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Base-Station-Antennas for optimized Mobile Communication Networks Norbert Ephan, Roland Gabriel KATHREIN-Werke KG,
Base-Station-Antennas for optimized
Mobile Communication Networks
Norbert Ephan, Roland Gabriel
KATHREIN-Werke KG, Postfach 100 444,
83004 Rosenheim, Germany
Kathrein-Werke KG
Rosenheim
PO Box 10 04 44
Phone:+ 49 (0)8031 184 - 0
Fax: +49 (0)8031 184 991
antennas.mobilcom@kathrein.
de
www.kathrein.de
Content •• 1.1. PolarizationPolarization -- DiversityDiversity--AntennasAntennas •• 2.2.
Content
••
1.1. PolarizationPolarization -- DiversityDiversity--AntennasAntennas
••
2.2. SiteSite--SharingSharing withwith MultibandMultiband--AntennasAntennas
••
3.3. RemoteRemote ElectricalElectrical TiltTilt
••
4.4. AdaptiveAdaptive AntennasAntennas andand TowerTower TopTop
ElectronicsElectronics
History: Base Station Antennas Evolution from Eurocell V-Pol. to A-Panel XX-Pol.
History: Base Station Antennas
Evolution from Eurocell V-Pol. to A-Panel XX-Pol.
1. Polarization Diversity Antennas
1. Polarization Diversity Antennas
Diversity combining Diversity with two antennas 10 5 -- LevelLevel differencedifference -- CorrelationCorrelation 0
Diversity combining
Diversity with two antennas
10
5
-- LevelLevel differencedifference
-- CorrelationCorrelation
0
1
-5
Rx 2
-10
Rx 1
-15
-20
-25
-30
8
Time
8
7
7
6
6
5
Maximal Maximal Ratio Ratio Combining Combining
Combined Signal
5
4
4
10
3
3
5
2
0
2
1
1
-5
1
0
-10
0
-15
1 1 3
5
3
7
5
9
7
11
9
13
11
15
-20
13
15
17
19
17
Signal Signal Difference Difference [dB] [dB]
21
19
21
23
23
25
-25
25
Cross-
Cross-
-30
Correlation Correlation
Time
Diversity Diversity gain gain GSM GSM
Signal level [dB]
Signal Level [dB]
Diversity Diversity Gain Gain [dB] [dB]
1
1
0.8
0.8
0.6
0.6
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.2
0
0
Diversity •Typical Diversity Gain for GSM - System (max. uncorrelated, equal level) Outage Probability (y<x)
Diversity
•Typical Diversity Gain for GSM - System
(max. uncorrelated, equal level)
Outage Probability (y<x)
1,E+00
Div-gain 7 dB
1,E-01
single signal
1,E-02
max. ratio comb./
uncorrelated signals
1,E-03
1,E-04
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
10 log (x/Γ ) [dB]
Pr (
<x)
Diversity • Space Diversity Arrangement – uses two vertical polarized Rx antennas (Rxa and Rxb)
Diversity
• Space Diversity Arrangement
– uses two vertical polarized Rx antennas (Rxa and Rxb) with a horizontal
spacing of 12-15 λ
– Omni base station :
3 omni antennas with the Tx antenna on a higher level
3m
3m
Polarization-Diversity: Xpol construction 65° 90°
Polarization-Diversity: Xpol construction
65°
90°
Polarization Diversity Antennas: Radiators -45°-Polarization +45°-Polarization Reflektor „Vektor“-dipol
Polarization Diversity Antennas: Radiators
-45°-Polarization
+45°-Polarization
Reflektor
„Vektor“-dipol
-halfpower beamwidth 65°- 90°
-low crosspol- level
-broadband design(1710 - 2170 MHz)
Polarization Diversity Antenna Arrangements SpaceSpace--DiversityDiversity--ArrangementArrangement
Polarization Diversity Antenna Arrangements
SpaceSpace--DiversityDiversity--ArrangementArrangement
PolarizationPolarization--DiversityDiversity--
ArrangementArrangement
X-Pol Array Antennas - Vector Dipole Characteristic Co-/Cross Pol. behavior Frequency behavior 0 Primary Primary
X-Pol Array Antennas - Vector Dipole Characteristic
Co-/Cross Pol. behavior
Frequency behavior
