure may be much less than atmospheric pressure. Even the mercury vapor in the almost perfect vacuum of the thermometer exerts a slight pressure. The vapors of volatile liquids are given off much more abundantly than are the vapors of less volatile liquids. The vapor pressure of the volatile liquids under the same conditions is therefore much greater than the vapor pressure of less volatile liquids. For the same temperature, each liquid has its own vapor pressure. For example, at 68F the pressure of saturated ether vapor is 25 times the pressure of saturated water vapor.

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Practice Problems 4
1. How much heat, in Btu, is required to melt 10 lb of mercury at 38F and raise its temperature to 0F? 2. How many pounds of water at 32F can be vaporized by the heat obtained by burning 2 lb of coal if the coal provides 12,400 Btu/lb? 3. How much heat, in Btu, is required to bring 100 lb of tin at 49.4F to a boil? Make use of data given in the tables in this text. 4. How much heat, in Btu, is given off when 100 lb of sulfur at its boiling point is cooled to 23F? Check your answers with those on page 81.

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1. The temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid is known as the _______ point of the solid. 2. The latent heat of fusion of ice is a. 32 Btu. b. 100 Btu. c. 144 Btu. d. 212 Btu.

3. An iceberg with a volume of 1000 cu ft is floating in the North Sea. Approximately how many cubic feet of it will be above the surface of the water? 4. The boiling point of a liquid is (higher, lower) _______ at the top of a mountain than at sea level. 5. The latent heat of vaporization of pure water is _______ Btu/lb. 6. Sublimation refers to the process in which a gas changes to a(n) _______ directly. Check your answers with those on page 85.

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HEAT TRANSFER
Heat Flow
transfer of heat is possible only ex38 The Heat always travels from pointswhen a difference in temperaturelow ists. of high temperature to those of temperature. For instance, if a hot iron is placed in cold surroundings, it will gradually cool until its temperature approaches the temperature of its surroundings. The heat given up by the iron warms the surroundings. The iron will cease to cool and the surroundings will cease to warm up when both reach the same temperature. The ultimate temperature will be somewhat higher than the original surrounding temperature. The warming up is more noticeable where the surroundings are confined to a comparatively small volume, such as water in a container. The temperature of the surroundings is usually referred to as the ambient temperature. When the surroundings are large in comparison with the heated object, the difference between the original temperature of the surroundings and the ultimate temperature is negligible. As an example, suppose the temperature of the air in a large room is 70F. A preheated small object placed in the room will ultimately cool down to the temperature of its surroundings, but the room temperature will be raised only a very small fraction of a degree. Therefore, the ambient temperature will not be appreciably changed by the heated object. The heat lost by the object can be transferred in three ways: by conduction, by convection, and by radiation.

Conduction
molecule within 39 Conduction is the transfer of heat from molecule toNo displacement a substance or between substances in intimate contact. of the heated substance takes place in conduction. If, for example, one end of a short iron rod is placed in a fire, the other end soon becomes warm because of the conduction of heat from one end of the rod to the other. The heat energy travels through the rod from molecule to molecule until the end away from the fire is hot. The outer end never becomes as hot as the end in the fire because a great deal of the conducted heat is transferred from the rod to the room by radiation and convection, which are explained later. As the rod heats up, the radiation and convection losses increase until they are equal to the amount of heat being conducted along the rod. When that occurs, the rod is said to be in a state of thermal balance or thermal equilibrium. The rate at which heat is conducted varies greatly in different substances. All metals are good conductors of heat, although some, such as silver and copper, are better than others, such as zinc and lead. Compared with metals, stone and glass are poor conductors of heat, but they are

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better than wood, hair, felt, or asbestos. Substances that are poor conductors of heat are commonly called nonconductors. Examples of nonconducting materials are magnesia, asbestos, mineral wool, and glass fiber. They are placed around steam or hotwater pipes as an insulation to reduce the loss of heat. The ability of a solid to conduct heat is known as conductivity. Since conduction is a molecular process, different substances composed of different molecules will have different conductivities. That can be shown by a simple experiment. Solid rods of aluminum, copper, and iron that are equal in diameter and length are mounted on a hollow copper steam chest as shown in Figure 9. On the end of each of the rods protruding from the steam chest a small weight is attached with some wax. As the steam is admitted to the chest at the steam inlet, the inner end of each rod will be heated to the same temperature. Heat will flow along each rod toward the rods outer or cooler end.

FIGURE 9A simple experiment to show that different substances have different thermal conductivities is illustrated here.

As the heat is conducted along a rod, the temperature of the rod will become high enough to melt the wax and the weight will drop off. The weight attached to the copper rod will fall first, then the one attached to the aluminum rod, and finally the one attached to the iron rod. The experiment shows that different metals have different thermal conductivities. Furthermore, it demonstrates that, of the three metals, copper has the highest conductivity, aluminum has the second highest conductivity, and iron has the lowest conductivity. A certain amount of time is required for heat to travel from the hot portion to the cold portion of a material. The rate of heat flow by conduction depends on the cross-sectional area of the conducting material, the temperature difference between the hot and cold portions, and the distance between the hot and the cold portions.

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Thermal Conductivity
a substance is a constant defined 40 The coefficient ofofthermal conductivity ofin unit time between the opposite as the number heat units that flow faces of a slab of unit thickness, the edges of which are of unit length, when the temperatures of the opposite faces differ by one degree. Table 8 shows the conductivities of some common substances. The numbers in the last column represent the Btu of heat transmitted through a foot of material per hour in an area of one square foot when the temperature difference between the opposite faces is 1F. The units on these values of k, the coefficients of thermal conductivity, are therefore Btu ft (Btu)(feet) Btu = = (hour)(square feet)(F) hr ft2 F hr ft F In metric units, k is expressed in watts or meter C

1 Btu/hr ft F = 1.7307 W/m C When the physical dimensions, temperature difference, and value of k for the material are known, the quantity of heat Q conducted can be found by the formula Q=

kA (t t ) d 2 1

in which Q = quantity of heat conducted (per unit time) k = coefficient of thermal conductivity A = crosssectional area of material d = distance through which heat travels, which is the same as the thickness between the hot and the cold sides t2 = temperature of the hot side t1 = temperature of the cold side When English units are used, Q will be in Btu per hour; and when metric units are used, Q will be in watts. 1 Btu = 0.29307 W (watts). If the conducting body does not have the same area of cross section throughout, its mean area A can be found by using the formula A = 12(A1 + A2), in which A1 is the area of the cold side of the conducting body and A2 is the area of the hot side. In using formulas for heat problems, you must keep in mind that although the formulas are exact, the results are based on assumptions which can lead to some error. The formula given above, for example, assumes that no heat is lost along the conducting path or that the loss is negligible. When temperature differences are large, the actual loss may be considerable.

