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A. E. Waite byAlvin Langdon Coburn, 1922.
First published 1987
R. A. GILBERT 1987
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or by any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopying, recording
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British Library
Cataloguing in Publication Data
Gilbert R.A
A.E. <Waite: .magician of many parts.
1. Waite" Arthur Edward 2. Occult
sciences -- Biography
I. Title
ISBN 1-85274-023-X
Crucible is an imprint of the
Thorsons Publishing Group Limited,
Denington Estate, Wellingborough,
Northamptonshire NN8 2RQ
Printed and bound in Great Britain
1 3 5 7 9 108 64 2
Preface Page 9
Introduction Page 11
_____________1 _
From the New World Page 15
_____________2, _
'The Church of Rome I found would suit' Page 20
_____________3 _
Dangerous Rubbish: Penny Dreadfuls
and a World of Dreams Page'26
_______- 4 _
The 'Tiresome Verse-Reciter' Page 31
_______-------5-_- _
'Love that never told can be' Page 38
_____________6 - _
'While yet a boy I sought for ghosts' Page 47
_____________7 ----------
Dora and the Coming of Love Page 57
_____________8 _
Frater Avallauniusand 'The Road of Excess' Page 67
_____________9 ---------
'Not verse now, only prose' Page 76
_______10 _
'He that aspired to know' -
A New Light of Mysticism Page 88
__________11 _
The Hidden Church and a Secret Tradition Page 97
__________12, _
'Golden Demons that none can stay' -
An Hermetic Order of the .Golden Dawn Page 105
__________13 _
The Independent and Rectified Rite:
the Middle Way Page 116
_----,- -- 14 --__
'Brotherhood is religion' -
An Adept among the Masons Page 124
__________15__-- -------
The Way of Divine Union Page 133
______---, 16 ---..-- _
Frater Sacramentum Regis and his
Fellowship of the Rosy Cross Page 142
____________17 ------
The Passing of Arthur Page 155
Afterword: The Faith of A.E. Waite Page 163
Appendix A: (I) The New Light of Mysticism Page 167
Appendix A: (II) 'A Tentative Rite' for 'An Order of the
Spiritual Temple' Page 170
Appendix B: The Constitution of the Secret Council of
Rites Page 173
Appendix C: (I) The Manifesto of 24 July 1903 Page 177
Appendix C: (II) Constitution of the R.R. et A.C.
Page 179
Appendix D: The 'Most Faithful Agreement and
Concordat' Page 181
Appendix E: (I) The Fellowship of the Rosy Cross,
Constitution and Laws Page 183
Appendix E: (II) The Clothing of Celebrants and
Officers Page 185
Notes Page 189
Select Bibliography Page 199
Index Page 203
As I was coming into the world, Waite was going out; and it was my discovery
of this curious, if tenuous, link between us that changed a mild interest in Waite
into a fascination (an obsession, if my wife is to be believed).for the man and
his work.
I discovered also that Waite was a very private man; his autobiography-
Shadows of Life and Thought, which I have abbreviated throughout the text as
far less of his outer life than it appears to do, for Waite was more
concerned to expound his mystical philosophy and to encourage others to seek
for themselves the 'Way of Divine Union' than to record his personal history.
In the autobiography he epitomises the image he presented to W. B. Yeats: that
of 'the one deep student of these things known to me'.
But his maddening vagueness and cavalier attitude to the fine details of such
episodesof his lifeas he did choose to relate masked a desireto preservefor posterity
the full story-or at least the story of his adult life, for there was much about
his childhood that was well enough concealed to .make conjecture the principal
tool for its disinterment. Not that he necessarily intended such a careful
concealment, but rather that he neglected to take proper care of his papers (they
were stored in damp cellars and basements) so that many of them deteriorated
badly and some. of the most important were completely destroyed-including
everything that related to his mother's family, and all the letters he had received
from Yeats.
And yet there remain so many of his papers that no biographer could justly
ask for more; by chance (aided, as I like to think, by diligence} I was led first
to his diaries and then to the larger bulk of his papers: personal, commercial,
and esoteric. From other sourcesI obtained copiesof his forty years' correspondence
with Arthur Machen, and of his equallyprolificcorrespondencewith his American
friend, Harold Voorhis. With the aid of the late Geoffrey Watkins I traced many
of those who had known Waite in his later life and recorded their memories
and impressions of him. All of which has taken far longer than it ought to have
done, and many of those who helped me when I began my pursuit of this multi-
faceted man-for so he proved to be-are now themselves dead.
To those who remain I am heavily indebted. The details of Waite's American
ancestry were unearthed for me by Mr CharlesJacobs of Bridgeport, Connecticut;
while information on his early life was provided by Fr. Hubert Edgar, O.P., Mr
Raphael Shaberman, and Fr. Horace Tennent. Much of the footwork around
London was undertaken by my son, Nicholas, and Mr Timothy d'Arch-Smith
gave me the benefit of his expert opinion over the question of Waite's early
Over the matter of Waite's personal lifeI havebeen greatly helped by Arthur
Machen's children-Mrs Janet Pollock and Mr Hilary Machen-and by Mr
Godfrey Brangham, Mr Roger Dobson, Mr Michael Goth, and Mr Christopher
Watkins, all of whom supplied me with a wealth of correspondence between
Waite and Machen; andby Mr A. B. Collins, Miss Marjorie Debenham, Mr
C. J. Forestier-Walker, Mrs Madge Strevens, and Mr Colin Summerford, who
have each provided invaluable information on Waite's two marriages and on his
later life.
For the story of Waite's involvement with the Golden Dawn and with the
Fellowship of the Rosy Cross I am greatly indebted toMr Warwick Gould, the
RevdDr Roma King, Mr.Keithjackson.Mr Roger Parisious, Mrs FrancinePrince,
Mr John Semken, Mr Andrew Stephenson, and those anonymous survivors of
the Fellowship of the Rosy Cross who wish forever to remain unknown.
Aleister Crowley's referencesto Waite were found for me byMr Clive Harper
and Mr Martin Starr, while I could not havecharted Waite's masoniccareerwithout
the constant help and encouragement of Mr John Hamill, the Librarian of the
United Grand Lodge of England. I have been similarly helped by the staff of
the British Library (ReferenceDivision) and of the library of the Warburg Institute.
I must also thank the many correspondents who have provided me with
suggestions, clues, and obscure titbits of information during the time of my quest.
But above all my thanks are due to Ellic Howe, Lewis Richter, and the Revd
Kevin Tingay: three friends and colleagues who for the past fifteen years have
aided and abetted me far beyond the call of duty in my pursuit of Waite and
all his works. lowe them a debt that cannot easily be repaid.
Lastly I must thank my wife, who has lived with Waite for as long as she
has lived with his biographer-and has yet contrived to tolerate us both.
Bristol, February 1987
WRITING to his friend Louis Wilkinson, on 7 April 1945, Aleister Crowley
remarked-in uncharacteristicallycharitable fashion--!If it had not been for Waite,
I doubt if, humanly speaking, I should ever have got in touch with the Great
Order.' Inevitably he prefixed this praise with abuse: 'Waite certainly did start
a revival of interest in Alchemy, Magic, Mysticism, and all the rest. That his
scholarship was so contemptible, his style so over-loaded, and his egomania so
outrageous does not kill to the point of extinction, the worth of his contribution.'
Even this is muted criticism for Crowley; more often he heaped abuse on Waite
with gusto, tingeing it with venomous personal attacks that were as unjustified
aswere his assaults on Waite's writing. His characterization of Waite (in his novel
Moonchild) as 'Edwin Arthwait', 'a dull and inaccuratepedant without imagination
or real magical perception', is more a reflection of his self-perception. But why
should Crowley, flamboyant, indifferent to public opinion and public morals,
and with a perpetual circle of sycophantic acolytes, be so exercisedwith the need
to condemn a man he perceived as a fellow occultist?
Throughout the ten issues of his periodical TheEquinox Crowley maintained
a stream of invective and abuse against A. E. Waite, condemning the man, his
works, his friends and all that he stood for. As there was virtually no public
circulation of The Equinox these attacks seem futile, and can only be explained
by a wish on Crowley's part tojustify his own actions. He had written to Waite
in 1898, after reading The Book of Black Magic, and received in reply the advice
to go away and read Eckartshausen's The Cloud upon the Sanctuary. Having read
the book Crowley realized that there is a hidden, Interior Church behind the
outer institutions; but when he subsequentlyjoined the Hermetic Order of the
Golden Dawn he failed to find the Interior Church-for the simple reason that
it was never there. Such a Church-the Holy Assembly-would, inevitably, have
required from Crowley what he did not wish to give: the renunciation of his
self-centred nature. This he could only preserve by the practice of magic and
it was Waite's measured analysis of the futility and wickedness of magic that
so enraged him in later years.
13 __________INTRODUCTION __ 12
Crowley's hostility centred on his awareness that Waite had perceived the
true nature of magic and pointed to another way-that of the mystic. Unwilling
to accept what he knewinwardly to be true; Crowley turned to verbiage and
venom, at the same time belittling himselfand ensuring that future generations
of occultists should know of Waite and be curious.
And who was Waite? Arthur Edward Waite, the child of Anglo-American
parents, was born at a time of religious upheaval and left this world as it was
busily engaged in tearing apart its social fabric. He was a prolific author, but
one whose books are, for the most part, unknown and unread; he was not
recognized as a scholar by .the academic world, but he remains the only
comprehensive analyst of the history of occultism in all its many branches. Not
that he approved of the term or the looseness of its connotations; to himself
he was a mystic and an exponent of mysticism. He saw, what others before him
had not seen, that there can be no final understanding of mystical experience
without .an appreciation of the traditions, outside the confines of the Church,
that preserved those practices that bring mystical experience within the reach
of every man and. woman.
He is not easyto understand. His writing is diffuse, often verbose, and peppered
'with archaisms; but it. has its own power and leavesthe reader with the feeling
that buried within the densely packed prose is a message ofimmense significance.
This has been perceived by the more acute of his critics: Dean Inge-a scourge
of sentimental pseudo-mysticism-believed that Waite had 'penetrated very near
to the heart of his subject' (reviewofStudies inMysticism, in TheSaturday Review,
2 March 1907). But Waite refused to jettison all that was included under the
heading of occultism. He sawwithin it, as Spurgeon said of the Talmud, 'jewels
which the world could not afford to miss'; and seeing them, drew them out
and displayed them for all to see-all, that is, with eyes to see.
Many readers of Waite, and most self-confessed students of 'rejected
knowledge', persist in seeing him as an occultist. Usually they find him wanting:
Richard Cavendish, in The Tarot admired his energy in pursuing esoteric lore
butdescribedasiuncharacteristically lucid' his preface to Papus's Tarot of the
Bohemiansand killed .Waiteoff in 1940, 'in the London blitz', thus denying him
his last two years of life. Michael Dummett, in The Game of Tarot, speaks of
Waite ashaving, 'the instincts, and to alargeextent, the temperament, ofa genuine
scholar; in particular hehad the scholar's squeamishness about making factual
assertions unwarranted by the evidence'. And yet Waite was 'as committed an
occultist as those he subjected to his rebukes'. Even more unkind-and quite
unjustified-was Shumaker's comment in his important book TheOccult Sciences
intheRenaissance. 'An.occultist likeA. E. Waite', he said, 'whose. attitude toward
alchemy resembles that of Montague Summers toward Witchcraft, is
temperamentally inclined to assume the possession of profound wisdom by our
ancestors' (p. 162). He yet proceeded to pillage Waite's alchemical translations
to illustrate his own work.
Sympathetic scholars have seen Waite in a different light. Gershom Scholem
praised him for TheSecret Doctrine In Israel: 'His work', he.said, 'is distinguished
by real insight into the world of Kabbalism'; although he added that 'it is all
the more regrettable that it is marred by an uncritical attitude towards facts of
history and philology'. That failing in Waite was the result of under-education
and his achievements in the fieldof 'rejected knowledge'are the more remarkable
when it is realized that his schooling consisted of little more than two terms
at only one recognized institute.
The lack of academic training was the principal cause of Waite's peculiar
literary style, which resulted in some of his work appearing far more abstruse
than was reallythe case, and evenmore of it seeming to be inconclusive. A masonic
friend of Waite's, B. H. Springett, referred to his enthusiasm for the significance
of certain rituals and to his setting out his conclusions 'without allowing himself
to be committed to any statement which the ordinary reader might construe
into a definite opinion' (Secret Sects ofSyria, p. 59). However difficult his prose
mightbe, there were many whostruggled with it successfully and came to admire
both Waite and his thought. W.B. Yeats was one such; he saw Waite as 'the
one deep student' known to him of Louis Claude de Saint-Martin-a mystical
philosopher extraordinarily difficult to grasp. In similar vein John Masefield
described Waite as 'by far the most learned modern scholar of occultism-s-and
this because Waite recognized the spirituality of certain of the alchemists.
Waite himself looked upon his studies of the occult (or of 'The Secret
Tradition', as he preferred to call it) as of subsidiary importance-from a literary
point of view-to his poetry. He was, after all, 'the exponent in poetical and
prose writings of sacramental religion and the higher mysticism' (his depiction
of himself in Who's Who). Even Aleister Crowley admired Waite's poetry:' 'as
a poet', Crowley reluctantly admitted, 'his genius was undeniable' (in Campaign
against Uizite, an unpublished part of the Confessions). Others, more favourably
disposed to Waite, might hesitate to endorse that judgement, but they admired
his verse for its own sake. 'Poetry of great beauty', Katherine Tynan called it;
while Algernon Blackwood saw Waite's p o e m s ~ i n flaming language of great
beauty, yet true simplicity-c-as the work of 'an inspired, outspoken mystic, nothing
more or less'.
Which is how Waite wanted them to be seen. He was, above all, a mystic
and wished to be known as such. That his studies of the occult are remembered
when his mystical writings are neglected is a tribute to the folly of an age that
exalts the irrational, not a judgement upon their merits; for it is his analysis of
mystical experience and his unique approach to the philosophy of mysticism that
are his true legacy. It would, however, be unrealistic to expect a swift recognition
of his importance in the field of mysticism and one must rest content with the
knowledge that his contribution to the history of ideas is at last becoming
appreciated for. its. true worth.
But is the story of his life worth the telling? If for no other reason than
to give an understanding of 'The Growth of a Mystic's Mind-s-which is how
he perceivedhis own career-it is; and there areother sound reasons. When writing
his autobiography, Shadows of Life andThought, Waite pointed out that 'These
Memoirs, are a record, not a confession, and it is a wise counsel after all to keep
one's own skeletons in one's own cupboard', while expressing the hope that 'The
suppressio veri has been minimised so far as possible, while the suggestio falsi is
absent throughout.'Much that. interests the student of 'rejected knowledge',
however, is containedin that suppressedtruth and Waite's skeletons, when released,
will point their fingers at others besides himself. Indeed, it is impossible to
understand the development of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn without
a detailed knowledge of Waite's role in its history and his relationship with its
members, just as a knowledge of the wider 'Occult Revival' of the nineteenth
century is impoverished without an awarenessofWaite's role in its various aspects.
Then there are those who crossed his path. For varying reasons, Robert
Browning, Arthur Machen, and Charles Williams all had dealings with Waite
and the story of his life throws sidelights on the story of their Jives also. And
just as Waite was more than a mystic or maligned occultist, so there are other
facets to his character and other aspects to his career: a man who could exalt
in verse the love of God and of man while praising with equal facility the glories
of malted milk is curious enough to be examined in his own right. If his quest
for the Secret Tradition is seen as a tarnished following of occultism, and if his
poetry is relegated to a minor place among the lesser poets, his progress through
life nonetheless remains both eccentric and entertaining.
_____1 _
The other day I came across an Affidavit of Theodore L. Mason, M.D., residing in State of
New York, King's County, City of Brooklyn, who affirmed that in the month of September
1857 he was called to attend the wife of Charles F. Waite, who was duly delivered of a child.
Captain and Mrs Waite were boarders in the house of Mrs Sarah Webb, Washington Street,
City of Brooklyn.
This testimony calls for a certain interpretation. Dr Mason was probably called in at the
end of the month in question, but my actual birth date was Oct. 2nd.
So, seventy-nine years later, Waite described his own birth to his inquisitive
American correspondent, Harold Voorhis-who subsequently identified the
boarding-house and sent Waite a description of the site:
206 Washington Street (which was on the corner of Concord and Washington Streets) in
Brooklyn is now coveredby the approach for the Brooklyn Bridge. It is two blocks from the
Brooklyn end of the Bridge itself. The even number. side of Washington Street now has not
a single building on it. After the bridge approach ends-after covering about ten blocks-the
remainder has been made into a rest-park. Washington Street ends nearly opposite the City
Hall in Brooklyn. 1
The time of Waite's birth can be identified with even greater precision than
the place, for it is given-as 1:00 p.m. local time (5:36 p.m. GMT) on Friday,
2 October 1857-on the horoscope cast for him in March 1923 by an unknown
astrologer. Why Waite, who disliked and disbelieved in astrology, should have
had a horoscope cast is a question that is difficult to answer. It is equally difficult
to explain why the affidavit of 1857 was sworn.
Waite himself says only that it was made 'at the instance of my paternal
grandfather, that there might be some record of my nativity from a family point
of view, and in case of legal difficulties on either side of the Atlantic'. More
significantly he suggests that if one of his American relatives had wished to help
him financially 'it was desirable to smooth his path as regards my lawful genesis
and identity' (SLY, p. 13). This the affidavit could not do, for although there
is no question that the child was Arthur Edward Waite, the document gives
him neither name nor sex. Nor could it make him legitimate.
The only contemporary evidence that Emma Lovell, Waite's mother, ever
married Captain Waite is an entry in Reuben Walworth's Hyde Genealogy of
1864. 2 There, Charles Frederick Waite is recorded as marrying, in 1850, 'Eunice
Lovell of London'. The mistake over the name may have been no more than a
careless transcription of a signature, but the entry is odd in other ways. Other
contemporary marriages recorded in the Hyde Genealogy include both the month
and the day-for Charles Waite only the year is given, and he is inexplicably
credited with three children.. Nowhere else is a third child mentioned. It is, to
say the least, a remarkably unreliable record of recent events.
If Waite is to be believed, the marriage-if marriage there was-took place
in the church of St Mary Abbots, Kensington, but the church registers contain
no record of the event in 1850,.or in any year from 1849 to 1857. Nor is the
marriage recorded at the office of the Registrar General in St Catherine's House.
It is, of course, possible that Emma Lovell was married in America, but if so,
it was the only marriage in the Waite family for which no recordssurvive, A
final possibility is that of a marriage at sea; but why, then, did Emma Lovell
pretend otherwise?
She undoubtedly met Captain Waite at sea-on her way home from Canada,
according to. Waite-but the Lovell family disapproved of him strongly: 'there
were none too friendly feelings, .either because my father was American or-
more probably-not in the United StatesNavy' (SLY, p. 17). This is disingenuous,
for the Lovellswouldhave known, as Waite himself did, that the Waite family
was not only eminently respectable but also distinguished.
The Waites were not descended from Thomas Wayte the Regicide, 3. but had
settled in New England before the outbreak of the English Civil War: one Gamaliel
Waite is recorded as living in Boston in 1637. A branch of the family had moved
to Lyme in Connecticut before 1700, and it was from Thomas Waite of Lyme
that Charles Frederickwas descended. During the War of Independence the Waites
supported the colonists and Marvin Waite, a county court judge in Connecticut,
was one of Washington's electors in the first presidential election. The law seems
to. have been a favoured profession for the Waite family, culminating in the
appointment in 1874 of Morrison Waite (Charles Frederick's cousin) as Chief
Justice of the United States of America. (Other connections with the law were
sometimes less happy: in 1680 aJohn Waite was ajuror at the Witchcraft trials
in Boston.)
Nor did the family sufferfrolp the stigma ofDissent, for unlike most New
Englanders the Waites were devout Episcopalians." Evidently there were other
reasons for the Lovells' disapproval-and not because of a disparity in age, for
although Captain Waite was younger than Emma Lovell(he was born on 8 March
1824) it was by a matter ofonly eighteen months. It was, it seems, .not so much
a disapproval 'of Captain Waite as of Emma and her way of life.
Married or not, Emma Lovell remained with Captain Waiteuntilhis death.
My mother was with him in his voyages on many occasions and crossed the Atlantic at least
twelve times; on a day he had a half-share in a certain merchant ship and died in one which
came to grief in mid-ocean. I heard of his sleeping on deck because ofits water-logged state
and succumbing to exposure in a bitter winter-tide. He was buried at sea, and I believe that
the first mate brought the vessel somehow to England, where it was sold, presumablyfor breaking
up. (SLY, p. 14)
Emma, however, was not with him on his last voyage: 'my sister's approaching
birth being already in view, and I also, no .doubt, still in arms.'
Captain Waite died on 29September J858, andthreedays laterhisposthumous
daughter, Frederica Harriet, was born at Yonkers in New York. Initially, Emma
went to Lyme:
There is no knowing how or where the news of her loss reached her; but it took my mother
to Lyme for something like twelvemonths while her husband's affairs were settled. It was
expected that she would remain in perpetuity for want of other refuge, having regard to her
narrow means; but lifein my grandfather's house spelt dependence, and Lymewas an impossible
proposition for a young and educated Englishwoman of the upper middle-class. (SLT,p. 15)
Whether she disliked the Sabbatarianism of Lyme or, as Waite suggests, 'she
had no intention of becoming a "New England Nun" 'EmmaLovell returned
to England with her children, but to an equally miserable situation. Neither
her mother nor any other of the Lovells welcomed her arrival: 'Events-of after
years shewed in a plenary sense that there was never a homeward coming desired
or looked for less' (SLY, p. 16). If the Lovells had disapproved of Emma before
she met Captain Waite, their attitude to her now-returning with the fruits
of her relationship-bordered on hostility. It was, .perhaps, nota surprising
reception on the part of a pious middle-classfamily, bearing in mind the prevailing
public standardsof morality at the time, and the story of her marriage at Kensington
may have been invented by Emma to shield her children from the distressing
truth about their legal status.
In Waite's case the deception failed. That he knew of his illegitimacy seems
clear from thecontent of the long dramatic poem, A Soul's Comedy, 5 which
he published in .1887. The hero of the poem is an orphan whose life parallels
that of the author: he has the same experiences of boyhood, undergoes the same
emotional turmoil, and suffers from the same religious. doubts. He is also
illegitimate-the child of an illicit marriage between a brother and his half-sister.
In turn, the hero himselfhas an illicit affair and fathers a son who is also modelled
on Waite: he has the same name, Austin Blake, that Waite adopted asa pseudonym
for some of his early poems. Nor do the parallels end here: the hero's parents
meet at Lyme (where he is born), and his second self is conceived and born in
1857. What effect the poem had upon Mrs Waite can only be guessed at. If she
chose to identify herself with the hero's mother the implications were appalling;
for Waite, cruelly and with unnecessary embellishment, had woven into the story
episodes from Emma Lovell's own past.
She was born on 18August 1822, the second daughter of the second marriage
of Francis Lovell, 'who had made his money in India', retired early, and come
to live at Sloane Street, Chelsea. Little else is known of him. (Waite is always
maddeningly vague about names, dates, and places in his autobiography, arguing
that 'my business throughout [is] with the lineage of the soul, rather than with
earthly generations' and that 'things external signify little enough, ,except as
they help or hinder the inward life' [SLY,pp. 14, 35].) On 8 December 1810
a Francis Lovell ofStPancras married Elizabeth Ottley at St George's, Hanover
Square," and' this may well have been the first marriage of Emma's father. Mr
Lovellhad three children by his first wife: a son, Francis, who became a physician,
and two daughters: Eliza, who married a Mr Gordon, and Mary Ann, who
emigrated to Australia. By 1820he had remarried and proceeded to add six more
children to his household in SloaneStreet. Of the three sons of the secondmarriage
George, the eldest, 'is a name only', while the second, William, was described
by Waite as living 'quietly till about fifty of age'; Waite further recalled
that he once, only once, had a meeting with his sister after her return from
America-albeit on neutral ground, in the garden of a public house near Chalk
Farm Road.
The third son, Edward, had a more adventurous life in which Emma was
involved: he 'had drifted over to Canada, where he must have wasted himself
and his substance. Before her American cruises, my mother was there for a season,
presumably in his care; but a curious cloud covers the circumstance which led
to this Canadian visit. There were stories about the carelesslife led by my Uncle
Edward, stories of rye whiskey, its crude and potent qualities; .and it might be
that his sister Emma was sent out for his rescue and reform.'
But there may have been other reasons than solicitudetor a wayward son
in the decision to pack her off to Canada.
There is a problem alsorespecting my mother herself, then-e-I the early twenties.
It will neverbe solved now; but something occurred either as the result of speculation or an
inscrutable gift, to reduce her capital by half; and my maternal grandmother may have sent
her to one of the colonies, thus removing her from some inimical influence and hoping perhaps
that she might marry and settle down abroad. (SLY, p. 17)
Whatever the 'inimical influence' was, Waite took it up and turned his
mother's flight from the first family of her twice-married father into an episode
of his fictional heroine's history. And whatever the real reason for her Canadian
journey, Emma Lovell returned and met' Captain Waite.
He at least had the good grace to die honourably and, for all her rejection,
Emma Waite could yet look upon her sisters with a degree of wry satisfaction.
Harriet, the elder, married Augustus the brother of Charles Dickens, and might
have expected fame and fortune, but instead lost in succession her sight and her
husband-who fled to America with Bertha Phillips, an erstwhile friend of his
wife's, and made a living by lecturing on his brother's works. Embittered by
this desertion Aunt Harriet lived with her mother in Bayswater, refusing to meet
her elder sister for many years and dominating Mrs Lovell, who was 'rather a
negative personality, easily influenced, easily over-ridden and anxious probably
to have peace at any price in her own home circle'. Waite remembered his aunt
by her absence: 'During all the years of my childhood she never crossed our
threshold, nor was my mother invited to enter their sacredprecincts', (SLY, p. 41).
The youngest sister,Julia, was lesshostile. She had married the 'fine-looking,
open-handed, roystering Frederick Firth', but he too deserted his wife and went
to America, leaving her to bring up three children alone. Eventually he returned,
but Aunt Julia refused to seehim, 'having formed other arrangements for herself
and the little ones' (SLY, p. 18). Perhaps her unlucky experience of marriage
made her more sympathetic towards her sister, for Waite recalledoccasional visits,
more especially after 1872 when his mother moved to Bayswaterand he had reached
an age at which the fact that his cousins were all some years older than himself
mattered little.
Frederick, the eldest of his cousins, Waite described as 'worthless', but he
remembered the two girls, Louie and Elsie, with affection. He maintained his
with them in later years, but when he called on Elsie, the younger
SIster, at her home in Chiswick in 1937 he had not seen her for over twenty
years: he found her 'scarcelyrecognizable' and discovered that shecould 'remember
next to nothing about our past family history'. 7 He had no interest in his cousins'
children, and when he once sawtwo of Louie's daughters he 'thanked my guiding
stars that we need never meet again' (SLY, p. 104).
Waite remained curiously detached from all his relatives-both Lovells and
Waites-throughout his life, largely because of his mother's isolation from them,
and the consequent absence of any sense of family' identity or of family roots
had a profound effect upon him. As he grew into his extended adolescence his
social diffidence increased and his tendency to introspection intensified. But
alienation from a wider family was not the only factor in the shaping of Waite's
character; his mother sought consolation in religion and this had an even deeper
upon her son. _
IN HERreligious observation Emma Lovell was typical of the English middle-
class-sa Church-going woman of aquiet Anglican type' (SLY, p.19)-and when
she returned from America she maintained her religious respectability, however
suspect she may otherwise have been in her family's eyes. The small Waite family
settled from the first somewhere between Kentish Town and Hampstead, for
Waite recorded that 'my earliest recollections are round about Haverstock Hill,
for there grows up before me a spacious Protestant Church, where Mr Hathaway
was a curate or priest-in-charge, and where on one occasion it was [Mrs Waite's]
lot to make the responsions as sole congregation at Morning Prayer'," But the
Church ofEngland proved unable to provide the spiritual consolation that Emma,
faced with the open hostility of the Lovell family, so urgently needed.
She sought it instead from the Church of Rome, to which she turned in
the summer of 1863. Whether from chance-s-Waite says that 'we were walking
out, once on an afternoon, when it pleased God to send us rain in Summer, and
we were driven into the refuge of a Church' (SLT, p. 19)-or after careful
consideration will never be known; but on 8 October 1863 Emma Waite and
her children were received into the Roman Catholic Church bya Dominican
Friar, Father Austin Rooke. 2 The memory of this sub-conditione baptism remained
with Waite: 'I can just remember being taken, on a day, into some kind of
Baptistry-as it seems to me-on the north side of the Sanctuary, possibly a
Lady Chapel, and being there re-Christened conditionally, in case some Protestant
minister had missed his mark in flipping water from thumb and middle fingers.'
(SLY, p. 19).
The decision to convert would not have been taken lightly: Roman Catholics
\ had been freed of their political disabilities ... only so recently as 1829, and the
establishment of the Catholic Hierarchy in 1851 still aroused passionate debate.
Waite himself never understood what led his mother to take a step that alienated
her still further from her family.
My mother was not in any considerable sense a woman led by emotions, even a woman of
sentiment, and still less a person of intellectual life. I do not know how she came to change
her form of so-called Faith; and when I saw him once on a day in my first twenties it did not
strike me that Father Rooke could be calleda persuasiveman, or one who would awaken personal
devotion, even in susceptible girls. (SLY, p. 20)
Before her reception she had watched the laying of the Foundation Stone
of the Dominican Priory at Haverstock Road, and it may be that the splendour
of the occasion impressed her sufficiently to lead to her seeking out the Church.
Whatever the immediate cause of her conversion, Emma Waite 'never doubted
for one moment that she had done the right thing' and if there had been any
doubts on the question of respectability they were allayed by the presence of the
Dominican nuns in Fortess Terrace, whose Superior was the Revd Mother Mary
Catherine Philip Bathurst, a convert herself and an aristocrat. In such company
EmmaWaite felt 'asif a seal oflegitimacy were placed upon the whole business'.
And if the conversion was momentous for his mother, it was equally so for Waite,
who later said of it: 'Ido not believe in my heart that there has ever been greater
guidance than that which took me into the humble Dominican Church ofKentish
Town.' (SLY, p. 19).
They did not remain long under the care of the Dominicans, but 'drifted
northward from Kentish Town and passed under the spiritual providence of the
Passionists at St joseph's Retreat, Highgate'," where, in due course, Waite made
his first confession, received his first communion, and was later confirmed. True
to form he gives no dates for any of these events. and it has not been possible
to trace them in the archives of St Joseph's Retreat, but his first communion
was probably in 1865, and if his confirmation was at the age of twelve it would
probably have taken place late in 1869.
From the beginning Waite was an ardent Catholic. At St joseph's he served
as an altar-boy, although 'in a shy and nervous manner, for I was ever conscious
of an awkward gait in childhood, and of the strictures and privations ofpoverty'.
In spite of this, serving at the altar gave him his 'love of the Altar and ofall
that belongs to Rites. It gave me thesense of the Sanctuary, ofa world and a
call therein' (SLT, p. 22). Nor did the Church neglect his education, although
Waite is characteristically vague about his schooling.
Of the first school he says only 'with whom and where it was-in what
street not far away-I carry no notion', although he recalls himself in wholly
negative terms as "backward, nervous, self-conscious and self-disrrustful--a
condition reinforced, no doubt, by the .frequent unsettling moves from one
temporary home in KentishTown to another. 4 During the early part of 1870
he attended the Bellevue Academy under its Principal, George White, a prolific
author ofboth educational and religious works, whom Waite unkindly described
as 'a vast, loosely incorporated and impassioned man, who was affirmed credibly
to eat six eggs at his early dinner on Fridays' and whose time was spent 'fretting
23 ___'THE CHURCH OF ROME I FOUND WOULD SUIT'_----=::.:;;. 22
and fuming and raging over an academy of third-rate day-boys'.
Later in the year he transferred to the school of a Mr Kirkby in Upper Park
Road, Belsize Park, at first as a day-boy and later as a boarder. Here 'presumably
I must have learned something, but in truth I know not what, and must have
been under this nondescript guidance for six or seven months, when the pupils
of both classes were electrified by an astonishing and untoward occurrence. The
amiable and excellent Mr Kirkby had vanished in a certain night, making off
with any ready cash that he found in his sisters' purses. I went home with my
strange story and never heard what became of him' (SLY, p.37).
After this fiasco the family moved to Bayswater-not so much to be near
Mrs Lovell in Ledbury Road as to enable Arthur to attend St Charles's College,
a Catholic boys' school housed at that time in a tall building adjoining the church
of St Mary of the Angels. The College had been founded in 1863 by Cardinal
Manning's nephew, William, and by 1870 it had gained a considerable academic
reputation while endeavouring 'to bring education within the reach ofall who
desire a sound and high course of instruction for their sons at a moderate cost'.
Waite claimed to have spent three years as a day-boy at St Charles's College,
but he does not appear on the Class Lists until 1872, and although his name
is on the register for January and February 1873 there is no record ofhis attendance
or progress during that term (it was probably at this time that he 'fell ill with
scarlet fever'). He would also then have reached fifteen years of age, and thus
become a senior student with a consequent increase in school fees from 12 to
15 guineas a year. It was already proving difficult for Waite's mother to pay for
her son's education and it seems likely that by 1873 she could no longer afford
to keep him at school.
What Waitewas doing during the time between the flight of Mr Kirkby
and his entry into St Charles's College is not clear: perhaps itwas then that
he learned French from his mother, for it was during his time at the College
that he 'learned Latin and-Greek and forgot most of the French she had taught
He also recalled vividly Father Rawes the Prefect ofStudies, 'with his rather
feeble body, his flaming countenance and the remanents of an uncared-for-tow-
coloured mop'. It was almost certainly Father Rawes who encouraged Waite
in his earliest literary efforts and who, perhaps, suggested to him.that he had
a vocation to the priesthood.
Waite unquestionably felt drawn to the idea of priesthood. In an interview
in 1896 he described himself as having been 'intended for the priesthood', and
in later life he saw his role in his Fellowship of the Rosy Cross as pre-eminently
that of a priest; but in adolescence three factors held him back. One was his
endemic self-distrust ('more than all it was the dreadful narrowness in all my
ways oflife that kept.mestunted, alike within and without') and almost constant
illness; the second was a gradual loss of faith; and the third (though he was not
conscious of it until much later in life) -an abhorrence of the idea of celibacy.
Occasionally, however, he did make half-hearted forays towards a vocation.
While staying at Deal during the winter of 1881 he helped a young server to
realize his dream of becoming a missionary priest and wondered, on his own
part, 'just for one moment whether it might be possible after all to do with
Rome, however far apart from a Hostel of the Lord in Deal. It came to nothing.'
( ~ L T , p. 75). But whatever his early dreams and anxieties, they were overshadowed
by tragedy.
In September 1874, two weeks before her sixteenth birthday, his sister
Frederica-weakened by scarlet fever-died from 'general debility'. Her mother
never recovered from the loss, and Waite himself was more profoundly affected
than his own account leads one to believe.
At fifteen years of age my sister Frederica died; an"d ~ suppose that my cousin Firth and myself
alone saw her body interred at Kensal Green. She passed awaywithout the benefit ofSacraments,
in the haste of going away. The sorry dream of being was now a more sorry nightmare, while
as to my poor Mother the hopeless days of mourning went on for years. I was much too dead
myself for any reality of grief; but the dull, the vapid, the unprofitable had turned sour in
my heart and head. 7
Since his own recoveryfrom illness Waite had been working as a clerk, probably
in a solicitor's office, in a position obtained for him by James Mellor Smethurst,
an elderly barrister.who became his cousins' guardian after their mother's death.
Waite says nothing of his clerical career, other than to indicate that it lasted for
no more than two years--.!at nineteen the halter of clerical work had long since
removed its yoke-s-and to complain that 'it was narrow and dull and opened
no prospects'. The death of his sister increased the emptiness of his life. He was
increasingly estranged from his mother-xthere was nothing in common between
us and there was no sympathy-s-and further illness, in the late autumn of 1875,
removed the chance of a university education: 'Once at this time the clouds seemed
to open out, and there was a prospect of sunshine for a moment. A friendly
hand was stretched forward to assist him in graduating, after a humble fashion,
as an unattached student at Oxford, but in the end the scheme fell through.
It was another disappointment to be survived.' 8 He evenconsidered suicide: 'There
came a time indeed when I carried laudanum as a possible way of escape. Was
it a private pose offered to myself, I wonder, or did I think for a moment that
self is evaded thus? In any case, the potion was not drunk' (SLY, p. 85).
A pose it almost certainly was, for although Waite protests his loss of faith
unceasingly in his autobiography-e-There was nothing so dead for me as the life
of the Latin Church. The Oblates of Mary Immaculate at Kilburn filled my soul
with emptiness, and I fared no better with the Oblates of St Charles Borromeo
at Bayswater' (SLT, p. 58)-he not only maintained his church attendance but
became a strident apologist for the Faith.
His early reading had been restricted to picture books, fairy tales, adventure
stories and the poetry of Mrs Hemans, but during his adolescence it became catholic
in a .very broad sense:
From the Fundamental Philosophy of Balmes, a Spanish theologian after the 'scholastic manner,
to Hamilton and Stuart-Mill; from .the ascetic writers of the Latin Church to the last issue
ofthe National RefOrmer, or the last pamphlet of Bradlaugh: from an antiquated commentary
on Genesis, through Pye and Hitchcock on geology, with something from the Connection of
the Physical Sciences, a little from the Plurality of Worlds, and more from pleasant old Brewster,
so forward to the works of Charles Darwin and the first criticisms of Mivart-thus ran the
bizarre circle of [my] serious reading.
The effect was that he 'read himself speedily into religious chaos ', 9 Order,
however, rapidly supervened and from reading controversial works Waite turned
to writing letters and essays in the same vein. By 1877 he was contributing a
series of 'Essays for Idle Hours' to a Catholic weekly, The Lamp-possibly at
the promptimg of Father Rawes, whowas himself a regular contributor. In one
of these essays, Outcomes, Waite made a violent attack upon the Reformation:
Centuries had taught the children of this world the lesson that this Church could not be crushed
out with fire and sword. The spirit of evil is persevering, and it therefore turned about for
othermeans, and by a masterstroke of fiendish ingenuitythey devised a plan for setting up
a secular religion in the place of the priestly 'Sacerdotalism' and a human Christianity in place
of the divine Christianity of the Church. Toanswer their vileends, the whole spirit of Christianity
was altered or distorted, its most distinctive features struck out and only a few broad truths
retained ... Such a heresy which began by denying half the truths of God, was not likely
to improve with t i ~ e . T h e Satan who had inspired had a far deeper intention than he who
began it, or the princes who fostered it ... In the present day it is developed-e-we do not
sayfinally-into Pantheism, Agnosticism, Materialism, Idealism and every species of infidelity,
every phase of Atheism.
Nor was his purple prose confined to Catholicjournals. In one of the many
small literaryjournals of the time, TheIdler, he assailedone ofits contemporaries
and .compared it unfavourably with the gutter-press of the day: '[ The National
Magazine] has less brains, less intelligence, less enlightenment; more coarseness,
more hopelessbigotry, more imbecilefanaticism.' Waite was moved to this outburst
by the 'No Popery' stance of the National Magazine's editor-who had at least
the good grace to print Waite's ironic letter of protest on behalf of 'the Church
[oflwhichwith pride and joy I am myself amember':
But as Popery mustbe abolished, (Mr Harding [the editor] uses no conditional terms) to save
Protestantism, this law will have to be brought into force, all the millions ofexisting Catholics
must be exterminated. This is the logical outcome of your correspondent's words. Military
inquisitorsandthe rabid rabble of an infuriated populace must burst into quiet English homes,
and drag their inmates to the dungeon and the gibbet. The priest must-be torn from the altar,
and, for the sake of the next generation, the white robes of the acolytes, whose pure boy-faces
gleam at the altar through clouds of incense, must be stained with blood. 10
Other letters of the same period were more temperate. In 1877 Waite defended
Catholic dogmas in the Kilburn Times: 'If the children of the Church believe
her to be the repository and teacher of the truth, they are in conscience bound
to accept her dogmas as the truth. If the Church claims to be the repository
and teacher of the truth, to be logical she must assert the truth of her decrees.'
In the Hendon Times he engaged in an argument over the character of Thomas
aBecket, displaying a considerable knowledge of historical sources, while upon
the readers of The Universe he urged the need for 'evening classes for Catholic
young men and women.' 'There are', he said,
many such Protestant institutions in London, but it must be confessed that we Catholics are
rather backwardin this particular ... [Catholics] must either give up (and how hard this
is) their laudable wish of improvingtheir education, or they must haverecourse to the Protestant
institutions, which are numerous and often offer many allurements (medals, certificates, queen's
prizes); and they are thus laid open to many temptations-to the evil effects of bad example
and bad company; which otherwise they might have avoided. And can nothing be done? I
am loth to think so.
Much as he might encourage others, however, he took no action himself,
and in time he did lose his faith-though by a process of gradual erosion rather
than through any sudden rejection following his sister's death, andthe Church
of Rome always remained for him, for all that he had left it, the only valid form
of institutional Christianity. The Reformed Churches he loathed: the kindest
comment he could bring himself to make about them was a description of them
as 'a lean method of observance and worship which finds the soul in nudity and
cares for it without clothing it ', 11 His uncompromising attitude is perhaps best
summed up by one of his aphorisms from Steps tothe Crown, in which he says:
'., Protestantism is not so much a dereliction of creed as a virus. of atmosphere'
(I. 2. xxxvi).
England, however, was an overwhelmingly Protestant nation and it was a
Protestant ethos that was reflected in the popular literature of the time-the
'penny dreadfuls!-that had enraptured Waite as a boy and continued to enchant
him throughout his adult life. The Catholic boy proved as susceptible to blood
and thunder. as his Protestant fellow.
'ONCE on a golden day', Waite recalled. 'a little book of Arabian 'Tales was
brought to me or my sister. . . by my unofficial guardian, a Mr William Walker,
of happy memory' (SLT, p. 27). This family friend been by the
Dominicans to oversee the spiritual welfare of Mrs Waite and her children, but
by his gift he unwittingly laid the foundations of a love of fantastic tales that
would, in time, lead Waite into paths that the Church shunned and utterly
condemned. The Arabian 1ales brought Waite into a world of hidden cities,
sorcerers, and enchanted princesses, but for heroes he was obliged to wait until
1869 and his discovery of The Boys of England.
Pre-eminent among 'old boys' books', The Bays of England was launched
in 1866 by Edwin J. Brett, as a weekly offering its youthful readers an endless
diet of serial stories ofchivalry and impossible derring-do, all of them illustrated
by lurid woodcuts. It captivated Waite, as didits host ofimitators, he
very learned on the periodical pressfor boys by walking to and fro m the district
and glueing my eyeson the contents ofnewspaper shops' (SLY; p. 34). But parental
disapproval was never far away. Black Rollo, t.he an? The.Skeleton Crew
proved too much, and 'my unofficial guardIan, 111 combination WIth my careful
mother, put an end to my reading of the alleged' 'dangerous rubbish' ',
of course, but not for me a danger, who had no inclination towards running
away to sea, no chance of taking to the road without a horse or of entering the
Lists of Chivalry. Rubbish once again, but it was something to enter the world
of adventurous romance even from the backstairs, or from London purlieus.' (SLY,
p.35) .... .