0 Primary Primary radiator radiator design design
345
0
15
15
345
30
30
330
330
45
315
45
315
60
300
60
300
75
285
75
285
90
90
-30
-20
-10
270
-20
-10
270
dB
-30
dB
105
255
105
255
120
240
120
240
co-pol
135
225
cross-pol
135
225
150
210
150
210
165
195
165
195
180
180
> 25 dB (main direction)
> 10dB (+/- 60° Sector)
1710 - 2170 MHz
Site-Sharing with Dual and Triple-Band Antennas
Site-Sharing with Dual and
Triple-Band Antennas
Dualband Antennas / XXpol System MajorMajor MobileMobile CommunicationCommunication FrequenciesFrequencies TETRA GSM
Dualband Antennas / XXpol System
MajorMajor MobileMobile CommunicationCommunication FrequenciesFrequencies
TETRA
GSM
DVB-H
380 - 430 MHz
450 MHz
512-860 MHz
AMPS
GSM 900
824 - 890 MHz
880-960 MHz
GSM 1800
UMTS
1710 - 1880 MHz
1920 - 2170 MHz
UMTS LTE
WiMax
2500 - 2700 MHz
3.4 - 3.8
GHz
Site Sharing and Multi-Band Antennas Single-Band-Antennen für GSM900 und GSM1800 GSM900 (D-Netz) GSM1800 (E-Netz)
Site Sharing and Multi-Band Antennas
Single-Band-Antennen
für GSM900 und GSM1800
GSM900
(D-Netz)
GSM1800
(E-Netz)
XXPol-Dual-Band
mit Combiner
Site Sharing and Multiband Antennas
Site Sharing and Multiband Antennas
Dualband antennas: XXpol construction
Dualband antennas: XXpol construction
Triple-Band Antennas MajorMajor MobileMobile CommunicationCommunication FrequenciesFrequencies TETRA GSM DVB-H 380 -
Triple-Band Antennas
MajorMajor MobileMobile CommunicationCommunication FrequenciesFrequencies
TETRA
GSM
DVB-H
380 - 430 MHz
450 MHz
512-860 MHz
AMPS
GSM 900
824 - 890 MHz
880-960 MHz
GSM 1800
1710 - 1880 MHz
UMTS
1920 - 2170 MHz
UMTS LTE
WiMax
2500 - 2700 MHz
3.4 - 3.8
GHz
Independent adjustable Downtilt
Triple- Band Antennas
Triple- Band Antennas
Triple- Band Antennas
Triple- Band Antennas
Adjustable Electrical DT Combined radiators 806-960/1710-2170 MHz C-Filter-Combiner 1710-1880 MHz 1920-2170 MHz
Adjustable Electrical DT
Combined radiators 806-960/1710-2170 MHz
C-Filter-Combiner
1710-1880 MHz
1920-2170 MHz
DPS-Differential
Phase-Shifter
Single radiators 1710 - 2170 MHz
Scheme of Triple-Band-Antenna
Triple- Band Antennas DowntiltDowntilt CrosspolarCrosspolar GSMGSM 900900 levellevel HalfpowerHalfpower VSWRVSWR
Triple- Band Antennas
DowntiltDowntilt
CrosspolarCrosspolar
GSMGSM 900900
levellevel
HalfpowerHalfpower
VSWRVSWR
Complex design:
beamwidthbeamwidth
Optimization Parameter
of Triple-Band Antennas
frequencyfrequency
SidelobeSidelobe levellevel
DowntiltDowntilt
TrackingTracking,,
GSMGSM 18001800
squintsquint
DowntiltDowntilt
isolationisolation
UMTSUMTS
Isolation +/-45° Triple-Band-Antenna
45
43
41
39
37
Isolation
35
6
33
31
4
Downtilt
29
1800 MHz
2
27
25
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Downtilt 900 MHz
Remote Electrical Tilt
Remote Electrical Tilt
Adjustable Electrical Downtilt • maximum flexibility is achieved with adjustable electrical downtilt by combining the
Adjustable Electrical Downtilt
• maximum flexibility is achieved with adjustable electrical downtilt
by combining the adjustability of the mechanical DT and the
technical advantage of the electrical DT
Ф
Ф
Ф
Ф
Adjustable Electrical Downtilt • •• •• •• NetworkNetwork ExtensionExtension SupportSupport ofof
Adjustable Electrical Downtilt
••
••
••
NetworkNetwork ExtensionExtension
SupportSupport ofof traffictraffic dependentdependent cellcell breathingbreathing andand regulationregulation ofof softsoft--
HandoverHandover areasareas
HotHot spotsspots duringduring specialspecial eventsevents