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## Table 8 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AT 32F (0C)

Material Thermal Conductivity k W/m.C Metals Silver (pure) Copper (pure) Aluminum (pure) Nickel (pure) Iron (pure) Carbon steel, 1% C Lead (pure) Chrome-nickel steel (18% Cr, 8% Ni) Nonmetallic solids Quartz, parallel to axis Magnesite Marble Sandstone Concrete Glass, window Maple or oak Sawdust Glass wool Liquids Mercury Water Ammonia Lubricating oil, SAE 50 Freon 12, CCl2F2 Gases Hydrogen Helium Air Water vapor (saturated) Carbon dioxide 410 385 202 93 73 43 35 16.3 Btu/h . ft . F 237 223 117 54 42 25 20.3 9.4

## 0.101 0.081 0.0139 0.0119 0.00844

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Example Problem
Problem: A concrete wall 10 ft long, 6 ft high, and 6 in. thick has a temperature of 250F on one side and l00F on the other side. What is the quantity of heat flowing through the wall, in Btu per hour? Solution: Apply the formula given. In this case A = 10 6 = 60 sq ft, d = 612 = 0.5 ft, t2 = 250F, and t1 = 100F. For concrete, according to Table 8, k = 0.533. Then Q=

## 0.533 60 (250 100) = 9594 Btu/hr 0.5

Convection
of a 41 The transfer of heat by motion of the particles heatheated substance is called convection. Convection is the transfer of by circulation, and it takes place only in liquids and gases. It cannot take place in a solid. If heat is applied to the bottom of a vessel containing water, the portion of the water in contact with the bottom becomes heated and expands. Because it expands, it is lighter than an equal volume of the cooler portion of the water. The warm mass of water therefore rises while the colder water above it descends. The circulation that is thus set up carries heat continually to other and colder points in the container. The mass of warm water, after transferring its heat to a cooler portion, returns to the heated area and absorbs more heat. The process is repeated until the entire mass of water becomes heated. This process is called natural convection. A good example of heat transfer by natural convection is the heating of a room with a steam radiator; see Figure 10. Air in contact with the radiator is heated; it expands and becomes lighter; and it rises. As the warm air rises, cool air from other parts of the room moves in under it. The new, cool air now in contact with the radiator is heated in turn and moves upward when surrounding colder air moves under it to take its place. The process continues and results in the formation of convection currents in which newly heated air continually rises above the radiator while cooler air moves in to take its place. The convection currents continue to circulate; they bring every part of the air in the room to the radiator over and over again. A hot-water heating system also uses heat transfer by convection. The water is heated in a boiler. Because of its reduced density, the hot water rises through a pipe to the metal radiator. The radiator transfers some of the heat from the hot water to the surrounding air. The action cools the water in the system and heats the air in the room. The cooled water, which is increased in density, flows downward through another pipe that returns it to the boiler, where it is reheated. The reheated water will begin to rise again to repeat the cycle.

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A pump may be added to the system to force the hot-water circulation. More hot water will then be circulated and more heat will be supplied to the room per unit time. The efficiency of the heating system will thus be increased. The use of a mechanical device, such as a pump, to increase heat transfer by convection is known as forced convection.

FIGURE 10A typical practical application of heat transfer by convection is illustrated here.

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The most familiar example of radiant heat is the heat from the sun, Figure 11. The heat energy of the sun is transformed into radiant heat waves which pass in straight lines through 93 million miles of cold space. When the heat waves strike the earths atmosphere, some of the radiant energy is converted to heat energy and warms the atmosphere. The remainder, upon striking the earth, gives up energy as heat to warm the earths surface.

FIGURE 11The suns heat reaches the earth through radiation. The heat is carried by waves, called infrared rays, that travel at the speed of light.

The heat-radiating power of a body depends only on the absolute temperature difference between the radiating body and the receiving body and on the nature of the surfaces of the radiating and receiving bodies. A black, rough surface is the best surface for receiving or radiating heat. Radiant heat waves can be focused, reflected, or refracted in the same way that light waves can be. When radiant heat falls on the surface of a body, a part of the heat is reflected and the remainder is absorbed. A highly polished surface will reflect most of the heat that falls on it and will absorb very little, whereas a dull, rough surface will absorb much and reflect little of the heat. A surface that reflects much heat will not radiate much heat. Consequently, bodies that are good radiators are good absorbers, and bodies that are poor radiators are poor absorbers. White bodies and highly polished bodies are the poorest radiators and the poorest absorbers. Black bodies and rough bodies are the best

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radiators and the best absorbers. A brightly polished teakettle filled with hot water will remain hot for a longer time than a dull or tarnished kettle. In the same way, a surface that absorbs heat readily will also radiate heat readily. For example, a coal- or wood-burning stove coated with lampblack will give out heat much more rapidly than if it had a polished nickel surface, because lampblack radiates heat more readily than the polished surface. Whether the radiant heat energy that falls upon a body is absorbed, reflected, or transmitted depends upon the nature of the body as well as the condition of the body surfaces. If heat waves fall on a piece of charcoal, they will be almost entirely absorbed. If the same energy falls on a piece of rock salt, the energy will be largely transmitted through the salt. If the energy falls on a highly polished metal or white surface, it will be almost entirely reflected. When a body is at constant temperature, it is losing heat by radiation just as fast as it is absorbing radiant heat from its surroundings.

Vacuum Bottle
vacuum, or thermos, bottle was designed to overcome heat transfer 43 Theall three modes: conduction, convection, and radiation. In Figure 12 by is shown a cutaway view of a typical vacuum bottle. The double-walled vessel made of glass rests on a support within a metal or plastic case to protect the glass from breakage. The space between the two glass walls is a vacuum. During manufacture, the air is withdrawn from the space through the vacuum seal which is then permanently sealed. The vacuum prevents, to a large extent, loss or gain of heat by convection and conduction. Heat can travel along the walls of the glass only with great difficulty, because glass is a relatively poor conductor of heat. Thus the glass walls minimize the heat flow by conduction. Convection currents are excluded by the metal case, the double glass walls and the stopper in the top of the container. In addition, the outer surface of the inner wall and the inner surface of the outer glass wall are silvered to provide a smooth highly polished surface. Such a surface reduces radiation to a minimum. In a vacuum bottle, a liquid such as iced tea can be kept cold because the warmth of the surrounding air cannot readily be transmitted inward to the liquid. Also, a liquid such as coffee can be kept hot for many hours because the heat in the liquid cannot readily be transmitted to the surrounding air.

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## FIGURE 12The construction details of a vacuum bottle are shown here.

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Practice Problems 5
1. On a winter day the temperature on the outside of a plate glass store window 6 ft high and 10 ft long and 0.6 in. thick is 12F. Inside the store, the temperature is 72F. How much heat flows through the glass window per hour? 2. An open-top solvent tank made of aluminum plate measures 5 ft wide by 10 ft long by 5 ft high. It is kept filled with ethyl alcohol which is maintained at 0F in a room which is held at 70F. If the quantity of heat conducted through the bottom and the sides of the tank is 98,350,000 Btu/hr, how thick is the aluminum plate? 3. A silver punch bowl filled with a mixture of ice and water is in a room which has a temperature of 72F. If the thickness of the silver is 0.05 in. and the quantity of heat conducted through the silver walls of the bowl is 4,640,000 Btu/hr, what is the wall area of the punch bowl? Check your answers with those on page 83.

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1. An example of a good conductor of heat is (copper, asbestos) _______. 2. Heat transfer by the movement of the particles of a heated substance is known as _______. 3. The heating of a room by a steam radiator involves heat transfer by _______. 4. Radiant heat energy travels in the form of _______. 5. As compared with a rough body, a smooth body will receive (less, more) _______ radiant energy. 6. A thermos bottle is designed and built to reduce heat loss by a. conduction. b. convection. c. radiation. d. all of these.