For this addiction, however, there was to be no cure. The Christmas of 1870
brought with it the extra number of TheLondonJournal and Egan's The
Horrors of Hoathley Hall-adding a supernatural element to the high adventure
of The Bays of England. The spell was now complete. as much as
I could of dangerous rubbish' and reflected, at the end of hIS Me, that I should
never have entered those other occult. paths, and come out of them to proceed
further, had I not-amidst my last .attempt at schooling-come across the
Shadowless Rider,his League of the Cross ofBlood, and the Forty Thieves ofLondon,
who were led by Black Hugh' (SLY, p. 36).
Not that he left the 'Penny Dreadfuls' behind. By the age of twenty years
he was writing his own. The earliest,1bm Trueheart; or, the Fortunes ofaRunaway,
appeared in The Idler in July 1878. The hero, an orphan, is in the charge of a
wicked uncle and an odious tutor who seek to rob the boy of his inheritance.
His only friend is his faithful dog, Nelson, who helps him to get the better of
his enemies in the course of a brawl. However,
In his excitement, our hero had quite forgotten his uncle, who now approached him, and laying
his hand heavily on his shoulder, while his voice trembled with suppressed passion, hoarsely
What youhave done today is that which you can never repair, and what yearsof remorse,
nor groans of sorrow cannot wash out. In making an enemy of me you havedone what you
will repent of to the last hour of your life, for my revenge will fall so heavily upon you, that
it MUST crush you.'
Tomshuddered at the bitter hate which his tones expressedasmuch and more than hiswords.
His uncle then left him and went in the direction of the house, calling on the tutor with
an oath to follow him.
The Reverend Jonas Creeper obeyed, casting as he passed a look of fiendish malignity
on our hero, who met it fearlessly. Nelson gave a low growl which quickened his steps
considerably, and he hastened up the steps of the verandah four at a time.
Alas, this first episode was also the last, for The Idler failed and the fate of Ibm
Trueheart must remain for ever unknown.
The story was followed by Hamet the Moor, a Romance of Old Granada (in
Green Leaves, May 1879), Paul Dactyl, orthe Travelling Merchant's Story (in The
Story 1eller for 1878), and by a series of tales written in the 1880s but never
published. One of them, TheInvisibles, was set up in type for a projected fourth
volume ofHorlick's Magazinein 1905, and thisWaite preserved with typed copies
of other delights such as ThePrinces ofthe Night, TheScarlet Mask, and TheBlack
Brothers. They are, however, 'improved' and for the most part rather restrained
in manner-although one, at least, does have an appropriate excess of blood.
In The Fall of the House of Morland occur such passages as this:
'See, see,' I cried, 'It has life: it is moving.'
My father started back horror-struck, for the assassin had risen-risen upon his hands
and knees, and was crawling towards us. The mask had fallen from his face, revealing features
of appalling hideousness. I shrieked with terror as I gazed upon it.
'Here, here is fatality,' cried my father, 'The death-blow only reveals their faces.'
'It means us harm, father. Beware, beware! Surely that cannot be human. Let us fly.'
There was a yell; the monster had leaped upon us and had clutched my father. From its
own torn and bleeding side it had wrenched the dagger, and raised it aloft. My love for my
parent gave a man's strength to my frame. I seized and held the descending arm, striving for
possession of the weapon.
A moment only the contest lasted. The assassin's. arm dropped, the pallor of death overspread
his countenance, and he fell back upon the grass. He uttered some words in a language which
I did not understand, and was dead.
This, however, is an exception, and unlike Tom Tiueheart, these later tales cannot
stand beside TheBoys ofEngland or the true 'Penny Dreadfuls' ofThomas Peckett
But if Waite could no longer publish such stories, he could yet write about
them from the vantage point of an almost unrivalled knowledge of the genre,
gained in large part from his ownever-increasing collection of the tales, for the
British MuseumLibrary proved to be a great disappointment to him in this respect:
so much so that in 1887, in his first study of 'Penny Dreadfuls', he condemned
the inadequacy ofthe library catalogue in no uncertain terms: 'The lists in the
reading room are full of errors; tales which were not only completed but have
been re-issued are labelled "No more published" because the .museum copies
are imperfectvandother periodicals are declared to have suspended issue when,
as a fact, they have continued to exist for a considerable period subsequently.'.'
That-study, By-ways ofPeriodical Literature, is important for its earlyrecognition
ofthe historical significanceof popular literature. Waite urged upon his readers
the need to preserve this 'vast and perishing literature' which 'a little care will
rescue from complete oblivion'. If not, he said, then 'in a Jew years the names
of these productions will be totally, as they are for the most part now, unknown'.
His pleas would undoubtedly have fallen on more attentive ears if his own text
had not been bowdlerized.
At the time, WaljOrd'sAntiquarian Magazine was ostensibly edited by its
publisher, George Redway, but in reality the editor was Arthur Machen, and
it was due to Machen's sensibilities-heightened by the contemporary prosecution
. ofVizetelly for publishing Zlla's novels-that Waite's intemperate language was
curbed. Thus, G. W. M. Reynolds, 'the high priest of cheap periodical fiction',
became' hard-working' rather than 'unscrupulous"and was no longer 'a writer
for the people in the worst senseof the phrase; that is, his works, written obviously
to expose and exaggerate the misconduct of the aristocracy, were, in moral and
manner, so objectionable that they were quite unfit for introduction into any
respectable household.' One cannot help but suspect also that would-be collectors
would have sought more eagerly .for novels that were 'unhealthy always, and
often flagrantly vicious' than for those that were merely 'eccentric'.
Collectors, however, did arise, and when Waite visited the foremost of them
'BarryOno'(i.e. F. V. Harrison) in 1927he was amazed at.MrOno's 'vast and
astonishing' library..His own collection. had been sold. some years previously,
in 1920, to a truly unscrupulous bookseller namedJohnJeffery. Jeffery kept them
until 1933, when he placed them in auction: this gave Waite the satisfaction of
seeing them sell at an average of 2s per volume 2 -but not before he had begun
an ambitious study of the whole genre, entitled Dealings in Bibliomania.
In 1923he suggested to Wilfred Partington that the essay might be suitable
for anonymous publication in the latter's Bookman's journal, adding, with a
characteristic lack of false modesty, 'It is true that I am an expert-and there
is indeed no other-on the subject ofPenny Dreadfuls. I know all the first editions
and all the dates; things which amateurs have not dreamed ofhave passed through
my hands.' 3 Partington toyed with the ideafor some years, finally agreeing that
something could be done with the manuscript in 1930, but by then it was too
late: the Bookman'sJournal faced serious financial problems and in 1931 it ceased
publication. Waite made little effort to interest other publishers, and with the
appearance in 1938of Montague Summers's TheGothic Quest (followed in 1940
by its companion volume, A Gothic Bibliography) all hope of publishing Dealings
in Bibliomania came to an end.
One reason for Partington's indecision over the book was Waite's insistence
upon anonymity. In his later years he had become anxious that the public should
seehim solely as he described himselfin Who's Who, as 'the exponent in poetical
and prose writings ofsacramental religion and the higher mysticism'. They might,
he thought, experience some difficulty in reconciling his role as a mystic with
that of enthusiast for The Boys of England and varney the vampire. His friends,
however, had no such qualms.
While Waite was busying himself with Dealings inBibliomania, Arthur Machen
was writing The Grande 'Iiouvaille for R. Townley Searle, who wanted it as an
introduction to .the .third catalogue of rare books issued by his 'First Edition
Bookshop'. In March 1923 it appeared-revealing to the world Waite's passion
for the 'Penny Dreadful'. It was an entertaining story:
Once upon a time-it is the fairy tale beginning; and therefore avery good one-I was walking
up Pentonville with myoid friend, A. E. Waite. It was a grey afternoon; one must .always
choose a grey afternoon if one would walk fitly up Pentonville. I think we were setting out
on ajourney to explore Stoke Newington, with the view of determining whether Edgar Allan
Poe's school were still in existence. This was a matter which had engaged us both, at odd intervals,
for years, and we had set out many times on the adventure, but had always wandered away
on quite alien trails and on haphazard quests; and to this day the matter remains so doubtful
that I am not quite sure whether Waite and I ever discovered the school in the dim English
village which Poe describes in 'William Wilson'. The fact was that both of us had so many
interests, which led us astray. Waite, perhaps, thought that he might find the Holy Grail,
disguised, disgraced and dishonoured in some back shop of a back-street; while I have always
had the great and absorbing desire of going the other way. The other way? That is the secret.
Anyhow, on this long-ago afternoon we were lounging up the weary-all hill ofPentonville,
when Waite stopped suddenly. I looked at him in some curiosity. There was a singular expression
on his face. His eye-I think-became fixed. His nostrils-to the best of my belief- twitched.
Otherwise, there wasanodd fixity about hisposition. I believe that in acertainkind of sporting
dog this attitude is called'making a point'. I did not sayanything: the Order generallyknown
as the Companions of the Eighties knows howand preservesilence, but there was,
I fancy, aninterrogativeexpression in myeyebrow. Frater Sacramentum-I meanA. E. Waite-
stood still to gazefor a moment or two.. staring eagerly at the opposite sideof the road-the
right hand side, as you go up to the Angel-and said at last:-
'Machen, I feel that I must go into that shop over the way. I know there's something
there for me!' -
And so we crossedover. It was a small and quite undistinguished shop on the sideof the
grey hill. I think it soldinkpots, pens and pencils, exercise books, comic songs on long sheets,
the eveningpaper, and the miscellaneous. I couldn't imagine what Waite could expect to find
We went in. Somewhereat the back of the shop there was a row or two of dingy, greasy,
tattered old books; and a fire glowed in Waite's eye as he beheld them. The scent held.
'Have you anyoldbound volumesof boys' stories?' he askedthe ancient man of the shop.
'There were two or three left,' saidthe man, alittle astonishedI thought at the enquiry. There
used to be a small lending library here, he explained, and he had taken over the stock.
And, tocutthe story short, Waite went out into Pentonville, which, I amsure, had now
become for him not grey but radiant, with a copy of 'The Old House in West Street' under
his arm.
PerhapsI should explain. My friend Waite,besides taking over all mysticism, occultism,
alchemyand transcendentalismfor his province, has a hobby, like most good men. In his case,
this hobby is the collecting of 'Penny Dreadfuls' of ancient date: the forties and early fifties
are, I believe, the golden age of this adventure. And amongst those 'Penny Dreadfuls', as they
are affectionatelycalled, one of the choicest prizes is 'The Old House in West Street'. And
Waite had got it for eighteen pence or half-a-crown: a greasy, old bound volume of the old
weeklyparts, vilelyprintedon wretchedpaperwith amazingwoodcuts: andyet afind, adelight.
Then if recollection serves, we had some gin. It was an occasion.
Machen gives no date to the episode, but it must have taken place early in
their long friendship, for in his essay of 1887 Waite was able to describe The
oldHouse in westStreet in far greater detail than any other title that he mentioned:
'This was the most voluminous of Prest's acknowledged productions, and in
appearance it is superior to its predecessors. Some care, indeed, seems to have
been spent on it; the type is painfully small, but very clear. It is printed in double
columns, and was issued, like all Lloyd's publications, in penny numbers, each
containing an illustration. It reached to 104 numbers and was completed in August,
1846.' He adds, 'it is written in Prest's usual style of absurd melodrama, at once
stilted and extravagant. The work is now very scarce, and is said to command
a fair price in the market.'
It is, in fact, an extremely rare book, and Machen was quite right: its discovery
was indeed 'an occasion'.
-------------- 4 _
'PENNYDREADFULS' were for Waite, as was fiction in general, a 'byway'
of literature-for him the 'highway' was poetry. As a small boy he had read
Mrs Hemans and was captivated by her sentimental verse-although more probably
by Casabianca than, as he claimed, by her Siege of valencia; but poetry in general
had no hold over him, andit was not until he was seventeen, in the months
following his sister's death, that he conceived the burning ambition to be a poet.
His barren evenings had been spent 'with nothing to do but dream and read
therein' until, quite suddenly, 'a change came over the face of things when I
found, on a day or a night, that I, even I, could write verses. Yes, it was a lifting
ofclouds, and by the light in which they dissolved there was granted me arainbow
gift of dreams. From that moment presumably I read nothing but poems and
the lives of those who had achieved a name in rhyme. A hunger and thirst after
glory in the craft of song possessed my whole being.' (SLY, p. 48)
He could never explain in later years what gave him this passion for poetry.
It remained for him a question 'for an answer to which he has vexed himself
vainly and often'. And just as 'the impulse to make verses' was inexplicable, so
it was incurable: .
I went up and down in the great city and wandered in and out. There was a fever of verse
upon me. I took care of the sounds, as it seems to me, and the sense took care of itself, till
there came some rough lessons. BecauseI was seventeen and becauseat eighteen Shelley had
written QueenMab, it was obviouslyright and fitting that thus early there should be given
to the world somehowa thing 'ecstaticand undemonstrable', denominatedZastroni. Described
as a lyrical drama, it was surely a wilderness of nonsense far prolonged (SLY, p. 50).
The name was a marriage of Shelley's Zastrozzi and Lytton's Zanoni, and
when it was complete, Waite took Zastroni to Father Rawes; who, whatever he
may have thought of the poem, 'did what he could to encourage me with earnest ~
kindly words, adding that it was long as yet before I could dream of print '.
As Fr. Rawes had predicted, Zastroni was never published, but other poems,
preserved in Waite's scrapbook of' Early Verses', were. The earliest seems to have
33 ______THE 'TIRESOME VERSE-RECITER' ----::::;...:;.
from 'an acute consciousness-e-sc common in such apprenticeships-of a sheer
disparity between ambition and ability'. In an attempt to reduce this disparity
he wrote to Robert Browning 'for adviceand. guidance', but refrainedfrom sending
any samples of his work. Perhaps because of this reserve, Browning replied: 1
June 27th, 1876
Sir,-I am sure I have read your letter with great interest and sympathy; and if I thought I
could do you the least good by reading your poems, I would comply with your request. I assure
you that, evenin the event of my opinion-s-whatever it is worth-proving favourable, it would
not havethe least effect in procuring you any publisher with whom I have acquaintance. Every
publishing establishment has its professed 'Reader', who reads, or does not read, but decides
on the acceptance or rejection of a manuscript-and manuscript poetry has little chance of
finding favour in his eyes.
The preferable course-if you want remuneration for your work, the only course-is to
send one or more of your pieces to a magazine. But, ifyou permit me to adviseyou, do anything
rather than attempt to live by literature, anything good and reputable, I mean. An ungenial
situation-such as you seem to have retired from-would send you to your studies, and,
subsequently, to a proper use of them-with a sense of relief and enjoyment you will never
obtain from 'singing' all day long, when 'song' is turned into the business of life. Pray take
in good part what I am bound to say when an applicant is as modest and intelligent as you
seem to be, and believe me,
Yours very. sincerely,
Robert Browning
The advice was sound and Waite followed it-at least to the extent of sending
his poems to TheLamp. And although there was no financial necessity-Emma
Waite's 'circumstances.were materially improved' after her mother's death in
1874, and Waite himself received, in 1876, a small legacy from his paternal
grandfather-hemay have returned to his 'ungenial situation'. Certainly, he said
of Browning's letter (writing in the third person) 'the closing note of warning
struck deeply. into his heart, and he sought to profit by the advice. A change
in the direction ofhis energies did not, however, bring much profit or happiness';
but against this must be set the image of his manner of working depicted in
his earlypoem , 'The Student':
I work in the midnight, seen only by stars,
Which shine through the. darkness so mournfully sweet,
While the moon sometimes looks through the black lattice-bars,
And her pale beams fall down at my feet.
Forgotten, forgetting, and therefore content,
Behold me at work on a work of my own,
Neither asking .. nor seeking for. help
What I do I am .doing alone!
Clods of earth are piled above thee,
Dust is now thy fair young form;
We who mourn thee, we who love thee,
Have consigned thee to the worm.
Round thy grave the shadow creepeth,
And the summer breezes blow;
There the drooping snowdrop sleepeth,
There the yew and myrtle grow.
But thy pure soul, heavenward soaring,
Far beyond the furthest star,
Now is at God's. throne adoring,
Where the radiant angels are.
If Zastroni was of similar quality' it is, perhaps, all to the good that it 'perished,
with other ludibria and note-books'.
A rather more polished epitaph, entitled 'Sleep', followed in 1876 and was
also printed, probably in TheLamp:
Thou wilt not see the woodbine creep,
Upon the lattice bars;
Thou wilt not hear the waters sweep,
Beneath the silver stars.
Thy rest is calm, thy rest is deep,
The dust is on thy eyes;
The dust remains for us weep,
Thy soul is in the skies!
But Waite's energies were directed increasingly towards longer. p'
Recuperatingfrom illness at Ramsgate, in the winter of 1875 he spent h.Isdays
at Dumpton Gap, 'and stood on a ledge of cliff for an hour or more, WIth the
sea beating under, or contemplated rock and weed, when tide was out, from
narrow caves. 1 was looking for plots of poems, mostly great of length, and
hankering still after the Lyrical Drama' (SLY, p. 52). .
And not in vain for he promptly wrote The Seeker, a Lyncal Drama, and
The Fall ofMan, aMiracle Play. They are, at best, of uneven quality both
were pu.blished, under the pseudonym?f Dayre, the Journals
in which they appeared have not been IdentIfied. .
Waite was well aware of his literary shortcomings and suffered miserably
been 'A Dirge' for his dead sister, written before the end of 1875 and printed
in an unidentified journal:
------THE 'TIRESOME VERSE-RECITER' ---.,-----.;;;..;;;.
urge on you to show that the true spirit inspires you by continuing to try and obtain some
employment which, while it leavesyou at liberty to prosecute your studies, gives you the all-in-
all sufficing privilege of independence. Surely, some such employment may be found-and
you must know that what you esteem a great prize, 'poetical success', would be worthless,
indeed, were it to be picked up at first stooping down in the public way. Why, pray, should
your 'handwriting' remain unclerkly ('bad', it is not) simply for want of a week's practice
at 'drawing circles against the sun', as the sailors say? Five minutes practice with a pencil at
mere circle making could remedy whatever is wrong soon enough. Finally, don't forget-
while you count over what may be very real disadvantages of every kind-the immense set-off
you may boast-youth, energy and however low anybody may reckon them-assuredly talents.
Be a brave fellow, and see what you can do with these! You will greatly gratify your true
Robert Browning
Feb. 5, 1877
My Dear Mr [Waite]
I must beg your pardon for having delayed a little my thanks for your poems, and my
reply to the letter which accompanied them. Perhaps the difficulty of a reply have
hindered me somewhat. I really wish, most sincerely, to be of what service I am able. but,
first of all, in no mock-modesty, I want you to understand that I am by a thorough
judge in this matter. What I like and look for in poetry comes out, possibly, m an after-stage
ofexperiences; and the want ofit, earlier in life, may be as that.leaves should
fruits on a tree: on the other hand, the existence of qualities which fall to seem
proof of the right faculty in a poet, may be a rarer fact I have noticed
sympathized with. I do see in you very decided literary and no
mastery of the mechanical part ofverse-writing (there is hardly a shp the rhyme of umverse
with tus' on the first page), and your musical 'ear' is very good Indeed. When one-after
forrIling this opinion of your productions-goes on to consider that they have helped
(according to your own account) by scanty education-I I am wrong m
them very remarkableindeed-most assuredly theyjustify me In that !OU quite
equal to any situation in which a decided literary skill is required. Now, If I fall to
asmuch positive novelty of thought or fancyasI suppose is demandedin the poetry ofa
man' -remember that I cannot help my own tastes, nor the standard of excellence which I
acknowledge-uhet the dispensers ofreputation generally differ with me that, .
since you please to refer to my own case, I am often told I au: 'no poet at all, precisely be.cause
what I accept as a law of musical expression is not taken-into account by thegenerahty of
critics. Yet, with all these drawbacks to the worth of my opinion, I should be forced say,
'Don't try to publishyet.' It is possible that 'successin poetry' maycome out future
there is nothing here against such ahope; but, in the meantime, I would-WIth areal Interest-
It did not occur to Waite that Browning's praise may have been diplomatic
and that the real message of the letter was the injunction 'Don't try to publish
yet'. This advice Waite ignored, and in the summer of 1877 he published, at
his own expense, An Ode toAstronomyand other Poems, 'a minute quarto pamphlet
ofverse, written at divers times-one hundred copies of a few pages only' (SLT,
p. 56). He did not choose to alter the rhyme that had jarred on Browning's ear,
and yet-to his surprise.......!the tiny edition got sold, so I gained something in
shillings rather than lost a cent by this initial venture'. Among the purchasers
was Fr Rawes, who read the 'Ode to Astronomy' to the assembled pupils of
St Charles's College. What they made of this decidedly mediocre poem is not
Encouraged by his success, Waite continued to pour out verse, but the major
literaryperiodicals-both heavyweights like TheAthenaeum and lighter monthlies
such as Belgravia-utterly ignored him, and the publications in which, as he
modestly says, 'some things got into print', were modest indeed.
Then, as now, the easiest road into print for fledgling poets was that of co-
operation, and throughout the 1870s 'amateur' periodicals flourished. A few
of them-including The Golden Pen, which was edited by Waite':"""-circulated in
manuscript, but the were printed, and, on the whole, printed and designed
rather well. 2 Waite contributed short poems to most of them, and two of them
he favoured with hislong, andclearlyderivative, 'LyricalDramas'. The First Sabbath,
modelled closely on P. J. Bailey's Festus, appeared in Echoes from the Lyre while
ThePoet's Magazine printed his Byronic 'Fairy Romance', TheEnchanted Uf,od. 3
Nor was this all. In 1877an attempt had been made to establish an 'Amateur
Conference', but the first meeting, at Stratford-on-Avon, was a disasterand nothing
came of it. Waite, however, took up the idea and in the following year was
instrumental in founding The Central 'association of authors and
others' that met monthly, for the purpose of mutual criticism, over a period
ofsome two years. For the whole of that time acted .as wrote
theUnion'sprospectus, and edited thefirst (and only)Issue ofIts unofficial organ,
The Central Review and Amateur News.
Firmly established-among his fellow 'amateurs-s-as .Waite now
undertook a more ambitious project, announcing for publication in February
1879 Lucifer; a. dramatic Romance, and other Poems. When this 'pamphlet of. 64
quarto pages' finally appeared, in late spring, it had shrunkto 48 pages,
two of its projected 'Three dramatic Poems'. (only 'The Heart's in
Fairyland' remained), and Lucifer had been relegated topage 29, having given
way on the title-page to A Lyric of the ManY,of the poems betray the
influence of Waite's reading. 'TheWanderer s Life-Song', forexample, owesmore
than a little to Poe:
And we wander now and listen
To some ocean' s murmur deep,
Though we see no waters glisten,
Though we hear no wavelets leap.
Thou who rulest, thou who reignest
O'er the shadowy world unknown!
We.have hoped when hope seemedvainest
And toiled on with many a groan;
Say, when we embark in silence
Bearing. neither scrip nor store,
Shall we ply the weary oar,
Shall we reach the happy islands
Seenby seers in days ofyore,
Or upon.some rocky shore,
By no gleam of glory lighted,
Wander cheerless, cold, benighted,
Lost for evermore?
The amateurs praised the book, but professional f?r while
Waite preserved all the reviews he did not identifY. the m they
appeared) took a harsher view, which was not e?tuely justified. Certainly,
poems exude pessimism, doubt, and even bU,t they are not. so poor I?
either structure tomerit condemnation as oftencrude andformless,
nor did Waite deserve to be told that 'he cannot grasp a thought and hold it
firm' or that 'the prevailing characteristic of his ideas is a certain Habb.iness,
to saypulpiness ', Another reviewer praised the sequence of sonnets withwhich
the book ends, but added, 'both rhyme .and rhythm must have greater care
bestowedupon them, andmorbiditymust be avoided if Mr Waite is to produce
anything worthy of after-remembrance'.
Undaunted by these strictures, Waite wrote for a third and last time to Browning,
enclosing a copy of the book. Browning replied with yet more advice:
June 22nd, 1879
MyDear Sir,
I have been so wholly engaged for some time past, that it was impossible for me to read
your poems as carefully as I wished, and now that I have read every line, I must try and be
as honest and serviceable as your accompanying letter seems to require and to deserve. You
haveso many of the faculties of a poet, as I told you before, that you may be safelyadvised-in
the assuranceofhaving them readyfor employment when a proper occasion arises-to let them
be unemployed now, when your business is to live-learn life: at present all these yearnings
and regrets are an .accepted and recorded fact in the experience of every youthful susceptible
nature, and in once more expressing them, however musically, you either invite attention from
natures like your own, and so only too familiar with them, or from the opposites of these,
natures to which your complaints areincomprehensible-a surprise or an annoyance. OfCourse
there was a time when, at least in literature, there would have been 'novelty' indeed in the
avowalofsuch aspirations and such disappointments asfill your volume: but now we all want-
whether or no we get it-an experience from those who havepassed through and surmounted
altogether-or even partially-the discoveries we made at 'one-and-twenty'. What may you
not do in thenext ten years?-I hardly care how, so long as it is earnestly and conscientiously
done-which will answer your own doubts, and enable you to help others who are at your
present stage of attainment! I saythis the more freelythat you mean-as you manfully say-to
continue in any case to practise the composition of poetry: if so, I would suggest that you
confine yourself for the present to what is called 'objective' poetry: take a fact, of any kind,
and describe it scrupulously, letting it produce its Own effect: do not occupy yourself with
your own feelings concerning things in general,-howyou wish them to be and regret to find
them. By giving us onejOct, you give us perhaps what we can explain, as we were hardly fitted
to do at the age which happily is Still yours. Shall I apologize for this rough liberty of advice
to one whom I would gladly serve? I think not-you will believe I am your affectionate
Robert Browning
On this occasion Waite allowed Browning toguidehim. He had come to
realize that Browning was a shrewdjudge of character as well as ofpoetry, and
Waite recorded that he 'profited by the advice he received; that he set himself
to 'learn life'; that he held over his 'faculties of a poet' until many lessons had
been put to heart; that the term ofyearsmentioned by Robert Browning brought
strength to those faculties; and that 'the "spark from heaven" has possibly at
length fallen'. He did not stop writing his poems, but only a very few would
be printed in the 1880s, there would be no more privately printed pamphlets,
and nothing substantial would appear until 1886 and lsrafel. And that was to
be a very different work indeed.
D URI NG much of the Victorian era the majority of periodicals for children
were overtly, almost aggressively, religious in tone, although there were exceptions,
among the most prominent of which wasjamesHenderson's }Dung Folks' Paper. 1
Its most famous contributor was Robert Louis Stevenson-both Treasure Island
and Kidnapped first appeared in its pages-but the bulk ofits contents came from
less eminent authors, among whom was A. E. Waite. In themid-1880s Waite
wrote a series of essays for The YOung Folks' Paper, on such obscure subjects as
'Ever-burning Lamps', 'The Phoenix', 'Legends of the Rainbow' and even on
'Electricityin Domestic Life', and contributed a number of poems to the 'Literary
Olympic': a feature of the paper devoted to the budding literary talents of its
readers. In these columns Waite gained sufficient recognition as an aspiring poet
to be included among the biographical 'Portraits' in the Christmas Supplement
of 1885; but before his rise to limited fame in The YOung Folks' Paper he had been
nurtured by one of its contemporaries.
A poem by Waite, 'An Exhortation', had appeared in April 1878in Aunt
judy's Magazine,2 to be followed at intervals by some of his better efforts until
August 1884 when 'The Sea Fowl' was printed in one of the last issues of the
magazine before its closure in the following spring. He had been introduced
to Aunt judy's Magazine by an eccentric clergyman who was a family friend of
the editor, Horatia Gatty, and who was to prove a formative influence during
Waite's early adult life. He was an accomplished writer of both prose and verse
and he undoubtedly helped Waite in his career; but it was not in the field of
literature that he proved of greatest. service.
GrevilleJohn Chester
was born at Denton, in Norfolk, on 25 October
1830. In 1858, after his graduation from Balliol College, Oxford,. and his
subsequent ordination, he was appointed Vicar ofSt]ude's, Moorfields, at Sheffield,
where he astonished the population with both his extreme high-churchmanship
and his extraordinary missionary zeal. He would stand, with his curate, 'in their
surplices at the entrance to the church and solicit the passers-by to come in', and
he later celebrated the first harvest festival ever held in Sheffield. But his 'greatest
and most lasting moral success' was considered to be 'The influence that he gained
over young men-youths at an age when the turning is commonly made, either
to the right hand for good or to the left for evil,'
All this came to an end, however, in 1867 when he retired from the role
of parish priest-apparently because took up a new career as
traveller and amateur archaeologist. Hefirst visited the United States ofAmerica,
where he travelled extensively before returning home to give a markedly hostile
account of the country and its people-whom he heartily detested-in his book
Tiansatlantic Sketches (1869). After his adventures in the West he made regular
winter excursions to the Middle East, exploring and excavating in Egypt and
Palestine (sometimes on behalf of the Palestine Exploration Fund), returning to
England each spring with a fresh haul of antiquities; most of these he presented
to the Ashmolean Museum. at Oxford.
He also took to writing novels; one of which-julian Cloughton; or, Lad-lift
in Norfolk (1880)-illustrates his great and continuing interest in young men,
in whom he seems invariably to haveinspired a profound devotion that occasionally
manifested itself in curious ways. Writing to the Sheffield Daily ulegraph after
Chester's death, on 23 May 1892, a Mr Harry Hems related the following anecdote:
One summer evening, in Old Park Woods, Mr Chester and I-then a lad-were together,
and he was giving me a lesson in geology when another lad, all in tatters, came along. At
sight of the rev. gentleman he suddenly became all aglow with excitement, and rushing at
him, threw himself down, and began kissing his feet and legs. I learned afterwards that our
late friend had sheltered and nursed this youth after some serious accident, and this was their
first meeting afterwards. I have seen men in the East cast themselves down and kiss another's
feet, but this was the first and last time I ever saw it done in phlegmatic England.
He was to inspire a similar, ifless flamboyantly expressed, devotion in the young
A. E. Waite.
Chester, whom Waite considered to be 'the first good friend that I ever made
among seniors', came into his life 'about 1877' when Waite was twenty years
old, having 'heard of me first because he knew Firth, my cousin, and insisted
that I should be brought to see him. It was done accordingly, not a little against
my cousin's will'. Waite described Chester as 'a travelled man of forty and a
talismanic eccentric whomit was a boon to know' and 'assuredly one in a thousand,
one also who must have been handsome in youth and was now of a notable
presence, a fine passionate man. He was ever and continually in a righteous rage
about something, the convention in most cases being that it. was for the public
good' (SLY, p. 59).
He commented further: 'If Chester made real friends with anyone, that
person-whoever-had cause to count it as an epoch in his tale of life', adding,
but without elaboration, 'It was such in my own case and, even to this day,
And since I love him, may I choose him now
To be my faithful friend? (A Soul's Comedy, p. 48)
The acolyte waits for Jasper when the Mass is ended:
His lovefor Gabriel is reiterated in other passages, with increasing frequency
after the young acolyte dies, and culminates ina long, impassioned and obsessional
hymn to the dead Gabriel-of which these verses are typical:
Is thy heavenly bliss complete?
Hast thou now no more desire
For the love we thought 'so sweet
Ere thy soul ascended higher?
Thy blue eyes are deep, and deep
Their expression lies' therein;
They their inward counsel keep,
All their secrets shut within.
And so he led me to the porch which look'd
Out on the silent night. And still he held
My hand,and said,.You are a stranger here,
Do come again! This is the One True Church,
And all who join it will be happy on .earth,
And go to Heaven as welL-Will you be here?
I asked. 0, always, he replied, I serve
Before the altar! Will you be my friend?
Said I. He answer'd, I will love you always,
If you will only come. So then we kiss'd,
And parted.(A Soul's Comedy, pp. 49-50)
Who sprinkles the lilies that bind thy brow
With the dews that." keep them cool and bright?
Who folds thy garments white?
What hand caresses and tends thy tresses,
And clasps thy golden girdle now?
Who washes thy feet that are white and fair,
And dried them with his hair? (A Soul's Comedy, pp. 170-1)
But the real Gabriel was not dead.
Waite gives no clue to Gabriel's identity, but clearly he had no connection
with Highgate, for by 1881 St Joseph's Retreat was ten yeats in Waite's past.
Equally clearly he had a real existence, for twenty-five years later-and fourteen
All around
Were men, like fairy kings, in robes of gold,
And-boys in white who held long torches u p ~
While two were swinging censers full of. smoke,
And flame and fragrance. One was like a saint,
His hair all gold.. About the Church they came
In long procession; there his' eyes met mine,
he and his eccentricities, his .rampantprejudices, his love .of his own way and
his generous heart are lively and precious memories' (SLT, p. 60). All of which
describes a personality the very antithesis of the gauche and naive young man
he befriended, for 'The truth is that I was not much more than twelve at sixteen
years and had not reachedintellectual puberty when I lived to he twenty-one'
(SLT, p. 52). But for all his self-perceived immaturity Waite was drifting into
emotional turmoilin the shape ofa 'romanticfrienship' and he.would need all
of Chester's sympathetic and experienced guidance to draw' him back from a
potentially destructive relationship.
Fromthe beginning of his career as a poet Waite had attempted versedramas,
but they had been invariably badly constructed and far too short for their themes
to be developed. Recognizing these weaknesses Waite.began, in the autumn of
1881, to sketch out. 'a long tale, a tale with a happy ending' that would, so he
hoped, .suffer from none of them. The first draft of the 'tale' was completed
within twelvemonths, but it was to be another fiveyears before A Soul's Comedy"
was published.
The structure and style of the poem are modelled on those ofBailey's Festus,
while the title was clearly intended to be associated with Browning's A Soul's
'Tragedy; Waite, however, gives his own explanation of the tit.le in aprefat?ry
note: 'A tragedy in its ancient and legitimate sense depicts the triumph ofdestiny
over man; the comedy, or story with a happy ending, represents the triumph
ofrnan over destiny. It is in this sensethat the spiritualhistory ofJasper Cartwright
is called a Soul's Comedy'(A Soul's Comedy, 1887, .p. vi).
The plot, 'with its themes of unwitting incest, treachery, illegitimacy, and
final redemption, is wholly Waite's own and is based to a degree on his somewhat
bitter perception of his parentage. Both the major and minor heroes Gasper
Cartwright and his illegitimate son, Austin Blake) are self-portraits, while the
intertwined sub-plot-the story of the obsessive love of Jasper for the young
acolyte Gabriel-is aworking out of Waite's feelings and experiences at the time
he began the first draft.
Inthe complex plot of the poem Waite, as the hero Jasper Cartwright, first
sees Gabriel when he enters by chance StJoseph's Retreat ('the Roman" Church
which stands. on Highgate Hill') and watches the Mass:
43 - 'LOVE THAT NEVER TOLD CAN BE' ,;",;;,..
years after Greville Chester's death-Waite published another Gabriel poem in
which both his own feelings and Chester's awareness of them are set out more
openly than in the ambiguous A Soul's Comedy:
Then, knowing that none except yourself above,
With me below, will penetrate our love,
However plainly stands the written word,
Let me conceal no more, whose heart is stirr'd
To tell outright what then I spoke.alone
Either to you, apart in undertone,
Or but in parables to other men.
Well, you are dead, and. God is strong to save,
But certain secret matters to my grave
I carry heavily concerning you,
Who were through all so good and more than true;
Still in your heart make them a safe retreat,
If you can do so.iat the judgment-seat.
And this poem, unlike A Soul's Comedy, tells the true story:
Old friend, whate'er our early verse may tell,
Here is the mystery of Gabriel.
He describes his first sight of Gabriel andhis realization that his feelings
must remain unspoken:
but the past is lost to Waite for,
Oh, you are dead, and he has gone away!
As in your ear then, plainly let me tell
When first it was we look'd on Gabriel,
At mass or vespers, guarded, earnest, blythe,
A white-robed, censer-bearing acolythe;
Only a face amidst an incense cloud-
Silent within the chants which swell'd so loud.
Lovely he was, as human beauty goes-
The lily's lustre, the faint blush of rose,
Met in his face; his lips were chaste as fair
And a dim nimbus washis auburnhair,
While his eyes had caught, as in a net,
All the dark glories of the violet.
Youth though he was, in our two hands we could
Have ta' en his face to kiss as lovers should,
But on his earthly presence had come down
So high a sense of vision and of crown,
That out of any place where lovers lean
And whisper, he, with his uplifted mien,
So bright uprose that, like the ground he trod,
We knew him seal'd and set apart to God.
From acolyte Gabriel has risen to be 'perchance, a consecrated priest', while
Chester-who alone knew Waite's feelings and helped him to come to terms
with them-e-has died:
That going away was Waite's salvation, and he had engineered it himself-
for the acolyte Gabriel was the young server whom he had met in 1881 during
his autumn at Deal. All he says of the boy is that he was 'the intelligent son
... of a widowed Irish woman, poor and slatternly', who 'served at the altar
in a miserable Catholic Church' (SLY, p. 74)e . The priest-in-charge of the church
was Fr James Scratton, 5 'an eccentric elderly gentleman' and 'a ceremonial ne'er-
do-well' who could offer no help to Waite over his 'difficulties': 'there was never
a poor pitiful cleric more well-intentioned and more completely incompetent'.
Nor would he help his serverwhen the boy wished to study to become a missionary
priest; it was left to Waite-who thought that 'Heaven might help those who
sought to help others!-to act in his place, when 'against all expectation [I] managed
to have the lad placed' (SLY, p. 74).
Of itself this is insufficient to prove the identity of the young server with
Gabriel, but there is more: among his bound manuscripts Waite preserved a series
of poems written in 1882-they are entitled 'Fragments ofRejected Scenesfrom
Jasper Cartwright"," One section 'A Poet's Letter to his Friend', begins,
There is an acolyte at Deal this day
Whose face hath struck me; I discern a soul's
Fine texture, where fragility alone
And bashful modesty, attract in eyes
Less partial.
In a later passage the poet remarks that:
45 ___~ __ 'LOVETHAT NEVER TOLD CAN BE' .;;.;;;..
Waite helps the boy to realize that ambition, but anticipates with anguish the
day of his ordination, when he will see him for the last time:
Farewell, and ever after it farewell!
Henceforth devoted to the cause of Christ,
Inlands remote His cross and crown thou'lt bear.
There is enough in these 'fragments' clearly to identify the poet with Waite,
and he never felt able to publish them-but he was equally unwilling to destroy
It is probable that Chester encouraged Waite to help the boy, if only to remove
his physical presence;he alsobrought Waite out of his state of morbid introspection
and broadened his social horizons, taking him out 'to dine for themost part,
buton rare occasions to breakfast', even making a brief excursion to Paris (SLY,
.Pp 66, 67).Chester .further impressed upon Waite the extreme importance of
embracing the heroic virtue of chastity, and in subsequent poems (as well as in
the unpublished 'fragments') the theme of chastity is prominent.
In Israfel8 which was written after A Soul's Comedy but published earlier,
the figure of Israfel is an idealized amalgam of an angelic being and the acolyte
Gabriel; Waite's human love for Israfel/Gabriel is shown sublimated and
transformed, and expressed in terms of an almost mystical experience, as when:
was it one ofwhich he really approved in others.. When writing on asceticism
in his most importantwork on mysticism, TheUfJy ofDivine Union, he recognized
that 'every mystical saint of the Latin Church was a great ascetic', but he saw
too that 'Celibacy ... accomplished a most peculiar work-of which as yet we
understand too little-by the transfer of repressedand starvedsexualityto a spiritual
plane'; and even though he was aware that just such a transfer was one of the
more important elements in the awakening of his own mystical consciousness,
he condemned the state because 'the erection of celibacy into a counsel of
perfection ... in certain directions threatened to poison the well-spring of one
of the Church's own sacraments' (pp. 151-3). The whole question of the sanctity
of sexin marriage and the more immediate problem of the relationship between
sexuality and mystical experience he. discussed at length in The Secret Doctrine
inIsrael (1913), but by then he spoke with the voice of experience: at the time
of writing Israfel he had yet to experiencethe 'talismanic attraction of anydaughter
of woman'.
Within a few yearsof the publication of Israfel and A Soul's Comedy, however,
the whole tenor of his poetry had changed. Lucasta, which appeared in 1890,
is an exaltation of married love, dedicated to his wife, but it remains lyrical poetry
for poetry's sake: his later works are quite different. A Book ofMystery and Vision
(1902) and Strange Houses ofSleep (1906) are no longer collections of simple verse
but attempts at conveying to the world at large the essence of his own mystical
experience-although the manner of expression is more appropriate to the
characters in the esoteric verse dramas which form a significant part of thetext,
These would undoubtedly havebewildered his early readers in w>ung Folks' Paper,
just as they infuriated such unmystical critics as G. K. Chesterton, who said of
A Book of Mystery and Vision:
We have seenhis face, and the memory of its beauty dwells for ever in our minds-it constrains
us towards the perfect life; like a magnet, it draws us to the summits of heroism and sacrifice.
It has been revealed. to me in vision that by a voluntary act we may transfer the merits of a
noble and virtuous existence to the most chaste and starbright soul of Israfel, who will shine
in the eternal world with the irnputedmerit of both our lives (Israfel, pp. 11-12).
Israfel is described invariably in terms of sexual purity: 'he stands with face
transfigured in a virgin's robe'; 'he is a white virgin whose spotless maidenhood
is our c ~ m m o n faith, our pious hope; our bond of brotherhood in the charity
of the New Life'; 'His chief emblem is the Unicorn, in which inviolate chastity
is typified' (pp. 13, 28, 31). But if Waite's soul was transformed, the Old Adam
was sleeping rather than dead, for it is repression, not sublimation, that is implied
by the claim that 'the sight of his passionless beauty' has 'frozen all lust within
us' (p. 21).
And celibacywas quite definitely not a state to which Waite was called; nor
There are certain general characteristics inMr Waite's work which are extremely typical of
the current tendencies of mysticism, and which demand an emphatic protest. First, for example,
there is his endless insistence, prominent in his verses and especially prominent in his preface,
on the fact that only a few can enter into his feelings; that he writes for a select circle of the
initiated. This kind of celestial snobbishness is worse than mere vulgarity. When we hear a
man talking at great length about the superiority of his manners to those of his housekeeper,
we feel tolerably certain that he is not a gentleman; similarly, when we hear a man insisting
endlessly upon the superior character of his sanctity to the sanctity of the multitude, we feel
tolerably certain that, whatever else he may be, he is not a saint. A saint, like a gentleman,
isone who has forgotten his own points of superiority, being immersed in more interesting
And this mystical elitism, thought Chesterton, is not poetry. Nor is it reality:
And then the mysticcomes and says that a green tree symbolizes Life. It is not so.Life symbolizes
agreen tree. Just in so far as we get into the abstract, we get away from the reality, we get
away from the mystery, we get away from the tree. And this is the reason that so many
transcendental discourses are merely blank and tedious to us, because they have to. do with
Truth and Beauty, and the Destiny of the Soul, and all the great, faint, faded symbols of the
reality. And this is why all poetry is so interesting to us, because it has to do with skies, with
woods, with battles, with temples, with women and wine, with the ultimate miracles which
no philosopher could create.