DynamicalDynamical traffictraffic adaptiveadaptive regulationregulation ofof cellcell loadload
High traffic
area
„Hot Spot“
„Cell Brathing“
Adjustable Electrical Downtilt – Electrical Tilt instead of Mechanical Tilt – Manual Adjustable: Team has
Adjustable Electrical Downtilt
– Electrical Tilt instead of Mechanical Tilt
– Manual Adjustable: Team has to climb up the tower
– RET offers flexible remote control (on site ore via O&M Network)
RET
Adjustable Electrical DT Schemes of Triple-Band-Antenna Triple-Band Antenna system 900 MHz +45°
Adjustable Electrical DT
Schemes of Triple-Band-Antenna
Triple-Band Antenna system 900 MHz +45°
Adjustable Electrical DT Schemes of Triple-Band-Antenna C-Filter-Combiner Passive Differential Phase Shifter
Adjustable Electrical DT
Schemes of Triple-Band-Antenna
C-Filter-Combiner
Passive Differential Phase Shifter
DPS-Differential
Phase-Shifter
Triple-Band Antenna system 2000 MHz +45°
UMTS / WCDMA-Network Optimization of Service 98 Without RET RET optimized 96 Azimuth optimized 94
UMTS / WCDMA-Network
Optimization of Service
98
Without RET
RET optimized
96
Azimuth optimized
94
92
90
88
86
84
82
80
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
Number of Subscribers
Influence of Downtilt-Optimization
- a) RET and Pilot Power
- b) RET, Pilot Power and Azimuth adjustment
Based on study results by
Symena Software & Consulting GmbH Wien:
www.symena.com „ The value of automated optimization“ ,
publishing with allowance of Symena
Service Propability
RET- Scenarios Network-Planing Network-Extension Antenna Tool „Dynamical“ Predefined Modus Scenarios Changed
RET- Scenarios
Network-Planing
Network-Extension
Antenna
Tool
„Dynamical“
Predefined
Modus
Scenarios
Changed Load
Situation
(Rush Hour)
RCU
TMA
-Optimization Time
-Reaction Time
-Administration
BTS
OMC
Central Control
unit
Control
Network
Smart-BIAS-T
Feeder lines
Roll-Out of RET-System in Taipei/Taiwan
Roll-Out of RET-System in Taipei/Taiwan
Adaptive Antennas and Tower Top Electronics
Adaptive Antennas and
Tower Top Electronics
Adaptive Antennas -- IncreasedIncreased CapacityCapacity -- ReducedReduced interferenceinterference levellevel --
Adaptive Antennas
-- IncreasedIncreased CapacityCapacity
-- ReducedReduced interferenceinterference levellevel
-- ReducedReduced TransmitTransmit--PowerPower
-- „Multi„Multi--Beam“Beam“--AntennasAntennas
-- ReductionReduction ofof averageaverage EMEM
-- AdaptiveAdaptive AntennasAntennas
-- ReducedReduced SiteSite SharingSharing CapabilitiesCapabilities
Transmit the power to the correct destination.
Adaptive Antennas - Control principles Adaptive Antenna Control Options Standard BTS Special BTS for n
Adaptive Antennas - Control principles
Adaptive Antenna
Control Options
Standard BTS
Special BTS for n Sensors
Control via:
-Handover (Switched)
-Soft Handover (Makro-
Diversity)
Beam-Forming Algorithm
-Switched fixed beam
-MRC principle
-Backbone network takes over
high traffic -or increased
handovers required
Pilot carrier (BCCH) has to been
distributed within the whole cell
-2X
4X
dual beam antennas
2X
4X
array antennas
-common 6-sector arrangements
option: flat frequency phase-
dependency for FDD
Adaptive Antennas r For QPSK-Modulation, uncorrelated carriers: M − 1 2 1 µ  2
Adaptive Antennas
r
For QPSK-Modulation, uncorrelated carriers:
M
− 1
2
1
µ
 2 r  1 − 
µ
P
=
b MRC
,
 
BER MRC-Receiver, noncorrelated signals
2
2
r
4
r
= 0
  
1,E+00
P
Tx-Power
µ
t
=
1,E-01
2
P +
σ
Diversity-gain
t