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## HEAT AND WORK RELATION

Work Can Be Converted to Heat
is a form of energy is confirmed by the that heat is pro44 That heat expending work and work is producedfactexpending heat. duced by by When work is done and appears as heat, it has simply been transformed into another kind of energy. Work or mechanical energy may be changed into heat, and heat energy may be changed into work. Earlier in the text it was pointed out that heat may be produced mechanically by friction, percussion, or the compression of gases. Every time heat is produced mechanically, work must be done on the substance. An experiment to demonstrate the conversion of mechanical energy into heat can be carried out with the apparatus shown in Figure 13. A hollow brass or copper tube about 7 in. in length and 1 in. in diameter and closed at the bottom end is attached to a small wheel. The tube is rotated by means of a cord passing around the small wheel and around a large wheel turned by a handle. The tube is three-fourths full of water and is closed at the upper end with a cork. The tube is held by the clamp but is made to rotate rapidly by means of the rotation of the large wheel. Considerable friction is generated between the clamp and the metal tube. The friction causes the metal to heat up, which in turn heats the water in the tube. The temperature rapidly increases, and part of the water is converted into steam to build up enough pressure within the tube to force out the cork. The mechanical energy or work to turn the large wheel has been converted into enough heat to boil the water in the tube.

FIGURE 13A setup to illustrate the conversion of work into heat is illustrated here.

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## Heat Can Be Converted to Work

reverse situation heat being changed into mechanical work 45 The be demonstrated.ofThe expansion of gases provides examplesalso can of producing work by heat. In Figure 14 is shown a cylinder partly filled with gas or air confined within the cylinder by a piston. The gas is under the pressure of the atmosphere and an additional pressure due to the weight of the piston.

FIGURE 14That a gas, when heated, expands and can perform work is proven by the setup shown here.

When heat is supplied to the bottom of the cylinder, the gas expands and increases in volume. When the gas expands, the piston is gradually lifted in proportion to the quantity of heat supplied. In expanding, the gas has to do work in order to raise the piston. The more heat that is supplied, the more the gas expands, the higher the piston rises, and the more the work that is done. Now if the gas within the cylinder is cooled, the piston descends because of the combined weight of the piston and the pressure of the atmosphere above it. Work is thus performed. If the piston were held in its upper position while the gas was being cooled, the pressure of the gas would decrease in proportion to the amount of heat withdrawn. But since the piston is free to move within the cylinder, it falls and maintains a constant pressure on the gas. That is, the piston moves downward against a force equal to the pressure of the gas and thus performs work.

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In the first case a certain amount of heat was supplied to the gas to do work. In the second case heat was taken away from the gas in order that work might be done on the gas. In both cases, the amount of work was proportional to the amount of heat supplied or taken away. Had the work done been the same in each case, the quantity of heat supplied or taken away would also have been the same. The quantity of heat produced depends on the amount of work done. Also, the amount of work done depends on the quantity of heat supplied. When the gas is compressed in the cylinder of Figure 14, the more the gas is compressed, the more the work that is done and the more the gas is heated. In supplying heat to the gas to perform work on the piston, the more heat supplied, the more the work that is done. Those facts lead to the following important principle: The performance of mechanical work results in the production of heat, and the quantity of heat thus produced depends, in one way or another, on the amount of work done. Also, the application of heat results in the performance of mechanical work, and the quantity of work performed depends on the heat supplied.

## Mechanical Theory of Heat

46 To better understand the principle stated in the preceding two articles, it may be helpful to consider the action of the molecules that make up
the body of the gas in the cylinder. When the piston was pushed downward, the gas was heated and its temperature increased. Work was done on the gas, and as a result heat was generated. Before the piston was moved, the confined gas had a definite temperature, and the molecules were vibrating with a certain speed. The continuous striking of the molecules against the inside walls of the cylinder and the piston gave rise to what is called pressure on the containing walls and piston. When the piston moved downward and compressed the gas, the molecules were pushed closer together. They struck the containing walls and piston with greater frequency and thus caused an increase in pressure. The temperature also increased because the molecules were vibrating faster. The energy of motion or kinetic energy of the molecules was thus greater than it was originally. If the energies of all of the molecules were added together, we would have a new and higher total kinetic energy contained in the gas. When work is done on a body in that manner, the work is stored up in the body as kinetic energy; and the increase of energy is equal to the work done. In the same way, the work done in compressing the gas is expended in increasing the total kinetic energy of the gas, that is, in making the molecules move faster. Consider the conversion of heat into work. Suppose that the gas under the piston in Figure 14 is heated by a steady flame while the piston is

Heat, Part 1

63

held stationary. The temperature of the gas rises, and the pressure is correspondingly increased. Now the flame is removed, and the piston is released so that it is free to move. Because the pressure of the confined gas is greater than the pressure of the atmosphere above the piston, there is a net upward force that causes the piston to rise. As the piston rises, the confined gas expands and its temperature falls. The drop in temperature indicates that the molecules of the gas are moving with less speed. In turn, that indicates that the gas, as it expands, is losing some of its total energy of molecular motion, or kinetic energy. Because energy can never be lost or destroyed, the energy thus lost by the gas must appear somewhere else. Where it appears in this case is easily seen; the energy lost by the gas is the energy required to do the work of raising the piston. From what has been said so far, it is apparent that the heat in a body is the stock of energy the body possesses. The energy may be kinetic energy due to the motions of the molecules composing the body, or it may be an energy which is potentially available because of the relative positions of the molecules and the distance between molecules. Or the energy stored in a body may be partly kinetic energy and partly potential energy. To heat a body is to increase its total stock of energy. The opposite is also true. To cool a body is to decrease its total stock of energy.

## Mechanical Equivalent of Heat

measurable in Btu and joules. Work 47 As already explained, heat isusually in foot-pounds in the Englishand energy also are measurable, system. The foot-pound unit represents the work expended in raising a weight of one pound vertically through a distance of one foot. The work in foot-pounds done by lifting a body may be found by multiplying together the weight of the body, in pounds, and the height of the lift, in feet. If a body weighing 1250 lb is raised a distance of 8 ft, the work done is 1250 8 = 10,000 ft-lb. In the metric system, the unit of work is the joule: 1 ft-lb = 1.3558 J. Since heat is a form of energy, there should be some definite numerical relation between heat units and work units. A Btu should be equal to some definite number of foot-pounds. The numerical relation between heat and work has in fact been determined by experiment. The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a pound of water 1F could, if expended in work, raise a weight of 778 lb a distance of 1 ft. That means that 1 Btu of heat is equivalent to 778 ft-lb of work. The value 778 ft-lb is called the mechanical equivalent of heat. We will denote it by MEH. The exact value of MEH is 778.26, but 778 is sufficiently accurate for most practical purposes. It is the value usually used in engineering and industrial calculations.