In those terms Waite could. never again be a poet, for after the resolution
of his traumatic inner conflicts, poetry was no longer an end in itself but only
a means to an end: he was achieving adelayed maturity, and at the same time
becoming increasingly self-aware, and venturing eagerly on to the shifting sands
of It was a new world for Waite; a world that held out the promise
of providing the means to create something more significant than mere verse.
AT THE time of his sister's death, in 1874, Waite had no doubt as to the reality
of life after death: her soul, 'heavenward soaring', would be with theangels in
the presence ofGod. But as his faith slowly ebbed awayin the years that followed
he became increasingly sceptical of the Church's teaching on the posthumous
state of the soul, and increasingly pessimistic about the very possibility of survival.
His doubt is reflected in an untitled sonnet written in 1878, which concludes
with these lines:
Though Life has parted us, let Death unite
Just one short moment!-and with that-adieu!
For, gazing into the eternal night,
No torch nor starlight come to help us through.
How joyless there for both if we should meet
In Death's dark maze, roaming with weary feet!
A Lament from the same year, ends even more bleakly:
What is life itself but madness?
What is death but endless night?
Amidst all this gloom and despair the awareness of death was ever present,
for by 1879 Waite and his mother had moved to Victor Road at Kensal Green, a
road, as he says, 'a little above the entrance to a Catholic part of Kensal Green
Cemetery' and close enough for his mother to mourn perpetually almost within
sight of her daughter's grave. But if Waite mourned, it was not over Frederica's
grave but while he 'walked in dreams and dreamed in endless walks' (SLY,
p. 67); andit wasononeofthesewalksthat hefoundawayofescape fromhisdoubts:
My wanderings had taken me once to the crowded purlieus of Edgware Road, and in the side-
window of a corner pork-butcher's shop I had seen displayedto my astonishment a fewcopies
of the Medium andDaybreak, ajournal devoted to Modern Spiritualism. Having long contemplated
the columns of the front page, I went in to purchase a copy, taking care to address him whom
I assumed to be the master rightly, a tall, broad, expansive personality, withgoodwill inscribed
upon him. My youth and nervous hesitation must have drawn him towards one shewing thus
an early interest in subjects which were evidently near to his heart. He told me of trance orations,
of spirits assuming material forms, of dead men coming back, and probably gave me two or
three elementary pamphlets, brought forth from a drawer beneath one of his counters. It is
remembered to this day that I emerged from that talk with a vague feeling that all this was
like a story of which I hadheard previously; that it was not strange and new; that it was rooted
in the likelihood ofthings rather than abnormal and far beyond the ken (SLY, p. 57).
Thus predisposed-and in 1878, when this revelation occurred." he was eager
for his doubts to be overthrown-Waite took up Spiritualism with enthusiasm.
The Spiritualist movement had begun. in America, at Hydesville in New
York State, in 1848,.although for some four years before then visionary accounts
of the Spirit World had been issuing from the entranced AndrewJackson Davis,
the 'Poughkeepsie Seer'. IntheyearofEuropean Revolution the little American
town had been disturbed by the alleged spirit of a murdered pedlar, who began
to communicate by means of persistent rappings that occurred in the p r e s e n c e ~
of two young girls, Kate and Margaret Fox. On the basis of the rapped messages
evidence of the murder was discovered and the girls became celebrities. Soon
others, too, received messagespurporting to come from the dead, at first by means
ofraps or table-turning, later by way of automatic writing andtrance utterances,
and the movement spreadrapidly throughout the United States.As mediums-the
persons supposedly acting as intermediaries between the worlds of the living
and of the dead-e-proliferated, the movement began to take on the rudiments
of formal organization and by 1852, when it appeared in England in the person
of Mrs Hayden, the first visiting American medium, Spiritualism as a definable
sect was well established.
England proved as susceptible to spiritualist phenomena as the United States,
and although English mediums were at first few and far between, by the 1870s
they were to be found in abundance, producing all the more spectacular effects
of their American counterparts: direct voice messages (in which the medium
spoke with the voice of the communicating spirit), .levitation of objects, and
materializations of. the hands, faces, or whole. forms of the departed. Such
. phenomena usually occurred under strictly prescribed conditions at seances,
meetings at which the sitters-either those seeking messagesfrom dead relatives,
investigating intellectuals, or the merely curious-sat around a table, linked hands
with the medium and with each other, extinguished the lights-and waited.
As a rule their patience was rewardedwith phenomena, often spectacular and
not alwayseasyto explain, despite the frequent detection of trickeryamong both
professional and amateur mediums.
Both 'real' phenomena and exposures of fraud were faithfully reported in
the spiritualist journals and in the multitude of books devoted to the subject,
for the devotees were eager to present a respectable face to the world and to establish
their 'Science, Philosophy and Religion of continuous life, based upon the
demonstrated fact of communication, by means ofmediumship, with those who the Spirit World' 2 as an acceptable faith. Indeed, it was largely through
the propaganda of the journals thatpotential converts were gained: Waite among
Before he. began to attend seances Waite immersed himself in spiritualist
literature, until 'there came a time when I could almost saythat I wasacquainted
sufficiently with the whole output of Spiritism, so far as England, America and
France were concerned' (SLY, p. 60).. He soon acquired a remarkable knowledge
of the subject for he had, as. he says, 'a considerable faculty in my studies for
extracting the quintessence of books, and it remained with me' (SLY: p. 61)-a
fact borne out by the enormous number of notes and shrewd comments made
in his manuscript commonplace book, Collectanea Metaphysica. He also came to
know many of the most prominent spiritualists of the time; men such as]ames
Burns, the Revd William StaintonMoses.johnjames, and E. Dawson Rogers. 3
But the chief attraction of Spiritualism remained its ability to revive his faith
in an afterlife, albeit at the cost of further alienation from the Catholic Church:
It remains to be said that the horizon opened by Spiritism, as of another world and its prospects,
and of the possibility in earthly life of belonging in a sense to both, led me further away from
the notion ofan Infallible Church which offered Hell opened to Christians in place of Eternal
Hope. I beheld on the further side, in the so-called hither hereafter, a place where men can
dwell and healed by slow degrees of all their hurts can find new life in new and other work,
world without end, because of endless worlds (SLT, p. 62).
His first direct experience of a medium was with the Revd Francis Ward
-popularly but inaccuratelyknown as 'Dr' Monck-who had produced
remarkable materializations at his seances in the early 1870s, but who had also
in 1876 been exposed as a fraud and gaoled. Waite met him in 1878:
I made casual acquaintance with Dr Monck, the notorious cheating medium, ... I came across
[him] keeping a noisome shop on the other side of a foot-bridge spanning the railway lines
at Westbourne Park. It was shortly after his imprisonment, and he had married a dreadful
creature picked up in that neighbourhood and from whom he ultimately fled to America, evading
as best he could, with some negative help in my presence, a crowd of the woman's sympathisers.
He must have gone as a steerage passenger, andI heard from him onceafterwardscannouncing
his safe arrival' (SLY,pp. 76-7).
He was not impressed by Monck, who was for Waite 'a feeble and foolish being,
who told me his criminal story and seemed to have faith. in his own supposed
powers. There was talk of shewing me curious things; but it.came to nothing,
no doubt through my own apathy: it was difficult to tolerate a pseudo-medium
whose effects had been seized and proved to contain the hocus-pocus ofcommon
conjuring' (ibid. p. 77).
Other mediums proved more satisfactory.. 1885 he attended a series of
seances in the company of a friend, Captain Cecil Dyce, an ex-Indian army officer,
older than Waite, who was the cousin ofa school-friend fromSt Charles's College. 5
Dyce was not a believer in Spiritualism, being 'ribald and. sceptical' although
'also curiously drawn', but Waite was inclined to accept the apparent evidence
of his own senses. Referringto his experiences some twenty yearslater he remarked:
If anyone asked me whether I have seen intelligent writing produced between locked slates
under circumstances which fairly exclude the suggestion of trickery, I should reply that I have;
and ifhe questioned me further, whether in dark seances, when the so-calledmedium has been
held in my arms, I have witnessed the levitation of inert objects; I should again reply that I
have (Studies in Mysticism, pp. 133-4).
What he did not add was that when these events occurred he was seeking, and
half-believed he had received; a message from his sister.
The first seance was with William Eglinton," a young medium who had
produced amazing materializations during the 1870s but who by the mid-1880s
was concentrating on slate-writing (the production of alleged spirit messages
on sealedor locked school slates); among his sitters for this form ofcommunication
had been W. E. Gladstone, who was convinced that the phenomena were genuine.
Waite and Dyce visited Eglinton on 19 October 1885 and Waite afterwards wrote
out a full account of the sitting, although the final leaf of the manuscript is
unfortunately in such poor state as to be almost wholly illegible. Eglinton proved
to be a prepossessing young man: 'His speech and manner are refined, his
temperament is genial; in short, he impressed me favourably, being so different
to other mediums I have seen.' The medium was, however, somewhat put out
by the slates that his sitters had brought with them: 'We produced our slates,
when he frankly told us it was very unlikely we should get anything written
in them. The point to be noticed here is that he .asked us if we had brought
slates, but when he saw how they were tied and sealed, he expressed the above
opinion. However, he was willing to try and we might succeed.' The medium
then explained to them 'why we should probably get no writing on our own
slates-viz. because the conditions were new and the slates not magnetized.'
Using two of Eglinton's own slates-one single and one double, which had
been locked by the seance began, with first one and then the other
slate being held against the under-side of the table at which they were sitting.
For half-an-hour or more nothing happened, perhaps because Waite was wary:
Immediately the slate was under the table, Eglinton began to talk in a rapid manner as if to
engage our attention.' This excited my suspicion and I kept my eyes on his hand which held .
the slate. I should say that one-third of it was always in view. The conversation fell and Mr
E. asked us to talk as preoccupied silence was an unhealthy condition. We did so, but I kept
a sharp look-out notwithstanding. Nothing occurred.
Eventually, however, 'Just as the medium was himself beginning to despair, the
spasmodic contortion which had previously thrilled his frame increased, and an
answer was written. I distinctly heard the writing, then three raps with the point .
to show that it was finished. The question was answered partially.'
. had brought with him a copyof Zollner's 'Transcendental Physics and
hIS question was a request for the author's name to be written. Presumably part
of the name appeared: to the cynic it was probably that part visible on the spine
of the book, but Waite gives no further details. More, however, was to follow:
'After this the slate was cleaned and again put under the table when I asked verbally
Is the spirit ofmy sister present and able to communicate? or words to that effect.
Writing occurred as before, the answer was yes. I then asked for her name to
be written but this was not done.' All in all it was an unremarkable performance.
They next visited Messrs. Williams and Husk, two professional mediums
from whom Waite at least did not expect great results. The sitting-room used
for the seances Waite found to be 'the most exceptionally lurid in its furniture
that lhave ever seen. The walls have red paper, the curtains and suite are a dull
ared umbrella of vast proportions depends extended fromthe ceiling;
In a word It IS Just the apartment in which the terrible Scarlet Woman might
be expected to be found.. There is nothing to excite suspicion in it beyond the
unmitigated bad taste which thus rampantly displays itself.' He also noted that
'from six to a dozen people usually attend; an instrument called Fairy Bells, a
large and small musical-box, some paper trumpets, are the stock in trade of these
When the seance commenced 'the musical box is lifted, the instruments
pass from head to head of the sitters; voices sound in all directions; spirit jokes
are cracked in broken voices, and all the well known series of thaumaturgic
commonplaces follows.' None of this impressed him and he concluded that 'the
best argument for the genuineness of the majority of these manifestations is that
the small sum charged for admission divided among confederates would be too
small to make it worth anyone's while to keep a suite of rooms all the year round.'
The most successful seance was on 3 March 1886 'with a private, non-
professional medium of great power, Mr Rita,7 who came to us in a friendly
manner, without remuneration, which indeed he does not accept'. All began
well: musical instruments were levitated, amusical box 'was set playing apparently
by spirit agency', raps were heard, and spirit lights appeared, one of which
'disappeared close tomy own face with a slight smell of phosphorus'. Then the
phenomena began to centre on Waite. 'I was the object of some attention on
the part of the spirits, partly because I was next the medium, but I suppose also
53 _ ~ __'WHILE YET A BOY I SOUGHT FOR GHOSTS' __~ ....... 52
becauseof the mediumistic powers with which all these beingsseem to credit
me'. 'Charlie', one of the spirit 'controls' of the medium, 'volunteered the
statement that I should make a very good medium' and then 'materialized twice
over the table, holding the slate which cast its phosphorescent light upon the
drapery and ghostly countenance. I think he turned in succession towards all
of us, and then ascended towards. the ceiling,vanishing in darkness'.
Even more impressive was
the sudden materialization of a beautiful face between myself and the medium, which came
apparently to myself alone, and was seen lbyl onlyone other sitter who was in the same range
of vision, so to speak. It was drapedinwhite like a nun; the mouth was not visible, the seat
of expression was in the eyes, which were large, dark, luminous, and full of the most solemn
significance and sweet intelligence. I caught all this in an almost momentary glimpse-a glimpse
too brief for meto feel in any way sure that the general resemblance to my dead sister which
I traced in it was more thana trick of imagination.
He added, with astonishing naivety, 'moreover, as often in the most genuine
materializations there was a faint phantasmal resemblance to the general contours
of the medium's own features, but transfigured out of all knowledge'. Rita, he
thought,was genuine, for 'In this seance, the essential element of fraud was
wanting-i.e. there was no gain likelyto accruein any wayfinancially or otherwise
to the medium'.
It did not occur to him at the time that enthusiastic, unsolicited testimonials
could be extremely beneficial toMr Rita. Later, he revised his opinion and in
his autobiography described Rita as 'the last kind ofperson in looks whom one
would be prepared to trust on sight. The ordinary observer would have termed
him a shifty customer' (SLY, p.78).
Undoubtedly Waite had a deep need to believe in survival, and the seances
seemed to reassure him; but as his own thought matured his attitude to survival
became less simplistic, although he recognized the importance of objective proof
for others. In his autobiography he -. stressed that 'authentic Spiritism is a
demonstration, solely and only,'of an alleged fact that the dead return at times
in the communications of the seance-room and give proofs of their identity'.
As to the nature of such proof:
The sine qua nonon the question ofSpirit Return is whether and when disembodied mind
communicates through any given medium with the mind incarnate, delivering that which
the channelcannot know, while the sitter himself does not, but which he proves to be true
subsequently. If Spiritism is to be justified beyond reasonable challenge, here lies the one test
oftruth which truly signifies (SLY, pp. 210, 211).
Shortly before his death, in 1942, he urged upon the secretary of the LOndon
Spiritualist Alliance-who had come for a private interview with. him-e-theneed
to publicize proven cases of survival: 'The most important and desperate need
of the time is the proving of Survival. If only a Spiritualist would begin a
chronological production of attested cases of evidence. I should like to see one
old and one new case of evidence of Survival each week in Light.' 8
For himself it no longer mattered-Spiritualism had long since given way
to mysticism.
Even by the late 1880s, when .he was contributing to Light, already one of
the leading spiritualist journals, Waitewasexpounding the merits of mystical
as opposed to psychic experiences. In .1890he delivereda lecture to the London
Spiritualist Alliance on 'The Interior Life from the Standpoint of the Mystics' 9.
and dismayed. his spiritualist audience by insisting on the superiority of the
'transcendental-s-the inner experiences of the mystic-over the merely
'phenomenal', which included the phenomena of the seance-room.Andjust as
he startled the cultured readers of Light, so he confused the more simple-minded
readers of its rival, the Medium and Daybreak, with his curious allegorical fairy-
tale 'Prince Starbeam', which had been published seriallyin its columns in 1889.
This odd romance-hadnot the remotest connection with the concerns of everyday
spiritualists, and a heavy-handed attempt. to interpret it in their terms, bya
pseudonymous critic 'Ossian' (almost certainly the editor, James Burns), only
increased their confusion.
But even as his active involvement with the spiritualist movement faded,
Waitemaintained his academic interest and continued to write on both Spiritualism
and on psychical research in general (he read all the relevant journals as a matter
of course for his regular Periodical Literature feature in The Occult Review); he did
not, of course, commit himself to a specific belief:
There are, broadly speaking, two theories based on the acceptation of the facts after ninety
per cent of the alleged phenomena have been removed from the consideration. One of these
has determined that certain organizations of mankind can, owing to some psychological or
psycho-physiological peculiarity, become the mediums of communication between man and
the worlds of unseen intelligence, usually that world which the same theory peoples with
disembodied human spirits. The alternative explanation sets aside the idea that there is any
operation of intelligence outside that of the person designated as the medium, and concludes
that the phenomena which take place in his presence are the product ofhis own psychic nature
externalised; so to speak. Between these theories it is not necessary to exercise a decided choice
in the present instance; the evidence is soinconclusive that any selection would merely indicate
a particular mental predilection (Studies in. Mysticism, p. 134).
Not that he doubted the. phenomena, or. the reality of life after death; he
was simply not convinced that the one necessarily followed from the other. In
an interview with The Christian Commonwealth in 1914 he affirmed his belief
in survival and described his own concept of life after death:
Until, we are withdrawn in perfect union of nature, lbelieve that we shall abide in successive
worlds, our relations with which willbe instituted and maintained by successive vehicles. As
to the state or world into which we shall enter at death, psychical research and its concomitants
have produced the beginnings of a demonstrative theory, and we must look in that direction
for an answer. But the question is better left. It is much better to be striving after the state
of union than to study the possibilities of intermediate worlds. 10
All this, however, would be a prelude to our perfect Union with God, which
is man's ultimate goal. To the question 'Have you had any personal
experience ... that the so-called dead are still living and active?' he gave no
answer, After thirty years his seances were no longer convincing.
He did record, some years later, a remarkable case ofclairvoyance. In February
1919 his daughter Sybil was at Ramsgate; dangerously ill with septic double
pneumonia, but with careful and intensive treatment she slowly recovered..During
her illness Waite commuted between London and Ramsgate, staying with friends
when he could not return to the coast. On one such occasion, on 22 March,
I was able to attend hurriedly an important London Meeting and stayed perforce for a single
night with Frater Paratum Cor Meum [i.e. G. Barrett Dobbl "at Edenbridge. Though an
exceedingly keen, tireless and successful business man, it may interest Spiritists to learn that
he was not alone highly psychic but held frequent communications with an unseen Guide,
claiming-I believe-to have been a North American Indian. I used to hear about this Guide
occasionally, in my detached manner; but after dinner or supper, on the night in question,
we were sitting by ourselves,with the inevitablepipes, when theGuide, I suppose, was mentioned,
and Frater Paratum'decided to get into communication for help on a matter of his own, and
one important to himself. The Guide came, and in what seemed to be a cavalier manner brushed
aside my friend's anxieties and sent a message to myself. It said that at that moment Sybil
was sitting up for the first time in her room at Ramsgate. This ended the communication,
and the fact was duly verified on my return home (SLY, p. 205).
His diary gives further details, recording that the psychic message 'was about
9 p.m.' and that the nurse's report, which he received on the 24th, confirmed
this: 'she was up in her room, probably at the time it came'.
Waite himself had no such clairvoyant ability. In March 1936, while he was
staying at Maida Vale, he awoke one night 'suddenly with a voice-which seemed
to be Sybil's-calling, as if for help, and I feared that she might have had some
accident alone at Betsy Cottage'. In great anxiety he telegraphed to Broadstairs,
only to learn that all was well.. 'Such', he said, 'is my kind of psychism.' 11
Messages received through genuine psychics he respected-as with one Harry
Gordon who visited Waiteat Ealing in 1919and 'obtained strange communications
with a little table in our dining-roomv-and he even suggested that some psychics
may have a religious role to play: 'I feel that we stand here on the threshold of
things unrealized, that the day may come when a consecrated and ordained
"automatist" assisted by a dedicated circle-iri the plenary sense of these
expressions-will obtain records from a' 'dissociated personality" or from' 'the
other side", and that they will carry an. authentic note,' At the same time he
disapproved strongly of treating Ouija Boards as toys, condemning them as 'about
the last plaything to be put into the hands of children'. 12
Forty years after his first (lecture on. mysticism to the London Spiritualist
Alliance Waite spoke to them again on 'The Relationship between Mysticism
and Psychical Research' on 10 April 1930. He accepted the possibility of spirit
communication but reaffirmed the supreme importance ofmysticism and of the
goal of Divine Union. How his audience reacted is not recorded, but the
Association clearlyliked and admired him; so much so that in 1938 it was suggested
that he might become editor of Light in succession to George Lethem who was
in ill-health. The immediate reason for the suggestion was, however, somewhat
bizarre, as Waite noted at the time:
The Council of the Spliritualist] Allliance] knows of no-one to succeed [Letheml and Phyllis
[Le. Mercy Phillimore, Secretary of the Association] was asked to see a certain medium through
whom Stainton-Moses is said to communicate. He-I-advised that I should be consulted. But
I know less of likely people. If the advice really came from S.M., was it intended to seewhether
I would serve? This is a moot point. Was it subconsciously in the mind of Phyllis? She at least
thought of me once in connection with the editorship. I made my position plain on the score
of sincerity, and it seems not far apart from hers.
He also recognized the major problem: 'Whether my own health and age would
let me make the experiment are other questions' (Diary, 28July 1938). The Council
evidently answered those questions in the negative and the editorship eventually
went elsewhere, to C. R. Cammell, the poet and biographer of Aleister Crowley.
Waite would unquestionably havebeen a most unsympathetic editor. Latterday
spiritualists with their frequent emphasis on reincarnation irritated him, and,
according to his daughter, by 1938 'he had long lost interest in the L.S.A. having
known so much deception'i l" His lack of enthusiasm for the more
aspects of Spiritualism had long been clear to the faithful: when his 'digest' ot
the writings of AndrewJackson Davis was re-issued in 1922 an American critic
wondered, 'whether or not this book was compiled for the purpose of giving
the enquiring public an intelligent conception of the writings of A.J. Davis,
or is it an effort to mislead and confuse the enquirer, and as Shakespeare put
it, "damn with faint praise" the greatest prophet and seer of all time'. 14
It was probably ajust criticism, for although Waite recognized the importance
of Davis's work and felt it desirable that there should be a digest of 'the essential
parts of his doctrine, philosophy and testimony to worl? of spirits and
natural law therein' (Harmonial Philosophy, p. xi) he did not find the preparation
ofthe book a congenial task. His personal antipathy to 'the seership and writings
of Davis' were clear to others as he worked on the book throughout 1916. Mercy
Phillimore recalled that
He used tocome fairly often to our library to borrow and consult the Davis books. This was
at our old rooms in St Martin's Lane. The Davis books were housed in a room on the top
shelf close to the ceiling. He usually came late in the afternoon. The room was lighted by low-
hanging, shaded lamps. He would climb dangerously to the top of a none-too-robust ladder,
and perched, high up in the dimness, would browse on the books; from time to time deep
groans would amuse us, groans to remind us of how bored he was. IS,
And yet however boring Spiritualismmight be, it had helped to restore his
faith and-even more important-it had helped him to open 'that Gate which
opens on the Path of Love'.
MR RITA had made a deep impression upon Waite at the seance with Cecil
Dyce, and when the offer of a further sitting was made Waite took it up eagerly.
What happened at that second seanceis not known, for only the first paragraph
of Waite's manuscript account of it has survived; enough, however, to record
who was present:
I think it was on the Saturday following [i,e, 7 March 1886] that I was invited to a seance
with the same medium at Captain James, Gt Hereford Road, Bayswater-present our host,
the Revd MrNewbold, General Maclean, Miss Peck, Mr Stuart Menteath, Miss Menteath
and myself, in addition to the medium Rita, who arrived last of all, whereupon we immediately
took our seats.
It was a momentous day when Waite met' Mr Stuart Menteath' for 'out of those
meetings followed things which changed my life' (SLY, p. 78).
Waite's memory of that first meeting was vague-he remembered neither
the month nor the year, thinking that it was in the 'Summer, possibly of 1885';
but he was clear as to what followed: 'In the autumn we renewed acquaintance
under the same auspicesand Stuart-Menteth, for some obscure reason was drawn
in my direction'. Undoubtedly Stuart-Menteath (there was no consistency of
spelling, even in the family) 'cultivated my acquaintance more especially in
connection with his ambition to form a circle for private seances, in the hope
that an unprofessional medium would developtherein'iand eventually Waite was
invited to dinner; 'so that we could talk things over and compare points of view'.
Perhaps he was invited for social reasons also: 'Possibly I was invited in the first
instance to meet or renew acquaintance with a friend of Evelyn Ogilvie Stuart-
Menteth, the older girl. In this casethe second guest was Caroline Corner, who
was supposed to be concerned with psychic things and who had written a little
volume called Beyond the Ken, as thin and invertebrate as she herself proved to
be, wherever, in the first instance, we chanced to meet' (SLY, pp.78, 79). This
ungallant dismissal ofa fellowwriter omits to mention heressay on 'Nuremberg-e-
printed in Willford's AntiquarianMagazine in 1887-which Waite cheerfullypillaged
59 ______DORA AND THE COMING OF LOVE ---......;;".,,;..
this my mind, as it might in hers, without concerning the mind. It was partly as
if an esoteric sense within me was aware in advance of what would fall out in due order at
the right moment. How it stood therefore between Theodora and myself was neither concealed
nor told, that I know of, in respect of Stuart-Menteth: it transpired only (SLY, p. 81).
'How it stood' after would be concealed rather more carefully.
Despite Waite's reticence and fondness for pseudonyms, Dora's identity is
easyto establish, although it is lesseasy, indeed virtually impossible, to answer
with certainty the questions of how, when, and why she came to be a part of
the Stuart-Menteath household. Annie Lakeman-Dora, Theodora, Miranda,
Melusine; whatever Waite chose to call her-was born at Hendon on 21 February
1864, the daughter of a gardener, William Lakeman, and of his wife Sarah, who
was a domestic servant: an unlikely background for the future wife of a scion
of the minor nobility. It is possible that Dora was acting as a governess to the
two younger Stuart-Menteath children who were, in 1886, twelve and fourteen
years of age; but if this was the caseshechose to concealthe fact on her marriage
certificate where no occupation at all is entered. But if there are doubts as to
Dora's occupation there are none at all concerning her father.
William Henry Lakeman was born in 1829, probably in Devon (Waite says
it was a 'Devonshire family'), although his entire adult life was spent in the outer
suburbs of London. From Hendon in the north he moved to Thornton Heath,
on the southern outskirts of the city, where he set up the Queensbury Nursery
about the timeof Dora's marriage. Other nurserymen who knewLakeman believed
him to be a retired clergyman (probably a confusion with Granville Stuart..
Menteath), and remembered the nursery well:
Mr Lakeman was a clergyman, who took up growing Border Carnations, first of all as a hobby,
then later he started showing and worked up quite a good name. Queensbury Nursery was
only two garden plots, with a greenhouse where he rooted his cuttings but he issued a Catalogue
and attended some of the Flower Shows (including Chelsea) where he booked his orders, and
also he used to advertise in the Garden Magazines.
'If not a large concern, Queensbury Nursery was at least a successful one, to the
satisfaction of its proprietor, who was, no doubt, equally satisfied with his
daughter's marriage.
Dora, however, seems to have had little in common with her husband: she
had no interest at all in spiritualism and little enthusiasm for Granville's hobbies
of cycling and photography, but she was enthusiastic about poetry, even to the
extent of admiring Israfel, the publication of which had coincided, more or less,
with her first meeting with Waite. Above all she loved fine clothes and gracious
living, neither of which could be expected from an impecunious poet but which
Stuart-Menteath could supply in abundance. (By the terms of a settlement made
in 1865 at the time ofhis first marriage, and through a subsequentTrust, Granville
three years later for his own brief note on the city in YOung Folks. 1 Towards the
Stuart-Menteaths he was less cavalier.
Granville Stuart-Menteath he remembered as 'a slight, small man with almost
yellowhair and beard, his shy and nervous manner contrasting somewhat with
a fixed assurance over psychical matters.' He recalled also that 'it was not for
months that I learned he was once in Holy Orders and had even a country living,
I think, in the Lake District. But his congenital self-mistrust.made it a misery
to take services and led to sad mistakes, omissions and so forth therein. He was
a widower, with two sons and two daughters, these latter being respectively
eldest and youngest in a family of four' (SLY, p. 79). At the time they met the
Revd Granville Thorold Stuart-Menteath was forty-eight years old (he was born
on 6 June 1838); he had been educated at University College, ?xford,
in 1861 and subsequently appointed Curate of Brent-Pelham In Hertfordshire,
In 1865 he had married Susan Ogilvie Oliver who produced for him his four
children, Evelyn, Charles, Edward andMary, It was presumably after his wife's
death in 1881 that he took up Spiritualism.
Soon after Waite's first visit to the Stuart-Menteath household at Grittleton
Road the weekly private seances began. 'It was', Waite recalled,
the most haphazard gathering that was ever formed on earth for Psychical w.e sat
at a mahogany dining-room table and hoped for something to happen; but nothing did. It
was understood, however, that perseverance over such matters was a virtue that was rewarded
in the end, so Menteth and I whiled away the dark hours with moderate aids to reflection
in whiskey and soda and Old Judge tobacco.
Eventually 'a time came when objects moved in the dark and faint raps were
heard', but theywereclearlyfraudulent, although Waite declinedto identify the
culprit. It mattered little to him, for by this time 'there was another and very
different link which drew me to the Stuart-Menteth household and bound me
to allits ways. This was Miranda-her sacramentaltitle at that time among us-
otherwise, Theodora-then moving in her grace to the threshold of twenty-
one' (SLY, p. 80). .
Waite remained extremely coy about giving any information concernIng Dora,
. although he was happy to wax lyrical over her appearance: 'there was no earthly
loveliness to compare with that of Miranda in her red-gold aureole of waved
hair, flowing down almost to her ankles, and her star-born eyes which heaven:s
grey-blue had glorified-s-for which he may be excused, as 'it was my first talismanic
attraction towards any daughter of woman' (SLY, p. 81). He was, alas, not alone
in his love for her. She was intended for Stuart-Menteath who, as Waite recognized,
would inevitably marry her whatever her own feelings might be:
It was as if a star had spoken in silence, addressing no-one but registering a fact to come, in
the aloof way of some stars. So it was and would be in the sequence of future events. And
Stuart-Menteath receivedthe income from properties in Chelsea, Hounslow, and
Battersea and was able to purchase a cottage atPolruanin Cornwall and Toftrees,
a large. house on the Thames at East Molesey, towhich he moved with Dora
shortly after their marriage.)
But ifmercenaryconsiderations had helped Dora to decidein favour of Stuart-
Menteath, she was to find that his bounty did not extend to a society wedding-s-
rather the opposite. On 29 June 1887,forno other reason thanthatit was the
church nearest to Grittleton Road, the Revd Granville Thorold Stuart- Menteath,
priest of the Church of England, married his Anglican bride at StPeter's Park
Baptist Chapel. It may, of course, have been an early example of practical
ecumenism-e-Stuart-Menteath did, on subsequent occasions,open church bazaars
and distributeSunday-School prizes for the minister, the Revd], Mitchell-Cox-
but convenience seems a more simple, if more cynical, explanation.
Waite was resigned. to the marriage but he could not bring himself to be
present: 'It was seen to on my part that whosoever might be present, at what
function. soever by which the seals were set, 1at least was far away, with the
sounds of the seaand the sounds of the light and the night-time to drown intoning
chants, if chants there happened to be' (SLY, p. 113). In all probability he went
to Worthing to visit a friend who was herself about to be married. He had met
Amy Hogg during the previous summer while staying at Worthing with his
mother. There, through her attendanceat the Roman Catholic church,'mymother
became acquainted with some elderly Anglo-Indians', Mr and Mrs Hogg, who
hada daughter named Mysie, a tall pallidgirl, well-shapenbut with little attraction
in her looks. I had occasional talks with her and found that she had no horizon
beyond that which was proffered and provided by Latin' doctrine and practice.'
There was, however, an elder sisterof lessrestricted viewsand lessconstraining
ways. Amy Hogg 'was living in London and mixing much with authors, artists
and actors. It was understood that she.and I would prove to be kindred spirits,
if chance brought us together as well it might, since she was always a possible
visitor to Worthing and her parents for a few days, or so long as she could stand
the place' (SLY, p. 105). Which was not for long, since she was very much one
of the avant-garde and seenas such by her friends. One of them, Jerome K. Jerome,
recalled that 'she lived by herself in diggings opposite the British Museum,
frequented restaurants and aerated bread shops, and had many men friends: all
ofwhich was considered very shocking in those days' (MyLifeandTimes, p. 115).
When, eventually, she came down to Worthing, Waite took long walks with
her, on which they discussed 'occultism, Spiritism, psychical research and the
rest'. She had little interest in such topics but determined to introduce Waite
to one of her Bohemian friends who was a fellow enthusiast. And so 'it was
from Amy Hogg that I first heard ofArthur Machen, in specialconnection with
her firm resolve that he and I should meet as soon as possible when I returned
to London' (SLY, p. 106). Their meeting, however, was somewhat delayed, for
while Waite was still at Worthing, Machen had gone home to Monmouthshire;
they corresponded before the end of the year but it was not until Machen's return
to London thattheymet 'one dark morning of January 1887 under the great
dome of the Museum'. It was a most happy occasion, the birth of a deep and
enduring friendship: fifty years later Waite recalled that 'we were friends and
great intimates from the beginning' and when Waite died in 1942Machen wrote
of his loss to Oliver Stonor: 'To lose Waite is for me to lose a considerable part
of life.' 4 In the. same letter he described Waite and himself as being 'utterly at
variance on fundamental things, and yet with a strong underlying sympathy'.
They were alike and unlike in almost equal measure.
Arthur Llewellyn jones-Machen was born at Caerleon, Monmouthshire,
on 3 March 1863, the only child of the Revd John jones-Machen, Rector of
Llanddewi. Machenwas alonely, introvertedchildbut hisloneliness, unlike Waite's,
was chosen rather than thrust upon him: he had a settled and secure home life,
his roots laydeep in his native county, and he receiveda sound, rounded education
at Hereford Cathedral School. And yet, just as Waite's hopes of Oxford had
been dashed, so had Machen's, brought to an end by a drastic fall in his father's
income. In 1880 he went to London in a vain attempt to be a medical student,
but failedutterly and returned in the following year to try his hand at journalism.
Then he began to experience the misery of enforced loneliness, exacerbated by
poverty and alleviated only by long explorations of the dreary new suburbs of
West London. While he was wandering through Turnham Green, Gunnersbury,
Willesden, and Harlesden, Waite also 'walked among the lanes of Middlesex'
and 'dreamed in winding tracks which. are now suburban streets' through Mill
Hill, Acton, Hayes, and Perivale. They might almost have passed each other
Gradually Machen adapted, writing for himself, translating and cataloguing
for George Redway the publisher, 5 and punctuating his employment with brief
visits home-his parents were by now too poor for him to stay for long away
from London.. Hebegan to socialize, made friends, and met Amy Hogg, who
in turn brought him to Waite. The friendship was cemented from the start and
celebrated, much in the manner of characters in Machen's fiction, by frequent
visits to taverns and music-halls. 'Do you remember', Machen asked Waite half
a century later, 'how we had beer at the old vanished Bellin Holborn, and went
to seeFaust at the Lyceum?', and further, 'howlong ago we explored Bermondsey,
and how the Bermondsey barmaids, on our calling for gin, would offer us "Two
There was, of course, a more serious side to their friendship. Both men were
deeply immersed in the.literatureof occultism; for Waite it was the raw material
of the critical studies he was beginning to write and the' stuff out of which his
63 ____________ DORA AND THE COMING OF LOVE - - - . ; ; ~ 62
own beliefs were slowlyand painfullytaking on systematicform, while for Machen
compiling catalogues of new and secondhand occult books was asignificant part
of his work for Redway-it also gave him the technical background for his early
fantasticstories. But their two approachesto magic and all other forms of occultism
were quite different. Machen was fascinatedbut condemned it all-he was rooted
firmly in the Church of England and never really deviated from his traditional
Christian Faith-whereas Waite sought a common reality behind both occultism
and the Church. Whatever the specific question at issue they would never be
in agreement, but would always argue overit furiously andjoyously. When writing
to Waite about their disputes over the Holy Grail, Machen reminded him:
Was there not a tacit convention that we should avoid mere argument? If this still stands:
good: if not: have at you for all your opinions as to the Church and the Heresies! From them
all, sofar as I understand them, I wholly and heartily dissent: in the hypothesis of the Holy
Assembly I do not believe: in the Popish Church as the sole custodian of the Faith or Sacraments
I utterly disbelieve! I am ready if necessary to maintain theses on all these points, when and
where you will. 7
At the time of their meeting both men were involved with George Redway,
Waite as an author and Machen aseditor of JlUzlford's Antiquarian, in which capacity
he persuaded Waite to produce essays for the journal, although in a matter of
months it would come to an end. After the demise of the Antiquarian they
continued to work together on Redway's behalf, compiling between them the
seven issues of George Redway's Literary Circular, and when Waite's Handbook
of Cartomancy was published (pseudonymously) in 1889, Machen's delighful
advertising puff, A Chapter from the Book called The Ingenious Gentleman Don
Quijote de la Mancha, was bound up with it. 8 It was at just such brief essays
that Machen excelled; he never enjoyed the labour of writing and marvelled at
Waite's capacity for it. He wrote about Waite's industry in a letter of October
1887, to Harry Spurr, the publisher: 'The High Class Gypsy has been in once
or' twice; I believe, he spends most of his time in that Resort of the Learned
Vagabonds, the BritishMuseum, slogging away at his Lives of the Alchemists;
to be published by us. I fancy it will be a good thing.' 9
But this was after an eventful summer. Dora was married in June and Waite
sent her asa wedding present a copy of A Soul's Comedy inscribed 'To Miranda,
with love from Arthur Edward Waite'; it would be a full year before he could
bring himself to use her married name. In August Machen and Amy Hogg were
married at Worthing, probably with 'Waite in attendance; he did not stay, for
he needed to return to London to set about the business of marriage on his own
Of the two witnesses at Dora's wedding, one was her sister Ada, and it was
to her that Waite now turned. On 7January 1888 'I married the beloved Lucasta
[his pet name for her; it derives from Lovelace, whose poems Waite admired];
and I think that no man in this possible world of ours had a better helpmeet,
rooted in spiritual faith of the simplest and most assured kind' (SLY, p. 114).
Nor a more unlikely and long-suffering 'helpmeet ', Ada Alice Lakeman had all
the plainness that her older sister lacked, and was as reservedasDora was forward.
In Belle and the Dragon she is the Dormouse, 'for there was saidto be no assignable
limit to her capacity for sleeping' (p. 19) and when awake she was of such
'unassailable taciturnity' that 'as she never spoke willingly, and seldom answered
anyoneexcept upon extreme pressure, this silencebecame itself a kind of eloquence'
(p. 20). She also possessed a serene indifference, both to Waite's occult pursuits
and to his poetry (when his anthology of fairypoetry was published in the summer
of 1888, he gave Ada a copy of the pocket edition, reserving the larger and more
sumptuous version for her more appreciative sister). She remains a curiously
nebulous figure, but Waite was undoubtedly fond of Ada, and if high passion
and high romance were alikeabsent from the marriage her inert personality ought
to have led to a life of placid contentment. But there remained Dora.
Whatever Ada's reason for marrying Waite, it was not for his money. Initially
they lived with his mother, 'but as happens, so often with mothers, the best '
included, it proved impossible'. They ,then moved to a home of their own in
Ashmore Road (but not a whole house: 'certain rooms only in the first floor')
and Waite continued to scrapea living asawriter-albeit with little encouragement
from his wife, who was now more concerned with their daughter, Sybil (born
on 22October 1888), although when reporting the birth Ada dutifully recorded
Waite's occupation as that of 'poet'.
As more books and commissioned articles were published and Waite became
involved withjournalism proper, their circumstances improved and they moved
away from furnished rooms, taking a house at Hornsey and then, in 1891,
purchasing Eastlake Lodge, a large semi-detached house in Harvard Road,
Gunnersbury. It was a suitablehome for apoet, being on the edge of the consciously
avant-garde community of Bedford Park; it was also within easy reach of East
!"101esey and the Stuart-Menteaths-which provedjust as well, for early in 1892,
Lucasta and I had fallen desperately ill, with a bout of influenza as it was in those old days,
when the complaint was first generally described by that name. For a whole month we could
scarcelymoveor speak, while Sybil alsowas in bed, with a recurring attack of so-calledcontinued
fever. There is no question that Evelyn Stuart-Menteth saved our three lives, nursing us day
and night, hardly taking off her clothes and sleeping anywhere to insure proximity, because
of our hourly needs (SLY, p. 129).
Evelyn was, in fact, the only practical member of the Stuart-Menteath
household. A somewhat beefy young woman, she was a competent artist who
illustrated three of Waite's books and designed thecovers for a number of others.
65 ______DORA AND THE COMING OF LOVE ........
for the publishers until The Great God Pan in 1894 and The Three Impostors in
the following year. These stories of corrupting evil were a great success with
the avant garde but were attacked by reviewersofthe establishment as unwholesome
and degenerate. Waite received a copy of each book as a matter of course, but
Dora also read and enjoyed The Three Impostors, presumably enjoying the idea
of outlandish and improbable adventures in prosaic London streets. In due course
she, Waite, and Machen would have their own adventures in those same streets;
less improbable adventures, admittedly, but decidedly unconventional.
The prelude to them came in the form of a tragedy. Machen's wife was never
in good health and in 1894 her illness was diagnosed as cancer; she grew steadily
weaker until in the summer of 1899 she died. Machen's grief was not lessened
by its being expected and was so intense that he could never after bring himself
to write directly about Amy's death. Even Waite says ofit only that 'she was "
reconciled to the Latin Church-that of her childhood-before she passed away',
and this to Machen's 'great satisfaction' (SLY, p. 156). Her dying is recorded
more poignantly by Jerome:
The memory lingers with me of the last time I saw his wife. It was a Sunday afternoon. They
were living in Verulam Buildings, Gray's Inn, in rooms on the ground floor. The windows
looked out on to the great quiet garden, andthe rooks were cawing in the elms. She was dying,
and Machen, with two cats under his arm, was moving softly about, waiting on her. We did
not talk much. I stayed there till the sunset filled the room with a strange purple light (My
Life and Times, p. 116).
Machen was supported in hisdereliction by Waite. He had not sought help,
but Waite recognized the need and the coming change in Machen:
Amy was older than her husband by quite a few years, and much as he felt her loss there is
a not unreal sense in which-consciously or unconsciously-it acted as an open entrance to
a new epoch. Another phase of life, almost a new world, was destined to unfold about him.
He had been a man of comparatively few friends and seemed almost to envy me, or at least
to wonder at my ever-widening circle ofacquaintance. They seemed now to pour in upon him,
and by no means solely because he had written the Great God Pan' (SLY, p. 156).