n
noise
1,E-02
1,E-03
1,E-04
Single Sensor
1,E-05
2 sensors
3 sensors
1,E-06
4 sensors
1,E-07
-19 -17 -14 -12 -10
-7
-5
-3
0
2
5
7
9
12
14
16
19
21
24
26
28
31
SNR [dB]
MISO- Multiple Input- Single Output
MRC
M=4
M=8
BER
Adaptive Antennas Array Gain 14 12 - 2 4 sensors offer 10 8 attractive ratio
Adaptive Antennas
Array Gain
14
12
- 2
4
sensors offer
10
8
attractive
ratio of gain/costs
6
4
2
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Number of sensors
Array Gain (correlation=1)
typical gain
max gain(correl=0)
Antenna
Array gain
Maximum
Typical
/Sensor
(total
Gain
(non
gain
Typ
correlated)
correlated)
Single
0
dB
0
dB
0 dB
Path
Two Path
3
dB
8
dB
4
5
dB
Four Path
6
dB
10.5 dB
6
10
dB
8-Path
9
dB
13 dB
8
11
dB
Gain [dB]
Adaptive Antennas: 4x-solution Dual-polarized Array-Antenna 4x 4 x Tx +4 x Rx Diversity Digital data
Adaptive Antennas: 4x-solution
Dual-polarized
Array-Antenna
4x
4 x Tx
+4 x Rx Diversity
Digital data processing
Beam steering algorithm
(1x phase calibration)
M=8
Improved Rx-signal, reduced Tx power
6-Sector-Arrangement: „Switched Beam“ Adaption 66--SektorSektor -- Arrangements:Arrangements: --IncreasedIncreased
6-Sector-Arrangement: „Switched Beam“ Adaption
66--SektorSektor --
Arrangements:Arrangements:
--IncreasedIncreased CoverageCoverage
--EquivalentEquivalent TrafficTraffic//CellCell
--ReducedReduced InterferenceInterference
area
sec
≈ subscriber
sec tor
= cons
tor
r
=
2 r
d 6sect =1.41d 3sect
6sec
t
3sec
t
Required additional
gain for increased
radius
(Okumarata-
Hata-Model)
4,5
6
dB
6-Sector Ultra High sites Increased Coverage due to increased height of the Tx Antenna path
6-Sector Ultra High sites
Increased Coverage due to
increased height of the
Tx Antenna
path loss
140
„Ultra High sites“
130
Increased coverage
120
h= 10 m
h=20m
110
h=40m
h=100m
100
90
∆h
80
0,1
0,3
0,5
0,7
0,9
1,1
1,3
1,5
1,7
1,9
Distance [km]
f=2GHz, g Tx =18 dBi, Okumurata-Hata
Path loss [dB]
Adaptive Antenna: Dual Beam (2X) Dual-Beam-Antenna ( 2 Columns) 3dB-Hybrid
Adaptive Antenna: Dual Beam (2X)
Dual-Beam-Antenna ( 2 Columns)
3dB-Hybrid
Adaptive Antenna: Dual Beam (4X) Dual-Beam-Antenna ( 4 Columns) Beam 1 Beam 2 Frequenz HPBW
Adaptive Antenna: Dual Beam (4X)
Dual-Beam-Antenna ( 4 Columns)
Beam 1
Beam 2
Frequenz
HPBW
Azimuth
Frequenz
HPBW
Azimuth
4x2 Butler-Matrix
Adaptive Antennas: Tracking 2X Smart Antenna ( 2 Columns, 65° HPBW) Phase Shift (Columns) 0
Adaptive Antennas: Tracking 2X
Smart Antenna ( 2 Columns, 65° HPBW)
Phase Shift (Columns)
0 degree
30
degree
60
degree
90
degree
120 degree
Horizontal Scan-Width
0
degree
5
degree
10
degree
15
degree
20
degree
Adaptive Antennas: MIMO-Systems MIMO-System: Combination of Pattern and Polarization-Diversity
Adaptive Antennas: MIMO-Systems
MIMO-System:
Combination of Pattern and
Polarization-Diversity
Tower Top electronics transmission= 20 W MCPA TMA dissipation 2 = 5 W Multi- Noise
Tower Top electronics
transmission= 20 W
MCPA
TMA
dissipation 2 =
5 W
Multi-
Noise Figure
RRH
dissipation 1 = 25 W
CPRICPRI--
InterfaceInterface
P Tx = 50 W
BTS
BTS
P in = 500 W
η= 10%
Tower- Top Electronics: Multi-RRH 4x Antenna Array Adaptive Antenna Array with Multi-RRH 4 x Tx,
Tower- Top Electronics: Multi-RRH
4x Antenna Array
Adaptive Antenna
Array with
Multi-RRH
4 x Tx, 8 x Rx
Re IM
Up-Conv
Re Im
Down-
Conv.
Re Im
Down-
Conv
Digital
Predist.
CPRI
CPRI
CPRI
RET
control
Tx-Linearization
Power
Rx2-Control of
control
Supply
Amplitude/Phase
RET
Power
Tx
Rx1
Rx2