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Heat, Part 1

Another useful unit of measurement which takes into account the amount of time needed to accomplish a certain amount of work is the horsepower. It allows us to take into consideration the rate at which work is produced or expended. One horsepower is equal to 33,000 foot-pounds per minute (ft-lb/min). The equivalent of a given quantity of heat in foot-pounds of work may be found by multiplying the quantity of heat, in Btu, by the mechanical equivalent of heat. The formula is W = MEH Q in which W = equivalent work, in footpounds MEH = the mechanical equivalent of heat, or 778 ftlb/Btu Q = quantity of heat, in Btu The quantity of heat, in Btu, represented by a given amount of work, in foot-pounds, may be found by dividing the work, in foot-pounds, by the mechanical equivalent of heat. The formula is Q= W MEH (2) (1)

in which the letters represent the same quantities as in formula 1. Thermodynamics is the name of the general subject that treats the laws governing the transformation of heat into work and of work into heat. The formal statement of the numerical relation between heat and work is the first law of thermodynamics: Heat and mechanical work are mutually convertible. A unit of heat requires for its production or produces by its disappearance the mechanical equivalent of heat, 778 ft-lb of work. If the heat produced or given up, in Btu, is Q and the work, in foot-pounds, produced by Q or required to produce Q is W, the first law of thermodynamics can be expressed by the formulas W = MEH Q W . Those are formulas 1 and 2, respectively. and Q = MEH

Example Problems
Problem 1: Convert 11,450 Btu of heat into equivalent work. Express it in foot-pounds and joules. Solution: Apply formula 1 of Article 47. Q = 11,450. Then W = 778 11,450 = 8,908,100 ftlb = 8,908,100 1.3558 = 12,077,601 J

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Problem 2: Calculate the quantity of heat represented by 266,076 ft-lb of work. Solution: Apply formula 2 of Article 47. W = 266,076. Then 266,076 = 342 Btu Q= 778 Problem 3: A hammer weighing 200 lb falls vertically 6 ft and strikes a bar of metal. If half of the energy is converted into heat, how much heat is developed by the blow? Solution: The energy possessed by the hammer at the moment it strikes is 200 6 = 1200 ft-lb. Half of the energy is 600 ft-lb, which is converted into heat. By formula 2 of Article 47, Q= 600 = 0.77 Btu 778

## Internal and External Work

supplied to a body that is 48 When a quantity of heat isthe temperature of the bodyfree to expand, two things happen. First, rises. Second, the volume of the body increases. In expanding, the body overcomes the outer pressure on it. In those two processes, two kinds of work are performed: internal and external. Let us first consider what makes up the internal work. The rise in temperature of the body means that the molecules are moving at greater speeds and that the kinetic energy is increased. The work required to raise the temperature, that is, to increase the kinetic energy, is one part of the internal work. The heated body expands and, on the whole, the molecules are farther apart than they were before the body was heated. Since the molecules of a substance always attract each other, work must be expended to overcome the forces of attraction in order to move the molecules farther apart. After being separated, the molecules possess a certain capacity for doing work if they should start to move closer together again. Hence, the expanded body has a certain potential energy available that is due merely to the separation of the molecules. The work required to increase that potential energy, that is, to move the molecules farther apart, is the other part of the internal work. The external work can be explained in the following manner. The heated body, in expanding, must overcome external pressure through a certain distance; work is thus done against the external pressure. For example, the expansion of the gas in the cylinder shown in Figure 14 causes the piston to rise. Bearing down on the gas is the combined pressure of the atmosphere and weight of the piston. When the expanding gas moves the piston upward, the gas does work against both the atmospheric

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Heat, Part 1

pressure and the weight of the piston. The work expended in overcoming external pressure is called external work.

Equation of Energy
to the first law of 49 According equal to the total thermodynamics, the heat absorbed must be exactly work (internal and external) done. Therefore, the heat, in Btu, multiplied by the mechanical equivalent of heat is equal to the increases in kinetic energy and potential energy plus the external work. Stating that as a formula gives us KE + PE + W = MEH Q (1)

in which KE = increase in internal kinetic energy of the body, in foot-pounds PE = increase in internal potential energy of the body, in foot-pounds W = external work performed, in footpounds MEH = mechanical equivalent of heat, or 778 ftlb/Btu Q = quantity of heat, in Btu Formula 1 is known as the equation of energy. Since KE represents the change or increase in kinetic energy and PE represents the change or increase in potential energy, the sum KE + PE is the total change in the store of internal energy. If E1 denotes the energy possessed by the body originally and E2 the energy after the heat is imparted, E2 E1 will be equal to the change in total energy. Therefore, KE + PE = E2 E1. By substituting that in formula l, we get the equation of energy in the form E2 E1 + W = MEH Q in which E2 = final total energy of the body, in footpounds E1 = original total energy of the body, in footpounds W = external work performed, in footpounds MEH = mechanical equivalent of heat, or 778 ftlb/Btu Q = quantity of heat, in Btu In summary, the equation of energy says that the heat added to a body is equal to the increase in the energy of the body plus the external work done. (2)

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## Applications of the Energy Equation

various conditions, we 50 When the energy equation is applied under of internal and external can find out what happens to the quantities work. When a solid body is heated, it expands very little. The molecules move apart very little, so that the increase in potential energy is small. Because the volumetric expansion is small, the external work is small. Therefore, small increases in potential energy and external work may be neglected. Consequently, when a solid, such as a piece of metal, is heated, we assume that all of the heat is used to raise the temperature, that is, to make the molecules vibrate faster. In other words, all of the absorbed heat energy goes to increase the internal kinetic energy. Thus, in the case of heating a solid, the change in potential energy PE is taken as zero, the external work W is taken as zero, and KE = MEH Q. When a solid melts, there is no change of temperature; hence, the kinetic energy change KE is zero. Usually there is little change in the volume during the melting, and the external work W is therefore small. Nearly all of the heat is expended to move the molecules farther apart because the substance is changed from the molecular state of a solid to that of a liquid. The heat energy absorbed is used to tear the molecules from their relatively fixed positions close to each other in the solid and to give them the freedom that molecules have in the liquid state. If the very small external work is neglected, the increase in internal potential energy PE is equal to the latent heat of fusion. In the case of a melting solid, the change in kinetic energy KE is equal to zero, the external work W is taken as zero, and PE = MEH Q.

## Energy Equation for Liquid

a liquid heated, the conditions are the same as 51 WhenThe slightisexpansion does very little external work. in heating a solid. The molecules move apart very little, so that the increase in potential energy is small. All of the absorbed heat is used to increase the internal kinetic energy. The change in potential energy PE is taken as zero; the external work W is taken as zero; and KE = MEH Q. During the vaporization of a liquid, there is no change in temperature; therefore, the change in kinetic energy KE is zero. Since the volume of the vapor is many times greater than that of the liquid, a large amount of external work is performed. However, the largest part of the heat absorbed is expended in overcoming the attraction forces between the molecules and tearing them apart to form the gaseous state. A large part of the heat is thus expended to increase the internal potential energy. Although the increase in kinetic energy KE is equal to zero, the increase in potential energy PE and the external work W are large enough to be significant. Therefore, PE + W = MEH Q.