These 'friends' came through Waite, but not until Machen had passed from
a state of shock in the immediate aftermath of Amy's death to a state of dreadful
despair: 'A horror of soul that cannot be uttered descended on me on that dim,
far-off afternoon in Gray's Inn; I was beside myself with dismay and torment;
I could not endure my own being' (Things Near and Far, p. 134). To escape from
this state Machen put his theoretical knowledge of occultism to. practical use,
and after using a 'process' that seems to have been some sort of magical auto-
hypnosis (' I may tell you that the process which suggested itselfwas Hypnotism;
I can say no more' 11), he achieved 'a sort of rapture of life which has no parallel
that I can think of, which has, therefore, no analogies by which it may be made
As with all of Granville's children (including Ludivina, his daughter by Dora)
she remained unmarried and her only memorial is the figure of the Dragon in
Belle and the Dragon, Waite's curious fairytale-a 'ludibrium' he called
the Stuart-Menteath family ('The Ravens of Ravendale') and their doings at
Toftrees. Central to the story is the desire of the heroine Melusine (Dora) to
become a 'great poetess' in the manner of the Mystic (Waite); and what she
achieved in fiction she achieved also in fact. Or so it seemed.
In December 1894 the Pall Mall Gazette described a recently published poem
as 'aworkof real merit and genuine poetical feeling', and The 1ablet, in May
1895, praised the same poem for its 'word-pictures, often ofconsiderable beauty'.
What they were praising was Avalon: apoetic Romance, ostensibly by Dora Stuart-
Menteath butin reality almost entirely written by Waite himself-as might have
been guessed from the tone of other, less precious reviews: the Glasgow Herald
called it 'a high-toned, high-coloured, excessively wordy, and wearily-preachy
performance', while Church Bellssaw only that 'a slender streamlet of poetry
trickles through monotonous sands of superfluousverbiage'. Dora's contribution
to the work cannot be identified as the manuscript is entirely in Waite's hand,
but the prefatory 'Argument' could have been written by no one save Waite. 10
Avalon is the story of an alchemist-representing the earthly man-who seeks
the elixir of life and dies in the quest, while his daughter-who stands for the
Soul-follows her successful quest of Spiritual Love. From Waite's 'Argument'
it is also obvious ('clear' would be a quite inappropriate word) that the heroine,
Angela, is also Dora:
She is also the higher womanhood in search of the higher manhood, typified by Arthur. Arthur
in one aspect represents the archetypal man, the divine pattern from which the race has defected,
and in this sense he is not wounded, but in another he is the inner greatness ofhumanity which
is wounded by the imperfection of mankind. Under either aspect he is now withdrawn and
unmanifest, abiding in restful, spritual Avalon, the world of the within. 'the love of Angela
for the hidden King is the desire of Psyche after Pneuma. The Holy Grail is the divine principle
of healing, by which man is made whole. And this can be love alone, is love spiritualised,
elevated, and directed to perfection. So is the gift sought without by Angela in reality to be
found within, whence she attains it in vision only, or otherwise in the inner world. And the
true manhood, the archetype, the divine pattern is within also, and so Arthur is likewise reached
in vision (pp.. vi-vii).
Allconcerned knew that the poem was not Dora's but Waite maintained the
public deception and only once, in 1931 when he thought of reprinting it, did
he refer to it in his diary, and then as 'the old concealed poem'." With the poem
in print .Dora was, for the moment, content.
And during these years Machen, too was content. Happily married to Amy
and lifted from poverty by legacies from his. Scottish. relatives, he could write
in earnest-much for the journals, including Waite's Unknown World, but little
more plain' (Things Near and Far, p. 137).
Perhaps he found the 'process' in Waite's Book ofBlack Magic of 1898, for
Waite might. almost have had Machen in mind when he wrote:
It would, however, be unsafe to affirm that all persons making use of the ceremonies in the
Rituals would fail to obtain results. Perhaps in the majority of cases most of such experiments
made in the past were attended with results of a kind. To enter the path of hallucination is
likely to insure hallucination, and in the presence of hypnotic and clairvoyant facts it would
be absurd to suppose that the seering processes of Ancient Magic-which are many-did not
produce seership, or that the auto-hypnotic state which much magical ritual would obviously
tend to occasion in predisposed persons did not frequently induce it, and not always only in
the predisposed. To this extent some of the processes are practical, and to this extent they are
dangerous (p. vii).
The danger in Machen's case he fully recognized and averted it by steering him
into the relatively harmless waters of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn.
The story of the Golden Dawn is reservedfor a later chapter and here it is enough
to recount Machen's reaction to it.
He was initiated into the Order, as Frater Avallaunius, on 21 November
1899-the last member to havehad the original form of the Order's 'Obligation'
administered to him-and progressed to the Grade ofPracticus, at which point
he stopped. Nothing within .the Order seemed of value to him and he found
that it 'shed no ray of any kind on my path', but Waite had done his work well:
Machen had pulled back from the destructive path of Black Magic and would
soon leave all of occultism for a new career on the stage.
He had also met within the confines of the Golden Dawn 'a dark young
man, of quiet and retiring aspect, who wore glasses' and who told him 'a queer
tale of the manner in which his life was in daily jeopardy' (Things Near and Far,
p. 148): a living counterpart, to all intents, of the Young Man in Spectacles who
figures so prominently in TheThree Impostors. But eventhis extraordinary parallel
between his real and his imaginary worlds faded from memory. In 1942, in his
last letter to Waite, he remarked, apropos of the 'dark young man', 'I have no
notion of whether he be alive or dead. I have forgotten his very name.' As it
happened, the Young Man in Spectacles had died in 193'9: his name was W. B. Yeats.
----_8 _
MACHEN'S sojourn in the Golden Dawn lasted no more than twelve months
and came to an end shortly before January 1901, when he exchanged theatrical
rituals for the Theatre and began his eight-year associationwith the Shakespearean
repertory company of the distinguished actor-manager F. R. Benson, to whom
he had been introduced by Christopher Wilson, the company's musical director."
Almost immediately he discovered that magic was not so easily left behind, for
he was calledupon to provide a conjuration for one of the company's productions
at Stratford. He appealed for help to Waite, who promptly obliged by compiling
a 'Conjuration to be used in Theatres' of some one hundred words of Latin
gibberish-although he had no idea for which play it was required (in fact, Henry
VI, Part 2). Waite noted in his diary (11 April 1901) that 'Bensonian magic is
preposterous, for the operator iscaused, despite all precedent &ignoring all dangers
to stand outside the circle. Plrater] Avallanius burning to have the Black Art
performed satisfactorilyhas set himself to remedy the mischief of all this ignorance,
and hence this request.' He added, complacently, that his own conjuration 'has
the merit of being much wickeder than the Grimoires, for Black Magic, as I
have already shown, is not nearly so black as it is painted'.
It is doubtful if Machen spoke the conjuration himself in 1901 as he is not
known to have played the part of Bolingbroke the Conjuror until he took it
up a ~ his final role before leaving the Benson Company in 1909. At that time,
he told Oliver Stonor in 1932, 'I wrote three or four pagesof high class incantation,
with matters not generally known contained therein'. If he had kept Waite's
conjuration it was, no doubt, included.
Machen did not tour with Benson all year and every year; he often played
in smaller companies in and around London, so that Waite, who was nowworking
in the City, sawhim frequently. They met usually at the Cafe de I'Europe, where
. they drank in the company of Christopher Wilson, The Shepherdess (Vivienne
Pierpont, the actress), and others ofMachen's Bohemian friends, some ofwhom
had been enrolled by him into the 'Rabelaisian Order of Tosspots'. This curious
society had been created by Machen at Stratford in April 1901 (under the Welsh
name of 'Sasiwn CurwDda') with the rather unnecessary aim of encouraging
his fellow Bensonians to drink. It was not restricted to actors-although only
founding members could assume the title of Lords Maltworm
-and Machen
was anxious for Waite to join; so much so that Waite was made a member a
mere two days after first hearing of the Order. On 6 October 1902 he was given
the official name of Master Basil, the honorary title of Lord Tosspot, and the
role of archivistof the Order; as befitted a drinking society the minutes he kept
were both scrappy and all but illegible.
In addition to the 'Rules and Reasons' of his Rabelaisian Order, Machen
had devised a ritual for what he termed 'Hermetic Marriage!-a disreputableparody
of the marriage service that he reserved for the amusement of his more intimate
friends: Waite, the Shepherdess, Christopher Wilson, and an unidentified actress
whom they called 'the Page Bertholde'. Waite says that the Hermetic Marriages
'took placeincontinently with no banns or preaching, and independent of the
consent or knowledge of the parties', and he told Machen that his 'Rite of Hermetic
Marriage was a Rite of Belial, at which he made much ado' (Diary, 13and 17
OctoberJ902). All this was said, ofcourse, with his tongue in his cheek-where
it presumably remained when he transcribed the ritual andadded his own
'The Hermetic Ritual of Frater Avallaunius' 3 seems to have been a series
of Latin versicles and responses, accompanied by much drinking; but Waite's
manuscript isillegible to such a degree that it is difficult to decipher the verses,
although his comments, giving parallels fromKabbalistic sources, can be read.
'The use of the chalice', he says, 'belongs to a reconditeorder ofinfemal symbolism.
It is not merely the affirmation of two principles in the Atziluth world but in
a veiled yet discernible .manner it propounds the frightfuldoctrine that the
masculine principle emanates from the good principle and the feminine from
the evil principle. It is in fact, the occult theory of monosexualism based on a
blasphemous distortion ofthe sacred text.'
Succeedingverses involvefurther distortions and blasphemies-not, however,
to. be taken seriously. He sums up the Rite in this way:
The rite puts asunder what God hasjoinedtogether. It then unites them in a bond of defiance
to the command that they should fill the Earth. It takes the male from the female and the
female from the male and then promises a spiritual union between the female parts with the
suggestion or the inference that there is a more fruitful union still possible between their male
If the words had been translated into literal deeds it would havebeenan extremely
curious rite.
Machen and Waite, however, were both very much concerned with female
partners. Long before. the advent. of Machen's 'Hermetic Marriage!...-probably
in 1900-Waite had introduced Dora to Vivienne Pierpont and persuaded her
to join them for their drinking evenings at the Cafe de I'Europe. Dora was far
from unwilling to escape from Molesey and the ageing Granville and the four
setout to enjoy themselves. How they did so is told in a highlycryptic fashion
in TheHouse ofthe Hidden Light, an extraordinary book writtenjointly by Machen
and Waite.
No work of either author hasbeen the subject of somuch eccentricspeculation
and ill-informed comment as has this one, largely because very few people have
everbeen ableto seeit. Only three copieswere printed (of which two only, together
with a set of corrected proofs, have survived): one each for Machen and Waite
and one for Philip Wellby,.Waite's friend and publisher. Of those few who have
seen the book, Adrian Goldstone and WesleySweetser, Machen's bibliographers,
believedit to havebeen issued for members of the Golden Dawn-as did Gerald
Yorke, who owned the copy they saw, and W. R. Semken, a friend of Waite's
who had read Waite's copy. They were all mistaken, but not to the extent of
IthellColquhoun, who gave a long, ignorantly learned analysis of the book in
Sword of Wisdom, her biography of S. L. McGregor Mathers. In the course of
this analysisshe argued that the names in the book were applied to officesrather
than to individuals and concluded that the text concerned, in part, 'sexual congress
with praeternatural beings' (p. 288). An entertaining point of view, no doubt,
but far from the truth. Speculation on what Miss Colquhoun would have made
of Machen's 'Hermetic Ritual' gives one considerable pause for thought.
The text of the House of the Hidden Lightis in the form of thirty-five letters
between Filius Aquarum (Machen) and Elias Artista (Waite), preceded by 'The
Pastoral' (Waite'Sintroduction), and two analyses of the letters, 'The Aphorisms
and Maxims of the Secret Mystery' and 'The Versicles and Responses of the Secret
Order'. The letters are all headed with fantastic, allegorical addresses-afrom a
Valley of the Shadow', 'From the Passes of the East', 'Under a New Star in
Serpentarius-e-and the whole work is written in a mock-antiquated style,
deliberately and misleadingly verbose. It is yet possible, by a conscious and
considerable effort of will, to penetrate to the meaning of the book as it is Set
out in 'The Pastoral':
Wherefore two brothers, hereby and herein, having been advanced, by a glorious and singular
dispensation, a certain distance through the degrees of a true experience, have,with deep affection
and humility, assumed an office of admonishment, firstly, one to another, and afterwards, by
reason of the great, increasing urgency, to such of the great concourse of the elect as in this
present have been born out of due time with the ears to hear. And hence it is that there is
undertaken in the manner hereafter following such a declaration of the Light as has seemed
possible,opportune, needful and making for salvationto many. Yet, being pledged to one another
andto the Greater Masters, that they should not speak openly, because such gifts are to other
some unseasonable, they have written after the manner of the Philosphers with a prudent
affectation of the letter, so that these things are to be understood only by the appeal to a second
sense, which, for the increase of facility, has been made to interpenetrate rather than underlie
the outward meaning (pp. 9-10).
It is then explained that 'two poor brothers of the spirit [Waite and Machen]
conceived between them the ambition to get on in the world by a right ordering
of the mind in respect ofthe real interests and true objects oflife. They excogitated
these schemes in such taverns by the way as were to them open, and it was given
them in due time to see that the path of their advancement towards such success
as would include them among the men who have risen, lay chiefly in seeing
the Dawn; which duty became henceforth a matter of daily practice ...' (p. 11).
'After such fashion then began the AnnusMirabilis or great year of sorcery,
full of rites and questings'.
And then there were the ladies.
. At this time also there were given unto them two sisters, daughters of the House of Life, for
high priestesses and ministers ... These were children of the elements, queens of fire and water,
full ofinward magic and ofoutward witchery, full of music and song, radiant with the illusions
of Light. By them the two brothers were served and refected so long as they were proselytes
of the gate, postulants at the door' of the temple, dwellers on the threshold, waiting to be
passed, raised, exalted, installed and enthroned. And the two brothers proceeded through many
sub-grades of the Secret Order of the Dawn, the purgations and perlustrations of magic, till
the Annus Mirabilis ended (pp. 12-13).
But what followed was the removal of the sisters and the two 'poor brothers'
were obliged to fall back upon their own company and to console themselves
with drink, 'the mysteries and symbols of the Secret Order'.
Not that any of it is put so plainly. Only the authors' closest friends knew
that 'Soror Benedicta in Aqua' was Dora Stuart-Menteath, and that 'Soror Ignis
Ardens' (or 'Ignis ex Igne')---!whom we have called Lilith because she is a "soft,
sweet woman" !.-was Vivienne Pierpont. And even those close friends would
not have recognized the ambiguity of Waite's reverie in Letter XIII:
Old are those legends of the soul, gone is that early minister, received into the great silence
and reserved therein until the day when the Sponsus and Sponsa shall meet in the King's chamber,
in the secret palace of the King, when I also shall kiss the one mouth which I have desired
since the daysof my baptism in the cool waters of the kingdom, even the kingdomoflove (p. 82).
Nonetheless, it is Dora who is the central character in the letters-e-Machen's
as well as Waite's. The first letter of the series, written by Machen, is from 'A
Tarrying Place of the Fraternity' (in fact, Gambino's in Rupert Street), and it
sets the tone of all those that follow: 'I announce to you that on Monday next
I shall solemnly perform and exhibit the Veritable, Ancient, and Rectified Rite
of [Lilith] which is called [lamed] in the Great Book of Avalon. Be, therefore,
present without failbetween nones and vespers, that then we may partake together


of these singular mysteries'(p. 33). Machen ends the letter by urging Waite to
bring Dora with him: 'I look forward to this coming Dies Dominica, and trust
that you will command the Lady of the Waters to attend, that she may put on
with us new vestments' (p. 36).
Much of the text is repetitious and tedious for the outsider, but it provides
insights into Waite's state of mind at the time. This 'Secret Order' was evidently
more important than the Golden Dawn: 'Let us confess that there was nothing
in the grades and rituals of the old order, by which we were exalted during that
Annus Mirabilis, that could be called a greater rite than our Soror Ignis Ardens
has but now administered' (p. 75). Elsewhere he reflects gloomily that 'There
is also some letting and hindering which forbids us to visit the Waste House
amidst the waters, where dwells the Lady of the Water' (p. 55), while Machen
hopes 'that to you the Benedicta of years past may return, but crowned with
a most heavenly sweetness' (p. 110). But Waite knows that the adventures with
Dora and the Shepherdess cannot last and must come to an inevitable end:
Meanwhile, this is the passing of Lilith and of the Lady of the Water. The Soror Gloriosa in
Igne has taken her way into the South under a golden canopy ... The Soror Benedicta inAqua
has gone into the West, far over fords and marshes, and the great mists conceal her. She has
heard the voices of the sea. It has come to pass, even as I foretold, for we are called above the
region of the elements, where these children cannot follow us (pp. 166-7).
At the end of this letter, number XXXIII, is an illuminating footnote: 'At this
point it must be understood that certain records were destroyed.' Evidently caution
was required.
Waite was not always so discreet about his relations with Dora. In a letter
of 1936 Machen reminded him of one embarrassing occasion:
'All so good together-e-I remember your comment on that text, 'Does she mean that time
when we sat up all night drinking port, with Menteth locked in his bedroom, till at 8 o'clock
in the morning, the housemaid came into the room, just as she fell on my neck and I said
'You drunken little cat!' 4
And Philip Wellby talked too freely when, as was too often the case, he was
in his cups: 'The sister Melusine is quarrelling with me because of the scandals
and fooling and gabbling of my unfortunate Philip. Philip drunk or Philip sober-it
is difficult to say which of these is the greater calamity' (Diary, 29 November
1902). Waite also suspected that WeBby knew altogether too much, and noted
some weeks later: 'My Philip has been drawing a suspect trail over some ofmy
secret ways' (Diary, 21 December 1902). But his secret ways were already in the
past, for whatever took place between Waite and Dora it came to an end in August
that year.
In 1928 a young friend ofMachen's, Colin Summerford, sent him an account
of a visit he had made to the Stuart-Menteaths at East Molesey; in his reply Machen
explained that, for Waite, 'the Rite of Molesey was voided, the sanctuary stripped
and bare, the lamps extinguished, and the Relics taken away into a deep
concealment'. All of which had happened on 9 August 1902, when,
itis related, with due veils and concealments, that on the morning of the Coronation of our
Sovereign Lord, King Edward of happy memory, seventh of that name since the Conquest,
Mrs Menteith came out of Gray's Inn at about eight of the morning, and was seen to get into
a four wheeler. And, indeed, (xaLOa xet) it is declared by Waite that shenever got out of it;
that a mere simulacrum and appearance arrived at Molesey; that the word was lost; and that
a mere substituted word took its place.
'But', he added, 'these are sacred matters.' There was no more to be said.
Waite and Dora still met and there were regular familyChristmases at Polruan,
but both the AnnusMirabilis(which ended in 1901) and its aftermath were over.
Their relationship, while always affectionate, was now more practical, for Waite
was a trustee of the leamington Trust-which provided the Stuart-Menteath
income-and he dealt with the financial affairs that neither Dora nor the hopelessly
impractical Granville could manage. After Waite moved to Ramsgate in 1920
there were fewer visits to East Molesey; in October 1925he spent a day at Toftrees
for the first time in five years: 'Dora is withered', he noted in his diary, 'but
she is still Dora.'
The letters that built up into The House of the Hidden Light were written
in 1902but referred to events of the previous year, with occasional references
to more recent episodes. Waite began to edit them in January 1903, Machen
having 'surrendered to me all the editing with power .to cancel all passages in
his own letters which are too intimate in character' (Diary, 5 January 1903).
It was not an easytask, for at least one letter was missing and had to be 'invented'.
To Waite's surprise Machen made no objection, indeed 'it may seem impossible,
but he proposed that I should forge it, the power having passed away from him;
and to have it at all, it may well be that I shall be brought to this pass' (Diary,
30 January 1903). The letter was .duly forged and with the work 'now ready
for the press' Waite took it to Wellby, who was anxious to see the book before
it was taken elsewhere ('but', wrote Waite, 'I doubt if there is an elsewhere'),
and once he had seen the manuscript he was eager 'to publish itwith the full
consciousness that it would be a signal commercial failure' (Diary, 18March 1903).
It was, of course, commercially impossible and there was the added
complication that Wellby recognized Dora-much to her distress and Waite's
annoyance--in the character of 'Soror Benedicta in Aqua'. Eventually in 1904
the book was printed in an edition limited to three copies; an expensive conceit,
but fully justified as far as Waite and Machen were concerned because of the
glorious natureof the AnnusMirabilis-and because Philip WeBby'was footing
the bill.
After Dora, Waite contented himself with morerespectable revels among
Machen's 'Tosspots' and other Bohemians. In November 1902 David Gow, whom
hehad known for twentyyearsboth asapoet and asanardent spiritualist, introduced
him to the Pen and Pencil Club, which met at the Napier Tavern in Holborn.
Waite was struck by its similarity to the Rabelaisian Order of Tosspots: both
had elaborate mock-serious rules and regulations, and both existed primarily to
enable their members to drink incongenial company. At the Pen and Pencil Club,
however, eachmember was required to write, draw, or compose something relevant
to a chosen theme. Waite produced indifferent verses which were applauded,
but he found the meeting far from convivial: 'For a long time we strained and
smoked and looked one at another amidst achingspells of long silence broken
by monosyllabic utterances and some freezing attempts at jocularity'. It was,
at best, 'a dull evening with hot drinks which served to galvanise corpses' (Diary,
20November 1902) but not to encourage frequent visits, and Waite's attendance
at the Club was irregular. On one occasion he was surprised to find that a group
of the members had all been asked-by different editors to reviewhis translation
of Obermann; they discussed the book and in due course the reviews appeared.
Allwere favourable. 'And these', remarked Waite, 'are the mysteriesof reviewing.' 6
Bored with the Penand PencilClub hejoined Machen increating 'The Sodality
of the Shadows', which Stjohn Adcock described as 'another unorthodox little
club-a club of a dozen or so young writers who met periodically in a wine
cellar in Queen Street, Cheapside, the vintner himself being a poet of no mean
quality; an exclusive little club to which a new member was only admitted
after he had subscribed to an elaborate, grotesquely solemn ritual which was
prepared by Arthur Edward Waite' (The Glory that was, Grub Street, p. 218).
When it was formed he does not say(nor does Waite), but it was still flourishing
in 1910.
In addition to the ritual, Waite was also responsible for 'The Laws of the
Sodality', from which it is quite clear that it was not a club for the sober: 'The
object' of the Order is the Quest after the Drink which never was on land or
sea', but 'It pursues this Quest by means of casual substitutes' (Laws XVIII and
XIX). To ensure inebriety Law'XXX stated that 'At ordinary meetings of the
Sodality a General confession of Thirst shall be recited, and this invariably', while
Law XXIXinformed members that 'The Falling Sign is the lapse of any Member
under the table, as to which: Absitomen.' Nor was the Sodality confined to men,
for 'The Brothers of the Sodality are known generally as the People of the Shadow
and their Sisterswho are latent in the secret bosom of the Order are the Daughters
of Night.'
The ritual was in twenty-two stages, following the letters of the Hebrew
alphabet, and involved the ceremonial filling of a wine glass which was then
'sent round' the m e ~ b e r s while the 'Secret Maxims of the Order' were recited:
1. Scriptum est: The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak: hence
2. Traditum est: Man in all ages has recognized bya keen instinct that his
relations with the external universe are not of sufficient importance to
encourage that total abstinence which maintains them in their natural
3. Recordatus: Sobriety is the least interesting of the virtues, but it is excellent
as an antecedent of drinking.
4. Memento, Fratres: As regards the foundation of drink, which is said to
be laid in alcohol, it is not so much the potation which is fatal as the
vulgarity which surrounds it.
5. Audivimus: The black list is local and temporal, but inebriety is eternal.
6. Et nos He who confessesto true thirst asks for the waters of life.
7. ill autem: The highest maxim of all is to drink freely, but the wise man
avoids the Waters of Marah.
St John Adcock had presumably listened to these awesome maxims, but who
'were the other 'People of the Shadow' remains unknown.
- Machen also had settled down, for after the AnnusMirabilis he had met and,
in June 1903, married DorothyPurefoy Hudleston. He told Waite about her,
in a somewhat guarded manner, shortly before Christmas of 1902, but they did
not meet until the following March. Waite found Purefoy to be 'Pleasant and
nice, She drinks absinthe, smokes when she dares, has no conventions and requires
none, takes no exception to the qualifications of Bohemian language, is something
of an actress, and wishes [to be] a gentlewoman.' He added that 'I have great
h-opes for her, although she loves not the Latin tongue' (Diary, 14March 1903).
Waite did not attend the wedding but was a frequent visitor to the Machens'
home at 5 Cosway Street, St Marylebone. He and Machen argued as fiercely
as ever over the Holy Grail and all the other subjects that delighted them; but
the Grail was important enough to both of them for willing co-operation, not
only over Waite's critical study, The Hidden Church of the HolyGraal (for which
Machen suppliedthe material on the Celtic Church), but alsoovera Grail Romance.
The verse drama 'The Hidden Sacrament of the Holy Graal' was printed
in Waite's Strange Houses of Sleep (1906) with a cryptic prefatory note:
The initial design of this Mystery Playis referable to a friend and fellow-worker in the mysteries,
who, for the present, remains anonymous. The collaboration also embraces a portion of the
text, but outside the archaic touch which is occasionally common to each, it is.thought that
the respective shares will be readily allocated to their proper writers in the virtue of a certain
distinction of style (p. 140).
The 'friend andfellow-worker' was, of course, Machen who, in addition to the
interpolated drinking-songs, provided the detailed stage directions that would
havedefeated Waite. He also tried to persuade Frank Benson to produce the play,
as he told Waite in a letter:
Also find herewith a brief acknowledgment from Benson. I shall be curious to learn what
he proposes to make of our masterpiece. You see he calls it my play: of course I told him that
it was our joint labour. In any case, I feel certain that he will not give an order to his wardrobe
master for the making of seven dalmatics of red silk-to say nothing of a set of red episcopal
vestments. It would be possible of course to dress the seven as Eastern Deacons-albs and red
stoles-but I should prefer dalmatics (20 September 1904).
It would have been a startling departure for a Shakespearean company.
Their lives,by 1908, were beginning to separate. Machen took up journalism
and Fleet Street just as Waite was leaving the City and settling down again to
the precarious life of an author. He was also increasingly preoccupied with his
'Independent and Rectified Rite' of the Golden Dawn (of which both Machen
and Purefoy, albeit briefly, had been members) and was suffering from the gradual
onset of a staid middle age. But they were friends always and could still find
time to argue by post and to drink together when they met, even if it was not
always for the best-as Machen reminded Waite in 1941:
Many long years ago, asyou sat at your board in Ealing, I remember your filling a small glass-
a 'pony' glass I think they called it-with whiskey in its purity, which you thereupon drank.
You considered the matter judicially for a short while, and then gave sentence: 'This does me
no good, Machen' (letter, 17 September 1941).
When mixed with argument it was even worse, as' on the 'glorious occasion'
described by Machen's son, Hilary, when 'overcome by some knotty point in
the Kabbalah, he [Waite] sat in the fireplace-fortunately it was summer-and
Purefoy my mother said "Get up, you old fool: you're drunk'" 7 Joyous for
quite different reasons, it was like that 'GrandeTrouvaille' in Pentonville: 'an
But it would be quite wrong to see Waite as a libertine and carouser; he
enjoyed the company of Machen and his Bohemian friends, but he never allowed
his indulgences to control him. It would have been singularly inappropriate if
he had, for as the AnnusMirabilis opened he was settling in to the post of manager
forJames Horlick, the manufacturer of that most innocuous of drinks, malted milk.
'Do anything rather than attempt to live by literature', Browning had urged Waite
in 1876, but it was not easy for an eager young poet to follow such sober advice,
and it became doubly difficult after 1878 when he reached the age of twenty-one
and was admitted to the Reading Room of the British Museum Library. There,
for five years-except forinterludes bythe sea-Waitebusiedhimselfwith alchemy,
theology, magic(inthe guiseof EliphasLevi), mythology.astronomy, andpoetry;
reading, annotating, and dreaming. But while the Reading Room gave him the
.appearance of a polymath it did not give him an income. He could not live for
ever on dwindling legacies and on the goodwill of his mother, and as there was
no 'anything' to which he could turn his hand, writing for pleasure must needs
become writing for profit. ,
Waite's first foray into commercial journalism was a short piece on Some
Sacred Trees, published in Chambers' Journal for August 1884, but that was
anonymous and his first signed article did not appear until the following December
when TheGentleman's Magazine printed his highly professional essay on Richard
Lovelace, the cavalier poet (an essay, it may be noted, that was utilized in 1930
by C. H.. Wilkinson for his Introduction to the standard Oxford edition of
Lovelace's poems). There were other essays for w,ung Folks'Paper, but writing
for the journals produced little by way of income. Something more substantial
was needed-there must be books, but not poetry; for they must also be books
for which the author would be paid, rather than be obliged to pay the publisher
One book .was already in progress by 1884: an anthology, in English, of
Eliphas Levi, the French occultist whose works had fascinated Waite since he
first discovered them some three years before. Levi had also been a source of
inspiration for Madame Blavatsky, and there was thus a potential market for such
an anthology amongthe growing number of English Theosophists, with whom
Waite was already at home-: He was by this time a regular, ifuncommitted, visitor
to the London Lodge of the Theosophical Society where he became friendly with
the vice-president,A. P. Sinnett," the former editor of the Allahabad Pioneer.
______________ 'NOT VERSE NOW,ONLY PROSE' 77
Sinnett had returned from India. in 1883 after losing his post because of his
intemperate promotion of the Theosophical cause in the columns of his newspaper.
By 1885, however, disenchantment with the Theosophical Society,arising from
the extremely hostile Hodgson Report of the Society for Psychical Research,
had led to a decline in both numbers andfrequency of meetings in the London
Lodge, 'and the venue was changed from Queen 'Anne's Mansions to a room
at No. 15, York Street, Covent Garden. This was above the shop and offices
of George Redway, 'a publisher in a small way ofbusiness whom I [Sinnettj-e-at
that time in possession of means-subsidised with a view of stimulating his
attention to publications ofa theosophical character' (Sinnett, The Early Days
ofTheosophy inEurope, p.82). Redway had commenced publishing in 1883, having
previously worked for the old firm ofRivingtons and the newer house oVizetelly,
and maintained a miscellaneous list before Sinnett's money encouraged him to
specialize in books dealing with the occult. These he also sold through his parallel
occupation of secondhand bookseller, and when the young Arthur Machencame
to work for him in 1885 his first task was to compile a 48-page catalogue of
TheLiterature ofArchaeology and the Occult (Machen worked at the catalogue in
a garret over Vizetelly'spremises in Catherine Street). .
As the translation ofLevi-e-a 'digest' rather than an anthology-took shape
Waite discussed it with Sinnett, who suggested Redway as a publisher and
encouraged Waite to approach him:
I must have prepared a synopsis after some manner and interviewed my publisher to come,
with such results that I carried away from a second visit a very formal
sealed and delivered. It was taken forthwith to Somerset House and there was duly stamped.
I can remember to this day the satisfaction with which it was borne through the Strand and
Fleet Street. I had been admitted in authentic wise among the Company of Letters-a child
at heart, a childalso in experience, but with hopes that knew no bounds (SLT, p. 97).
Waite remembered this as happening in 1885, but, in this he was mistaken, for
The Mysteries ofMagic was not published until December 1886 and the introductory
'critical and biographical essay' could not have been written more than afew
months earlier, for as an unkind reviewer noted, 'The Theosophist for January
1886 seems to have furnished most of the material for the biographical part'. 3
Nonetheless, the book was a modest success and was followed first by A
Soul's Comedy and then by Waite's first full-length book on the occult, TheReal
History of the Rosicrucians. This had been inspired by Hargrave Jennings's The
Rosicrucians, their Ritesand Mysteries, a worthless book Waite had already
attacked, in Walford's Antiquarian Magazine, in an article and ina savage review
of a newly issued 'third edition'. His own study was historical, objective, and
generally sound, although occultists resented it because 'Mr Waite's new book
will be welcomed by that large classof readers who regard occultism, alchemy,
and all ~ k e studies with antagonism and suspicion'. (In this assumption they
were quite correct; the reviewer in Nature praisedit precisely becauseit was 'free
fromallattemptsat thedistortionof facts to dovetail with apreconceived theory'.4)
The principalfault of the book liesin the clear signsof hasty writing. Waite .
was wellawareof this: 'Later on I wished often enough that it could havebeen
held back for a period; but Redway was in a great hurry, and it was sent bit
bybit to the printer and set as I wrote it, without a rough copy and with only
myoId notes to guide me on the path that I was travelling. "The artist might
have takenmorepains", saidtheclementSaturday Review, alluding to anunfortunate
confusionbetween Eirenaeus and EugeniusPhilalethes. Assuredlyhe might have
done it throughout, had he stood a reasonable chance' (SLY, p. 102).
Hurried Redway might have been,but he knew what the public wanted
and it was he who, at the last minute, altered the title: 'on the eve almost of
publication my simplyand soberlyentitled History ofthe Rosicrucians-as the left
headlinesm a k ~ evident-was changed on the title-page to the RealHistory, too
late for any protest on my own part' (SLY, p. 101). But not too late for protest
by others. Both the title and the cover design (a deliberate copy of that used
on earlier editions of Jennings's work) were intended to set the book against
TheRosicrucians their RitesandMysteries-devices that enragedHargraveJennings,
who had expected better fromthe publisherof hisown book on Phallicism. When
he ne.x
met Redway, in Pall Mall, he shrieked at him, 'Et tu, Brute!' Perhaps
he gamedsomebelatedsatisfaction froma note in Light(16 February1889) which
recordedthat in fifteenmonths only 720copiesof the RealHistory hadbeen sold.
Other books followed. In 1888 RedwayissuedWaite's expandededition of
theLives ofAlchemysticalPhilosophers (it hadfirst appeared in 1815), andhiscollection
of The Magical Writings of Thomas Vaughan, following these in 1889 with the
pseudonymous(andworthless)Handbook ofCartomancy by 'Grand Orient'. This
was a reworking of an American fortune-telling manual of 1865-Future Fate
ftretold by the Stars-supplemented by material from other popular books on
divination that Waite found among Redway's secondhandstock. Latereditions
of the Handbook-renamed TheManual ofCartomancy-are greatly enlargedand
far more portentous; but in everyedition Waite wisely refrainedfrom placing
his name on the title-page.
During 1889 he alsotook up what hecalled 'my first excursion injournalism
properly socalled': a four-month stint at writing The Course ofEvents, a regular
social andpolitical gossip-column of home newsfor TheCiviland Military Gazette
of Lahore. This was usually undertaken by A. P, Sinnett as part of his duties
as manager of the joint London office of the Gazette and the Pioneer, but for
that summer he was absent from London and Waite volunteered to write the
column on hisbehalf. 'I have', he later remarked, 'dark recollections of its burden.'
The burden, moreover, was about to be increased.
Sinnett was always willing to put money into new publishing ventures, and
in 1884 he had helped Horatio Bottomley
-then at a very early stage of his
career asa financial adventurer-to establish TheDebator, ajournal which recorded
the proceedings of 'local parliaments' (debating societies modelled on the
procedures of the House of Commons). This was followed in 1885 by the.
'Catherine Street Publishing Association', an amalgamation of Bottomley's
publishingconcernwith anumber of printersin CatherineStreet. Sinnett became
a director, brought in the publisher Kegan Paul, and in 1889 took the first 'step
towards Bottomley's grandiosedesign of a vast printing and publishing empire
by absorbing Redway. Bottomley succeeded in outbidding William Heinemann
for the firm of Triibner & Co., whose oriental list was highly lucrative, and the
enlarged Association tendered for-and secured-the contract for printing
Hansard's Parliamentary Debates.
The immediate outcome of all this was the formation of the Hansard
PublishingUnion Ltd., avastconsortium that aimedto combineunder one head
every operation of the publishing world from paper-making and printing to
publishing and distribution. The initial share capitalof 500,000 was over..
subscribedand for a time the companyflourished, but when a secondshare issue
of half a million pounds was launched within a year, rumours of Bottomley's
financial deviousness were already circulating and little of it was takenup. Worse
problemswere to follow. ADebenture Corporation received none of the interest
on the 250,000 of capital it had underwritten and promptly put in a Receiver;
Bottomleyhimselffiled apetitionforbankruptcyinMay1891, andsoonafterwards
he was indicted, with his fellowdirectors, on charges of fraud. But all of this
was in the undreamed future when Redway ceased to be Redway and Waite
found himself at a loose end. And just as Sinnett had taken away his publisher,
so Sinnett now hauled him out .of the pit of enforced idleness.
Among thejournals published by the CatherineStreetPublishing Association
was TheBritish Mail, a monthly that professed to be a 'Journal of the Chambers
of Commerce of the United Kingdom' but was also, in February 1889, without
an editor. To Waite's great astonishment, Sinnett offered him the post. That
Waite knew nothing of journalism seemednot to matter, for when he pointed
this out Sinnett told him that: 'the responsibilities were light enough as the
periodical appropriated without acknowledgement anything that came its way.
The issues were simply made up by borrowing from current printed sources's-
something that would not be expected to bother the putative author of The
Handbook ofCartomancy, andasit turned out, 'the practice wasevidently condoned
on all sides, for during the two and a half years that I produced the honourable
organ no word of reproachor accusation ever reached me, though abaker's dozen
of copyright actions might have ariseneverymonth. The Offices of the British
Mail were in Catherine Street, Strand, and so far asjournalism was concerned
There began forthwith to be open vision and prophecies on his part of radiant days to come.
The Hansard Union had crashed terribly, Elliott had nothing on hand, and if things were narrow
with me they must have approached desperation' in his case.. He' resolved at once to become
an occult publisher, beginning with the already famous Lexicon. By hook or by crook he would
see Lord Stafford; and my part in the business was (1) to raise a mortgage on Eastlake Lodge,
for there must be money to start with and an office to give him a local habitation, from which
letters could be written and expected business transacted; (2) to be prepared and' to provide
whatever was needed, for translating, editing and producing alchemical texts (SLT, p. 130).
The mortgage-of 250-was raised, an office was found at Temple
Chambers, in FalconCourt, Fleet Street, andin March 1893the firm of James
Elliott & Co. published its firstbook, The Hermetic Museum RestoredandEnlarged, 6
followed in rapidsuccession byfive other alchemical translations, allcommercially
impossible and all.underwritten by Lord Stafford. The magnum opus of the
alchemical series, TheHermetic and Alchemical World ofParacelsus, appeared early
in the following year, precededby Belle and the Dragon and closelyfollowed by
Avalon. In effect,James Elliott & Co. existed for the solepurposeof disseminating
the wit and wisdom ofArthur Edward Waite,as, apart from those already
mentioned and three titles definitely not by Waite, its only publications were
reissues of his earlier works and his ambitious 'High-class monthly magazine',
The Unknown World.
The productionof anon-sectarian occultjournal (i.e. one that wasnot devoted
solelytothe glories of either Spiritualismor Theosophy) had long of
Waite's dreams. In August 1894, after many delays not unconnected WIth the
searchfor a printer who did not demand payment in advance for his work, the
first issueappeared-embellished with a singularlyhideous coverdesign, drawn
under Waite's guidance by EvelynStuart-Menteath. (Waite, without conscious
irony, later describedit as 'amazing' and 'evermemorable'.) The Unknown World
was intended to embraceall aspects of esotericthought--.!the whole circleof the
occult sciences-s-and in his first editorial Waite promised that the magazine
will give the most clear information upon all these subjects in general, and as space ~ n d
opportunity may allow, upon all their species and variations, while it will provide for the f ~ r s t
time such information as can be reasonably and prudently given upon the extent to which
they are followed, whether in speculation or practice, by individual investigators, or corporate
occult bodies, at the present day.
And while it was to be eclectic-the editor recognizedthat the various occult
movements of the day 'are not rival schools; they are develo.pments in various
directions,but theyarenot in contradiction to eachother and theydo not exclude
each otherv-it would lean especially towards 'the .exposition of the profound
philosophy of Western Mysticism' (The Unknown World, vol. i,pp. 2-3).
Among the contributors were Edward Maitland, busily promoting Anna
my days went quietly enough, with no.particular hours attached thereto. The
columns were relieved of their robberies by original notices of new inventions
and reports of exhibitions, .the Grocers', the .Brewers'c.and so .forth, at the
Agricultural Hall, and the Photographic at the Crystal Palace' (SLY, p. 121).
Waite's position was further improved by the friendship he struck up with
JamesElliott, the husbandof Mrs Bottomley's sister. Elliott, impressed byWaite's
ability, praisedhim extravagantly to Bottomley and further editorial work-at
a 'liberal salary--was heapedupon Waite in the form of regular reviews of 'The
Magazines' for The Galignani Messenger and the effective editorship, in 1891,
of TheMunicipal Review. This last was much after the manner of TheBritish Mail
but concerned almost exclusively' withthe affairs of local government. It also .
published biographies .of assorted worthies, .which 'included, under Waite's
editorship, a flattering 'Municipal Portrait' of Frederick Horniman, with especial
praiseheaped upon his museum. It is tempting to think that this eulogy of her
fatherencouraged AnnieHorniman to lookon Waitewith favour when heentered
the Golden Dawn later that year, but sheis unlikely to haverecognized Waite's
hand, for contributors and editors alike of Bottomley journals remained
Indeed, Waite cultivated anonymity to such an extent in The British Mail
that in oneissue, April 1890, he devotedfour columns to an unsigned, mocking
review of his own anonymous prospectus for Azoth: or the Star in theEast-e-e
book he had yet to write (it was eventually published in 1893). Similar oddities
were aregular feature of TheBritish Mail; when therewasinsufficient secondhand
commercial and industrial news'to fill an issue, Waite suppliedessays of his own
on suchuncommercial topicsashypnotism, Freemasonry, .philosophical idealism,
the Rosicrucians, and astronomy (in which he maintained his early interest). In
one issue he reviewed a privately printed volume of bad verse by a young man
using the name 'AustinBlake': if the theft of his own pseudonymwas irritating,
it must also have been satisfying to realize that A Soul's Comedy had found at
least one approving reader.
Butin 1891 Bottomley fell and the Hansard Union collapsed, taking with
it all the Bottomleyjournals (andSinnett-thefailureoftheUnion ruined him).
Waitehad onlyhis fees for TheOccult Sciences which was publishedin November
1891, and suchroyalties asstill camein respect of earlierworks; for the first time
inhiscareerhe was sans publisher. Thehiatus was not,. however, long lasting.
Waiteamusedhimselfbywriting TheParable ofthe Receiver and the Thief, apartisan
account of Bottomley's misfortunes, and early in 1892 commenced the
correspondencewith LordStaffordthat would leadto three years of editing and
translating alchemical texts. There remainedthe problemof a publisher, but this
too was solved in the person ofJames Elliott..Waite toldhim of Lord Stafford's
wish to have the first translation, of Ruland's Lexicon ofAlchemy, put into print:
83 ______'NOT VERSE NOW, ONLY PROSE' ----..;;...;;.. 82
Kingsford's 'New Gospel of Interpretation'; the Revd G. W. Allen, urging with
equal fervour the merits of his Christo-Theosophical Society; Dr E. W. Berridge,
eulogizing Thomas Lake Harris and his 'Brotherhood of the New Life' (and
hinting darkly, under other pseudonyms, at the awesome power of the Hermetic
Order of the Golden Dawn); and Arthur Machen, whose story 'The Shining
Pyramid' first appeared in TheUnknown ft'Orld. The magazine survived for eleven
issues, but came to an abrupt halt when the money ran out. 'Was it forgotten',
wondered Waite, 'that only the first instalment of the printer's bill had been
paid as yet? So far as I am aware, Elliott kept noaccounts, and I was guided
only by the general trend of things. The fact remains that the magazine did not
stop because itself a complete failure but because there was no money for Elliott
to carry it on' (SLY, p. 141).
The end of TheUnknown ft'Orld coincided with the general collapse ofJames
Elliott & Co., but at least one major debt 'was avoided. When he reprinted The
Shining Pyramid in 1925, Machen told an entertaining story about the failure
of the publishing house:
There was, I believe, some difficulty in paying the rent due for the premises which they occupied.
It was necessary to ask for a trifle of indulgence in this matter, and the firm wrote to this
effect to their landlords, who occupied the lower part of the building.
Now at this point two odd circumstances met together. The landlords were, in fact, an
Evangelical society of the strictest Protestant principles. That was one circumstance. The other
was this: the firm wrote their letter begging for a slight delay on 'Unknown World' letter
paper, which displayed the magazine cover in miniature: a Pentacle of light, a strong Spirit
proceeding from it, and, for all I remember, other apparatus of magic. And happy magic, indeed,
resulted from this letter. The Evangelical society wrote in horror: they had never imagined
that anything so dreadful was being done on their premises; they begged the publishers of
'The Unknown World' not to speak of a trifle of rent owing, but to go forthwith in God's
name. And the publishers went with happy hearts (The Shining Pyramid, p. 8).
Waite's experiment in publishing had been eventful in other ways, too. In
January 1893 the Hansard Union case had finally come to court and lasted until
the end of April (with a two-months intermission, owing to the illness of a
juryman). Bottomley and his fellow defendents were all acquitted, but while
the case was in progress the offices of James Elliott & Co. acted as a kind of
headquarters for the defence. It was a celebratedtrial, but for this Waite cared
nothing; all the coming and going meant only that his office 'was a place no
longer in which I personally could edit and produce texts or correct the proofs
which printers were pouring in'. The only consolation was the Spanish cigarettes
he received from Joseph Isaacs, who, with his brother Sir Henry Isaacs (Rufus,
the third brother, later Lord Reading, was not involved); was a co-defendent
with Bottomley.
James Elliott & Co. had failed, but as always with Waite, 'another publisher
rose up'. He was not financially pressed; his mother's small estate had passed
to him after her death in 1893, 7 the mortgage on Eastlake Lodge had been
redeemed, and the remaining stock of alchemical texts had been purchased by .
the bookseller Bernard Quaritch. 8 Even so, writing was Waite's only real source
of income and he was greatly relieved when George Redway wrote to tell him
that he had left Kegan Paul and set up in business once more, at Hart Street
in Bloomsbury. Redway was as eager to publish Waite as Waite was to write
for him, and they collaborated happily for four years from 1896 to 1899. During
the first year Waite wrote Devil-ft'Orship in France, 9 a topical expose of the spurious
anti-masonic rubbish then appearing in France, translated Levi's Transcendental
Magic, and persuaded Redway to issue the last of the alchemical translations,
The Turba Philosophorum. In the succeeding years he issued a collection ofJames
Braid's works on hypnosis, edited bad books into readable form, wrote The Book
ofBlack Magic andofPacts (Redway chose the title: he knew exactly how to appeal
to the lowest instincts of the reading public), and saw his most ambitious book
disappear in smoke and fire.
There had been, before Waite wrote his study, no reliableor substantial work
in English on the Hebrew Kabbalah. But when The Doctrine and Literature of
the Kabalah was written for Redway it proceded no further than the printer. The
book had passed the proof stage and was in process of being printed when, on
9December 1899, a disastrous fire at the premises of the Ballantyne Press destroyed
the sheets and dissolved both the formes and the type; the same fire also destroyed
Green Alps, a collection of erotic poetry by Aleister Crowley, but although each
author still retained a set of proofs, Crowley let his lie in limbo, while Waite
surrendered his to the Theosophical Publishing Society and saw the book printed
afresh in 1902.
This, however, he did not do willingly, but as with Elliott, so with Redway.
The publishing house had got into difficulties, Waite declined to put up money
and Redway took himself off to South Africa to fight the Boers, leaving his firm
in the hands of a Receiver. Shortly before this, and because of the non-appearance
ofboth his Kabbalistic book and his study ofLouis Claude de Saint-Martin, Waite
had sold Eastlake Lodge to raise money and now had neither a publisher nor
a home. But he did have a job.
From February 1898, for a period of some five years, both London and
provincial newspapers were bombarded with a constant stream ofbrief 'paragraph
announcements-e-advertisements extolling the virtues of Horlick's Malted Milk.
They recommended the drink as a cure for dyspepsia, malnutrition, and influenza,
asa means of preventing tubercolosis, and as a specific to 'restore balance to deranged
constitutions '. Malted Milk would give stamina to cyclists, restore overworked
clergymen, business-men, and 'brain workers', and 'spread health instead of
typhoid-which cannot always be said of cow'smilk', It was presented as a
significant factor in winning the South African War, while those who did not
drink it appeared to be in imminent danger of serious illness or death. One of
the second series of 'paragraphs' is typical:
THE CHILD LOOKS LIKEA CHANGELING. It is quite shrunk and shrivelled; its eyes seemdim;
its skin is clammy; it wails rather than cries. And it was such a bonny baby a few weeks back.
What can have come over it? In a case like this you may be quite sure that the mischief lies
in its food. Give it Horlick's Malted Milk, and you will soon find that it is not achangeling,
but your own bonny baby once more. Horlick's Malted Milk is the best food for children in
health and sickness. It has savedmany little lives when they seemed past all medical aid. All
like it, all thrive on it. 'Your chemist will supply it ...
These advertisements had one thing in common: they, were all written by
A. E. Waite.
The choice of Waite as a copywriter was due to James Elliott, who .had set
up as an advertising agent after the collapse of the publishing house and had
somehow acquired the Horlick's account. So impressed wasjames Horlick, the
English partner of the firm, that he invited Waiteto take the post of Manager
of the London Office. Waite was offered the appointment in December 1898
but was not able to take it up until the following February, by which time he
was suffering from influenza, and on the day he was due to begin work 'reached
Victoria more dead than alive and providentially met, Elliott byamere chance.
He saw my condition and could think ofbut one nostrum, being a half tumbler
ofneat Scotch whisky, adding a splash of water. It was a bad day at the close
of February, 1899; and 1believe to this moment that the said nostrum saved my
life' (SLY, p. 152)
Waite was evidently a man of little faith when it came to the curative value
of the product that was about to providehim with his income. The appointment
itself was a most casual affair:
The entire charge of premises in Farringdon Road, of a certain acrid book-keeper and a small
collection of girl typists and shorthand writers were left in my sole.hands, one explanation
being that MrHorlickwas starting on a visit to Palestine and would be absent some four or
six months. The existing Manager was not in evidence, but I learned that he was about to
join the Stock Exchange, so that he might maintain and promote the financial interests of
the English partner. This is how I became a business man. Nothing passed in writing, and
assuredly I was the only person who came awayfrom the interview with a keen sense of the
comedy which was about to open. I concluded that the arrangement would last through the
first month and no further before I was found out. Unquestionably the retiring Manager would
discover my complete incapacity in less than a single hour (SLT, p. 152).
But Waite's initial qualms over his own ability were unfounded; he managed
the London Office efficiently and energetically for ten years. Other aspects of
james Horlick's affairs, however, were to prove much less straightforward.
In his autobiography Waite made light of his time with Horlick's: 'I saw
to the few advertisements which were tolerated at that time and wrote careful
pamphlets'. Headded that 'all the correspondence passed of course through my
hands' and noted that his position 'approached a sinecure during Horlick's absence'.
But this was to be unduly modest. The' advertisements were many and there
were also some two hundred circular letters sent out in a carefully orchestrated
campaign to doctors, dentists, nurses, and chemists (and to members of most
other professions, from schoolteachers to Members of Parliament), as well
Temperance Societies, to regular stockists, and to those proud parents who must
announce the birth of their children in the newspapers. The 'careful pamphlets'
were eight in numberl'' and included Ordered to the Front,a collection of bold
illustrations and stirring doggerel verse. It ended like this:
Crown'd Heads of Europe, we wish you peace,
And trust that shortly all wars will cease,
But when a battle is bound to be fought,
let MALTED MILK to the Front be brought,
And when the struggle is over and' done,
'Tis still the best thing under the sun.
On Malted Milk the babies thrive,
By Malted Milk the sick survive,
The weak folk take it to make them strong,
The old because they. will then live long;
The strong ones take it to keep them well,
And many more people than. lcan tell-
Soldiers, Sailors, and doctors too-
And when you have tried it so will you!
Send for a sample, don't delay;
There's much to gain and nothing to pay.
Drop us a line to our abode,
Simply; HORLICK, Farringdon Road,
But if you'd like to add anymore,
Note that the Number is 34.
The correspondence was by no means concerned solely with Malted Milk.
James Horlick had extensive property and business interests unconnected with
the Food Company and Waite's predecessor, Richard Preston.ihad for some time
looked after these on Horlick's behalf. But although Waite found Preston 'an
extremely likeable fell<?w', James Horlick did not entirely trust him, and in August
1900 he asked Waite to takeover the private work previously done by Preston-
ostensibly because of the latter's 'increasing engagements'. Waite acted as private
______'NOT VERSE NOW, ONLY PROSE'-----------
BusinessManager-officially he was his PrivateSecretary-toJames Horlick until
1909, for the last two years in an exclusivecapacity, having left the Malted Milk
company when it moved to Slough in 1907. He became involved with property
management, dealt with brokers and solicitorson Horlick's behalf, and attempted
to steer him safely through the minefield of Horatio Bottomley's Joint Stock
Institute, in which Horlick had invested heavily.
Waite considered the deals with Bottomley to be 'foolish transactions-s-and
said as much to Horlick. From the beginning he had warned Horlick of the
risks inherent in any Bottomley enterprise, and, as the dealingswith Bottomley
became inevitably and increasingly unsatisfactory, found himself obliged to listen
to Horlick's constant and unjust damnings of James Elliott-who had always
arranged the purchases of Joint Stock shares. And as the embroilments with
Bottomley increased they led to all manner of odd City fish eagerly seeking out
James Horlick-who was equally eager to avoid them, so that Waite spent much
of his time 'communicating with people and denying Mr Horlick's presence
in town while he islistening at the other end of the instrument'. Most embarrassing
of all was Horlick's insistence that his son and nephew-both of whom were
constantly hanging around the office-be kept in complete ignorance of his private
affairs. If he achievednothing else during his years with Horlick, Waite at least
brought the act of dissembling to a fine art.
There was, however, one solid achievement. On 17March 1903 Waite wrote
to Horlick describing a visit he had received from a Colonel Wallace, who brought
with him the proposals of two unnamed ladies for establishing a magazine to
be funded by James Horlick. The idea of a magazine was evidently already in
the air, for Waite related how 'I pointed out to Colonel Wallace that our scheme
is simply one of an advertising kind designed to replace certain newspaper
advertisements in Australia and that it would be beyond the scope of a business
house to run a ladies paper with a view of making it profitable on its.own merits
independently of the advertisement standpoint'. But a literary magazine was
another matter, and when the first issue of Horlick's Magazine andHomeJournal
forAustralia, India andthe Colonies appeared in January 1904, it was clearly more
than 'one of an advertising kindv-although it carried sixteen pages of
advertisements, almost half of which were for Malted Milk. It was published
by a revived James Elliott & Co. and the editor, of course, was A. E. Waite.
Newspaper reviewsof the first and succeedingissues were without exception
favourable-as well they might be, for Horlick's Magazine contained fiction by
Arthur Machen, Robert Lynd, Edgar Jepson, and Evelyn Underhill, and enough
'Colonial Articles and Stories' .to satisfy the most chauvinist colonial. 11 Each
issue was also heavy laden with essays by Waite himself on one or other obscure
aspect ofthe occult, usuallyunder a pseudonym, and with a multitude of poems-
again largely by Waite and again pseudonymous...
The magazine ran for fifteen issues and was then, according to Waite,
'abandoned, not because sales were on the downward grade but because the
periodical was not selling as it should'. He claimed that he had 'edited it with
the utmost care and had secured a few contributions which belong to literature
at its highest' (SLY, p. 167). But these-Waite meant Arthur Machen and Evelyn
Underhill-he had secured within the confines of the Golden Dawn, and other
genuine contributions came in no small part from his friends at the Pen and Pencil
.Club. Even had salesbeen better, the magazine would not havesurvived for much
longer: the occult contributions were becoming increasingly rarefied and the
literary contents increasinglydull. It was a braveexperiment, but it could not last.
The Malted Milk period came to an end in 1907, but Waite still made
occasional forays into copywriting. He wrote one promotional brochure for
Vivigene-a 'concentrated nutrient animal extract-e-in 1909, and another for
a similar product, Brainine, as late as 1916. Most improbable of all was a ten-
verse rhymed advertisement for 'Sewell's Rival Corset'. It included such gems
as these:
And were anything wanting to prove to the hilt
The consummate perfection with which they are built,
We have only to pause in the midst of our lays
And consult C.A. SEWELL concerning their stays.
The VENUS DE MILO they take for their mark,
And why they won't leave you to grope in the dark;
'Tis by right of the verdict of feminine praise
Which so long C.A. SEWELL have earn'd for their stays.
The name of these Corsets, so easy and fair,
Is rightly the RIVAL, since none can compare,
And ladies all stand in delighted amaze
And confess C.A. SEWELL unrivall'd in stays.
But these were aberrations. With City life behind him, Waite's whole career
would be devoted to writing and to promoting, in theory and in practice, his
doctrine of Divine Union.
THE origins of Waite's esotericenthusiasmslayin his childhood; in particular
in the Arabian Tales that had so delighted him with its stories of the 'Hidden
City of Ad' and of that 'other and greater city which is called Irem'. This was
the city, raised on pillars, that contained the great secret of earthly riches and
had as its chief treasure 'a chest of gold filled with a red powder'. Waite could
not know then that 'this is the powder of Alchemyand the Philosopher's Stone.
It is encircled by a river of Mercury'; for 'what should 1know in my childhood
concerningthe Stoneat the Red, or that est inMercurio quicquid quaerunt sapientesi
But the talismanic seed of this Romance of Alchemy fell unawares in receptive
soilandbecameaplant which Iwas destinedto tendlong afterin myown Garden
of the Mind' (SLY, p. 28).
Before this alchemical plant flowered Waitehaddiscovered both Spiritualism
and Theosophy-and found both of them wanting. Spiritualism had been a
necessary personal quest, but Theosophy was an intellectual pursuit to which
he had been introduced by H. P. Blavatsky's Isis Unveiled (1877). He found this
curious book 'helpful as an omnium gatherum of esoteric claims and pretences,
a miscellany of magic and its connections, with the soleexceptionof Alchemy,
in which 1cannot recall that H.P.B. ever evinced any personal interest' (SLY,
p. 68). Nonetheless, although he 'hated its anti-Christian bias', Isis Unveiled did
bring him to Eliphas Levi, the most extraordinary magician of the nineteenth
Eliphas Levi, otherwise Alphonse Louis Constant (1810-75), was among
the most charismatic figures in the modern history of occultism. As a young
man he had been ordainedasa deaconin the Roman Catholic Church but never
proceeded to the priesthood-he had no true vocation, being quite unable to
come to termswith the needfor celibacy-and maintained an ambivalent attitude
to the Church throughout a life in which he oscillated perpetually between
occultism andseeming orthodoxy. Afterabriefperiodasarevolutionary Christian
Socialist he fell under the influence of the Polish mystic Hoene Wronski and
later produced remarkable books on the history, theory, and practiceof magic.
His three principalworks, Dogme etRituelde la Haute Magie (1856), Histoire
de la Magie (1860), and La Clef des Grands Mysteres (1861), were inaccurate,
idiosyncratic, and-utterly enchanting. They also exercised anenormousinfluence
on occultists and ideas that were born. of Levi's imagination became enshrined
as occult dogmas: he reiteratedin new forms the Doctrine.of 'Correspondences
('As above, sobelow'); postulatedan all-pervading universal medium, the Astral
Light; arguedfor the supremacy in magicof the Will; andproclaimed the parallel
between the letters of the Hebrew alphabet and the Tarot Trumps. All of these
ideaswere regurgitated, with embellishments, by his successors-not the least
of whom was Madame Blavatsky.
Waite came upon Levi in 1881, read him sketchily in the British Museum,
andbegan his 'serious study' at Deal, where he acquired his own copyof Dogme
et Rituel. None of Levi's works was available in English, so Waite determined
to provide hisown translation-beginning with his'Digest' of 1886, TheMysteries
of Magic. Tenyears later he translatedDogme et Rituel (as 'Iranscendental Magic),
and eventually,.in 1913, issuedhis English translation of Levi's Histoire, though
both of these appeared after he had parted with any vestige of belief that Levi
might be a road to enlightenment. In 1886 he had thought otherwise: Levi's
true greatness lay, he believed, in his attempt to 'establishaharmony between
religion and science', in his 'revelation for the first time to the modern world
of the great Arcanum of will-power, which comprises in one word the whole
history and mystery of magical art', and above all in 'the supreme elevation of
hisbeautiful moralphilosophy'. In this, Levi 'taught us to conciliate thoseopposing
forces, physical and spiritual, whose equilibrium is life and immortality; to
harmonisethe' 'liberty of individuals with the necessity of things' " andthe divine
privileges of self-devotion' (Mysteries of Magic pp. xli-xlii),
For all his enthusiasm, however, Waite was not uncritical. He disputed the
antiquity of the Tarot and condemnedLevi'shistorical inaccuracies, especially
his distorted translations from Trithemius-not that his translation of Levi was
impeccable: 'I have not confined myself', he said, 'within the barren limits of
a slavish literalism', and wasduly takento taskfor hisliberties, in a hostilereview
by Edward Macbeanof the S.R.I.A. 1 By 1896 Waite had become thoroughly
disillusioned with occultismin general and recognizedthe inadequacy of Levi's
ideas-e-thete is no way from man to God in his system-s-and his personal
limitations: 'he was a transcendentalist but not a mystic'. But he stillfound Levi
to be 'the mostbrilliant, the most original, the most fascinating interpreter of
occult philosophy in the West' (Mysteries of Magic, revised edn., p. xiii), Levi
represented the summit of occultism, but Waitewasseeking for somethingmore.
Nor wasthereanythingto be foundin Theosophy-not, at least, aspresented
by H. P. Blavatsky. The Theosophical Society had been founded in 1875, by
MadameBlavatsky and Colonel H. S. Olcott, for 'The Study of Occult Science;
91 ______'HE THAT ASPIRED TO KNOW' ---:;....;;;;. 90
the formation of a nucleus of Universal Brotherhood; and the revival of Oriental
Literature and Philosophy'; but by the time Waite came to know the Society,
in 1883, the apparent harmony between East and West suggested by Isis Unveiled
had given way to an increased emphasis on 'Esoteric Buddhism' and its supposed
superiority over all western forms of occultism. Waite had no interest in eastern
philosophy, was unconcerned by the furore that followed the Hodgson R e p o r t ~ I
cared nothing whether H.P.B. had manufactured either cups or saucers with
the help of alleged Masters in Tibet, or had bought them at a bazaar and buried
them' (SLT, p. 88)-and was generally unimpressed by 'the strange crew that
filled Sinnett's drawing-room at Theosophical gatherings, the astrologers, the
mesmerists, the readers of hands and a few, very few only, of the motley Spiritist
groups' (SLY, p. 87).
None of their concerns had anyappealfor Waite, but the Theosophical Society
did introduce him to Sinnett, to Edward Maitland, and to C. C. Massey, a real
scholar (he translated Du Prel' s Philosophy ofMysticism) and a theosophist in the
mystical senseofJacob Boehme, who took him tocallonH. P. Blavatsky. Waite,
regrettably, recorded nothing of this interview, just as he said nothing of his
meeting with Colonel Olcott in 1890, saveonly that it took place. Neither the
philosophy nor phenomena of the Theosophical Society satisifed Waite, and he
determined that what .he sought lay within rather than without.
To such an introspective nature as Waite's, seeking an inward way came
without effort. Among his earliest literary efforts in prose had been talesof faerie-
not in any sensethe robust, traditional fairy-tales of folklore, but strange allegories
of the soul's quest for realization-and as he turned away from occultism he
used these stories as a means of expressing his concept of the spiritual quest.
It was an unhappy choice, for Waite never had a sure touch when writing fiction,
least of all allegorical fiction, and his stories are at best affected and uninspiring,
and they never .succeed in conveying the nature of mystical experience. Two
collections of his stories were published: Prince Starbeam, written in 1879 and
issued, after. revision, in 1889; and The Golden Stairs, published in 1893 by the
Theosophical Publishing Society, who claimed that these 'Talesfrom the Wonder-
World' 'will at once fascinate and instruct the youthful mind'. It is to be hoped
that most Theosophical children-who already suffered from 'Lotus Circles' in
which they were systematically exposed to simplified Theosophy-were spared
these stories, which even sympathetic reviewers saw as 'hardly likely to be much
appreciated by manyjuveniles, not natives of Thibet, for some centuries to come'
(Eastern & Utestern Review).
Waite was more successful with fairy poetry. While he was contributing
regularly to }Dung Folks' Paper he met William Sharp (better known as his Celtic
alter ego, 'Fiona Macleod'), who had taken over the 'Literary Olympic' feature
in 1887 and hadcommented favourably on A Soul's Comedy, especially on its
fairytale 'Dream Tower' sequence. Sharp was alsogeneral editor of TheCanterbury
Poets, a series of re-issues of the works of both major and minor poets that also
included thematic anthologies. One of these was to be of fairy poems, and Sharp
asked Waite-who may well have suggested the theme-to be theeditor,giving
him a completely free hand as to both contents and title. The collection was
issued in 1888 in two forms: a pocket edition entitled Elfin Music, and a larger,
extended version issued as Songs and Poems ofPairyland; in both cases the poems
were prefacedby a critical Introduction that traced the development of the literary
fairy-although, to the annoyance of reviewers, Waite rejected a chronological
arrangement of the anthology. Sharp himself was quite happy with the book,
praising it extravagantly in }Dung Folks' Paper-perhaps because it included two
poems by his wife ('Graham R. Tomson')-and printing the final poem, 'An
Invocation' by Philip Dayre, in the body of his review. What he may not have
known was that 'Philip Dayre' was A. E. Waite.
In later years Waite returned again to the fairy theme, both in poetry and
in prose, but he was wise enough to recognize that, however significant those
works might be to himself, they spoke with a very muted voice to others and
he looked for other ways to propagate the esoteric doctrines he was slowly
developing. During his years of multifarious reading at the British Museum,
Waite had acquired an immense fund of knowledge on the history and practice
of the occult sciences, and in the late 1880s he began to put it to good use. He
realized that if his speculative' writing was to be taken seriously he must first
establish a reputation among the 'occult' public as a sound scholar; he must do
what had not previously been done in the field of occultism-he must write
carefully reasoned historical and critical studies. Studies, moreover, that quoted
original sources and argued from established facts to rational conclusions-a
method of working quite alien to occultists who were (as they still are) in the
habit of setting out preconceivedopinions and selectingjust those facts to support
. them as required the least amount of distortion.
Waite's early esoteric studies may seem to the latterday reader-as they did
in time to Waite himself-to be unsatisfactory and full of errors, but when they
were published they marked a new departure in the field and his reputation as
a scholar grew rapidly among his 'occult' contemporaries. Lightand Luciftr might
variously dispute his conclusions, but they did not challenge his statements of
fact; even the secular press, for the most part, praised his efforts-although Mrs
Sidgwick sneeredat his 'claims to learning' and pointed out his 'somewhat shallow
and secondhand acquaintance with at least his Latin authorities' in her scathing
review of The Occult Sciences (1891) for the Society for Psychical Research. But
occultists are rarely psychical researchers, and few read the Society's Proceedings.
Waite's reputation remained high-buttressed by his long and learned latters pub-
lished in Light,2 and by the lambasting he gave critics within the occult camp.
Lastly, in this doctrine, and in the principles connected there with, lies the only adequate basis
for a new religion which shall be at once scientific and aspirational, positive and mystical; and
such a religion is sincerely and honestly believed to be the supreme need of the age by a large
and increasing number of devout and earnest persons.
not explain. He concludes his statements by advocating a new religion:
The publication ofAzoth-which finally took place in February 1893-was
only a part of Waite's scheme. Equally important was the setting up of a body
that would work towards the goal of putting his theories into practice.. As a
first step he requested the readers of Light to collaborate with him 'in a small
scheme which is likely to be practically useful'; 'I am', he told them, 'seeking
to found a private association-devoid of all assumption and pretence-for the
study of mysticalphilosophy, No responsibilities, .no special views-beyond a
sincere sympathy with the main objects of the association-will be incurred by
its members, and, at least in the first instance, it will be of a purely literarycharacter.'
Associations of a similar nature-more or less-were destined to playa major
role in Waite's life, but in 1888 no one, its seems, listened to his plea.
In the absence of recruits to his association, Waite continued to put forward
his ideas in his books. The Introductions to both Lives ofAlchemystical Philosophers
and The Magical Writings of Thomas Vaughan set out his thesis explicitly, and
in the former the immediate source of his ideas is also revealed. The suggestion
that Spiritual Regeneration is the true secret of alchemy had been advanced in
1850 in an anonymous work, A Suggestive Inquiry into the Hermetic Mystery. Both
the author, Miss Mary Anne South (later Mrs Atwood), and her father, Dr Thomas
South, had spent many yearsimmersed in alchemical literature, and the Suggestive
Inquiry was the culmination of their researches; but immediately after its publication
Dr South took fright at the prospect of revealing such stupendous truths to the
unenlightened public and destroyed everycopy of his daughter's book that could
be recalled, together. with the manuscript of his own alchemical poem. Miss
South had concurred, somewhat reluctantly, in the destruction of her book, but
retaineda number of copies for further annotation and ultimate distribution to
intimate friends; other copies-presumably those sent out for review-occasionally
surfaced in esoteric circles, but it remained an exceptionally rare book until it
was reprinted in 1918.4
Waite had somehow obtained a copy (which he eventually offered for sale
through The Unknown World), had succeeded also in penetrating its extremely
opaque language, and began to propagate its thesis anew. As far as that thesis
can be expressedin everydaylanguage, it is that the goal of the alchemical.process
was the attainment of Divine Union as a consequence of Illumination obtained
in an exalted form of mesmeric trance. Waite agreed overthe end, but disputed
the means; he believedthat 'the alchemical transfiguration of humanity' depended
In the columns of TheMedium and Daybreak a Mr pfoundes had cast doubts
on the originality of Waite's ideas (claiming them for himself and upbraided
him for a lack ofmodesty in proclaiming that 'For the first time in the history
of esoteric science, it has become possibleto define in open language the pneumatic
secret of the ages, and to indicate plainly, without quibbles and without pretence,
the true road to adeptship'. pfoundes also noted that' MrWaite and his writings
are both unknown to me'. Waite replied promptly and vigorously, questioning
Mr Pfoundes's own literary reputation; suggesting that 'his personal ignorance
cannot be considered as the measure of general knowledge'; and referring him
for further information on the Waite canon to Redway's catalogues and the
columns of Light. He added, presumably in hope rather than with prescience,
'Ifhe is.anxious for more extended information, my biography may perhaps be
forthcoming in the 20th century, or ata subsequent period of convenience which
shall be prior to the next millenium'," In the enthusiasm of youth Waite was
untroubled by false modesty.
The question which so exercised Mr pfoundes was that of the true nature
of alchemy. Waite believed that 'in the writings of the men called Mystics and
Alchemists there is concealed a doctrine of physical and spiritual evolution, which
was thefundamental principle of their philosophy, and wasapplied by themboth
in practice'. He also genuinely believed that he had been the first to recover this
doctrine, and he set out hisdiscoveries in tabular form in a letter to Light (15
September 1888). Both' the discoveries which I have made, and the convictions
at whichI havearrived', he said, 'will be fully developedin a work entitled Azoth:
or the Star in the East', but in advance of its publication he trusted that those
'who are acquainted with my books on the Rosicrucians, and the Mysteries of
Magic will absolveme from the charge of adopting rash and inadequate theories,
and from enriching the domain of verified facts with the fabulous creations-of
romantic hypotheses'.
His conclusionswere presented under twenty-two headings-though without
any attempt to relate them to either the Hebrew alphabet or the Tarot Trumps-
many ofwhich were offeredin support of the first statement that 'The alchemists,
in common with other mystics, were in possession of a secret theory of universal
development, or evolution, which they believed to be capable of application in
every kingdom of nature'. Applying this theory to the mineral kingdom, 'they
discovered a method of evolvinggold and silverfrom substanceswhich they deemed
inferior', and found too that a parallel process could be applied to Man.
The nature of this process, argued Waite, is hinted at in alchemicaland magical
texts, and if it is understood and carried out, then the regeneration of Man from
his fallen state will follow. The existence and effectiveness of sucha' process is
'abundantly confirmed by .thestudy of certain higher .phases of mesmerism,
electrical psychology, and trance clairvoyance-s-although in what way Waite does
95 _ 'HE THAT ASPIRED TO KNOW' ----::...::.
was derisive: the Manchester Guardian jeered at its style and content alike, and
TheEcho dismissed it as 'Two hundred and thirty pages of delirious slush'. Elliott
, was, perhaps, more fortunate than he realized when he gave up Waite's 'largest
and most important enterprise in occult literature'.
Waite, too, was relieved, for he 'outgrew the matter' and 'came to distrust
its ' 'inspirational" manner'. Alchemy would be approached more dispassionately
in the future-beginning with Lord Stafford and his Lexicon of Alchemy.
At an unknown date in 1891, Fitzherbert Edward Stafford-Jerningham-
Roman Catholic gentleman and, from 1892, 11thBaron Stafford-wrote to Waite
for advice that would 'help him to reach the term of his long Hermetic Researches
by directing him on the true path leading to the transmutation of metals' (SLY,
pp. 128-9)-presumably he had read Lives ofAlchemystical Philosophers. If Waite
'could not, would not, must not tell him how to make gold' he could yet help
by arranging for the translation of alchemical .texts, beginning with the Lexicon
ofAlchemy of Martin Ruland. Waite duly found a translator ('a friend with time
on his hands'), added a Supplement 'containing the terms of the Philosophers
and the Veils of the Great Mystery', and arranged for the text to be printed-in
an edition of only six copies-at Lord Stafford's expense.
This idiosyncratic production, which was printed in 1892, was followed by
a seriesof others, for each of which Lord Stafford supplied a translation but without
revealing the identity of the translator. Waite's task was editorial and proved to
be a light one as the translation was extremely sound 'from the Hermetic point
of view'. He suspected that the translator was 'the Rev. William Alexander Ayton,
a member of the G:.D:. almost ab origine, a sound Latin scholar and one who
had been active for years in all the occult movements, that of H.P.B. i n c l ~ d e d '
(SLT,,-p. 134); but in this he was wrong, and it is possible-indeed probable-
that the translations were the work of Julius Kohn, an emigre Austrian occultist
who disputed with the Theosophical Society, exchanged alchemical manuscripts
with Ayton, and eventually published editions of TheProphecies ofParacelsus (1915)
and of Trismosin's Splendor Solis (1921).
Part of the editor's task was to provide a biographical or critical introduction
to each title," and in the course of preparing these Waite began to change his
views on alchemy-a change accelerated by his work on the Hermetic and Alchemical
Writings of the pragmatic Renaissancescientist Paracelsus. This massivetwo-volume
work was 'the magnum opus of the whole incredible adventure', but Lord Stafford
had provided no translator; instead, 'as it was his specialenthusiasm, and as Elliott
had a free license to print what number he chose, my responsibility was to work
against time, so that the Earl might not wait unduly. There were translators
employed under me, the bulk of the text being indeed' 'put out" in this manner.
My task was to edit the whole, furnish annotations at need and see the volumes
through the press. As it happened, however, I did translate a few sections, there
By means of his books, and through lectures on alchemy and mysticism,
Waite did gain an active following of sorts and by 1891he had founded the Order
of the Spiritual Temple. It was an Order almost; but not quite, stillborn-
progressing no further than preliminary meetings at which a prospectus was
drafted (see Appendix A), together with 'An Apology for Ritual', which stated
that 'The exercises of devotional Mysticism which will be the object of our
meetings will involve some revival of ancient Mystic Ritual', arid the outlines
of 'A Tentative Rite' for the Order. (The full text of the 'Apology' and 'A Tentative
Rite' are printed in Azoth, pp. 122-128. See also Appendix A for the Rite). The
'Rite' was the proposed religious service of the Order, which Waite-woo seems
not to have been the sole author-described as 'pleasing, but of little practical
value'. Had the Order of the Spiritual Temple not existed only on -paper, and
had its services ever taken place, Waite would undoubtedly have been more
enthusiastic, for the overall structure of the 'Rite' conforms closely to the pattern
that would appear in later Orders that were entirely of his own making.
Azothwas published in February 1893by the Theosophical Publishing Society,
who had taken it up when Elliott failed to find subscribers-despite a handsome
prospectus-for his projected first publication. Waite was quite content for the
Theosophists to have it, for he had been told by the Countess Wachtmeister
(who managed the T.P.S.), that 'my things seemed to sell among her people,
though nothing to do with Theosophy'. In this instance she was proved wrong, '
for it failedto selland was soon remaindered. Waite thought that the Theosophists
disliked its western emphasis that 'looked to the Christ in all', but the only fault
the reviewer in Lucifer found with the book was Waite's 'far too great stress
on what he imagines will be, in the future, the increased beauty of outward man,
and especially of woman, in that new Earthly Paradise which presents itself to
his delighted vision as the outcome of this greater, knowledge' (issue of May
1893). Lightwas perplexed by the book and concluded that 'To treat ofit properly
would require the hand of one who had got somewhere near the perfection
described in it as being attainable' (issue of 8 July 1893), while the secular press
The end in view is identical with Hermetists, Theurgists, and with the ancient Greek mysteries
alike. It is the conscious and hypostatic union of the intellectual soul with Deity, and its
participation in the life of God; but the conception included in this divine name is one infinitely
transcendental, and in Hermetic operations, above all, it must ever be remembered that God
is within us (Lives, p. 16).
on parallel physical and psychical processes (although he never made their precise
nature clear); that the alchemists had engaged in a physical as well as a spiritual
work of transmutation; and that 'the true method of Hermetic interpretation
lies in a middle course!...-the path of mysticism rather than of mesmerism. As
he expressed it:
and here' (SLY, p. 136). Waite added that his 'real ambition layin another direction
and this, as explained in the prefatory part, was to meet with sufficient
encouragement for a third volume, devoted to interpretation and commentary'.
At the time this remained unwritten, but he returned to the project in 1916 and
produced TheSpiritual Philosophy ofParacelsus only to seeit languish in manuscript
because the paper shortages of the Great War prevented Rider & Co. from
publishing it.
The alchemical series drew to a close in 1896, with the Turba Philosophorum
and Manzolli's Zodiac of Life, 7 which was printed in another minute edition
(of fifteen copies) because Lord Stafford hoped that he would find in it the 'Secret
of the Great Work'. Waite wrote a brief introduction, and with it Lord Stafford
passed out of his life; no one has satisfactorily explained how he came into it
in the first place-there is no trace among the Stafford papers of his correspondence
with Waite, and nothing whatever to explain either how his obsession with
alchemy came about or what ultimately became of it. But for Waite the matter
was unimportant; he was turning now away from alchemy and towards another
strand of esoteric thought.
The Kabbalah is the system of Jewish mysticism and theosophy that developed
in the early centuries of this era (its origins lie in the earlier Merkabah (Chariot)
mysticism), reached its zenith in the late medieval period with the Sepher ha Zohar
(Book of Splendour), and fascinated Renaissance figures such as Reuchlin and
Pico della Mirandola, who believed, quite erroneously, that kabbalistic texts
contained trinitarian doctrine and would provide a means of converting the Jews
to Christianity. From the sixteenth century onwards the strange and complex
symbolism of the Kabbalah had been utilized frequently by occultists, and by
the nineteenth century it had come to be associated largely (but unjustly) with
magic. Waite made his acquaintance with the Kabbalah through the fantasies
of Eliphas Levi, but he had sense enough to dismiss Levi's bizarre
misunderstandings of kabbalistic texts, to seek other authorities, and to draw
conclusions of his own.
It was through the Kabbalah-specifically through two sections of the Zohar:
the Idra Rabba (Greater Assembly) and the Idra Zutta (Lesser Assembly)-that
Waite first discovered the concept of the 'Holy Assembly', and having found
it he transformed it into a doctrine of his own. Similarly, as he increased his
knowledge of the major divisions of esoteric theory and practice-alchemy, magic,
Freemasonry, Rosicrucianism, and the Kabbalah (he added the Tarot and the
Holy Graillater)-and subsumed them under the general heading of mysticism,
he developed his idea of a unifying Secret Tradition that had perpetuated esoteric
doctrines through the work of this continuing 'Holy Assembly'. But it was far
from being the instituted secret society of occult dreams; indeed it was far from
being an institution at all.
1. The young A. E.
Waite (c. 1880).
2. The original
buildings of St
Charles's College,
fl Y
PIt 1 CE 8 1 X p ms on.

lLu UI .\ Co" 6, l ', Ha l't4W Ui.3au,
3. An Ode to Astronomy
(1877), Waite's first
published book.
5. Dora Stuart-
Menteath (c. 1900).
4. Eastlake Lodge,
Harvard Road,
6. Ada Waite.
7. Toptrees, East
Molesey, home of the
Stuart-Menteath family.
8. Cover design by
Evelyn Stuart-Menteath
for The Unknown World.
9. Waite's entry in the
address book of the
Hermetic Order of the
Golden Dawn.
10. The official record
( f Waite's re-admission
the G:. r

11. Arthur Machen.
12. A. E. Waite
(c. 1920).
13. A. E. Waite (1922).
14. A. E. Waite in his
robes as 1mperator of
the Fellowship of the
Rosy Cross
(photograph by
Coburn, 1922).
15. A. E. Waite and his
daughter, Sybil
(c. 1930).
16. Mary Broadbent
Schofield, Waite's
second wife (c. 1930).
_____11 _
W AIT E' S early study of the Kabbalah led him to argue that 'The points of
contact between occult science and the Kabalah are very numerous, but between
Mysticism and the Kabalah they are, comparatively speaking, few'; in general
the Kabbalah was 'more especially a rationalized system of mystic thought'. He
concluded that 'The existence of a concealed doctrine of religion perpetuated
from antiquity cannot be proved by recourse to Kabalistic literature' although,
'the question itself does not stand or fall by the Kabalah', because, 'it is in Christian
channels that this doctrine must be sought by those who assume it, by which
I mean that the transcendental succession has passed into the Church of Christ'
(Doctrine and Literature of the Kabalah, pp. 484, 486, 490).
At this time (1899) Waite did not use the term 'Secret Tradition', although
the concept of such a tradition was already implicit in the majority of his published
works. His definition of the term was first set out in clear and precise terms-as
clear and precise, that is, as was possible given the peculiarities of Waite's literary
style-in TheSecret Tradition inFreemasonry (1911). There he says that 'The Secret
Tradition is the immemorial knowledge concerning man's way of return whence
he came by a method of the inward life' (vol. ii, p. 379). Within that tradition
. are, 'firstly, the memorials of a loss which has befallen humanity; and, secondly,
the records of a restitution in respect of that which was lost', and these are
maintained by 'the keepers of the tradition', who 'perpetuated-it in secret by
mear:s of Instituted Mysteries and cryptic literature' (vol. i, p. ix). And whatever
form these 'instituted Mysteries' take, they invariably testify to '(a) the aeonian
nature of the loss; (b) the certitude of an ultimate restoration; (c) in respect of
that which was lost, the perpetuity of its existence somewhere in time and the
world although interned deeply; (d) and more rarely its substantial presence under
veils close to the hands of all' (vol. i, p. xi).
His specific concern was with the 'Traces of a Secret Tradition in Christian
Times', and it was for this reason that he turned from the Kabbalah to the problem
of the Holy Grail and its symbolism. Waite had also been drawn to the legend
f the Holy Grail by the enthusiasm of Arthur Machen, and their subsequent
long and furious debates over the interpretation of the Grail Romances had
stimulated both a stream of articles and Waite's firsttruly significant book, The
Hidden Church of the Holy Graal(1909). 1
In outline, the story of the Grail-e-which is a part of the Arthurian Romance
cycle-isthis:beforethe burial of the crucified Christ, joseph of Arimathea collects
blood from His body inacup (the Grail) that had been used at the Last Supper.
After the Ascension, Joseph travels toBritain,founds a monastery where the
Grail is housed, and appoints a Keeper of the Grail, who is known as the Fisher
King (as are his successors), because he has caught a great fish with which his
companions are miraculously fed. The Fisher King takes the Grail to the castle
of Corbenic, where it is hidden from view, together with the lance, sword, and
dish that are also associated with the Passion of Christ; these four objects together
constituting the Grail Hallows. In due course, theknights of King Arthur's
court set out in search ofthe Holy Grail, but only the purest of them (Galahad,
Perceval, and Bors) succeed in their quest-becoming themselves the guardians
of the Grail, which is eventually withdrawn from this world into the heavenly
The mythological origins of the Grail story did not concern Waite; nor did
mere historical study of the Grail literature. His concern was with the theological
implications of its symbolism:
After accepting every explanation of modern erudition as to the origin of the Graal elements,
there remain various features of the romances as things outside the general horizon of research,
and they are those which, from my standpoint, are of the last and most real importance. A
scheme of criticism which fails to account for the claim to a super-valid formula of Eucharistic
consecrationand to a super-apostolical succession accounts for very little that matters finally.
I have therefore taken up the subject at the point where it has been left by the students of
folklore and all that which might term itself authorized scholarship (Hidden Church, p. viii).
His purpose was to show 'that it's elements were taken over in the interest of
a particular form of Christian religious symbolism', (ibid., p. xi).
That symbolism was found within a 'Secret Church', which, so Waite argued,
had perpetuated the mystical doctrines implicit in the Grail story. By this' Secret
Church' he did not mean any instituted body, but 'the manifest Church glorified
and installed in the spiritual kingdom, as this was first set over the kingdom
of the visible world. It is therefore the withdrawn spirit of the outward Holy
Assembly, and it would be unreasonable for those who acknowledge the visible
body to deny that which transcends it' (ibid., p. 641). Of the 'Secret Church'
he further says, 'In the outer courts are those who are prepared for regeneration,
and in the adytaare those who have attained it: these are the Holy Assembly'
(ibid., p. 640). And those who make up that Assembly are not the product of
any esoteric school, for 'There are no admissions-at least of the ceremonial kind-
to the Holy Assembly, but in the last instance the candidate inducts himself'
(p. 641). Finally, the 'Secret Church' may be summarized as 'the integration
of believers in the higher consciousness'. All of which seems to leave little place
for the esoteric Orders with which Waite was so closely involved and which
he so assiduously promoted. Their role would seem to be that of a preparatory
school, because, 'for those secret fraternities at the present day which confess
to two incorporated orders and to have recipients in both, it corresponds to that
third Order from which they claim to hold-though how they do not know'
(p.. 636). Waite, on the other hand, clearly did know.