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Heat, Part 1

## Energy Equation for Gas

of gas to their size, that 52 The molecules foraeach are soisfar apart, relative Consequently, when their attraction other extremely small. a gas is heated, practically no work is required to separate the molecules farther. The heat supplied tends only to raise the temperature or, in other words, to increase the vibration of the molecules. Also, heated gas expands a significant amount and thus performs a noticeable amount of external work. Hence, the relatively small increase in internal potential energy is neglected, but both the increase in internal kinetic energy and the external work are large enough to demand consideration. That means that the increase in internal potential energy PE is taken as zero, but the increase in kinetic energy KE and the external work W are large. Therefore, KE + W = MEH Q During the heating of a gas, a special case may arise; for the relative magnitudes of KE and W depend on the conditions under which the gas is heated. Suppose that heat is supplied to the gas in the cylinder of Figure 14. If the piston is held in the original position, the external work is zero and all of the heat is used in raising the temperature. But suppose the piston is raised at such a rate that the decrease in temperature due to the expansion of the gas just offsets the increase in temperature due to the heating. Then the temperature remains constant and the increase in kinetic energy is zero. All of the heat is expended in doing external work. In that case KE is zero and W is large. Under different conditions, the external work may be small or even negative. Imagine, for instance, that the piston is pushed down while the gas is being heated so that work is done by the external pressure instead of against that pressure. Because work done by the gas against the external pressure has so far been considered as positive, the work done on the gas by the external pressure must be considered as negative. In this case, therefore, KE + (W) = MEH Q, or KE W = MEH Q, or KE = (MEH Q) + W. Under those conditions, the work W assists the heat Q in accomplishing the increase in the internal kinetic energy KE.

Removal of Heat
discussions of the equation of 53 In the foregoingadded to a body, so that Q wasenergy, heat was generally being positive. The addition of heat changed the kinetic energy so that it was increased; therefore, the change in kinetic energy KE was positive. The addition of heat changed the potential energy so that it increased; therefore, the change in internal potential energy PE also was positive. The external work was performed by the gas on the surroundings; therefore, the external work W was positive.

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Only when we came to consider the special case in which external work was performed on the gas by the surroundings did we encounter a negative quantity. In most cases work was done by the gas on the external surroundings; therefore, the external work w was usually positive. In general, then, the addition of heat to a body results in positive values for KE, PE, W, and Q. In the reverse situation, the removal of heat from a body generally causes the internal and external work to be negative. If KE, PE, and W are negative, the equation of energy takes the form or ( KE) + ( PE) + ( W) = MEH ( Q) KE PE W = (MEH Q)

The negative sign on the heat quantity, Q, indicates that heat is removed or taken away from the body. When that happens, the temperature falls and the molecules vibrate more slowly. The decrease in kinetic energy is represented by the negative sign on KE. The loss of heat also causes the molecules to move a little closer together and to lose some potential energy. The decrease in internal potential energy is represented by the negative sign on PE. Therefore, when the body gives up heat, it gives up some internal kinetic energy and some internal potential energy. As the cooling body contracts, the external work is done by the external pressures on the body. The effect is represented by the negative sign on W. Under special conditions, one of the quantities for internal and external work may be positive and the others negative. Take, for example, the exceptional case of the freezing water. The temperature remains constant, and the change in kinetic energy KE is zero. But water expands when it freezes, and the work W is therefore positive. The energy equation in the special case for freezing water is therefore PE + W = (MEH Q). As another special example, suppose that the piston in Figure 14 is pushed downward so as to compress the gas confined below it. Suppose further that the lower part of the cylinder is surrounded by a stream of cold water which removes heat from the gas. If the gas is compressed very slowly, its temperature will drop and the change in kinetic energy KE will be negative. But if the gas is compressed quickly, the temperature will rise despite the fact that heat is removed by the running cold water; the change in kinetic energy KE will therefore be positive. In this particular special case, the energy equation becomes KE W = (MEH Q).

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The equation of energy can be written to account for any internal work required to change the internal kinetic energy and the internal potential energy, whether an increase or a decrease. It can also be written to account for any external work done, whether by the body or on the body. But careful thought must be given to the precise conditions so that each quantity in the equation will be properly designated as either negative or positive.

EXPANSION OF GASES
Gas Laws

54 During the heating or cooling of gases not only do theInvolume and temperature change but the pressure also may change. the preceding
discussions, we noted that the pressure exerted by a quantity of gas can be altered not only by changing the volume but also by changing the temperature of the gas. Therefore, in order to describe the condition of a gas completely, we must consider three things: the pressure, the volume, and the temperature of the gas. To solve practical problems involving gases and to make the required calculations, it is necessary to know the exact relations between volume, temperature, and pressure under specified conditions. Those exact relations are known as the gas laws. Although the laws are true only for a perfect or ideal gas, which does not exist, ordinary gases follow them quite closely. The laws can be and are applied to common gases.

## Gas at Constant Temperature (Boyles Law)

gas only the relation between 55 If the temperature of aneed is held constant,We have already seen that, pressure and volume be considered. as the volume increases, the pressure decreases. As the pressure on a gas increases, the volume of the gas decreases provided the temperature remains constant. Boyles law states: If the temperature of a given quantity of gas remains constant, the absolute pressure of the gas is inversely proportional to the volume of the gas. When stated as a formula, Boyles law becomes p1V1 = p2V2 in which p1 = original pressure of the gas, in absolute units V1 = originial volume of the gas p2 = final pressure of the gas, in the same units as p1 V2 = final volume of the body of gas, in the same units as V1

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The formula will hold no matter what units p and V are measured in. However, p1 and p2 must be absolute pressures, and they must be expressed in the same units. If p1 is in pounds per square inch absolute (psia), p2 must be also; if p1 is in pounds per square foot absolute (psfa), p2 must be also. Furthermore, the units chosen for V1 must also be used for V2. For example, both V1 and V2 could be in cubic feet or cubic inches.

Example Problem
Problem: A volume of 2 cu ft of air at a pressure of 14 pounds per square inch gage (psig) is compressed at constant temperature until the pressure is 65 psig. What is the final volume, in cubic feet? Solution: To obtain absolute pressure, you must add the pressure of the atmosphere, 14.7 psi, to the gage pressure. Therefore, p1 = 14 + 14.7 = 28.7 psia, V1 = 2 cu ft, and p2 = 65 + 14.7 = 79.7 psia. Using the formula, 28.7 2 = 79.7 V2 or V2 = 28.7 2 = 0.72 cu ft 79.7

## Gas at Constant Volume (Charles Law)

56 When a gas is heated by keeping its volume constant, both itsispressure and temperature will rise. Conversely, when the same gas cooled,
both its pressure and temperature will drop. The Charles law relation can be stated as follows: If the volume of a given quantity of gas remains constant, the absolute pressure of the gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature of the gas. When stated as a formula, Charles law becomes p1 p2 = T1 T2 in which p1 = original absolute pressure of the gas, in absolute units T1 = original absolute temperature of the body of gas, in degrees Rankine or kelvins p2 = final absolute pressure of the gas, in the same units as p1 T2 = final absolute temperature of the body of gas, in the same units as T1 Note that the absolute pressures p1 and p2 must be expressed in the same units. The temperatures must be absolute temperatures in either degrees Rankine or kelvins. If T1 is in degrees Rankine, T2 must also be; and if T1 is in kelvins, T2 must also be.

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Heat, Part 1

Example Problem
Problem: A tank filled with welding gas has a pressure of 245.3 psig just before dawn when the temperature is 60.4F. What is the gage pressure in the tank when, under the late afternoon sun, the temperature is 90.4F? Solution: The volume does not change, so V1 = V2. The original pressure p1 = 245.3 psig + 14.7 psi = 260 psia. The original absolute temperature T1 = 60.4 + 459.6 = 520R, and the final absolute temperature T2 = 90.4 + 459.6 = 550R. Using the formula, p2 260 = 520 550

or

p2 =

## 260 550 = 275 psia 520

To obtain the final gage pressure, subtract atmospheric pressure from the final absolute pressure p2: 275 psia 14.7 psi = 260.3 psig

## Gas at Constant Pressure

gas law considers the situation in which pressure is held 57 The thirdas the body of gas is heated or cooled. If constant pressure is constant maintained but the temperature is raised, the volume increases. If the temperature decreases, the volume decreases. This gas law is stated as follows: If the pressure of a quantity of gas remains constant, the volume is directly proportional to the absolute temperature. Stated as a formula, the law becomes V1 V2 = T1 T2 in which V1 = original volume of the gas T1 = original absolute temperature of the gas, in degrees Rankine or kelvins V2 = final volume of the gas, in the same units as V1 T2 = final absolute temperature of the body of gas, in the same units as T1

Example Problems
Problem 1: Air with a volume of 3 cu ft and a temperature of 1060.4F is cooled at constant pressure to a temperature of 300.4F. What is the final volume? Solution: The original volume V1 = 3 cu ft. The original absolute temperature T1 = 1060.4 + 459.6 = 1520R; T2 = 300.4 + 459.6 = 760R. Using the formula,

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73

V2 3 = 1520 760

or

V2 =

## 3 760 = 1.5 cu ft 1520

Problem 2: A gas with a volume of 5 m3 (cubic meters) is heated and expands at constant pressure. If the initial and final temperatures of the gas are 300 K and 450 K, calculate the final volume. Solution: V1 = 5 m3; T1 = 300 K; and T2 = 450 K. Substituting in the formula gives us V2 5 = 300 450 V2 =

5 450 300

= 7.5 m3

## The General Gas Law

laws studied thus far when one of 58 Each of the three gastemperature, volume, orapplies only held constant. the three properties, pressure, is Only two of the three properties are allowed to change. In Boyles law, p1 p2 = , p1V1 = p2V2 , pressure and volume change. In Charles law T1 T2 V1 V2 pressure and temperature change. In the third law, volume = T1 T2 and temperature change. The question that arises is what happens when all three properties change at the same time for a given weight of gas. The three formulas are combined into one general gas law, or ideal gas law, to be used when the temperature, volume, and pressure of a body of gas change at the same time: p1V1 p2V2 = T1 T2 in which p1, V1, T1 = original absolute pressure, volume, and absolute temperature, respectively, of the gas p2, V2, T2, = final absolute pressure, volume, and absolute temperature, respectively, of the gas The precautions about keeping the like units on p1 and p2, on V1 and V2 , and on T1 and T2 were noted during the discussion of the three gas laws. Those remarks hold true for the general gas law as well. Both pressures must be in the same units; both volumes must be in the same units; and both temperatures must be in degrees Rankine or kelvins.

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Heat, Part 1

When the condition of a quantity of gas is altered by changing the pressure, volume, or temperature, the general gas law applies. A change in any one of the three properties will produce a change in one or both of the other properties. It is always true that, when the condition of any given quantity of gas is changed, the product of the absolute pressure and the volume divided by the absolute temperature before the change takes place is equal to the product of the absolute pressure and the volume divided by the absolute temperature after the change. The general gas law is more useful than any one of the three gas laws discussed in the preceding articles. Each of the three gas laws covers a special set of conditions for a gas. The general gas law has broader application because it can be used for any situation in which the properties of a gas change, including the special ones discussed earlier. If the temperature remains constant, T1 = T2 in the general gas law p1 V1 p2 V2 , or p1V1 = p2V2. formula. The formula then becomes = T1 T1 That is the formula in Article 55. The general gas law is thus reduced to Boyles law. If the volume remains constant, V1 = V2 in the general gas law formula. p1 p2 p1 V1 p2 V1 , or = . That is the formula The formula then becomes = T1 T2 T1 T2 in Article 56. Finally, if the pressure remains constant, p1 = p2 in the general gas law formula. The formula is then p1 V1 p2 V2 = T1 T2 That is the formula in Article 57. It is thus shown that the general gas law can be used not only for situations in which the temperature, the volume, and the pressure change but also for situations in which only the temperature and pressure, only the temperature and volume, or only the pressure and volume change. When the pressure, volume, and temperature of a given weight of gas are known at any particular time, the pressure, volume, or temperature can be calculated by the use of the general gas law for any other time at which the other two factors are known. That is best shown by the following example problems. or V1 V2 = T1 T2

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Example Problems
Problem 1: A quantity of gas has a volume of 18 cu ft, a pressure of 54 psia, and a temperature of 188.4F. What will be the volume of the gas when the pressure has fallen to 36 psia and the temperature is 20.4F? Solution: In the general gas law formula, p1 = 54 psia, V1 = 18 cu ft, T1 = 188.4 + 459.6 = 648R, p2 = 36 psia, and T2 = 20.4 + 459.6 = 480R. Then 54 18 36 V2 = 480 648 or V2 =

54 18 480 = 20 cu ft 36 648

Problem 2: A gas that has a volume of 20 cu ft is at a pressure of 36 psia and an absolute temperature of 480R. If the gas is allowed to expand until its volume is 94 cu ft and its temperature is 10.4F, what will be its absolute pressure? Solution: The initial conditions are V1 = 20 cu ft, p1 = 36 psia, and T1 = 480R. The two known final properties are V2 = 94 cu ft and T2 = 10.4 + 459.6 = 470R. Then 36 20 p2 94 = 470 480 or p2 = 36 20 470 = 7.5 psia 94 480

Problem 3: A certain gas has a volume of 94 m3, a pressure of 110 kPa (kilopascals), and a temperature of 325 K. If the gas is compressed until its pressure is 500 kPa and its volume is 52 m3, what will be its final temperature? Solution: V1 = 94, p1 = 110, T1 = 325 K, V2 = 52, and p2 = 500. Substituting in the general gas law gives us 110 94 500 52 = T2 325 T2 = 500 52 325 110 94

= 817 K The general gas law is true for any of the so-called permanent gases, that is, the ones that are gases at room temperature. At moderate pressures and temperatures it is sufficiently accurate for most engineering and industrial applications. Gases conform more closely to the law at low pressures and high temperatures. Unless a gas is very highly compressed or is cooled to a temperature near that at which it liquefies, the gas laws may be applied with confidence.