Waite differed from the occultists of his day in that he wished to disseminate
his ideas rather than to confine themwithin a closed circle of initiates, and-
fortunately for both posterity and the immediate well-being of his family-his
publishers were equally eager for that dissemination. By 1900 Redway's publishing
firm had failed, but before the end he had taken on an 'articled pupil' in the
person of Philip Sinclair Wellby, a young Cambridge graduate whose people had
'paid something for a seat in Redway's Office and an opportunity to get an insight
into publishing affairs!..-although 'what he could have learned at Hart Street
may be left an open question' (SLY, p. 153). Apparently he learned enough to
feel confident in setting up as a publisher on his own account, and from 1901
to 1908, when his business was amalgamated' with that of William Rider &
Co., Philip Wellby published a miscellaneous selection of books that included
fiction, finely printed gift books, expositions of Spiritualism, and 'The New
Thought Library!..-a series designed to promote the popular metaphysics that
derived from New England Transcendentalism. The most successful 'New
Thought' titles were two collections of essays, edited by Waite: The Gift of the
Spirit (1903) and TheGift of Understanding (1907), the workof Prentice Mulford:
'a fresh and suggestive writer, with quaint turns of thought amidst much fantasia',
although 'his English was impossible, except only in America. It would be
impossible there outside New Thought circles' (SLY, p. 154).
TheGiftofthe Spirit had first been edited for Redway, and Waite later returned
to Mulford in 1913 when he edited Prentice Mulford's Story; but neither Waite
nor Wellby was especially interested in New Thought, the Mulford titles being
purely commercial undertakings. Waite had other wares for Wellby to distribute,
the first of which was The Lifeof Louis Claude de Saint -Martin, which Redway
had printed, but failedto issue, in 1900. Wellby, who had acquired the sheets,
published the book in May 1901, but his first independent publication of Waite
took place twelve months later, when he issued the new collection of poems,
A Book ofMystery and Vision. By this time WeBby had become a personal friend
of Waite and of Waite's circle; he was captivated by Dora and A Book ofMystery
and Vision was designed with great care (the cover design is by Mary Tourtel,
who w ~ s destined to-fame as the creator of Rupert Bear) in order to please her.
When Waite died, The Occult Review carried an obituary in the form of 'A
Personal Tribute' by Wellby (issue ofJuly 1942). Among his reminiscences Wellby
describes his own participation in thejunketings with Machen-he recalledWaite's
'rendering of "There were three sailors of Bristol City" in. recitativo [which]
was moreforceful than melodious', the 'all-night conferences ' on esoteric matters
.at Waite's home in Ealing.. and days spent atPolruan with Waite, Dora, and
Granville. But he says nothing of the books he published for Waite, although
he could. have been justly proud of any of them.
After A Book of Mystery and Vision came a translation of De Senancour's
Obermann (1903); a reissue of Eckartshausen's Cloud upon theSanctuary (1903),
with a new introduction by Waite; Strange Houses of Sleep (1906); and a little
collection of aphorisms entitled Steps to the Crown (1907). Among these
aphorisms-often splendidly cynical, as with: 'Conventional morality is like
elementary education-all that is needed by the bourgeois-e-are some which refer
to his relationship with Dora-either defensively ('There are certain conditions
under which .itismore sinful to keep the law than to break it') or ironically
('Many of us escape from happiness only by the skin of our teeth').
But Wellby was not his only publisher. As a result ofcorresponding, in 1905,
with the RevdW. Robertson Nicoll, Waite was asked to produce a collection
of essays on mysticism for Hodder & Stoughton (for whom Nicoll was a
consultant). He promplypillaged the columns of Horlick's Magazine for both
his acknowledged and pseudonymous articles and compiled Studies inMysticism-
which misleading title his publishers urged upon him as they could not understand
what. he meant by Studies in the Secret Tiadition. Failing to understand the title
they necessarily failed to comprehend the text and Waite's first book for Hodder
& Stoughton was also hislast.
The Holy Grail was a different matter. The Hidden Church of the Holy Graal
was completed in 1908 and ought to have gone with all the other Wellby
publications to Rider & Co.-the more so in that many of the chapters had first
appeared in.The Occult Review, a journal founded in 1905 by the Hon. Ralph
Shirley, who not only owned Rider & Co. but was also a friend of Waite. It
was taken, however, to Rebman & Co., an unlikely choice given that the firm
specialized in .medical books; hut there were esoteric rather. than commercial
reasons. One of the partners in thefirm.ofRebman was Hugh Elliott, a masonic
colleague ofWaite' s and an active member of the Golden Dawn-more precisely
of the Stella Matutina, the Chief of which was Dr Robert W. Felkin, who was
also involved with Rebman & Co. At the time Waite was involved (as we shall
see) in arranging a Concordat between the Stella Matutina and his.own branch
of the Order; Felkin was anxious to have the Hidden Church published by Rebman,
and as it suited Waite to accommodate Felkin, to Rebman it went.
The firm also published. The Secret Tradition in Freemasonry for Waite,
presumably because of its perceived importance from an esoteric point of view:
commercially it was a hopeless proposition, as there could never be adequate sales
to recoup the cost of printing two large and profusely illustrated volumes on
. such a specialized subject. Shortlyafterwards, 'a day came when the publishing
business of Rebmanshut up its doors'. It was not an uncommon fate for Waite's
Rider & Co. was, however, made ofsterner stuff. The.firm was well established
on the basis ofits profitable Timber Trades'Journal and Ralph Shirley (1865-1946),
a younger brother of the Eleventh Earl Ferrers, was well able to indulge his penchant
for occult literature. He began with TheOccult Review. In the first issue, forJanuary
1905, he published seven articles which outlined andjustified various approaches
to 'the investigation of super-normal phenomena and the study and discussion
of psychological problems ', He urged his readers not to condemn prematurely
'an attempt to deal on scientific lines with subjects which havefalleninto disrepute
through association with charlatanry, on the one hand, andthroughthe long
refusal of scientific minds to investigate the evidence on which they are based,
on the other'. The editorial ended with a series of questions and a firm
How nlany of the beliefs condemned or ignored at one time or another by the science of the
day are capable ofresuscitation in the light of fuller knowledge? Which of them is to be regarded
as a chose jugee? Which has a claim to a fresh hearing?
This is the field of inquiry which it is proposed to cover in the pages of the OCCULT
Waite supported the journal from the beginning (his article 'The Life of
the Mystic' was printed in the first issue), and when Rider & Co. swallowed
up Philip WeBby, Waite was well content for he now had a publisher who
sympathized with his work and was not in the slightest danger of commercial
failure. Over a period of twenty years Ralph Shirley would publish twenty books
for Waite and provide him with an evenmore secure income from his contributions
to the Occult Review: in the summer of 1907 Waite wrote the editorials during
Shirley's absence abroad, and four years later took over the 'Periodical Literature'
feature (the regular review of the journal's contemporaries), giving it up only
in 1931 when its format was changed. Allthis in addition to a constant stream
of book reviews.
But the Occult Review was aimed at a popular market, and for more learned
papers Waite was obliged to look elsewhere. Initially he attempted to set up a
publishing scheme of his own, a grandiose affair that styled itself 'The Hermetic
Text Society'. It progressed as far as a prospectus, printed in 1908, which offered
a list of sixty potential titles for translating and editing, arranged under fiveheadings
(with a sixth section for 'Miscellaneous and unclassified works'): Great Texts
of Christian Mysticism; Lesser Texts ofChristian Mysticism; The Literature of
the Rosy Cross; the Archaeology .of Freemasonry and Templarism; and, The
Literature of Alchemy.
According to the prospectus, the 'primary intention' of the Society was 'to
place within the reach of its members the great and memorable texts of Christian
Mysticism, of all schools and periods, excluding nothing on the ground of
difficulties in doctrine, but distinguishing clearly the position of each text in
relation to the chief schools of doctrine'. Two 'subsidiary objects', which followed
from this, were 'to illustrate the mysteries of sanctity as exhibited in Christian
Mysticism by referenceto all concurrent sources of esoteric knowledge in Europe,
and to test that knowledge in the light of Christian Mysticism'. The Director
General of the Hermetic Text Society was to be Waite, the Secretary General
was to be Philip Wellby, and Dora Stuart-Menteath was to be Treasurer. There
was also to be a ten-man 'Advisory Committee' of experts in various fields of
esoteric lore, but as Waite got no further than drawing up a provisional list of
likely candidates-almost all of whomwere his cronies in the ranks of the Golden
Dawn-the list of projected titles (which included TheHidden Church ofthe Holy
Graal and others of his future works) was evidently his, and his alone.
The Hermetic Text Society never descended into the World of Action, but
other societiesdid. One member of Waite's proposed 'Advisory Committee' who
was not a member of the Golden Dawn was the former editor of the Theosophical
Review, G. R. S. Mead; 2 he would haveadvisedon 'Neoplatonism and Gnosticism',
on which subjects he was an acknowledged authority (in Theosophical circles
at least; his association with the Theosophical Society had condemned him-
quite unjustly-in theeyes of the academic world). He was also, in 1908, the
leader of the 'soberer, saner and more decent members' of the British Section
of the Theosophical Societywhich was.then embroiled in the 'Leadbeater Scandal'.
Mead had joined the Theosophical Society in 1884, becoming, in 1889, the
private secretary of Madame Blavatsky and sub-editor of Lucifer. After her death
he became editor of the journal, which he renamed The Theosophical Review;
edited the third volume of The Secret Doctrine; and achieved such prominence
in the society that he was appointed General Secretary for Europe. He did not,
however, follow Annie Besant-Madame Blavatsky's effective successor in the
society-in her admiration for the seership of C. W. Leadbeater, which Mead
felt was an 'insidious influence' in the society. In 1906 Leadbeater was accused
of teaching boys who had been placed in his care the practice of mutual
masturbation, but when the parents of these boys complained privately to Annie
Besant she refused to condemn her pederastic ally and upbraided the parents for
making their accusations. They then made their complaints public, Leadbeater
was condemned by ajudicial committee of the society and forced to resign, and
all seemed to be well.
But in 1907 Colonel Olcott, the president of the Theosophical Society, died
and Annie Besant was elected to succeed him. Shortly after this an American
theosophist, Dr Weller VanHook, openly advocatedthe desirabilityof Leadbeater's
sexual teachings and Annie Besant invited Leadbeater to renew his membership.
Mead, and some seven hundred other members of the British Section, immediately
expressed their outrage at Leadbeater's restoration to grace by resigning en masse.
Not all of them supported Mead in his desire to promote a scholarly approach
to the 'Comparative study of Religion and Philosophy', but those who did helped
him to found a new journal, The Quest, and a new society namedafter it.
Mead's intention was 'to found a cleansociety, an association that should
be genuinely undogmatic, unpretentious, claiming no pseudo-revelations, and
truly honest inside and out,-to gather together a group of seekers who desired
greatly and earnestly to be instructed by any who had competent knowledge
of the many subjects which could enter into the wide programme of our Spiritual
Quest. "Esotericism" and' 'occultism" were to be eschewedas corrupting rather
than helpful' ('The Quest-Old and New', in The Quest April 1926, p. 297).
He was alsoinsistent that the society should havea quarterlyJournal, and having
settled on a name for it, TheQuest, he decided to give the society the same name.
Towards the end of 1908 Mead drew in a number of his non-Theosophical .
friends, Waite among them; a provisional constitution was drawn up, and the
officersand committee of the society were elected. Mead, of course, was president
but it was Waite rather than any of the escapees from the Theosophical Society
who became vice-president, and it was Waite who was responsible for the final
form of words in the Society's published 'Objects'. These were.
(i) To promote investigation and comparative study of religion,
philosophy and science, on the basis of experience.
(ii) To encourage the expression of the ideal in beautiful forms.
A preliminary meeting, to finalize the 'Constitution, Rules and Regulations',
was held on 29January 1909, to be followed by the inaugural public meeting
at Kensington Town Hall on 11 March.
At the first meeting both Mead and Waite addressed the audience; Mead
spoke on 'The Nature of the Quest' but there is no record of what was said
by Waite. He spoke again at the Society's third meeting in April, and that lecture
was printed in the first issue of The Quest (October 1909) under the title 'The
Romance of the Holy Graal'. Initially, the Society 'was practically ancillary to
the Review, designed to support it; for outside the Quarterly its activitiesconsisted
solely in giving some half... a-dozen public lectures a term at Kensington Town
Hall' ('The Quest-Old and New', p. 299). Gradually, however, both public
and private lectures increased in number, the society grew, and in 1919 it obtained
a home of its own at 27ClarevilleGardens, South Kensington ('Two large Studios,
one foraLecture Room and the other for a Library and Reading Room'). Here
it remained, as energetic as ever, until pressing financial problems brought it
to an end in. 1930.
The Quest Society was unique. It had been the first-and indeed, the only-
scholarlybody devoted to the sympathetic study of subjects that are .generally
classedas 'metaphysical', or, somewhat lesskindly and rather unfairly, as 'esoteric'.
The quarterly had been a forum for sound academic debate and had published
the work of .scholars of the stature of Bultmann, Martin Buber, and
Coomaraswamy, together with literary contributions from such figures as Ezra
Pound, GustavMeyrink, Arthur Machen, and W. B. Yeats. Somewhat surprisingly,
but possiblybecausehe depended on his writing for his income and contributions
to The Quest were 'all for love. We could not afford to pay our contributors a
penny', Waite wrote little for the quarterly. although he remained a staunch
supporter of the society-and a friend of Mead-to the end of its days.
But while the Quest Society flourished another esoteric body, and one much
dearer to Waite's heart, floundered-its troubles due, in no small part, to the
actions of Marcus Worsley Blackden, who was the first 'ordinary member' of
the Quest Society's council. He was also a founder member of another body,
the Independent and Rectified Rite: Waite's version of the Hermetic Order of
the Golden Dawn.
________12 ______
EARLy in 1867, at a time when the young A. E. Waite was preparing for his
first communion, the prehistory of the Golden Dawn was being acted out. Two
English Freemasons, R. W. Little and W. J. Hughan, were advanced through
a series of Grades in the Rosicrucian Society in Scotia (they had been admitted
to the first, or Zelator Grade on 31December 1866),so that they would be qualified
to form a similar society in England. On 1June 1867, at Aldermanbury in the
City of London, the Societas Rosicrueiana inAnglia held itsfirst meeting, although
it waslooked upon asa reconstitution rather than an inauguration, for the members
maintained that they were reviving a dormant society that had been active during
the 1850s. This society, in turn, was thought to have preservedthe ethos, if not
the historical continuity, of the original Rosicrucian Brotherhood of the early
seventeenth century; that such a Brotherhood may never have existed did not
troublethe members of the S.R.I.A.: what mattered was that they should preserve
its principles.
The three pamphlets (known as the Rosicrucian Manifestos) on which the
Rosicrucian myth was founded, were published in Germany between 1614and
1616. They were the Fama Fraternitatis, ConfessioFraternitatis, and Chymische Hocnzeit
(The Chemical Wedding); an thought to have been the work of a prominent
Lutheran scholar, Johann ValentinAndreae, and were possiblyissuedwith apolitical
intent. Whether or not this was so, they caught the popular imagination and
stimulated theologians, occultists, and satirists to write innumerable attacks upon,
and defences of, the putative Rosicrucians.
As for the myth itself, it concerned the life and work of one Christian
Rosencreutz, a mystic and adept of the fifteenth century who founded, it was
claimed; a secret Fraternity with the aim of propagating the esoteric wisdom
he had acquired during his travels in the Holy Land, Egypt, and North AJrica.
In addition to their esoteric studies, the members of his Fraternity sought for
spiritual development and 'practised acts ofbenevolencev-especially the healing
of the sick. After the death of Christian Rosencreutz, in 1484, his body was
embalmed and sealedwithin aseven-sided vault, the location ofwhich remained
secret for 120 years until 1604, when it was discovered by chance, opened, and
found to contain not only the perfectlypreservedbody, but alsosecret manuscripts,
an ever-burning lamp, and other marvels. The vault was resealedand the Fraternity,
revitalizedby the discovery, continued to flourish-albeit in secret-down through
the centuries.
At various times during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries' self-styled
Rosicrucian bodies arose, briefly flowered, and invariably faded away, leaving
nothing behind them save greater or lesser additions to the accumulated store
of esoteric wisdom. The S.R.I.A.,however, was significantly different from its
predecessors: firstly, it arose in a country where it would not be persecuted by
either Church or State; secondly, it displayedremarkable staying power (it is still
active today); and thirdly, it confined its membership to freemasons who were
alsoprofessedChristians. By 1880it was well establishedasa thoroughly respectable
body whose members engaged in nothing more nefarious than the intellectual
pursuit of the occult sciences; and in that year the Society gained a new member
whose inventive genius in the field of occultism was second to none: Dr William
Wynn Westcott. 1
Westcott was, as befitted a Rosicrucian, a medical practitioner as well as
being an active freemason and an enthusiastic believer in the reality of the
Rosicrucian myth. He was also a kabbalist, a keen theosophist, and a supporter
'from its inception, in 1884, of Anna Kingsford and Edward Maitland's 'Hermetic
Society', which laid great emphasis on the Western as opposed to the Eastern
tradition of occultism. All these activities led him to recognize the contribution
that ladies could-and did-make to the advancement of occult knowledge, and
he developed the notion of creating a secret society of men and women 'for the
purpose of the study of Occult Science, and the further investigation of the
Mysteries of Life and Death, and our Environment '. There was also, so Westcott
argued, every justification for not including a masonic qualification and for
including members of both sexes: 'on the Continent many groups of Rosicrucian
initiates and adepts had admitted men who were not Freemasons, and evenlearned
women, to their grades and assemblies. This may have been a departure from
the original rules of the Society, as first designed by C.R. our Founder; it is
a point left undecided by the early Rosicrucian published literature, but there are
extant documents to show that women were admitted in the 17th and 18th
centuries' (The Rosicrucian Society of England, 1915, p. 3). But Westcott was
unwilling that the onus of creation should be placed on his shoulders alone; an
additional, more esoteric creator was also needed.
Being a competent occultist, Westcott accordingly created the creator. At
some time during 1887 Westcott had obtained, from what source he never made
clear, a seriesof manuscripts in cipher, which proved, upon decoding, to be outlines
of the ~ n i t i a t o r y rituals of an occult order. Also among the manuscripts was the
name of aGerman adept-Fraulein Anna Sprengel, or Soror SapiensDominabitur
Astris-together with her address at Stuttgart. Westcott promptly wrote to her
and, in November 1887, received aneffusive reply appointing him to the Grade
of Adeptus Exemptus and authorizing him to found' a new English Society of
the Golden Dawn. He was further empowered to 'choose two learned persons
in order to make up the first three Masters', and these he duly selected from
within the ranks of the S.R.I.A.
He was by now Secretary-Generalof the Society, and chose as his companions
two equally prominent members: Dr W. R. Woodman (1828-91), the Supreme
Magus (i.e. Head) of the Society and a learned kabbalist, and S.L.M. Mathers,
a member of the Society's High Council who had already expanded the rituals
on Westcott's behalf and converted them.into workable form. On 1 March 1888
the three Chiefs issued themselves with a charter to found 'Isis-Urania Temple
No.3', and gave themselves roles that mirrored their positions in the S.RJ.A.:
Woodman was Imperator; Westcott was Cancellarius (Secretary); and Mathers
Praemonstrator (effectivelyDirector of Ceremonies-in the S.RJ.A. he was at
that time Conductor of Novices). Now that the Order had been founded, Anna
Sprengel had become a liabilityand Westcott disposedof her-although not before
she had 'sent' him a variety of occult manuscripts and five further letters. In
August 1890 a final letter arrived, from an unknown Brother of the Order,
announcing the sudden death of 'our learned friend S.D.A.'. Careful examination
of the letters has indicated the virtual certainty of their having been forged on
Westcott's behalf; 3 and it is almost as certain that he forged the original cipher
manuscripts (certainly they were of very recent origin); but however reprehensible
his actions may have been, they were not carried out for personal gain.
The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn was created in order to further
the systematic study of the occult sciences and was immediately welcomed by
the occult establishment of its day (although Madame Blavatsky had reservations
until she was reassured that membership of the Order would not deplete the
ranks of the Theosophical Society). It offeredits members a sequence of initiatory
rituals of a very eclectic nature that combined Egyptian, kabbalistic, and
Rosicrucian symbolism, together with prescribed courses of study appropriate
to each step in the five Grades of the Outer order-the Grades being those of
Neophyte, Zelator, Theoricus, Practicus, and Philosophus. Each Grade abovethat
of Neophyte was related toone of the ten Sephiroth of the kabbalistic Treeof Life,
and these continued beyond the Outer Order into ayet more secret Second Order,
whose rituals were distinctly magical.
The Second Order, the Rosae Rubeae etAureae Crucis, had existed from the
beginning but had worked no rituals, and members who advanced to become
adepti of the Second Order did so by means of passing examinations. In 1892
this changed, for Mathers had developed his own highly impressive initiatory
____'GOLDEN DEMONS THAT NONE CAN STAY' __- - = - ~ 108
rituals, based upon the myth ofChristian Ro sencreutz, for the 5=6 (each Grade
was numbered) Grade of Adeptus Minor. And whereas the Outer Order
represented theoretical occultism, the Second Order existed for the working of
specifically magical rituals, although not of the debased kind .associated with
medieval grimoires.
By the time. that a workingSecondOrderhadbeen developed, the Golden
Dawn had some 150 members in three temples: Isis-Urania in London, Osiris
in Weston-super-Mare, and Horus in Bradford. Two yearslater, two further temples
had beenfounded-Amen-Rain Edinburgh, and Ahathoor in Paris-and the
membership had risen to two hundred. By 1900 there were, in theory, over 300
members, but many of these were members in name only and the active
membership was little more than half that number, Women formed some one-
third of the total, but in the Second Order-to which all active members aspired
and which most of them attained-they comprised almost one half of the total.
But for all its growth, the Golden Dawn was not a healthy body.
Dr Woodman died in 1891and was succeeded as Imperator by Mathers, whose
autocratic manner soon provoked dissension. In the early days of the Order's
existence awkward or recalcitrant members could be overawed by either Westcott
or Mathers, but as the Second Order grew so did the numbers of independent
and self-assertive members, who were quite capable of standing up to their Chiefs
when they believed themselves to be in the right. The first serious dissent came
in 1896 when Mathers issued a Manifesto tojustify his authority and subsequently
expelled Annie Horniman, refusing to reinstate her even though .the majority
ofSecond Order members petitioned him on her behalf. Further, trouble became
inevitable after 1897, for in March of that year Westcott resigned from all offices
i ~ both the Outer and Second Orders as a consequence of Home Office pressure
(he wasa Coroner, and the State did not approve of his magical activities; as
Aleister Crowley put it, he 'was paid to sit on corpses, not to raisethem'). Without
Westcott's moderating influence, Mathers's autocratic manner became unbearable
and open rebellion was inevitable; but it did not come until 1900.
Long before this, A. E. Waite had joined the Golden Dawn, having heard
of it in 'Theosophical and kindred circles' where, 'the rumours of an Occult
Order making great pretences were abroad in those days . . . Obscure persons
were placing cryptic sigilsafter their names in unexpected communications, as
if to test whether.I was already a member. Dark hints were conveyed in breathless
murmurs.' His descriptions of the 'obscure persons-e-and of those, less obscure,
whom he names-are picturesque, if somewhat unkind:
'A Disciple ofThomas Lake Harris [Dr Berridge] was disposed to be confidential, if he could
obtain licence. People from the North, one of whom made spectacles [T. H. Pattinson; infact,
a watchmaker], went so far as to saythat those who knew could speakand mysteriously referred
to one. Rough customers from the Lowlands of Scotland o.W. Brodie-Innes.. an urbane
and cultured lawyer] talked about strange things abroad in the modern world. It transpired
presently that Macgregor Mathers-who had assumed the additional patronymic presumably
to sustain the cause-was something to do with the darkly glittering business.' The name of
Wynn Westcott also loomed remotely. Mathers was like a comic Blackstone of occult lore
and Westcott like a dull owl, hooting dolefully among cypresses over tombs offalse adepts'
(SLT, p. 124).
This jaundiced picture was painted almost fifty years after the event, and long
after disenchantment with the Golden Dawn had set in. At thetime, Waite was
not unfriendly towards either Westcott or Mathers-and he was eager to join
the Order.
He had met Mathers in 1883, when they were both 'haunting the British
Museum, trying many paths of search', and having been introduced, 'I'suppose
that we must have spoken of occult books or subjects. in one of the corridors,
for he said to me in a hushed voice and with a somewhat awful accent: "I am
a Rosicrucian and a Freemason; therefore I can speak of some things, but of others
I cannot speak." , Waite was unimpressed-real Rosicrucians would not 'parade
the fact', he thought-and looked on Mathers as an eccentric. He recalled another
occasion, when he encountered Mathers 'staggering as usual under a load of books,
and he said:' "I have clothed myselfwith hieroglyphics as with a garment", so
I inferred that he was then deep in Egyptology.. He had a natural faculty for
suggestingin his mystery-language that he had a most profound acquaintance
with any subject he took up, and it went a long way with the unversed-e-as on
those other occasions when they met 'at various occult gatherings of an informal
kind-gatherings ofpeople "interested" and mostly of people agape' (obituary
of MacGregor Mathers, Occult Review, April 1919, pp.197-8).
It is possible that Westcott, too, was at these gatherings-especially if, as
seems most likely, Waite was referring to meetings of the Hermetic Society-
and he may have seen Waite as a likely candidate for the S.R.I.A., for a letter
of 1884, in which Westcott outlined the actitivities of the Society, was found
among papers that had belonged to Waite..But anyinitial enthusiasm for Waite
was destined to be dampened at the publication of The Real History of the
Rosicrucians. 'In a final chapter, Waite had written about 'Modern Rosicrucian
Societies' and had printed in full the Rules and Ordinances of the S.R.I.A. The
members were at first outraged andthen chagrined when they discovered that
none of their publications was protected by copyright. Denied any legal redress,
Westcott appealed to Waite for an apology, which he duly received. Waite assured
Westcott 'that the citations in question will be withdrawn in the next edition,
and in the meantime I shall be pleased to make public any statement concerning
the mistake which has unfortunately occurred in .theoccult periodicals which
I am connected with' (letter of 13.October . 1 8 8 ~ ; printed in the Hig;h Council
S.R.I.A. Minutes, October 1887, p. 6). This was the last thing that Westcott
wanted, for it would haveonly further publicized the Rules and emphasized Waite's
satirical comments upon the Society. Honour was satisfied and Westcott's ruffled
feathers were smoothed.
But not yet Waite's path into the Golden Dawn. He was urgedto join by
Dr Berridge and finally agreed, only to meet with, 'the not unexpected and not
regrettable result ofbeing refused promptly'. This was not to be taken, however,
as a final refusal: 'my application must be repeated a second time, after a certain
spaGe. 1was to learn later on that those of whom nothing was known were admitted
readily, others with preliminaryrejections which were cancelled afterwards' (SLY,
p. 125).
On being admitted, everymember took amotto, usually in Latin, that became
his or her name in the Order, the motto being inscribed on the parchment Roll
of the Order, in chronological sequence, below the solemn Obligation that was
repeated by the Neophyte at the beginning of the Ceremony of Admission. For
some unknown reason Waite signed the Roll twice. The first occasion was in
January 1891, when he was admitted as a Neophyte and became the 99th member
of the Hermetic Orderof the Golden Dawn. The second was in the following
December, after he had attained the 3 =8 Grade of Practicus, and this time he
entered his motto of 'Sacramentum Regis' ('The Sacrament of the King', from
the Vulgate of Tobit, 12:7). He would not have repeated the Obligation a second
time-nor would he have wanted to, for onceis quite enough to accept willingly
the 'awful penalty' for betraying the Order's secrets, 'of voluntarily submitting
myself to a deadly and hostile current of will set in motion by the Chiefs of the
Order, by which I should fall slain or paralysed without visible weapon, as if
blasted by the Lightning-Flash!'
Waite's admission took place at Mathers's home near the Horniman Museum
(of which he was then the curator), and he recalled that he told his wife, 'in
appropriately sardonic terms', that 'I was engaged on a dark errand, of which
nothing could be declared or hinted, so if I failed to return she must communicate
with Scotland Yard and offer certain leading lights on place and time'. As he
had expected, nothing untoward happened and the occasion turned out to be
rather dull: 'I met, however, with nothing worse than a confounding medley
of Symbols, and was handed a brief tabulation of elementary points drawn at
haphazard from familiar occult sources: on these I was supposed to answer given
questions, did I wish to proceed further. They were subjects about which it turned
out that the G:.D:. had nothing to communicate that was other than public
Nonetheless, he stayedthe course. ' My dues were paid, my status thus secured,
my membership straggled on; and I took some further steps with a vague idea
of seeing the business through.' He also arranged for Ada to join-which she
duly did on 2 December 1891, but 'she attended one Meeting only, if I remember
rightly, and at that was tempted to hold up the whole galanty-show, in order
to win her retreat. This kind of thing was not done in such Temples, and I
recommended that she should reserve her speech' (SLY, pp.125-6). Neither Ada
Waite's name nor her motto appear on the Roll and it is possible that she so
reserved her speech that her husband signed on her behalf.
In April 1892 Waite advanced to the 4=7 Grade of Philosophus, but although
he 'stood on the threshold of the Second Order' he proceeded no further. At
this time, he states, 'I began to hear things which, in my several positions at
the moment [he was embarking on the James Elliott venture], told me that I
should be well out of the whole concern. It was not on the score of morality,
seeing that there were Fratres et Sorores; for on this ground it is just to say that
no breath of scandal ever arose in the G:.D:. during all that period. It was a
question of things which had an equivocal legal aspect and in which leading
Members of the Order should not have been concerned, had I been informed
accurately, as there seems no doubt that I was.'
It is not at all clear what this dubious affair was, and Waite evidently did
not make his reasons for withdrawing from the Order clear to the officers: in
the address book of the Order his entry is variously annotated 'in abeyance';
'Demitted 1893'; and 'Poverty clause?' (the Chiefs could waive fees at their
discretion). Waite himself says only, 'I retired or rather demitted without
explanation; and if I thanked my stars that in so doing I missed but little, it
is more than probable that the Hermetic Order of the G:.D:. missed even less.
I had no grist in my granaries for a mill of that kind' (SLY, p. 126).
But Waite had no intention of going without news of the' Order's doings.
He remained friendly with Dr Berridge, who contributed regularly to The
Unknown World, heaped extravagant praise on The Hermetic Museum Restored,
and warned readers of the magazine of the perils of betraying the secrets of
Rosicrucian societies. Gossip he undoubtedly relayed to Waite. Eventually Waite
applied to rejoin the Order, although in expectation, and 'perhaps mischievously
hoping to hear', that his application would be rejected. It was not; and on 17
February 1896 he was 'Re-admitted by ballot', which Waite felt to be due to
'a comparative stranger working in my favour-otherwise Soror Fortiter et Recte
[Annie Hornimanl-and I returned to the dubious fold by the unanimous voice
of the Fellowship' (SLY, p. 160). Perhaps she had discovered, after all, Waite's
eulogy of her father in The Municipal Review.
His own account of his re-admission is otherwise inaccurate. He states that
it was on account of assurances that 'I was missing things that I should value
and of which I could haveno notion at the stage of my demission'; which assurances
came from Robert Palmer Thomas, a railway official who lived at Horbury
Crescent, Notting Hill, and with whom Waite had become friendly. Palmer
Thomas was an enthusiast for all things Rosicrucian (he joined the
1895) and Waite enjoyed both his company-.!He aimed at Culture, and we drank
White Capri at his table--and his conversation-vhe was very fair company along
his particular lines and an incessant talker'. But Palmer Thomas did not enter
the Golden Dawn until 7 November 1896, nine months after Waite had rejoined.
He did, however, proceed rapidly towards the Second Order, and entered it on
21 April 1898; itwas the glories of the Adeptus Minor Grade that he urged upon
Waite, not the prosaic doings of the Outer. Order.
Waite entered the Second Order on 3 March 1899, the 116th member of
the Golden Dawn to do so (he is number 123 on the Roll, but the first four
names are fictitious and Westcott, Mathers, and Woodman are all entered twice);
but once he had passed through the AdeptusMinor ceremony---which required
the candidate to be bound symbolically on the 'Cross ofSuffering' and to witness
the resurrection of the Chief Adept, who represented Christian Rosencreutz,
from a tomb withinan elaborately painted, seven-sided vault-he took little part
in the Second Order activities. Presumably he worked his way through the
prescribed rituals for making and consecrating magical implements and for
constructing Enochian tablets, as well as studyingthe detailed symbolism of the
Tarot cards, together with the. true method of using them for divination. All
this, and a great deal more, was required of the Adept who wished to pass the
examinations that would take him from the sub-grade ofZelatorAdeptus Minor
to that of Theoricus Adeptus Minor; but there is 00 evidence that Waite took
his examinations-or that he .even considered doing so.
The Order itself had increasing problems, both from Mathers's autocratic
manner and from the constant fraying of tempers that followed upon the perpetual
squabbling amongst the members; but these were minor irritations compared
with the bombshell that burst upon the members in February 1900. Florence
Farr," who was then Cancellarius of Isis-Urania and occupied a similar position
in the Second Order, had written to Mathers, who was living in Paris, concerning
problems within the Order and was horrified by hisreply, Mathers evidently
thought that shewas about to form a schismatic group with Westcott and warned
her against him, making the astonishing claimthat Westcott, 'has NEVER been
at anytime either in personal or written communication with. the Secret Chiefs
of the Order, he having either himselfforged orprocured to beforged the professed
correspondence between him and them, and my tongue having been tied all these
years by a previous Oath of Secrecy to him, demanded by him, from. me, before
showing me what hehad either done .or caused to be done or both'. (quoted
in Ellie Howe, Magicians of the Golden Dawn, p. 210). If this was true, then the
whole Order was a sham.
A group of the most prominent members discussed the matter and set up
a committee to investigate the charges against Westcott, but as Mathers refused
to substantiate the charges, and Westcott declined to deny them, there was little
that they could do. Mathers, however, fulminated against them foreven considering
the matter and demanded that. they should surrender the Second Order.vault
to his charge and submit themselves unconditionally to his authority. When
they declined to do so, Mathers sent Aleister .Crowley-who .had supported
Mathers because the London Chiefs refused to admit him to the Second Order
after he had passed through the outer Grades-i-to enforce his demands. The
subsequent events were farcical. Crowley arrived at the Order's premisesin Blythe
Road, Hammersmith, attired 'in Highland dress, a black mask over his face,
and a plaid thrown over his head and shoulders, an enormous gold or gilt cross
on his breast, and a dagger at his side' (Report ofE. A. Hunter, quoted in Howe,
Opt cit., p. 225); he was promptly turfed out, his hired'chuckers-out' sent packing,
Mathers was suspended from his own Order, and the R.R. et A.e. declared its
Freed from Mathers's. paranoid rule, the Second Order framed a New
Constitution on 21 April 1900 and elected a new executive of three Chiefs and
sevenordinary members who were 'specialists in the various studies of the Order'.
Waite was not among those elected, but he was present at the meeting and he
seconded Florence Farr's resolution that both Chiefs and ordinary members of
the executive 'shall stand annually for re-election'. Independence, however, did
not bring harmony to the Order.
Apart from Mathers, one of the principal causesof dissensionwas the existence
within the Order of 'Secret Groups' dedicated to private and unofficial 'occult
working and ceremonial'. Chief among them was Florence Farr's 'Sphere Group',
in which twelve members obtained astral visions by means of ritualized meditation
upon a sphere on which were projected symbols taken from both the Tree of
Life and the Star Maps used in the Order. The Sphere and other groups were
bitterly opposed by Annie Horniman and W. B. Yeats, both of whom looked
upon them as magically wholly undesirable, but no satisfactory solution of the
dispute was arrived at and Miss Horniman eventually resigned. There was also
the very different but equally serious problem of Mme Horos and her husband.
This pair of criminal adventurers had tricked Mathers out of parting with G.D.
rituals and had set up in London a spurious temple of their own that was a cover
for sexual debauchery. It could not last, and in September 1901, Mr Horos was
charged with rape, found guilty-after a trial at which the Golden Dawn was
held up to ridicule-and gaoled for fifteen years; his wife was sentenced to seven
years imprisonment for aiding and abetting him. The more timid members
immediately flocked out of the Order as eagerly as they hadearlier flocked in.
The troubled Order was now in urgent need of reconstruction, but a
provisional plan for reform-which would have swept awayexaminations, Second
Order rituals, and the very name of the Order-was rejected, and at a meeting
of the Second Order in May 1902, three members (Percy Bullock, DIR. W.
Felkin, and J. W. Brodie-Innes) 5 were elected as Chiefs to govern the Order
for the ensuing year. Brodie-Innes felt that as a Chief he should rule for life,
but, as it turned out, he was to be disappointed in his desire to govern the Order.
None of this concerned Waite, for before 1903 he took little partin the affairs
of the Order (which he dubbed "The House of the Hidden Stairs') and showed
no interest in its tribulations. 'I did not go yesterday to the House of the Hidden
Stairs', he recorded in his diary (7 December 1902). 'I had no wish to hear the
final part of the Triad on the' 'groups question' '. I cannot dance to these children
however much they may pipe and sing.' He had, however, worked during 1901
on the Order's 'Ritual Sub-Committee' until its suspension, and inJanuary 1903
Yeats wrote to him seeking support for his efforts to have the Sub-Committee
revived. At this time Waite evidently had little interest in the future of the Order
and had not considered what his own role in that future might be. He received
Yeats's letter on 10January:
The Frater Demon est Deus Inversus [Yeats's motto in the Order], otherwise Frater Diabolus
and yet otherwise Brother Devil, well known poet, also polytheist, idolater, vision-monger
and theurgist, of the Brotherhood of the House of the Hidden Stairs, writes me under the
hand of the impossible Soror Fortiter et Recte [Annie Horniman] asking whether I will join
him in petitioning the unspeakable triad to reappoint the Ritual Sub-Committee, more especially
as regards the 2= 9 Ritual on which he and I worked together, but owing to throes, convulsions
and revolutions the revision was suspended and our labours threaten to be wasted. They had
nearly passed out of my memory. I have written an amicable reply, for until such time as a
competent architect gets out the schedule of the House's dilapidations, our very joining in
anything for it means & can come to nothing. By all means then let us revise ... (Diary, 10
January 1903).
He was more interested in the 'great heap of unpublished MSS' that Yeats
had acquired from the family of William Stirling, the author of The Canon, a
curiouskabbalistic work that had appeared in 1897. Waite was anxious to see
these manuscripts and arranged to dine with Yeats later in the month. The visit
is duly recorded in his diary:
This is how it fell out yesterday [19January] and in its way it was curious. I reached 18 Woburn
Buildings through a desponding slough of roadway and an atmosphere which held mud in
solution. I rang the bell. Brother Devil descended to receive me looking gaunt in the gaslight
and distorted in the mist which came in with me from the street. He escorted me up to the
top floor where a fire burnt in a common open range provided with an oven and in thisthe
dinner plates were warming. The cloth was laid upon the table towards the window end of
the room. I observed the flagon of Funchal wine partially emptied. A vast female [Yeats's
housekeeper, Mrs Old] was preparing the meal in a room which opened towards the back part
of the house and is, I believe, on ordinary occasions the poet's bedroom.
He made excuses to avoid long discussions on Lady Gregory and ancient Irish
Romances, but discussed the Grail legends, Waite's books and the Golden Dawn:
He told me that the unfortunate Frater --[Waite omits the name] of the House of the Hidden
Stairs had suddenly lost his wife and he evidently found that this was irreparable otherwise
than in the conventional way for she had looked after him most faithfully in the periodic fits
of drink-craving which came over him. This scandal I had not heard previously.
Yeats promised to send on the 'pile of MSS' (they proved to be
disappointing-Waite sent them back and observed that it 'was not a serious
loss to the world' if they should not be published), and they ended their evening
by agreeing that 'allegory in fiction was a product of the middle classes and was
typically bourgeois. Bourgeoiserie is his enemy and is mine.' And yet when Waite
scuppered the plans of Brodie-Innes and took over the Golden Dawn himself,
it was the most eminently respectablepart of the membership that supported him.
__~ __13 _
W HEN the idea of gaining control over the Golden Dawn first occurred to Waite
he saw it as a means to an end-it did not become an end in itself until it was
ajait accompli. He intended to create an entirely new Order of his own, and to
this end he proposed to his colleagues Palmer, Thomas and Marcus Worsley
Blackden 1 (another prominent .member of the Golden Dawn) the creation, of
a 'Secret Council of Rites' that would bring together the various lines of what
Waite saw as a type of masonic (or quasi-masonic) apostolic succession. They
were enthusiastic, and on 2 December 1902 the Secret Council was founded;
'we shall be', Waite noted, 'indeed an occult Order of Unknown Philosophers-a
concealed' kind'.
Both Waite and Blackden had recently been made freemasons, and for twelve
months they had gathered together all the obscure masonic rites they could find.
Not that Waite had any intention of falling foul of the masonic authorities; he
would not encroach on the jurisdiction of Grand Lodge, Grand 'Chapter, Great
Priory, or Supreme Council, and would seek possession of only those rites that
were moribund, quasi-masonic, or unrecognized in England. The rituals of his
own Order would utilize suitable elements from those of all the rites that the
Secret Council controlled. And by the time that the Constitution of the Secret
Council of Rites had been drafted (see Appendix B), in May 1903, he was
determined that the faction-ridden Golden Dawn should be one of the rites that
it controlled.
In March 1903 Waite got wind of serious dissatisfaction within the Order,
when Percy Bullock asked him to a meeting to discuss the Order's future. He
immediately sought out Blackden and 'hinted 'at another coup d'etat' which
Blackden 'seemed disposed to entertain, if by any means we could return the
Order to real vitality'. But Waite still wondered 'whether it is worth all the
panics and exercisings that will be involved in the attempt', and added' Moreover,
there may be another way' (Diary, 21 March 1903).
This was probably areference to the Egyptian Rite of Florence Farr,which
Waite may haveseenas an alternative to theGolden Dawn. On 4March he learned
that he was to be 'received into the nameless rite which I am not betraying by
the initials S:.O:.S:. ', 'If my receptions go on at this rate', he observed, 'I look
shortly to be the most initiated man in Europe'(Diary, 4 March 1903). Waite
did not describe his initiation, which took place on 22 March, beyond saying
that 'it was an experience altogether strange and sudden, and it took place, as
most ceremonies will in an obscure street where faded respectability struggles
unsuccessfully enough with bad drains and a thriving, trade in harlotry'. He
attended further meetings in April, but nothing came of the S:.O:.S:. and he
resumed his plotting of the coup d'etat within the Golden Dawn.
Also in April Waite travelled to Saffron Walden to visit the Revd W. A.
Ayton,2 an elderly clergyman who was at the same time an alchemist, a senior
member of the Golden Dawn (he was admitted in July 1888), and an obsessive
believer in Jesuit conspiracies against Church, State, and occult establishment
alike (Yeats considered him to be 'the most panic-stricken person I have ever
known'). Ayton was convinced that the cipher manuscripts were genuine and
that it, was, of supreme importance to preserve the Order; he was unsure how
best to proceed, but did not demur when Waite 'pointed out that what we wanted
was the Tomb of C.R. [i.e, the Second Order Vault] and that I did not quite
see how we were going to secure it unless I myself was in power, contrived to
remain therein, and shaped the brotherhood to our continued purposes', (Diary,
20April 1903). Waite moved a stepcloser to this goal at the annual general meeting
of the Order on 2 May.