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Practice Problems 6
1. During the time a stationary engine was being warmed up to operating speed, the temperature of 1000 lb of seawater in its cooling system had to be raised from 70F to 170F. How much work was expended in warming the cooling water? Consult Table 1 in the text. 2. An engine consumes 36 lb of gas per hour. The gas is reliably rated as having 27,500 Btu/lb. If the engine delivers only 116.7 horsepower as a useful rate of work, what percent of the heat energy in the fuel is made available by the engine to do the work? 3. What was the original pressure of a gas that was held in a 1300 cu ft storage tank at 190.4F and then transferred to 1000 cu ft of space in a chamber at 59.6F and 40 psia? 4. A balloon which contains 5.5 cu ft of gas at one-atmosphere pressure and 90.4F is carried into a walk-in refrigerator where the pressure is the same but the temperature is 40.4F. What will be the volume of the gas in the balloon when it reaches the temperature of the refrigerator? Check your answers with those on page 84.

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77

1. Heat energy can be converted to _______ energy, and vice versa. 2. The value of the mechanical equivalent of heat is _______ ft-lb/Btu. 3. One horsepower is equal to (550, 33,000) _______ ft-lb/min. 4. The work required to increase the kinetic and potential energies of a substance is known as _______ work. 5. If a gas expands while its temperature remains constant, it follows _______ law. Check your answers with those on page 85.

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Heat, Part 1

NOTES

79

1
1. C = 59(F 32) = 59 (68 32) = 20C 2. F = 95 C + 32 = 95 ( 40) + 32 = 40F 3. F = 95 C + 32 = 95 (357) + 32 = 674.6F T = t + 459.6 = 674.6 + 459.6 = 1134.2R 4. C= 59 (F 32) = 59 (95 32) = 35C T1 = t1 + 273 = 35 + 273 = 308 K Formula 2, Article 13

Formula 1, Article 13

Formula 1, Article 13

Formula 3, Article 13

Formula 2, Article 13

Formula 4, Article 13

80

2
1. Q = cw (t2 t1) = 0.504 300 (32 20) Specific heat of water from Table 1 = 0.504 = 1814.4 Btu 2. Q = cw (t2 t1) 51,200 = 1 640 (t2 65) Specific heat of ice from Table 1 = 1.0 51,200 = 640t2 41,600 t2 = 145F Q = cw (t2 t1) 2.276 = c 20 (63 62) 2.276 = c 20 c = 0.1138 Wrought ironTable 1 w1 c1 t1 + w2 c2 t2 + w3 c3 t3 w1 c1 + w2 c2 + w3 c3 Formula of Article 18 Formula 1, Article 17

Formula 1, Article 17

3. a)

Formula 1, Article 17

b) 4. t = 79 =

(0.782 c1 320) + (2.375 1 70) + (4.4375 0.0314 70) (0.782 c1) + 2.375 1) + (4.4375 0.0314) Specific heats of water and lead from Table 1 = 1.0 and 0.0314, respectively (250 c1) + 166.25 + 9.7536 250 c1 + 176.0036 = (0.782 c1) + 2.375 + 0.1393 0.782 c1 + 2.5143

79 =

## Solving for c1 c1 = 0.1202

3
1. l = Cl L(t2 t1) = 0.0000056 14 12 (80) C1 for soft steel (Table 2) = 0.0000056 = 0.075 in. 2. l = Cl (t2 t1) = 0.000010 10 12 (110 0) Cl for brass (Table 2) = 0.000010 = 0.132 in. Formula 1, Article 25

Formula 1, Article 25

81

3. v = CcV(t2 t1) = 3ClV(t2 t1) 3.1416 222 30 (0 212) 4 Cl for copper (Table 2) = 0.0000094 = 68.18 cu in. = 3 0.0000094 4. l = Cl (t2 t1) = 0.000013 1000 (10 90) Cl for aluminum (Table 2 ) = 0.000013 Final length of wire = 1000 1.04 = 998.96 ft

Formula 3, Article 25

Formula 1, Article 25

4
1. Qtotal = Q1 + Q2 Q1 = heat required to melt the mercury at 38F = 10 4.9 Latent heat of fusion for mercury from Table 5 = 4.9 = 49 Btu Q2 = heat required to raise the temperature of mercury from 38F to 0F Q2 = cw (t2 t1) Formula 1, Article 17 = 0.0333 10 [0 ( 38)] Specific heat of liquid mercury from Table 1 = 0.0333 = 12.7 Btu Qtotal = Q1 + Q2 = 49 + 12.7 = 61.7 Btu 2. Heat given up heat required to raise heat required to = the water from 32F to 212F + vaproize the water by the coal 2 12,400 = (x lb) 1 (212 32) + (x lb) 970.3 24,800 = (x lb) 180 + (x lb) 970.3 24,800 = 1150.3 (x lb) x = 21.56 lb

82

3. Qtotal = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 Q1 = heat required to raise the temperature of solid tin from 49.4F to the melting point, 449.4F (From Table 3) Q1 = cw (t2 t1) = 0.0562 100 (449.4 49.4) Specific heat of solid tin from Table 1 = 0.0562 = 2248 Btu Q2 = heat required to melt the tin = 100 26.1 Latent heat of fusion of tin from Table 5 = 26.1 = 2610 Btu Q3 = heat required to raise the temperature of liquid tin from 449.4F to the boiling point, to 4118F (from Table 6) = cw (t2 t1) = 0.0637 100 (4118 449.4) Specific heat of liquid tin from Table 1 = 0.0637 = 23,369 Btu Qtotal = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 2248 + 2610 + 23,369 = 28,227 Btu

Formula 1, Article 17

Formula 1, Article 17

4. Qtotal = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 Q1 = heat released in cooling the molten sulfur from its boiling point, 823F, to its melting point, 223F (From Table 3) Formula 1, Article 17 = cw (t2 t1) = 0.2340 100 (223 823) Specific heat of molten sulfur from Table 1 = 0.2340 = 14,040 Btu Q2 = heat released to solidify the sulfur = 100 16.7 Latent heat of fusion of sulfur from Table 5 = 16.7 = 1670 Btu Q3 = heat released in cooling the solid sulfur from 223F to 23F = cw (t2 t1) Formula 1, Article 17 = 0.2026 100 (23 223) Specific heat of solid sulfur fromTable 1 = 0.2026 = 4052 Btu Qtotal = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 14,040 + ( 1670) + ( 4052) = 19,762 Btu The minus sign indicates that heat is given off.

83

5
1. Q = kA (t t ) d 2 1 0.45 (6 10) = 0.05 = 32,400 Btu/hr d= 0.6 = 0.05 ft 12 Formula of Article 40

2. (1) Calculate the total area of the open-top tank: Sidewall area = (5 5 2) + (5 10 2) = 50 + 100 = 150 sq ft Bottom area = 5 10 = 50 sq ft Total area = 150 + 50 = 200 sq ft (2) Calculate the number of Btu conducted through the bottom of the tank: The bottom area is 50200 or 14 the total area. Therefore, one-quarter of the total number of Btu conducted through the entire tank is conducted through the bottom, or 14 98,350,000 = 24,587,500 Btu. (3) Solve for the thickness of the bottom plate: kA Q= (t t ) d 2 1 117 50 (70 0) k of aluminum (Table 8) = 117 24,587,500 = d 409,500 d= 24,587,500 = 0.0166 ft = 0.0166 12 = 0.199 or 0.2 in. 3. kA (t t ) d 2 1 0.05 d= = 0.00416 12 237 A 4,640,000 = (72 32) k of silver (Table 8) = 237 0.00416 Q= A= 19,302.4 = 2.036, or 2 sq ft 9480

Formula of Article 40

Formula of Article 40

84

6
1. Q = cw (t2 t1) = 0.9400 1000 (170 70) Specific heat of seawater from Table 1 = 0.9400 = 94,000 Btu W = MEH Q = 778 94,000 = 73,132,000 ftlb 2. Q = heat given up by gas = 27,500 36 = 990,000 Btu/hr W = work delivered by the engine 116.7 33,000 60 = 778 = 297,000 Btu/hr W 297,000 = Q 990,000 = 0.30, or 30 percent 3. p1 V1 p2 V2 = T1 T2 T1 = 190.4 + 459.6 = 650.0R p1 1300 40 1000 = T2 = 59.6 + 459.6 = 400.0R 650 400 650 40 1000 p1 = 1300 400 = 50 psia V1 V2 = T1 T2 5.5 V2 = 550 500 5.5 500 V2 = 550 = 5 cu ft Formula of Article 58 Formula 1, Article 17

Formula 1, Article 47

4.

## Formula of Article 57 T1 = 90.4 + 459.6 = 550.0R T2 = 40.4 + 459.6 = 500.0R

85

1
1. energy 2. physical, mechanical, chemical 3. terrestrial 4. molecules 5. mercury 6. 32 7. 100 8. Rankine 9. Optical pyrometer Article 2 Article 4 Article 5 Article 8 Article 9 Article 11 Article 11 Article 12 Article 14 1. copper 2. convection 1. melting 2. c 144 Btu 3. 100 cu ft 4. lower 5. 970 6. solid

4
Article 29 Article 30, Table 5 Article 31 Article 32 Article 33 Article 35

5
Article 39 Article 41 Article 41 Article 42 Article 42 Article 43

2
1. British thermal unit, or Btu 2. calorimeter 3. smaller Article 15 Article 19 Article 20

## 3. convection 4. waves 5. less 6. d

6 3
1. work 1. linear 2. expansion, contraction 3. three 4. Water Article 21 Article 21 Article 24 Article 27 2. 778 3. 33,000 4. internal 5. Boyles Article 44 Article 47 Article 47 Article 48 Article 55

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NOTES

Examination

87

## 925 Oak Street Scranton, Pennsylvania 18515-0001

Heat Part 1
EXAMINATION NUMBER:

68600100
Whichever method you use in submitting your exam answers to the school, you must use the number above. For the quickest test results, go to http://www.takeexamsonline.com
When you feel confident that you have mastered the material in this study unit, complete the following examination. Then submit only your answers to the school for grading, using one of the examination answer options described in your Test Materials envelope. Send your answers for this examination as soon as you complete it. Do not wait until another examination is ready.

Questions 120: Select the one best answer to each question. 1. How much heat is required to raise the temperature of 1000 lb of mercury from 70F to 120F? (Consult the appropriate tables in your text for the necessary data.) A. 1665 Btu B. 2331 Btu C. 3996 Btu D. 6327 Btu

2. The burning of fuel oil is an example of which type of heat source? A. Mechanical B. Physical C. Electrical D. Chemical

3. An alcohol thermometer differs from a mercury thermometer in that the alcohol thermometer A. B. C. D. takes advantage of expansion or contraction with the addition or removal of heat. takes advantage of a lower freezing point in order to measure lower temperatures. must be constructed of glass and have a tube with a uniform inside diameter. must be constructed with a vacuum above the liquid in the sealed glass thermometer tube.

88

Examination

4. To raise the temperature of 120 lb of tin from 77F to 97F require 134.4 Btu. What is the approximate specific heat of tin? A. 0.0012 B. 0.014 C. 0.044 D. 0.056

5. Heat is the energy that a body possesses because of the _______ of the body. A. B. C. D. elevation size continuous motion of the atoms continuous motion of the molecules

6. The Fahrenheit temperature corresponding to 75C is A. 24F. B. 42F. 7. The unit of heat in the metric system is the A. Btu. B. ft-lb. C. watt. D. joule. C. 135F. D. 167F.

8. The method of mixtures is generally used to determine the _______ of a substance. A. temperature B. linear expansion C. internal energy D. specific heat

9. Each of two rods of equal size is placed with one end in the fire. One rod is copper, and the other is iron. The outer end of the copper rod becomes hot much sooner than the outer end of the iron rod. Which one of the following statements is the best explanation? A. B. C. D. Copper has better thermal conductivity than iron. Copper radiates heat faster than iron. Air convection is better along copper than along iron. Heat travels faster in iron than in copper.

10. The amount of heat energy removed from a gas from the time the gas begins to condense at constant temperature until it has condensed completely is called the A. latent heat of liquefaction. B. latent heat of sublimation. C. melting point. D. boiling point.

11. How many kilojoules of heat is required to change 5 kg of liquid ammonia at atmospheric pressure into gaseous ammonia? Assume that the temperature of the liquid ammonia is the same as the temperature of the gaseous ammonia. (Consult the appropriate tables in your text for the necessary data.) A. 274 kJ B. 1366 kJ C. 1376 kJ D. 6854 kJ

12. If you accidentally touch a hot iron, you can burn your hand because of heat transfer by A. convection. B. conduction. C. absorption. D. radiation.

Examination

89

13. A metal pipeline is laid to carry oil 500 miles across the Arabian desert. The temperature in the desert at night is as low as 30F; during the day the temperature often climbs to 130F. If the linear coefficient of thermal expansion of the metal is 0.000006, how much expansion and contraction along the pipeline must the design engineer plan for? (Note: 1 mile = 5280 ft) A. 475 ft B. 1584 ft C. 2059 ft D. 2534 ft

14. One hundred cubic meters of gas at -34.6C and 200 kPa absolute pressure is compressed to a volume of 25 cubic meters and an absolute pressure of 1000 kPa. What is the new temperature, in degrees Celsius? A. 2.5C B. 5C C. 25C D. 298C

15. A pull of 2500 lb is required to move a boulder 6 in. What is the heat equivalent of the work performed? A. 1.61 Btu B. 3.21 Btu C. 19.28 Btu D. 972,500 Btu

16. A certain gas has a volume of 20 cu ft and a pressure of 10 psia at 40F. What is the new pressure if the gas is compressed to 5 cu ft at 40C? A. 0.025 psia B. 0.4 psia C. 10 psia D. 40 psia

17. A steel bridge one-half mile long is subjected to a maximum change in temerature of 130F during a year. If the linear coefficient of thermal expansion for the steel is 0.0000056, what is the bridges maximum change in length? A. 0.19 ft B. 0.38 ft C. 1.92 ft D. 3.84 ft

18. The air enclosed in a tennis ball is under exactly 1 atmosphere of pressure on a cool day when the temperature is 10C. Assuming that the volume of the enclosed air remains the same, calculate the percent increase in pressure when the temperature rises to 35C. A. 8.8% B. 9.1% C. 10.88% D. 18.8%

19. Calculate the weight of water that can be heated from 60F to 120F by supplying 1200 Btu of heat. Refer to Table 1 for the specific heat of water. A. 0.05 lb B. 20 lb C. 60 lb D. 120 lb

20. During the heating of a liquid, the _______ is large. A. B. C. D. increase in potential energy PE increase in kinetic energy KE external work W performed decrease in volume