In his autobiography Waite describes the meeting at some length, but gives
little detail. He records how 'Brodie-Innes declaimed the successive clauses of
his Constitution with histrionic magnificence', adding that, 'It fell upon myself
subsequently to take the clauses successively, reciting objections and securing
promises of variations or amendments in severalcases. It began to look ominously
as if the draft might pass, subsequent to alteration there and here, and that Brodie-
Innes would be claiming the Headship of the Rite in consequence' (SLY, p. 228).
In fact there was not the slightest chance of Brodie-Innes succeeding, and
in his diary account of the meeting Waite is both more precise and less inclined
to poetic licence:
[The meeting] divided itself speedily into two factions. Sub Spe [Brodie-Innes] with a meagre
majority which once failed himcompletely and myself with a solid determined minority which
completely blocked everything. The' facts' will stand recorded in such hurried letters as I can
write tomorrow and this is no occasion to go over ground which I must then tread. But it
was almost pitiful to notice the change which came over the poor small pope of Edinburgh
and to compare the grandiloquence of his accent when hefirst spoke with the crestfallen tones
of his later utterance when he found the tables of the previous annual meeting turned upon
him. When I proposed a separation among the elements of this chaos magnum et infirmatum
there was complete disarray: even L.O. [i.e, Levavi Oculos = Percy Bullock] who in secret
is less or more with us was thunderstruck, and chief as he was at the moment, though he
has now retired, when we succeeded in electing M.W.Th. [i.e. Ma Wahanu Thesi = Blackden],
my ally to fill his place until the calling of an emergency meeting, he confessed to me that
the Sub Spe faction had fallen into a great trap unwittingly (Diary, 3 May 1903).
The autobiography is probably correct, however, in stating that, 'This third Annual
Meeting dissolvedin chaos, so far as other matters were concerned, with Brodie-
Innes in a state of white rage' (SLY, p. 228).
During the two months that followed, a seriesof meetings was held at which
the position of both factions was clarified. Waite's group, which was the minority,
set out its views as follows:
1. That a return to the statusquoante 1890 on the lines proposed by the Draft Constitution
of 1903 was impossible or at least undesirable.
2. That the alleged derivation from a Third Order was a matter of opinion and could not
be affirmed certainly.
3. That the election of Chiefs whether autocratic or otherwise was not in accordance with
the status quo ante.
4. That the Chiefs of the Order were originally Masons and that on a return to the status
in question they must again be Masons.
5. That the principle of examination within the Second Order was objectionable.
6. That the continued use of the defective rituals and the setting aside of the revised rituals
could not be tolerated.
7. That the draft ' constitution of 1903 was designed to further individual ambitions.
8. That several persons in the minority felt that a Third Order was about to be forced upon
them without credentials that could be investigated.
Neither Brodie-Innes, nor Felkin, nor any of their followers could be expected
to agree with these views, which were so decidedly opposed to a magical view
of the Order, and an agreement that would unite the two factions was clearly
The minority group, accordingly, opted for a division of the Order, made
the following suggestions-with which Dr Felkin initially concurred-and
eventually issued a Manifesto demanding independence (seeAppendix C). They
1. That division was necessary.
2. That division should be so effected as to secure absolute recognition of the independence
and legitimacy of both bodies who for this purpose should enter into a concordat hereafter
to be drawn up.
3. That the V.H. Frater SACRAME'NTUM REGIS in his capacity as deputy should lay before
the Chiefs certain misconceptions which had originated as to the intentions of the minority.
4. That there should be an equal division ofthe properties, the followers of SACRAMENTUM
REGIS taking those of the Outer order and those of SUBSPE the Inner, the books to be
divided equally.
5. That the Lords and Ladies of the Portal [i.e. those who had taken the first steps towards
entering the SecondOrder but had not reached the Grade of Adeptus Minor1should be
notified concerning the division and permitted to choose their side.
6. That the Outer Order members should fall to those who introduced them.
Brodie-Innes had returned to Scotland after the annual general meeting but
continued his discussions with Waite by way of letters from July to December
1903, when Waite, irritated by what he perceived as Brodie-Innes's nit-picking
and general obtuseness over the points at issue, brought it to a close. The letters
bring out Brodie-Innes's anxiety to obtain his fair share of the plunder: in his
first letter, of 27 July, he told Waite that 'what requires adjustment and, if you
will forgive my saying so, patience and tact is so to arrange that you and your
followers shall haveall your legitimate liberty of action without interfering with
the equally legitimate wishes and aspirations of the other and certainly larger
section.' In other words, to continue their magical progress with Brodie-Innes
as their absolute Chief.
He did not take this position openly, however, and in his next letter, of 5
August, he told Waite: 'I represent no party or section. I have no following,
no authorization. I am either a Chief or a humble private member, and since
you hold the view that three Chiefs are essential to government and that a third
has not yet been duly electedI amobviously towards you only in the latter capacity.'
He added that, 'I happen to be the only practising lawyer inthe Order and have
been technically trained in formulating and criticizing statements and dealing
with evidence.' As a consequence, 'I thought I might be able to help in getting
the points so far threshed out that we might all know what you and your followers
were driving at and what you wanted and also that being all in black and white
there might he no mistake from trusting to memory of interviews, the points
may thus be clearly laid before the Order'.
This he followed with a long letter on8 September, raising questions about
the Manifesto of 24 July. The questions are phrased in a sarcastic manner and
are all unnecessary given that the minority made it quite clear that they wished
fora division into two independent factions and would thus nottry tofoist their
views upon the putative majority. In reply to this letter Waite pointed out that
the aim of the correspondence was to ascertain the meaning of specific clauses
in the Manifesto, whereas the questions Brodie-Innes asked 'are points raised
on the issues and I suppose that they might be extended indefinitely'. He also
rather tartly observed that 'you assured methat you were writing simply as a
member of the Order and not in any official capacity' although 'you are now
acting as the interpreter of the remainder of the Order' (letter of 15September
The somewhat fussycorrespondencedragged on until December, with Brodie-
Innes maintaining that the minority were mistaken in their views and Waite
advocating a Concordat and recognizing the right of the other faction to use
rituals which were a 'combination of spurious archaisms with .the worst style
of journalistic English' (letter of 18 November 1903). Brodie-Innes seemed
unprepared to let the matter go and continued to write to Waite, although-the
exasperated Waite declined to answer. There was, indeed, nothing to saybecause
the newly formed Independent and Rectified Rite of Waite's faction had officially
come into being with its inaugural meeting of 7 November-at which a new
constitution was proclaimed (seeAppendix C), andWaite.Ayton, and Blackden
established as .the three Chiefs.
At the time of the Manifesto, which was also a Declaration ofIndependence,
there were only fourteen Second Order members of the minority faction, but
by the time of the Second Convocation, held on 16 April 1904, Waite was able
to report an increase of eight Second Order members and s e v e ~ from the Outer
Order (including Algernon Blackwood, Arthur Machen, and Pamela Colman
Smith). He was also able to tell the members that revised rituals for the Neophyte
and Zelator Grades had been completed and were ready for use.
Meetings of the .Outer Order of the. Independent and Rectified Rite were
held 'at Mark Masons' Hall, Great Queen Street-as had always been the case
with the Isis-Urania Temple; but it was not until early in 1905that a home was
found for the Second .. Order and Waite could report to the members that 'the
properties of the Second Order havebeen removed from the depository and placed
at 16 Allison Road, Acton, where they are under the care of C. H.Frater
MAWAHANU THESI [Blackden] who has made himself in part responsible for
the expenses of the Home, wherein he has himself arranged to live, and thus
our interests have passed into the best possible hands' (Report of the Chiefs [of
the I & R Rite], 1905). But in 1909 the owner of 'the best possible hands' chose
to marry a first cousin and retire to Fawley in Hampshire. The.. Second Order
vault was then moved to 36aPenywernRoad, Earls Court, and set. up in the
homeof Mrs Helen Rand (Vigilate), where it presumably remained until the
demise of the Order in 1914.
Meanwhile Dr Felkin had established his own version of the Golden Dawn,
the Stella Matunina, and while he was anxious to promote the Third Order
and to retain as much magic as was possible, he was also desirous of entering
into the Concordat with Waitee . Negotiations were difficult and protracted, and
Felkin tended to vacillate; but when Waite suggested that the twofactions might
merge with Felkin. succeeding Ayton as the Third Chief, Felkin took fright at
the prospect of losing his autonomy and agreed to draw up the terms of the
Concordat. J
His followers tended to be suspicious and urged him notto give up anything
to .the. Independent .and .Rectified Rite. In particular. they .resented Waite's
suggestion that the Rolls of the two Orders 'which are now in the possession
of Finem Respice [i.e. Felkin] shall be used in common'. Hugh Elliott (Nobis
est Victoria) wrote to Felkio about this: 'Our real claim to the possession.of
these rolls is our connection with the 3rdOrder. This of course we can't bring
forward but the fact remains, L'Ordre cest nous. It might be possible to make trustees,
but I don't like giving up our control over these rolls' (letter of26 Apri11906).
Elliott alsoobjected to the possibility of Waite's members working StellaMatutina
ceremonies, for 'we certainly can't confer on them any ofour special knowledge!-
knowledge, that is, derived from the Secret Chiefs on the Astral Plane; that it
had filtered down through Dr Felkin's somewhat eccentric mind seemed not
to bother them. The objections, however, were overcome, and eventually-after
Felkinhad consulted Brodie-Innes and obtained his agreement, 'on the
understanding that he IFelkinI is personally responsible for the same-s-the
Concordat was signed in April 1907. (No copy of the document has survived,
but the Notes upon it, which quote some of the clauses, are given in Appendix D.)
The two offshoots-the one magical and the other mystical-of the old
Golden Dawn continued in uneasy harmony for three years. They co-operated
over the printing of a revised Neophyte ritual which had been written by Waite,
with alterations on Felkin's part in the smaller number of copies printed for
his faction (of S"06.copies printed, 3S0 were for Waite and 150 [or Felkin; the
remaining six were fine-paper copies, apparently for Felkin's officers). But the
cost-11.2s.0d-horrified Felkin and he declined to participate in producing
rituals for the more advanced Grades. The Independent and Rectified Rite proved
less parsimonious and by the end of 1910 all the Outer Order Grade rituals had
been printed, together with that of 'The Portal of the Rosy Cross' and the Solemn
Festival of the Equinox.
Felkin was more concerned to find the Secret Chiefs, whom he believedwere
active somewhere in Germany, and to this end he sent, in 1911, one of his members,
Neville Meakin (Ex Oriente Lux), to visit Rudolf Steiner and to take part in
his Rosicrucian ceremonies. Before his departure Meakin had been elevated to
~ t h e Grade of Adeptus Minor by Waite, 'acting as Adeptus Exemptus in Felkin's
Stella Matutina Temple at Bassett Road!.-in order, said Waite, that he should
carry with him 'the fullest Ritual advantage that was possible in his case' (SLT,
p. 221). In fact, Waite was intensely curious as to Steiner's role in the Rosicrucian
movement on the continent, and he questioned Meakin closely on his return,
only to discover that the ceremonies were not as impressive as those in England
and served mainly as a vehicle for propagating Steiner's philosophical teachings.
When Felkin himself visited Steiner in the following year he came back with
a far more flowery account of his own initiation (he and his wife 'were received
together into four grades'), but Waite suspected that many of his experiences
had occurred on the Astral Plane rather than. in the real world.
Later in 1912Steiner himselfvisited London and Waite had a long talk with
him (through an interpreter), in the course of which he discovered that the Felkins'
initiation had indeed been a prosaic affair. Imagination was proving to be only
one of many faultson the part of Felkin-he was alsobecoming somewhat devious.
According to the terms of the Concordat, 'in the one case there is a triple
Headship and in the other the Head is the Most Honoured Frater Finem Respice,
7= 4, and him only'; but in July 1910 Waite discovered that Felkin maintained
a system of three Chiefs in the Stella Matutina and had thus breached the terms
of the agreement. In itself this may have mattered little, but Waite suspected
that one of the three Chiefs was Brodie-Innes who had recently revivedthe Amen-
Ra Temple at Edinburgh. When challenged over this Felkin denied that he had
any 'co-equal Chiefs'; or indeed any 'that were not co-equal', despite statements
to the contrary that Felkin's members had made to Waite.
The Concordat survived this episode but was becoming increasingly
unworkable. Felkin was working with Brodie-Innes, who encouraged him to
break with Waite. He told Felkin that Waite had 'behaved very badly, indeed
I should say rather dishonestly. He obtained possession of the properties that
were ours by means of a dodge, which to say the least was sharp practice. He
took the title of ISIS URANIA:, to which he had no more right than to call himself
Prince of Wales. He changed the constitution of the Order in essentials without
the smallest authority, and at his own hand. Indeed in refusing to acknowledge
a Third Order, it is questionable whether he is validly a member at all' (undated
letter, probably of 1911). Brodie-Innescontinued, 'Is there anybenfit in maintaining
the Concordat ?or do we get any good out of it? I understand the Masters take
precisely the same view.' This appeal to the Secret Chiefs was enough for Felkin
and the Concordat came to an end in 1912.
At the same time the Independent and Rectified Rite was developingproblems
of its own. In general its members were more educated than those of the Stella
Matutina, and while this had its advantages-Waite and D. He : S. Nicholson,
who joined the Order in 1910, worked together over the English edition of
Lopukhin's Some Characteristics of the Interior Church, Waite providing the
Introduction to Nicholson's translation-the members tended to challenge
anything with which they disagreed. Thus in March 1910 Battiscombe Gunn,
who was an artist, an Egyptologist and anoriental linguist, argued at great length
over the correct transliteration of Hebrew terms used in the Grade rituals; Waite
was wise enough to listen and in the printed rituals Gunn's corrections were
made. The other Egyptologist in the ranks of the Independent and Rectified
Rite was to prove more difficult to placate.
After his marriage, Blackden had retired from an active role in the Order,
but as Waite became increasingly sceptical about the contents of the cipher
manuscripts the members-who wished to believe in their antiquity-became
restive and called upon Blackden for support. He 'emerged from retirement' and
argued that the fact of the manuscripts being allegedly earlier than the date of
the discovery of the Rosetta Stone (which first enabled translation from the
Egyptian to be made) was of no consequence, because 'the Egyptian fellaheen,
long prior to the discovery in question could have been and probably were
acquainted with the fact that certain hieroglyphic texts were Funerary Rituals'.
Faced with such total opposition to his own views on the part of his co-Chief,
Waite was placed in an impossible position and in 1914, after 'an unprofitable
debate', he 'withdrew his copyright Rituals and dissolved the Rite as at that
time constituted' (Waite, Historical Notes on the 'Ordo S.R. et A.C.').
For Waite it was the end of the Isis-Urania Temple and the end of the Golden
Dawn, but his dream of a Rosicrucian Order was still very much alive. On 9
July 1915 he and ten former members of the Independent and Rectified Rite
consecrated the Salvator Mundi Temple of the Fellowship of the Rosy Cross,
in a room at De Keyser's Hotel on Victoria Embankment. Nine others, who
were not present, brought the new Order's strength up to twenty.
Within a year Waite had produced new rituals for all the Outer Grades;
the structure of the Order was still based upon the kabbalistic Tree of Life but
the new rituals were very different from the old: all Egyptian and pagan references
were gone, the symbolism was wholly Rosicrucian and Christian, and magic
was utterly eschewed. The hierarchy of the Fellowship was also different; there
was one head of the Order only: the Imperator, who was Waite; and none of
the offices calledfor a masonic qualification. The daysof a 'triple masonic headship'
were over. In future Waite's masonic activities would be confined to their proper
ATTHE time the Independent and Rectified Rite of the Golden. Dawn was
declaring its independence from the old Order, Waite had been afreemason for
barely two years; but his enthusiasm for Freemasonry was boundless, for he saw
it, not as did Grand Lodge-as 'a peculiar system of Morality, veiled in Allegory,
and illustrated by Symbols-s-but as yet another aspect of the Secret.Tradition,
and thus one more secret pathto a direct experience of God. In his earlier years
his approach tothe Craft had been more prosaic, and it was not until he reached
the age of 43 that he was entered, passed, and. finally raised as a Master Mason.
His earliest comments on Freemasonry, in TheReal History ofthe Rosicrucians,
were somewhat disdainful:
Originally an association forthe diffusion of natural morality, it is now simply a benefit society.
The improvement of mankind and the encouragementofphilanthropy wereand are its ostensible
objects ... It preaches a natural morality, and has so little interest in mysticism that it daily
misinterprets and practically despises its own mystical symbols' (pp. 403-4).
He also described the titles given to the 18th degree of the Ancient and Accepted
Rite as 'splendid inanities of occult nomenclature' and compared the degree
unfavourably with the true Rosicrucian fraternity. But in the course of a very
few years his attitude had changed.
In 1890he returned to the subject of Freemasonryin an article for TheBritish
Mail. 'The true object of the Masonic Fraternity', he declared,
differs from the aims which have been ascribed to it precisely in that way in which a universal
institution would be expected to differ from the purpose of a fanatical craze. In its vulgar aspect
its object is benevolence and providence; in its esoteric significance it is an attempt to achieve
the moral regeneration of the human race; by the construction of a pure, unsectarian system
of morality, to create the perfect man.
Andthis secret purpose remains inviolate because 'the vacuous nature ofthe great
arcanum of allegoricalarchitecture is its permanent protection' (issue of March
1890). This conviction, that the true nature of the Craft had become. hidden
and that Freemasonry had lost its way, was stressed by Waite in the chapter on
'The Freemasons' in TheOccult Sciences (1891). Therehe counsels 'the soul-student
at the threshold of mystic research' to 'overcome this gravitation of his desires
towards Masonry', because 'There is no light there; there is no secret of the soul
enshrined in the recesses of its suggestive ceremonial.' But although Masonry
'has been corrupted by worldly wealth and magnificence', its true principles still
lie hidden within it, and Waite hopes 'that within theranks of the brotherhood,
but without if not within, it will be possible to .inform them with newlife'
(pp. 213, 215). It is also madequite clear that if the restoration ofthose principles
is done from without, it will be the work of Waite himself.
Waite does not expect his readers to take him on trust: 'At the same time
we askonly a tentative faith. In aforthcoming' 'Esoteric History of Freemasonry",
he will find the entire subject exposed, with the.necessary proofs, documents
and available sources of knowledge. (p. 214). He had completed his Notes on the
Esoteric History of Freemasonry. Its Doctrine, Symbols and Science by 1893 but the
book was never published, perhaps because even the ever-optimistic James Elliott
felt that there was no market for it. The text of the book (which survives in
a slightly later typescript version) is divided into five parts, commencing with
a straight-forward 'Notes and Collections for a Chronology of Masonry',
containing information that Waite had obtained from his researchesat the British
Museum. This is followed by an account of Cagliostro's 'Egyptian Masonry'
and similar obscure rites of the eighteenth century, while a third part, on 'Alchemy
and Masonry' draws parallels between the two sets of symbolism. The last two
parts, however, are quite different: 'Notes on the Historical Connection between
Masonry and Mysticism' and 'Masonic Doctrine and Symbolism in the
Light of Mysticism', both show considerable insight into the intricacies of
masonic symbolism and foreshadow the ideas that Waite was to develop later
in The Secret Tradition in Freemasonry. But the Esoteric History was shelved, and
it was by a quite different path from that of mysticism that Waite drew closer
to the Craft.
During the early 1890s there had been much fluttering in masonic dovecotes
over the publication in Paris of the sensational tales of one 'Dr Bataille', under
the title LeDiable auXIXe Siecle; as the plot of this luridly illustrated part-work
unfolded week by week, it becameclear that it was built upon the earlier revelations
of 'Leo Taxil', who hadproclaimed the existence of the 'New and Reformed
Palladium', an allegedly androgynous. and satanic rite. ultimately derived from
AlbertPike, one of the most prominent of American freemasons. To this mass
of sensational rubbish was added the Memoires d'uneEx-Palladiste, the supposed
confessions of 'Miss Diana Vaughan', a penitent from the satanic fold who had
become-a convert to Rome. In due course the authors of these ridiculous tales
of satanic wonders, .Charles Hacks (Dr Bataille) and Gabriel Jogand-Pages (Leo
Taxil/Diana Vaughan) revealed themselvesas hoaxers who had set out to discomfit
the clerical anti-masonic lobby in France, but not before they had outraged
freeinasons in England.
'Diana Vaughan' had claimed that the 'real headof the EnglishLuciferians'
was Dr William Wynn Westcott, whose address shecorrectly gave and whom
shealsodescribed, alsocorrectly, asSupremeMagus of the S.R.LA. In addition
shelistedall the membersof the High Council of the Societywhom sheclaimed
were 'Chiefs of the Third Luciferian Order'. The honour of Westcott and his
colleagues-who were quite innocent of these startling charges-was defended
by Waite, who analysed and demolished the whole story of the Palladium in
his book Devil-Worship inFrance(1896) after previously rebutting the charges of
DianaVaughan in the columnsof Light. Westcott, who hadjust welcomed Waite
back into the fold of the Golden Dawn, was delighted at Waite's exposure of
a 'gross libelwhich is at the sametime anabominable andcruel falsehood' (Devil-
Worship, p. 280). Waite was further praised by John Yarker, who reviewed the
book for The Freemason and who was especially pleased because he himself had
been described not only -as head of the Rite of Memphis and Mizraim (which
he was) but also as a prominent Satanist '(which he was not).
The Diana Vaughan affair was nothing more than a flash in the pan, and
Waite's secondbook on the Palladium, Diana Vaughan and the Question ofModern
Palladism, remainedunpublished. But his role was not forgotten, and when he
becameinterestedin Martinism-a rite basedlooselyon the philosophyof Louis
Claude de Saint-Martin, 'The Unknown Philosopher' (1743-1803), and on the
teachings of hismentor, Martinesde Pasqually (1715-79)-John Yarker, to whom
he wrote for advice about the Martinist Order, encouraged him to join:
I found an objection in the Masonic branch ofthe Order of StMartin to receive a non-mason,
and I have no doubt that it would be found inconvenient both to you and to them. However,
that need not interfere with my conferring the Order upon you as I had it myself from a non-
mason, the Baron Surdi of Prague. The Ritual is properly in 4 books-I enclose you the first,
and you need only send me a short note that you conform yourself entirely to carry out the
Oblligation], Youcan then proceed on your own account to form a nonmasonic branch, and
when you have done something I daresayyou might get a Charter from 'Papus', for a London
body (letter of 30 January 1897).
Waite was delighted, and sent his obligation by return, at the same time
expressing a wish to promote the Order: 'I thank you most cordiallyfor the
honour which you have done me in conferringupon me the Order of St Martin.
The fact that I amnot a Mason makes that honour somewhatexceptional, and
I can but value it the more highly in consequence.' He returned the rituals to
Yarker and addedthe hope that 'I shallprove useful, asI shallcertainlyendeavour
to be active, in the diffusion of the Order among occult students who are not
Masons' (letter of 5 February 1897). There is no evidence that Waite applied
for a Charter, but Papus(Dr GerardEncausse, 1865-1916), the founder in 1884
of the Martinist Order, referred to the setting-up of two new 'Formations' in
England when he addressed the International Congress of Spiritualistsin 1898;
one of these may have involved Waite.
He did, however, sendPapus a copyof his book Louis Claude de Saint-Martin
when it was published in 1901, and expressed his satisfaction on hearing that
Papus liked it: 'I learned with very sincere satisfaction that you had formed a
good opinion of the book. There is no opinion that I could hold in such high
estimation as you have every means of knowing and have done such admirable
work yourselfin the samedirection' (letter of 25 May 1901). It is an extremely
thorough study of Saint-Martin and Waite succeeded in the difficult task of
presenting Saint-Martin's ideas clearlyand systematically; but Papus could not
have read the book carefully, or he would have taken undoubted exception to
Waite'sstatementthat Martinismis 'abody of mystic doctrine, andnot aMasonic
Rite devised bySaint-Martin to replace the Elect Cohens [i.e, Pasqually's Rite]'
and to his advice to his readers 'to bear in mind that upon historical questions'
the criterion of evidence is not invariably sorigorous in Franceasit is in England
(pp. 73, 459).
Papus was, in fact, soimpressed that he awarded Waitethe degree of'Docteur
en Hermetisme' fromhis 'EcolesuperieurelibredesSciences Hermetiques', The
degreewasacademically worthless but Waiteeventually put it to good usewhen
it providedhim with a pseudonymfor his anthology of the writings of Andrew
JacksonDavis. Once he had enteredFreemasonryWaitebroke with Papus when
helearned of the badodour in which Papus washeldbyorthodox masonic bodies;
but the man who advised him to make the break, Edouard Blitz, the head of
the Martinist Order in America, would in turn provide him with something
far more significant than Martinism.
In 1901 Waitewasfirmly established within the GoldenDawn, but herealized
that it waseffectively amoribundbodyandboth heandMarcus Worsley Blackden
began to look for some meansto. revive it-or at least to provide a substitute.
Waite's own account of his entry into Freemasonry makes this clear:
A day came when Blackden and I began to think seriously of Freemasonry and to wonder
whether a deeper insight into the meaning and symbolism of Ritual would be gained byjoining
the most predominant and world-wide combination of Rites ... There is no question that
an important side of the tentative consideration was whether, were such a course adopted,
the Order of the Golden Dawn might profit thereby (SLY, p. 161).
This wasnot exactlythe whole truth, for Waitealready knewenough of masonic
ceremonial and its symbolism to satisfy the needs of any reconstituted rituals
within the GoldenDawn, andhisfurther statement 'that I didnot fail to anticipate
an extreme probability of in the High Gradecircles, ifnot in Craft and
129 ------'BROTHERHOOD IS RELIGION' _==...:;.. 128
Arch, with at least a few others of our own dedications, to whom symbolism
spoke a language and Ritual opened a realm of grace' (SLT, p. 161) gives a wrong
emphasis, for those few freemasons who were 'of our 'own dedications' were
to be found already within the confines of the Golden Dawn.
The most probable reason for Waite's seeking admission to Freemasonry
at this time was his growing awareness that only by passing through the Craft
degrees and the Holy Royal Arch would he be able to enter those Higher Degrees
whose rites he so eagerly desired. To this end he sought the help of Palmer Thomas,
who 'offered high encouragement' and persuaded W. F. Kirby, the entomologist
who was alsoa member ofthe Golden Dawn, to propose both Waite and Blackden
for initiation in his lodge. Thus on 19 September 1901 Waite was made a mason
in RunymedeLodge, No. 2430, at Wraysbury in Buckinghamshire. For reasons
that were never explained, Waite and Blackden were not raised to the degree
of Master Mason in Runymede Lodge but, 'as a courtesy', in St Marylebone
Lodge, No. 1305, on 10 February 1902.
Initiation into Craft Masonry brought no spiritual enlightenment to Waite;
perhaps because, at his initiation, 'It was so patent throughout that I could have
told the Worhsipful Master all that he was communicating to me'e-he 'awaited
the Grades beyond' (SLT,p. 162). He was, however, a conscientious mason and
attended his lodge regularly until he was installed as Worshipful Master in 1910;
after that his attendance declined, ceasing altogether when he moved permanently
to Ramsgate in 1920. It was, as he had intended, a means to an end, and as soon
ashe had been raised, Waite began his quest for the 'Higher Degrees' (which
are now termed 'Additional Degrees') in',earnest.
During the sevenyearsthat followed, Waite became a member of ten distinct
rites and degrees; beginning with the Holy Royal Arch, Knights Templar, Knights
of Malta, and the Swedenborgian Rite in 1902, and proceeding to the Mark Degree,
the Red Cross ofConstantine, Secret Monitor and Ancient and Accepted Rite.
There were also others that he considered evenmore important. The first of these,
the Early Grand Scottish, Rite, was also .something of a means to an end.
As a result of corresponding with Edouard Blitz, Waite had come to see
the RegimeEcossais etRectifie as maintaining more than any other rite the essence
of the Secret Tradition; itwas, he believed, 'the head and Crown of Masonry',
while its Grade of Chevalier Bienjaisant de la Cite Sainte was a 'great and holy
Grade of Christian Knighthood spiritualized', But to attain it he. must first be
installed as a Knight Templar (which was duly done on 8 May 1902 in King
Edward VII Preceptory, No. 173), andhe felt that it would also be advisable
to receive the Early Grand Rite of 47; for, as he noted in his diary, 'Obscure
or not, 47 means at least 44<rituals which cannot fail of material for my paper
against the time when I shall unsay all that has till now been'saidas to the symbolic
builders' (13 October 1902).
To obtain his 44 degrees, however, he must first travel to Scotland, 'which
he did early in February 1903. His visit did not begin well: 'My projectedjourney
to Scotland . . . took place by the midnight train on Friday and ,I,reached
Kilmarnock in the early morning, as might well havebeen expected, in drenching
rain.' It was afternoon before he met his host, Colonel Spence, 'coming from
the station through a sea of mud'. 'Spence did not impress him 'as being ofany
particular attainments or of more than average education', nor did the other
Kilmarnock masons meet his expectations: 'A considerable proportion of them
belonged to the mechanic order while one or two looked as if they were shepherds'.
Waite was also disappointed with the ceremony, which he recorded as 'an almost
indescribable initiation', in which 'There was no attempt at reciting the ritual
from memory, books being used for the purpose and the ceremony was simply
muddled through'. Worse was to follow:
After the meeting I was introduced to my brethren and a good deal to my dismay Colonel
Spence then engineered the assembly, still through the pouring rain, back to my hotel where
in a small smoking room he ordered drinks for all, they then proceeded to make speeches on
the subject of my visit to Scotland, on my literary labours etc. and to these I had to reply.
The whole experience was incredibly squalid and yet more curious than I can give an account
of in a hasty description (Diary, 8,February 1903).
But he had obtained ,the rites he sought.
All ~ a s now ready for his journey to Switzerland to be received into the
RegimeEcossais etRectifie. His path had been smoothedby Blitz, who was Great
Prior of the rite for America, and after returning his completed pledge and forms
of admission (in which he awarded himselfappropriate armorial bearings: 'argent,
a cross sable, between four roses gules, which is, of course, purely Rosicrucian
and is assigned to me by myself for that reason'), he prepared to set out for Geneva
on 27 February.
Thejourney was uncomfortable and depressing. Waite dreaded the prospect
of attempting to speak in French and was delighted to find an English fellow-
traveller who accompanied him from Calais to Paris. Beyond Paris he was happier
becausehe wasleft alone: 'I had but one fellowtravellerfor a moment, a Frenchman
who finding that I could, not pass muster in his language, mercifully relieved
me in search of more congenial company & I was therefore alone to my utter
thankfulness the whole way from Paris to my' destination.'
He arrived in Geneva as he, had in Kilmarnock, in pouring rain, but the
company proved far more congenial. Waite was taken to his reception byJoseph
Leclerc (1835-1927), the Great Prior of the masonic body governing the Rite,
the Independent Great Priory of Helvetia, and on the evening. of 28 February
he received the two grades-of Squire Novice and Knight Beneficent ,of the Holy
City. In his account of the evening Waite unwittingly emphasizes his innate
The gathering from an English point of viewwas exceedinglymixed, consisting (a) of respectable
tradesmen, as e.g. booksellers; (b) members of the French (c) persons who had
the appearanceof Genevangentleman of good position; (d) an Englishman holding some official
appointment under this government; (e) a few who might have belonged to a class inferior
to the tradesmen so far as their appearance goes; (f) various representatives of the Genevan
government. I had throughout especial marks of kindness & consideration from all those who
were evidently the better placed of the gathering (Diary, 3 March 1903).
The ceremonies themselvesimpressed him greatly, and he returned to England
well pleased.
Early in May, Waite learned that he was to be granted jurisdiction.overthe
rite in 'England & the Colonies', and in May 1907 he was received (by
correspondence-he never again visited Geneva) into the additional degrees of
Profts and GrandProfts; but he made no attempt to di,sseminate the rite never
worked the gradeswhich had been conferredupon him. He may havediscovered
too few suitable candidates, but as he was most likely to find them within the
ranks of the S.R.I.A., amore probablereasonfor hisleavingthe rite to liedormant
was his dispute with that society.
Waite and Blackdenhad.been.admitted to the Metropolitan College of the
S.R.I.A. on 10April 1902 and immediately began to! playan activerole. Within
a year Waite had been appointed chairman of the Study Group and had 'kindly
consented to act as Editor' of its proceedings. These proceedings were never
published and many of the paperswere subsequentlydestroyed-by a unanimous
decision of the members of the group, who felt that their debates had been of
little consequence, But other membersof the S.R.I.A. were annoyedat this action
andtheReport ofthe Study Group condemnedthe actionandimplied, quite unjustly,
that Waite alone had been responsible. Waite himself chose to ignore this and
continued his progress through the society, confident in a general support for
his views-his paper of 1906, 'The Placeof Masonry in the Rites of Initiation',
had been well received-unaware that those in authority were becoming uneasy
about him. Westcott, in particular was unhappy. He had asked Waite for help
in 1910 when hebecameinvolvedin the legaldisputebetweenMathersandCrowley
(over the publication of Golden Dawn rituals in The Equinox), but Waite ,had
done little or nothing and merely persistedin demanding from Westcott a Sight
of the original cipher manuscripts. The row in the Independent and Rectified
Rite made matters worse, and at the time it came to a head Waite was due for
election to the office of Celebrant (i,e, Master) of the Metropolitan College.
Westcott approached Waite, told him of strong objections to his candidature
and advised him to withdraw. Waite was furious and promptly resigned-taking
with him yearsof bitterness at what he saw as shabby treatment by the society.
He took his revengeby sprinkling acidcomments-on both Westcott and the
Society as a whole-throughout his masterly study of Rosicrucianism, The
Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross (1924).
He remained active in most of the additional degrees whose ranks he had
joined, acting assecretaryfor both his Rose-Croix Chapter and Knights Templar
Preceptory for periods of twenty and thirty yearsrespectively. But his principal
concernin masonrynowbecamethe dissemination of hisideas through hiswriting.
His first major 'contribution to masonic literature' was The Secret Tradition
in Freemasonry (1911), which received wide praise from the masonic and non-
masonic press alike. The masonic writer W. J.Wilmshurst (who was a member
of the Independent and Rectified Rite) claimed that the book 'unquestionably
exceeds in importance any that has yet appearedin regard to what may be called
the problem of Freemasonry' (The Freemason, 25 May 1912); but John Yarker
criticized the book-albeit in the columns of the Co-Mason, the organ of an
unrecognized, androgynous body-because Waite 'does not seek to hide his
contempt, often expressedin uncourteous language, against all who differ from
him': which 'all' included Yarker (issue of January 1912).
By the time that the Fellowshipof the Rosy Cross came into being, Waite's
activities in the 'Higher Degrees' had led him to see 'more than ever the
unexpressed things that lie behind the Rites ' and he felt that another masonic
work was calledfor. He decidedupon an encyclopaedia, for although there were
several alreadyin existence, 'it seemedto me that here was the most convenient
form in which to introduce a multitude of personal viewsand standpoints' (SLY,
pp. 203-4). In May 1917 he suggested the book to Ralph Shirley of Rider &
Co., who took it up, and within eighteen months he had completed almost the
whole of the work. There was however, much argument over illustrations and
over money (he never received satisfactory royalties and disputes over payment
of these dragged on for many years), which delayed the book for another year.
Finally, in March 1921, A NewEncyclopaedia ofFreemasonry waspublished. Waite's
delight at its appearance was tempered by his expectation that 'The vested
authorities and the diehards of dead Masonry might rise up of course to curse
me' (SLY, p. 208). And so they did.
The reviewers in the scholarly masonic periodicals attacked it with a will.
Writing in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum (Vol. 33, 1920), W. J. Songhurst condemned'
the arbitrary and bizarrearrangement of the subject matter: 'to find anyparticular
subject one has to resort to a systemof guess-work, the Index affording scarcely
anyhelp'; and he listedwith gleeWaite's errors of fact, examples of his ignorance,
and his abusiveand unjust comments on earlier writers. It is a damning review,
but, alas, wholly justified, for the book isboth badly constructed and unreliable.
Nonetheless, it was well received by the non-masonic press and sold extremely
well, if not to the extent that Waitehimselfclaimedin 1938: 'No less than nineteen
thousand sets of the costly volumes havebeen sold' 1 (SLY, p. 208). But for all
that it hasremained Waite'sbest-knownwork, it served himill: a projected 'revised
edition' never appeared and his total reward in royalties amounted to little over
300.Hisbusiness career had not succeeded in teaching himhow to draw up
contracts with publishers as wily as Ralph Shirley.
Waite's ideas on Freemasonry were never widely accepted in England, but
in America-largely as a result of fulsome praise in Dr Joseph. Fort Newton's
The Builders: a Story andStudyofPreemasonry (1914), a book with an enormous
circulation-his. reputation grew and his theories were respected. Enthusiastic
American freemasonswrote to him, visited him, and encouraged. him to give
lectures in the United States; but Waite wished for nothing more than the peace
to continue his writing. His last masonic work, a revision of TheSecret 'Iradition
in Preemasonry(1937), he considered to be the most important. 'It is', he said,
'so altered, extended and transformed that it may claim to be a new undertaking
and to supersede in fact that which it preserves in name' (p. x).
In his prospectus for this revised edition Waite had stated: 'In English
Freemasonrythe sealof a certain distinction attaches to the name of Arthur Edward
Waite'; but it was a small and unobserved seal, for when he died, in 1942, the
masonic establishment virtually ignored the event-he was accorded only abrief,
three-paragraph obituary in TheFreemasons' Chronicle, and their was no mention
of his speculative work. His- success as a mystic lay elsewhere.
W A I 1 ~ E was always at pains to present himself as 'the exponent in poetical and
prose writings of sacramental religion and the higher mysticism, understood in
its absolute separation from psychic and occult phenomena', and his friends and
colleagues. saw him in that light; but it was not how his public perceived him.
'Occultism' has invariably proven a more saleable commodity than 'mysticism'
and toWaite's publishers he was an 'occultist'; indeed, it is difficult to see how
else they were supposed to approach the author of TheBook of Ceremonial Magic
and the translator of Levi's Transcendental Magic. Even his major works on the
Secret Tradition were rarely seenasWaite wished; they might reveal the spirituality
to be found behind the symbolismof alchemy, of the kabbalah, and of Freemasonry;
or offer a true understanding of what lay at the heart of the Holy Grail; they
might indeed concern the way to attain the Presence of God---but they fell into
that ill-defined borderland between magic and religion, and were not seen as
mysticism in the sense that either readers or reviewers understood the word.
And when Waite did write on mysticismproper (or, rather when he translated
and annotated the works of thosemysticswho appealed to him), the Roman
Catholic Church-which sawitself as the arbiter of good taste in such matters-
assailed him. 'A dreamer of dreams, of a neo-Gnostic type', is how The Tablet
typified Saint-Martin in its review of The Life of Louis Claude de Saint-Martin,
adding for good measure that. 'Are-hash of his transcendental vagariesmay perhaps
do some mischief, but so faraswe can seeit can be of real use to no one, and
is of the smallest possible interest' (20July 1901). Waite's translation of De
Senancour's Obermann (1903) was generally treated more kindly, but it was, after
all, seen in terms of Matthew Arnold's admiration for the book and treated as
a work of literature rather than a mystical text.
But not all churchmen were hostileto Waite. Both Obermann and Saint-Martin
had been read and appreciated by the Revd W. Robertson Nicoll,an eminent
Free Church minister and editor of TheBritishUleekly. In June 1905 he was due
to lecture on 'The Practical Uses of Mysticism' at theSummer School of Theology
to be held in Glasgow, the aim of the lectures being 'to point out how Christian
mysticismhelps Christians (1)in the conduct oflife; (2) in the shaping of theology'.
Nicoll was unsure of his ground and wrote to Waite for advice. He wished Waite
to explain the mystical doctrine of prayer, to answer the question 'Has mysticism
any real place for the atonement?', and to rebut Wesley's objection against
mysticism 'that it was not practical, that the mystics did not work' (letter of
29 April 1905, quoted in Darlow, William Robertson Nicoll: Lifeand Letters, 1925,
pp. 396, 399, 400).
Waite wrote a 'long and carefully considered answer' to this letter, in which
he set out his own feelings on mysticism, and argued that the mystic is most
certainly practical,
because he is doing the one thing worth doing-getting back whence he came. It seems to
me that the historical basis on which mysticism rests is the primordial fact that we came out
of the great centre and that our destiny and our rest are in the centre; There can be only one
business in life, which is the interior understanding of the hidden meaning of that voluntary
poverty, perpetual chastity and entire obedience by which we ultimately return.
As to prayer, 'I do not see', he wrote, 'that it can be otherwise in his [the mystic's]
case than that the answers to prayer are standing continually around him and
this much more closely than the hills around Jerusalem'; while the attitude of
the mystics to the atonement, 'outside all doctrinal questions', was best expressed
by Eckartshausen, who sawit as 'the great event of the Grand and Holy Assemblies
which are leading the Churches'. In more prosaic vein he added that, 'it is certainly
a great truth that the divine has made itself abased so that none at last shall be
left out of the union' (letter of May 1905).
Nicoll utilized all that Waite had written, and his lectures (which were later
printed in his book TheGarden ofNuts) put forward many of Waite's own ideas-in
particular the doctrine of the Holy Assembly, which, Nicoll told his audience,
'is a testimony catholic to all mysticism. It is concerned with a withdrawn
brotherhood in whose hands the experimental knowledge of God has remained
and has increased. It is the doctrine of the esoteric Church of the Illuminated'
(p.69). What his audience made of all this is not recorded, but the vision of
rows of earnest young ministers, sternly Calvinist in outlook, busily noting down
the heterodox doctrines of A. E. Waite is delightful.
, Nor was Nicoll alone in his appreciation of Waite. Evelyn Underhill, who
had known Waite in the early days of her own spiritual quest (she had joined
the Independent and Rectified Rite in July 1904 and had progressed' at least to
the 3=8 Grade of Practicus before quitting the Order), accepted that his 'dicta
upon mysticism are often brilliant and profound' while criticizing him, in her
essay on 'Magic and Mysticism of Today' (Hibbert Journal, January.1908), for
his 'curious inability to separate himself from the false lights of a merely occult
philosophy'. She also found Waite to be 'a deeply interested and sympathetic
observer of certainaspects of the mystical experiment, and, in his most recent
books, he shows a growing inclination to approach the boundaries of true
mysticism'. And yet 'the reader may detect in his work a strain of intense desire
and gathering sadness: of all the material having been ordered and investigated,
yet something-and that the veritable object of the quest-ever eluding the
pursuer'. Insofar as this was written about Studies inMysticism, there was some
truth in the statement, for the essays that comprise the book had been written
in 1904-at which time there was no hint of other than a purely intellectual
understanding of mysticism on Waite's part. But within a year a change had
taken place and Waite began to know by experience what he had previously done
no more than guess at.
On 27 March 1905 Waite noted, in the business diary that he kept while
working for James Horlick, that 'I returned to the office ... having been absent
through severe illness since February 22nd'.The 'severe illness' was due to an
accident, as he records in his autobiography:
It was in 1905that I paid one of my periodical visits to a certain building estate of James Horlick
which had heen placed in my charge some fewyears previously [these were at Barnes, in South-
West London]' It was late Autumn [seeabove for the correct date] and as the day closed in
I missed my way on some stairs without banisters and fell heavily. The result was concussion
of the brain, during which I was practically unconscious for an entire month ... I was very,
very ill, with nameless sensations in the head, as if all were dead therein and yet could ache
numbly. I was haunted even by vague fears for reason itself. Another month must have passed
in this manner and then I returned to town, laesus indeed assuredly but also non victus, as shewn
fully thereafter. My business occupations were resumed, much as if nothing had occurred to
disturb their outward and normal course; but I was made conscious slowly of a substantial
change within, as if some new door had opened in the mind. A great and dangerous illness
began to assume the aspect of a hidden providence, as if it were a thing decreed (SLY, p. 168).
By whatever obscure' neurological process, a change had indeed taken place and
his conception of the final end of the mystic way had altered.
It is shown most clearly in the gradual change that came over Waite's poetry.
A Book ofMystery and Vision was, he says, 'like a song ofthe Sacramental World
through all its pages', but the succeeding collections-Strange Houses of Sleep-
'is a book on the verge of things, of veridic dreams and of quickenings towards
the awakened state. It is less of mystical experience than of visions thereof. The
preceding volume of versestood for earlier stages.' Neither book, however, seemed
adequate: 'TheSoul in both is encompassed by a great splendour ofimages which
testify to their wealth of meaning but do not part their curtains to shew the
light behind. There is above all no suggestion of liberation from the world of
images into the still being of pure unmixed intelligence' (SLY, p. 17J. Thatwould
not be conveyed until he began to construct, in poetic form, the rituals for his
Fellowship of the Rosy Cross.
But there is no question that Waite had experienced this state himself. 'It
has been given to me', he continues, 'to know of this state underthe influence
of ether ina way that I may never look to experience until the end of all travellings;
it has been given to me to find its threshold in a still state of mind.' 'Under
the influence of ether' is a referenceto experiences during the course of two dental
operations. Waite described them fully while commenting on a similar happening
recorded by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle:
In this connection it may be pardonableto mention a personal experience of the present writer,
also under gas at a dentist's. Duringthe normal course of intellectual work, prior to the dental
operation, he had been dealing with certain mind-problems arising out of our mode of self-
realization by the reflex act, and had not reached their solution; but during the higher state
of awareness produced by .sense-isolation these problems were solved, and this not by any
ratiocinative process but by a direct inward seeing of which no adequate indication can be given
in words. A short time after there was another operation, again under gas, and on this occasion
the writer, who does not remember having been dealing previously with specific problems,
experienced an inward state of being in pure mind, to which nothing in normal life offers any
analogy, at least for him. It was a state of beatitude in realization within the self, if one likes
to approximate wi thout reaching a true description (Periodical Literature, in TheOccult Review,
April 1916). 1
The title of the second collection of poems also came to Waite in an odd
way. He could not remember when, but, 'it shall be remembered to my dying
day how I woke up once-as it might be, at morning-tide-anda bell-like voice
of clearness, apart from all stress and all touch ofthe personal, pronounced these
words: STRANGE HOUSESOF SLEEP. They came, as it seemed to me, with a
note of warning. Beyond all question and beyond all doubt, I knew at once that
a book must be written under that title by me and no other' (SLT;p.p. 169-170).
This knowledge had come to him early in 1902, for on 11 October of that year
he noted in his diary: 'I laid down the schema of "Strange Houses of Sleep",
containing nine. schemes of romance concerning the loss and miscarriage of
aspirations. It would seem as if it must be a mournful and pessimistic book, but
it is one side only of the great research, and a side that has to be faced.'
Although the book was thus begun in 1902, 'it was only after the catastrophe
of 1905 that I went to work upon it and wrote in all kinds of places, in Trains
and Trams and Buses, as well as in my own Sanctum'; But the most important
part of the book was neither the many brief poems drawn from the page,S of
Horlick's Magazine, nor The Hidden Sacrament of the Holy Graal (the
Play' he had written with Arthur Machen), but a second verse drama, TheBook
King's Dole. It is, said Waite, 'a pregnant illustration of trot? inthe spiritual
world; that there is a Church behind the Church on a more Inward plane of
being; and that it is formed of those who have opened the iridescent. shell of
external doctrine and have found that which abides within it. It is a Church
of more worlds than one, for some of the Community are among us here and
now and some are in a stage beyond the threshold of the physicalsenses' (SLT;
pp. 170-1). It is also more than this; it is-in intent wholly and in structure
partly-a recension of the initiation ceremony for an Adeptus Minor in the
Independent and Rectified Rite.
Before the Second Order established its vault at Acton early-in 1905, it was
not possible to work the 5=6 Adeptus Minor ritual; nor are there any records
to indicate when the first working of the ritual took place, but it was unlikely
to have been before the end of 1906 (earlier Reports to the Convocations of the
Second Order lament the difficultiesof advancingcandidates). The work of revising
the 5=6 ritual was also incomplete and Waite would not have wished touse
that of the old R.R. et A.C. without removing those elements .he considered
to be non-Christian; thus, while no manuscript of Waite's 5=6 ritual has survived,
the text of The Book of the King's Dole may be considered to give a relatively
accurate illustration of the experience undergone by candidates for the Second
Order. The Temple is arranged correctly; the officers are present; the symbolism
is accurate; and, above all, there is.the central theme of death and resurrection.
Nor was his poetry the only medium through which Waite gave public
expression to the symbolism and idealsof his Order. Theywere alsogiven out-for
those with eyes to see-in the designs of the cards that illustrate his Pictorial Key
to the Tarot (1911). In its essence the Tarot is a pack of seventy-eight cards used
variously for gaming or for divination; as with ordinary playing cards, the pack
is divided into four suits, with the addition of a fourth court card to each suit
. and a series of twenty-two pictorial cards known as the Major Trumps. There
is no conclusive evidence-whatever occultists believe-that the Trump cards
predate the Italian Renaissance, and their basic symbolism probably dates from
that time. 2 For members of the Golden Dawn, however, the Tarot epitomized
Egyptian wisdom, and. the numbered sequence of the Major Trumps, which
paralleled the order of the letters in the Hebrew alphabet, enabled them to be
associated with paths on the kabbalistic Tree of Life. Thus, as members of the
Order progressedfrom Grade to Grade, so they learned the symbolism of the
Tarot Trumps appropriate to that Grade. Waite, however, was dissatisfied with
both the traditional Tarot cards and the designs devisedfor the Order by Westcott
and Mathers; with the founding of the Independent and Rectified Rite the Tarot
designs were jettisoned in company with the old rituals and he.determined to
create a .wholly. new pack.
At some time subsequent to Mathers's expulsion from the Order; a young
American artist, Pamela Colman Smith, joinedthe Golden Dawn and took the
motto 'Quod tibi id aliis'; but she seems to have had little interest in the Order,
for when the schism camein 1903 she had attained only the Grade of Zelator. 3
She sided then with Waite's faction, presumably because, as Waite says, she 'loved
public as separate entities-with occasional leading hints: Waite did point out
that the four Tarot suits of Cups, Wands, Swords, and Pentacles correspond to
the Grail Hallows, but he left his readers to draw from this what conclusions
they could-they were drawn together for the members of his Order. At first
the synthesis was tentative, but as the last vestiges of magic dropped away with
the passing of the Independent and Rectified Rite, and as the rituals of that rite
were transformed into the religious ceremonies of the Fellowship of the Rosy
Cross, it became more sure. Andin the true understanding of the Secret Tradition
lay the essential difference between the old Order and the new; by its very nature
the Independent and Rectified Rite could not entirely rid itself of the magical
practices of the original R.R. et A.e.-nor did its members wish it to do so.
For all that Waite urged mysticism upon them, the members of the rite would
not willingly giveup astral travelling, visions, and phenomena; faced with ademand
r:ject the cipher manuscripts, they could not bring themselves to accept the
consequence: the rejection of the glamourofmagic. Instead theyrejected
It would not be correct, however, to see the demise of Isis-Urania and the
whole andRectified Rite aswhollydue to the clash betweenmagic
and Some of the members desired to follow a mystical path-but
as their own masters, and that, under Waite, they could never be: the Fellowship
of the Rosy Cross, however benign, was a thoroughly autocratic Order. According
to its. 'C?nstitution and Laws' (See Appendix E for the full text), 'The
Constitution of the Fellowshipis hierarchic and not elective,its government being
vested in the Imperator of the Rite, who has power to appoint his successor,
subje:t toconfirmation by thebodygeneral ofAdepti Exempti, andalso toappoint
substitutes for the government of the Temple.' From the time of its founding
to the time of his death, the Fellowship of the RosyCross had no other Imperator
beside Waite.
Not that his rule was either malign or capricious; Waite had no desire to
emulate the paranoid MacGregor Mathers, and his government of the Order
was both sane and sensible. There was no seeking out of Secret Chiefs or 'Sun
Masters' in the manner of Felkin or Brodie-Innes; the Fellowship sawitself purely
as 'the guardian of a path of symbolism communicated in Ritual after the manner
of the chief Instituted Mysteries, past and present', and that symbolism 'is
concerned only with the quest and attainment of the human soul on its return
to the Divine Centre: it is sought thereby to recall its members to the true object
of research and the living method of its attainment'. At the very outset of his
career in the Order, the would-be Neophyte was told 'The fulfilment of earthly
life is in the life which is eternal, and the sole purpose of man's sojourn in the
material world is that he may attain union with the Divine.' It was alsono accident
that in 1915, the year the Fellowship was founded to provide a path of mystical
_______THE WAY OF DIVINE UNION----------- 140
experience for those who sought it, Waite published a literary exposition of that
path, in the form of his most important work on mysticism, The way of Divine
It is a most extraordinary work. It attempts, as must all mystical works to
express the inexpressible,but Waite emphasized the role of the mind in translating
the mystical experience-even within our own consciousness-s-sothat the reader
should fully recognize the inadequacy of languageand not suffer the temptation
of treating the aesthetic satisfaction to be gained from absorbing lyrical prose
as in any way comparable with the overwhelming transformation of self that
comes with the mystical experience itself. The mystic, for Waite, is anintensely
practical person and the mystical life is 'an exploration of self', but it is yet 'the
most difficult enterprise which can be undertaken by thehuman mind'. The
final state of Divine Union cannot be attained in this life, but there are other
states that can, and it is towards these that Waite urges his readers:
state is not attained by reading about 'Love in the Transcendence' but by the
act of that love.
God knows, and all His mystics, that such absorption is not attainable now; but there is a
deep and undistracted preoccupation in God which is not beyond some of us, and therein are
moments, briefperiods, certain halves of hours, when that preoccupation is 'lifted higher',
when the love becomes so transcendent that the knower and the known, subject and object,
are wrapped up together in an indescribable unity, and this is that attainment of which we
possess the precious records in Mysticism. Its barriers are burned away and all the barbed wires
of intellectualism are melted (p. 318).
It was towards the attainment of this state that the ceremonies of his Fellowship
of the Rosy Cross were .directed.
The way of Divine Union is also intensely Christ-centred, without being
sectarian, and was praised by Catholics and Protestants alike. Mgr WilliamBarry,
in the course of his review for The Bookman Oanuary.1916), gently upbraided
Waite for his lack of Catholic orthodoxy but praised both the book and its author.
Mrs Herman, a Protestant scholarof mysticism, describedthe book as: 'A profound
and illuminating study-by one. who writes out of an unparalleled knowledge
of mysticalliterature, and who is not only a master of the interpretation of mystical
doctrine and experience, but himself a mystic of the first order' (The Meaning
and value ofMysticism, 1916, p. 387). She yet pointed outthat 'he does scant
justice to the mystical element in Protestantism'.
All the reviewers pointed out the book's principal fault: it is not written
in language that can be understood by the manin the street,although Divine
Onion is for all men. This difficulty-that he wrote as a specialist for specialists-
Waite was never able to overcome in his writing. But when. his words were
accompanied by the ritual of his Order there was a change. Within the Fellowship
of the Rosy Cross even the most simple member could experience directly what
Waite's words could onlyinadequately describeto the outside world. The mystical
______16 _
REFERRING to the Fellowship of the Rosy Cross in his autobiography, Waite
said of it, 'there is no story to tell, either by myself or another. May that most
sacred centre give up no outward form' (SLY, p. 229). But he made the public
aware of its existence by cryptic references to a 'Hidden Rite' (in Emblematic
Freemasonry, p. 151), as well as to a rite which 'claims to contain the Mysteries
of Ancient and Primitive Masonry' and which 'communicates in secret instructions
a certain Doctrine of the Soul' (Secret 1fadition inFreemasonry, 1937, p. 461). He
also carefully preserved the rituals, the Minutes, and lists of members of the
Fellowship, and from these it is possible to present a picture of the form of his
Order, if not of the content of its workings, 1
The Independent and Rectified Rite of the Golden Dawn had been instituted
for the benefit of those who saw the Order as 'capable of a mystical instead of
an occult construction', and in similar manner the Fellowship of the Rosy Cross
was mystical, but unlike its predecessorin that it was wholly mystical; and, although
based upon the kabbalah, it was also wholly Christian, as laid down in its
constitution: 'The mode of interpretation in respect of Kabalistic Tradition is
a Christian Mode.'
The Fellowship was divided into four Orders that corresponded to the four
Worlds of kabbalistic symbolism, and as the members progressed from Grade
to Grade so they alsopassedfrom World to World. The progression was asfollows:
The 0=0 Grade of Neophyte, and 1=10 Grade of Zelator (corresponding to the
sephirah of Malkuth on the Tree of Life) were in the World of Action (Assiah)
and comprised the First Order. The next three Grades, of 2=9 Theoreticus; 3= 8 '
Practicus; and 4= 7 Philosophus; corresponding respectively to Yesod, Hod, and
Netzach, comprised the Second Order and were held' to be in the World of
Formation (Yetzirah); while the Third Order, in the World of Creation (Briah),
comprised the Portal of the Third Order, and the Grades of 5=6 Adeptus Minor;
6=5 Adeptus Major; and 7=4 Adeptus Exemptus, corresponding to the sephiroth
Tiphereth, Geburah, and Chesed. There was a Portal Grade for the Fourth Order,
in the World of the Supernals (Atziluth), but no rituals for Grades corresponding
to the first three sephiroth were ever worked, although Waite began to construct
them towards the end of his life.There were alsoa number of additional ceremonies
for the Consecration of a Temple, the Festival of the Equinox, the Solstices, and
the Installation of a Celebrant.
As the Order grew it was felt desirable to separate the first two Orders from
the Third and Fourth, and in 1922.the higher Grades were gathered under the
Ordo Sanctissimus Roseae etAureae Crucis. Between 1926 and 1928 Waite produced
a series of rituals specifically for the OS.R. etA.C. which he termed collectively
'The Book of Life in the Rose'; this he revised continually, creating the final
form of the rituals under the titles of'MysteriumBriah' and' Mysterium Atziluth',
in the late 1930s. These were printed between 1937 and 1943 and constitute the
summation of Waite's mystical philosophy in dramatic form. Their correct
performance requires such an exalted state of consciousness on the part of each
of the participants that their working was--and is-virtually impossible. Below
this level, however, the Order thrived.
Waite saw his Order as a religious organization, and stressed this to potential
recruits in an account of the requirements of a candidate for the 'Hidden Rite':
'A truly prepared Candidate must be able to realize that all true Ritual is
sacramental, the outward sign of a meaning and grace within ... that the
sacramentalism of such Ritual is not arbitrary but essential; that all means of
instruction available to man are of a sacramental order; that God communicates
with His creatures through a sacramental universe' (Emblematic Freemasonry, p.
281). And asreligious ritual was, for Waite, that of the Latin Mass, so the vestments,
regalia, and fittings utilized in the rituals of his Order were reminiscent of those
used in the Mass; in appearance, however, they were quite different (seeAppendix
E). . .
Such elaborate ceremonial could not for long be expected to manifest In the
hired rooms of a public hotel, however grand. (Early in 1917the Order had moved
to the Imperial Hotel in Russell Square, following the commandeering of De
Keyser's Hotel in 1916by the Government; during the brief intervening period
meetings were held at Sidmouth Lodge, Waite's home in South Ealing). Eventually
a permanent home was found. in a flat at No. 14 Earl's Court Square; or so the
members hoped.
The Temple, which was consecrated on 24 March 1919, took up only a part
of the flat, the remainder being occupied by one of the members, George Barrett
Dobb-Frater Paratum cor meum in the Order. For fiveyears the Order worked
its ceremonies contentedly, until the perilous state of the building became
increasingly evident: on 20 July 1924, 'about 6.15 p.m. the porch ceiling fell
with a heavy crash'. Alarmed by this, Waite made sure that the Order would
not be held responsible, by bringing in 'the large framework from the Temple
balcony to the Temple itself, lest it should be pretended that this caused the porch
145 _ -FRATER SACRAMENTUM REGIS .....:...:..;:;
of the city had been forced upon Waite he told his friend William
Semken, 'It is quite impossible in myexisting state of health to go searching
about in London, and there is no-oneelse to do so'; he hoped, however, 'that
people who want the Grades of the Order will get herein quest of them' (letter
of 16July 1939). But war dashed that hope and, for all practical purposes, the
Order fell into abeyance.
But what had kept it alive throughout its twenty-five years? Waite did not
conform to the popular image of a hierophant; he was neither lean, tall, nor
ascetic, but short, stocky, happy to indulge in the more inoffensive pleasures of
the flesh, and possessedof ordinary human weaknesses-as recalledafter his death
by G.E. Bridge, a masonic friend: 'Until one "stood up to him" [Waite] was
inclined to be pontifical-when he found that other folk sometimes had views
of their own he became quite human, and would either discuss them with all
the powers of his very keen intellect, or boil over in vitriolic attack on the person,
ancestors, and posterity of his imagined opponent. In that latter respect I think
hejust missed real greatness' (letter to an unidentified correspondent, 15 October
Within his Order, however, he attained that greatness. His rituals carried
conviction, for they were the work of a true mystic, andhe was a magnificent
ritualist. In his obituary for The Occult Review, Philip Wellby said of Waite:
There are three things in which Arthur Waite surpassed any of my acquaintance. First of these
was the possessionof a phenomenal memory, a memory that was both encyclopaedicand accurate.
Owing to this he excelled in the conduct ofrites and rituals, whether in Temple, Chapter,
Preceptory or Conclave. Added to this was his masterly rendering of the prescribed form of
language in every rite, which imparted a living force to the phrase or peroration, and conveyed
an inspiration so often lacking in a perfunctory recital. Whether officiating in Masonic or extra"
Masonic orders he made each occasion memorable to his hearers by the infusion of this vitality
of spirit into the spoken word. I can recall certain times when he appeared to be a veritable
channel of force, dispensing power that was beyond his own disposal in his ordinary daily
avocations (july 1942).
And it was this power that drew into the Fellowship of the Rosy Cross earnest
but unremarkable people, and having drawn themin, transformed their inner lives.
The Order was never large. By 1929 there were 171 members-99 women
and 72 men-and rather less than fifty more joined over the next ten years; but
the number of active members at anyone time was never more than sixty, and
often less (in 1929 Waite sent out 56 Summonses for the Festival of the Equinox-
which all members of the Fellowship were entitled, and expected, to attend; in
1930,62 Summonses were issuedfor a meeting in February, and inJuly 45 'demands
for Order subscriptions' at two guineas each).
Before admission to the Grade of Neophyte, each member signed a 'Form
of Profession for Postulants', by which he or she 'solemnly and sincerely' affirmed:
to. collapse, which is impossible' (Diary, 20, 21 July 1924).
At the same time other-and worse-trouble befell the Order: in October
Frater E tenebris in lucem vocatus (H. M. Duncan)-in the profane world an
employee of the Lanston Monotype Corporation, and a man of chronic ill-
health-committed suicide by shooting himself. It was a terrible blow for Waite,
coming less than a monthafter the death of his wife and depriving him of both
a friend and one of the principal financial supports of the Order. Waitealso became
aware at this time of the presence in the Order of 'a traitor' who was assiduously
filching sections of the rituals for the benefit of a rival organization. He was
soon identified (seep. 148 below), but the uncertainty engendered by his activities
disturbed the harmony of the Order,andEarl's Court Square became an
increasingly unhappy home for the Salvato! Mundi Temple.
Leaving it was not as straightforward as the members might have wished.
Frater Paratum had no desire to give up his flat: 'I have a letter from Paratum',
wrote Waite in his diary, 'who is in one of his paroxysms, and on this occasion
it may lead to trouble' (Diary, 30 August 1926). Fortunately, it did not, and
he was finally persuaded to leavesoon afterwards when Waite had mollified him.
The second home of the Order was at 10 Scarsdale Villas, South Kensington,
where the Temple shared the house with Soror Sub Sole AmorisServiens (Miss
A. M.Collett), who was a temperamental tenant-on one occasion 'she fell into
a livid rage' because Waite preferred to staywith friends at Kew rather than remain
overnight at Scarsdale Villas-but less awkward than Frater Paratum had been
when the time came for the Order to move on. ('The place', recalled Waite in
1936, 'was damp and destructive to the properties, so we removed ...')
Lack of money was invariably the principal reason for the Order's periodic
ramblings round London, and finding suitable premises at a reasonable rent was
never an easy task. The members refused to consider a house outside the city,
butthey were unable to find an alternative to Scarsdale Villas in spite of spending
the early months of 1929 scouring the western suburbs in search of suitable
premises. Eventually a three-year lease was taken on No. 30 Lansdown Crescent,
Notting Hill-at 125 per annum-but as Soror Sub Sole did not move into
the new home she gave up the post of Cancellarius (i.e. Secretary; she seems
previously to havepaid only a nominal rent on account of these duties), and Waite
was reluctantly obliged to take it upon himself.
After the expiration of the lease there was a hiatus in Order affairs for some
nine months until March 1934, when rooms. were obtained for the Temple at
104 Maida Vale, the headquarters of an androgynous masonic body, the Order
of Ancient, Free and Accepted Masonry for Men and Women, several of whose
members were also active in the Fellowship of the-Rosy Cross. Here the Order
remained for five years, finally leaving London in August 1939 for Broadstairs,
where a secondTemple hadbeen established inWaite's home. The move out '
147 ______FRATER SACRAMENTUM REGIS __- - - ~
I. That, exceeding all definition, there is one Eternal Source and Principle, called God.
II. That, from this Principle, the soul of man derives everlasting life.
III. That I desire the knowledge of my Source and union with God in consciousness.
IV. The being on the Quest of God I askof my own freewill to be admitted into the Fellowship
of the R:.C:., which communicates the knowledge of the Quest and its terms in
V. ,That I accept the obligations imposed by the bonds of the Fellowship, subject to my
civil, moral and religious duties.
VI. That I will at no time and under no circumstances admit anyone into the Fellowship,
save only under the Warrant of the Imperator.
VII. That I will not on my own authority found any Temple or Chapter of the Fellowship,
nor make any use of its Rituals for the initiation or advancement of anyone, except
by the Warrant of the Imperator.
During the ceremony the Neophyte also accepted 'The Solemn Obligation of
a Novice', which was analogous to that of the old Golden Dawn but without
any mention of penalties, bloodcurdling or otherwise, to follow a breach of the
None of this was exceptional and was familiar to most new members who
were drawn largely from masonic or esoteric circles. The members were also
almost entirely unknown outside such circles, only a fewof them having achieved
fame in the outside world. Of those few, Dr Helen Worthington (Soror Lumen
Sapientiae) had entered the Independent and Rectified Rite in 1913 and followed
Waite into the F:.R:.C:.. She had been a student ofElizabeth Severn, a prominent
'alternative' medical practitioner, and set up as a psycho-therapist, In time she
developed a Harley Street practice and treated Waite for his various real and
imagined complaints. She remained one of his most faithful supporters. John
Brahms Trinick (Frater Donee Attingam), a stained glass artist whose work was
often exhibited at the Royal Academy, joined the Order as a young man when
he arrived in England with the Australian Army during the First World War.
He painted the 'Symbols of the Paths' (substitutes for traditional Tarot designs)
used by the Order and drew the portrait of Waite, in his robes as Imperator of
the order, that appears as the frontispiece to Volume I of A New Encyclopaedia
of Freemasonry. Later in life he took up Jungian psychology and wrote on the
psychological interpretation of alchemy, his book The Fire-Tried Stone being
published in 1967.
More eccentric than either of these was John Sebastian Marlow Ward (Frater
Custos Custodiens), who entered the Order on 22March 1921. He was the leading
exponent of what is known s the 'symbolist' school of masonic research-seeking
the origins of Freemasonry through a comparative study of analogous initiatory
rituals; he was instrumental, with SirJohn Cockburn, in founding, also in 1921,
the Masonic Study Society, of which he became Secretary-General (the Deputy
Vice-President was Waite) and to which he deliveredlectures that were incorporated
in his best-known work, Freemasonry and the Ancient Gods (1921, 1926). Another
of his brain-children was the Order of Indian Wisdom which Waite was invited
to join-perhaps to reciprocate Ward's membership of the F:.R:.C:.-but
'although he attended several of its meetings in 1921 and 1922 he thought that
the ceremonies 'seemed rather frivolous' and took no further part in them. By
the end of 1923 Ward had left the Fellowship and concerned himself increasingly
with esoteric activities, culminating in 1928 with a vision (perceivedjointly with
his wife) 'in which they were ordered to found a mixed community of men and
w01?en to prepare for the Second Coming of Christ' (Peter Anson, Bishops at
LArge, 1964, p. 283). This resulted in the founding of the Confraternity of the
Kingdom of Christ, which, after initial support, was frowned upon by the
authorities in the Church of England, causing Ward to turn to the Orthodox
Catholic Church in England (an unorthodox and microscopic body), in which
he was consecrated as a Bishop in 1935. Ward died in 1949after a distinguished
career in the ecclesiastical underworld.
Two members of the Fellowship of the Rosy Cross stood out from all the
others: one was to attain international standing as a novelist, critic, and poet,
while the other had already achieved fame before his entry into the Order..On
1February 1921, Alvin Langdon Coburn (1882-1966) and his wife were initiated
into the F:.R:.C:. as Frater Deus Portarum Lucis and Soror Deus Principium
Meus; his reputation as a photographer had been established over the previous
decade by his delicate topographical work and remarkable portrait studies,
Waite was delighted to admit such a distinguished candidate. Coburn had long
been interested in Waite's works (in 1922 he wrote that 'On the shelves of my
little library are nearly fifty volumes of the writings of Arthur Edward Waite')
and wished to meet him; at last,
one fortunate day I met him. We seemed friends almost at once. Perhaps it was that I knew
his mind so very well from friendship with his printed pages-even perhaps there may have
been some link out the past-
all this as it may, I am one of many who have much to thank
him for. In an age of outward turmoil and unrest he has told us of the things within: of how
the base metal of material desires maybe transmuted into spiritual gold. In 'The Way of Divine
Union' and 'The Book of the Holy Grail' he has given to the world priceless treasures. Hidden
within them are deep mysteries (More Men of Mark, 1922, p. 22).
They were not destined to remain friends for long.
Initially all went well; Coburn took a series of photographs of Waite as
Imperator of the Order, at Earl's Court Square, and three portrait studies for
publication; one of these appears in More Men ofMark and a second was exhibited
by Coburn at the Royal Photographic Society in February 1924. Within the Order
Frater Deus Portarum Lucis attained the Grade of Adeptus Minor on 6 February
1922 (his wife following him two dayslater), and advancedto the Grade ofAdeptus
Major one year later. But in 1923 he was following other esoteric interests. He
had developed an interest in 'The, Shrine of Wisdom', a body founded in 1911
to propagate Universal Wisdom, more specificallyas presented in Neoplatonism;
when Coburn took it up he altered the name to 'The UniversalOrder'and
incorporated a certain degree of ritual practice. UnknowntoWaite-e-whohad
been aguest in Coburn's home at Harlech, in. North Wales, for three weeks
in July of thatyear-e-Coburn was developing the rituals of the Universal Order
from materials extracted from the F:.R:.C:.. By the end of 1924 it became clear
that a 'traitor' was at work and he was rapidly identified as Coburn (no other
members seem to havejoined the Universal Order); there was a final, embarrassing
meeting with Waite on 6 February 1925. Whether Coburn admitted to adding
rituals to the list of things that he had 'to thank him for' is unclear; but they
parted finally 'and without friendship.
When a Neophyte was initated into the Order, the 'Step, Sign, Token and
Words of the Portal' were entrusted to him by the Auxiliary Frater Zelator, acting
as 'Proclamator et Lucifer'; on the occasion of Coburn's initiation, this office
was performed by Frater Qui Sitit Veniat, who at that time had himself been
a member .of the Order for more than three years. On his Form of Profession
he gave his address as 18 Parkhill Road, Hampstead, NW3; and his occupation
as 'Proof-reader & editorial work'; his name he gave infull-Charles Walter
Stansby Williams.
Among students of Charles Williams and his work it has been fashionable-
indeed, it still is-to play down both the influence of Waite and the role of the
F...R:.C:. in Williams's life. Such an attitude stems partly from a feeling that
membership of the Golden Dawn-with which critics invariably confuse the
F:.R..C:.-somehow brings discredit upon Williams, and partly from abelief
that Waite's writings, not being the work of an academic inthe strict sense of
the word, are of little worth and ought not to have exercised any significant
influence upon the literary figure they seek to lionize. In maintaining such an
attitude they perpetuate not only their own prejudices but also errors of fact
in the biography of Charles Williams.
On his own admission," Williams sent Waite a copy of his first book, The
Silver Stair (1912), after reading The Hidden Church of the Holy Graal. He gives
no date, but the book was sent during the summer of 1915, for Waite replied
on 24 August and Williams visited him at South Ealing on 4 September, signing
his name in Sybil Waite's autograph book. Whether they discussed poetry or
the Grail is not clear, but Waite retained TheSilver Stair until the following April
when Williams visited him again: 'He came and I returned his poems. We had
a long talk' (Diary, 22 April 1916). By this time Williams was certainly aware
of Waite's poetry, for he was proof-reading The Oxford Book ofEnglish Mystical
verse, which contained six poems by Waite-included because the 'editors, the
Revd A. H. E. Lee andD. H. 'Nicholson, not only admired Waite's work but
had also been active members of the Independent .and Rectified Rite (neither
of them, however, continued in the new Order). It is possible that they told
Williams something of the nature of the Order and they may, consciously or
not, have encouraged him to seek admission to the Fellowship of the Rosy Cross.
In 1917 Williams asked Waite for a Form of Profession, signed it on 18July,
'and was 'received into the Portal Grade of the Rosy Cross under the Sacramental
Name of Qui Sitit Veniat' on Friday 21 September. After the ceremony, 'The
Celebration of the Autumnal Equinox was celebrated in solemn form', which
Williams as a Neophyte, would have witnessed while wearing the black habit
of the Order together with 'a collar of white silk, emblematic of purification
in progress, from which depends a crimson Calvary Cross'; all of which he had
obtained, on Waite's advice, from Spencer & Co." the masonic outfitters.
Frater Qui Sitit Veniat progressed rapidly through the lower Grades, and
on 26 August1919 he was 'Raised upon the Cross of Tiphereth' .and entered
the Grade of AdeptusMinor. Beyond this he moved more slowly, attaining the
Grade of 7=4 Adeptus Exemptus on 10 July. 1924 and reaching the Portalof
the Fourth Order on 27 July of the following year, when he was 'integrated
by Dispensation on the part of the Headship into the Blessed Company'. His
final advancement, on 29 June 1927, was to be a participant in 'The Ceremony
of Consecration on the Threshold of Sacred Mystery', which was the first ritual
of Waite's more exalted order, The Hidden Life of the Rosy Cross. It was also
William's last ceremony; after taking part in this rarefied ceremony he ceased
to attend any of the rituals, although he remained an inactive member of the
Order. Waite visited him at Amen House, the home of the Oxford University
Press, in September 1928, and wrote to him periodically until 1931, but he never
succeeded in persuading him to resume an active, role.
Williams had been a valuable member of the Order. Unlike many of the
members, who were, so he told Anne Ridler, 'content to read words from a
script when it came to their turn', he himself 'took pleasure in memorizing what
had to be said, so that he could celebrate with dignity'i ' This he did during
the two six-monthly periods (commencing 23 September 1921 and 30 September
1924) when he acted as Master of the Temple and worked all the grades up to
that of4= 7 Philosophus. After Waite, he would undoubtedly havebeen the most
impressive Master.
Although he had been brought to Waite by way of the Holy Grail, Williams
was most interested in Waite'skabbalistic doctrines as set out in TheSecret Doctrine
inIsrael (1913), and it was probably this book. that stimulated. his attempts to
formulate a theology of marriage and provided abasis for his ideas about the
symbolism of the body. Certainly he utilized kabbalistic terminology and
symbolism in 7aliessin through Logres, and there are clear similarities between the
the reproduction, though sanctioned, has not been superintended by the author himself,
desires to state that it was written about thirty-three years ago, and does not represent hIS
present views on matters ofoccult research or on severalpretensions of and
while in respect of mesmerism, spiritualism, and modern theosophy the effluxion of time has
transformed many of their aspects.
And despite having every right to reprint the ?ook Mr Stallybrass guilty
and offered to publish the book on which Waite was currently working..He
expected something 'occult' but the Prefatory Note should have warned him:
what he got was LAmps of Ufstern Mysticism. This collectio.n.of 'Essays on.the
Lifeof the Soul in God' was Waite's last major work on mysticismand contained
papers drawn largelyfrom TheOccult Review and ?uest. It is adifficu!t book
that sold slowly and, as with almost all of Wa1te s works, was
remaindered (KeganPaul & Co. sold the remaining copies to John Watkins, the
occult bookseller, in 1928).
The study of alchemy was begun in November 1924, as a way ofescapefrom
the trauma of Ada's death. Waite completed it in under a year and persuaded
Stallybrass to publish it on the grounds that it would be a fit companion
Lamps of Ufstern Mysticism; it was accepted and course appeared.
says of it in hisPreface, that it: 'completes my of the Secret 'Iradition
transmitted through Christian Times, Alchemy being the one branch so far
unexplored of that whichhasclaimed to Theosophy in
in experience rather than by formal doctrine', He concludes by say1ng, If I am
spared for further efforts in these directions, they will belong t.o the work of
revision, when the series at large may come to be drawn together Into a collected
form' (p. xxii). The revisions were published-as TheHolyKabbalah The
Holy Grail (1933), andTheSecret 'Tradition inFreemasonry (1937)-but hischerished
project of acollectededition of his works remained a pipedream. He had succeeded
in publishinghisCollectedPoems in 1914 but hewishedto both
and his last poetical work, The Book of the Holy Graal-wh1ch John
published in 1921simply because he liked it, and which Katherine Tynan praised
in TheBookman as 'poetry of great beauty, never uninspired, never crabbed, and
difficult'. It wasquite impossible from a commercial standpoint and even the
selection of poems, The Open Vision, which he had helped Phyllis Leuliette, a
friend of his daughter, to make in 1931 was not printed until 1951-and then
privately. . .
Alchemy, however, was more saleable, evenif the book repudiated VIews he
had put forward with fervour as a young man. His altered
from that of Mrs Atwood's Suggestive Inquiry-had been made clear m 1911 (In
TheSecret Tradition inFreemasonry) and had led to Isabelle de Steigertaking him
to task for his volte]ace in the pages of TheOccult Review. Waite repliedby pointing
out that, 'The eighteen years that have elapsed since the publication of Azoth
Tarot figures in TheGreater Trumps and the images in Waite's pack. Like Coburn,
Williams had much to thank Waite for, but unlike Coburn, what he took he
took honourably.
The loss of Charles Williams to the Order was a disappointment to Waite,
but his work continued. As a means of propagating the Order he attempted,
in 1922, to resuscitate his old dream of 'The Secret Council of Rites', but after
discussion with his closest colleagues he changed its name to 'The College of
SacredMysteries' and arranged for the printing of a manifesto. But among those
involved in drafting the manifesto were both]. S. M. Ward and Alvin Langdon
Coburn; when Ward drifted away, plans for the 'College'were postponed, and
when Coburn was banished they were altogether abandoned.
Lectures, however, continued to bring in occasional new members. He
addressedthe Theosophical Societyin 1919on 'Some Mystic Aspects of the Holy
Grail' (one member ofthe audience recalled that he arrived late; but shejoined
his Order nonetheless); 6 he spoke frequently at Masonic Research Societies,
and in 1923 he lectured to the Porchway group on 'The Great Symbols of the
Tarot' and to the Students' Research Society on 'The Kabbalah and the Mystic
Quest'. Both lectures were for audiences of eager theosophists and on both
occasions new recruits duly followed. The last public lecture Waite gave was
to the Poetry Lovers' Fellowship; on 7December 1931he spoke on 'Some Great
Awakenings', but no dormant vocations woke to life and none of the Poetry
Lovers passed into the Order. The Fellowship of the Rosy Cross, for all it grew
more slowly, remained the centre of Waite's life and much of his later life was
devoted to writing and rewriting the Order rituals. There was also, of necessity,
other writing-Waite might live for the Order but he had yet to write for the
world at large in order to live.
His series of works on the Secret Tradition had continued with The Book
ofCeremonial Magic (1911), which Waite sub-titled 'The SecretTraditionin Goetia',
It was little more than an expansion of his earlier Book of Black Magic but he
had felt it necessary to illustrate the negative side of the Secret Tradition and
to warn against the perils of magic once again. The final subjects to be approached
were Rosicrucianism and alchemy; the former was treated exhaustively in The
Brotherhood of the RosyCross (1924)-including an account of the origins of the
Golden Dawn, complete with a reproduction (upside-down) of one page of the
cipher manuscripts-while the latter he dealt with in TheSecret Tiaduion inAlchemy
(1926), a book that came about in a curious way.
Latein 1922Waite discovered that Regan Paul & Co. were planning to'reissue
The Occult Sciences, although they had not told him because Mr Stallybrass, the
publisher, 'claims to have thought that I was dead' (Diary, 23 October 1922).
They did allow Waite to insert a note to the effect that,
and the twenty-three years since that ofmy Lives ofAlchemystical Philosophers
represent a continuous life of thought and research; there should be no need for
surprise that I havechanged some critical opinions expressed so long ago' (Occult
Review, January 1912).
He yet lost neither his interest in alchemy nor his friendship withMme de
Steiger. When the Alchemical .Society; for 'the study of the works and theories
ofthe alchemists in all their aspects, philosophical, historical and scientific, and
of all matters relating thereto', was founded in November 1912the two honorary
vice-presidents were A. E. Waite and Isabelle de Steiger; during its brief, two-
year existence they both contributed papers and argued for their respective points
ofview. Many yearslater, when he was askedto write aprefaceto her posthumous
autobiography, Memorabilia (1927), he was less charitably disposed. He noted
in his diary, 20 April 1927, how 'I sat in a Waiting Room at Victoria and finished
that silly Preface to Memorabilia. [I] have found it almost impossible to do these
few pages because of their subject.'
The Theosophical Society was also interested in some of his work. In 1918
their LibraryCommittee had commissioned Waite to preparean edition of The
J#,rks of Thomas Vaughan, which proved to be a sumptuous production when
it was published in the following year and which was not. superseded until the
appearance of Alan Rudrum's definitive edition of 1984-but that is so poorly
printed that Waite still outdoes in form what, perhaps, has outdonehirn in
substance. They took up Waite again in 1927 when S. L. Bensusan, whom he
had met at theAuthors'ClubatChristmas of 1925 and found to be 'sympathetic
and excellentcompany-c-adding patronizingly, 'quite distinct from and quite
unlike the ordinary sons of Israel' (Diary, 23 December 1925)-offered to publish
Waite's revised Fairy Tales. The book appeared, finely printed but utterly
incomprehensible to theosophists or to anyone else, and immediately failed; Waite
received almost nothing in royalties and gained only the dubious satisfaction of
seeing. the Theosophical Publishing 'House itself fail within two years.
Most .of his books were still published by Rider & Co., buthis relations
with the firm were becoming strained. In 1925 Ralph Shirley sold his company,
and the occult publications-which the purchasers of The Timber TradesJournal
did not want-passedto Hutchinson & Co. They proved to be harder taskmasters
and eventually overhauled the somewhat antiquated style of The Occult Review.
Waite's contributions were sharply reduced in number and he was warned that
his regular 'Periodical Literature' feature would be taken over by the magazine's
sub-editor, Harry Strutton. Although he was told of this impending change in
March 1930 it was not until November 1931that he ceased to write the column
at first he thought that it was petty spite 'because I have made it .clear thatin
remaindering my books without consulting me, Rider & Co. have broken at
least two contracts' (Diary, 27 March 1930). In fact, as Strutton later told him,
it was to s a ~ e expense for ajournal that never made a profit. Waite was alsofinding
the task of a monthly analysisof dozens ofEnglish and foreign journals too heavy
to bear .and his only regret in parting with his column was the lossof income.
His books never brought enough by way of royalties to provide an adequate
income and he relied heavily upon money from writing articles and reviews
(Robertson Nicoll had securedfor him a steadystream of reviewsfor TheBookman,
often on subjects not remotely connected with things esoteric). When 'Periodical
Literature' ceased he sought an .alternative and acquired the job of producing
a quarterly column of a similarnature-s'TheLand of Psyche and Neus-e-for a
minor theosophical publication, TheA.ryan Path. In addition to shrinking royalties
he had only similarly shrinking returns from unwise investments in War Loans,
made on behalf of his. wife and daughter. In 1930 he noted that 'my expenses
during the last ten months ... exceed 200-say, 230. My income from
investments is 145 before tax is deducted. How lcanmake up the difference
in future is an anxious question with books remaindered and Olceult] Rleview]
work impaired'. (Diary, 29 March 1930). The Order members assisted with a
regular season ticket for his travels to London and occasional gifts of cash; there
was also a little money from writing reports for publishers. One of these reports
was a decisiverejectionof a book that, with hindsight, he might have viewed
Injune 1935 Waite worked conscientiously on a report on 'Israel Regardie's
G.D. revelations, the introductory volume of which has been submitted for my
opinion by George Routledge & Sons'. By the end of the month, 'on the authority
of my reports', Routledge had declined the book. Waite did not approve of the
publication ofthe G.D. rituals-although he toyed with the idea himself in 1937
and Rider announced on the dust-jacket of The Secret Tradition in Freemasonry
the imminent publication of the Secret Rituals ofthe'Rosy Cross, . the non-Grade
-ceremonies of the Independent and Rectified Rite-and pridedhimself on
scotching Regardie'splans in England. In December 1936 he wrote to a former
Order member, Frater In Aeternum, to advise him that
There are spurious Temples in existence, and as an illustration of the kind of persons whom
they include it may be mentioned that a Jew is attempting to find a publisher in America or
here (where he has so far failed) who will risk capital over the publication of all G.D. Rituals,
Knowledge Lectures and so forth. I spoilt his chance here with a big firm, but haveno influence
with business houses across the, Atlantic (letter of 17 December 1936).
The implicit anti-Semitism is surprising in one who had taken great pains in
1921 to condemn Nesta Webster's hysterical account in The Morning Post of a
Jewish 'occult' peril and who took great pride in Gershom Scholem's remark
that Waite's books 'belong to the best that have been written.on the Theosophy
of t-he Kabbalah' (quoted in the Times Literary Supplement review of The Holy
Kabbalah, 12 December 1929).
But if the financial rewards were fewand if the task ofwriting was increasingly
onerous and unsatisfactory (of the additional chapter on the Masonic Peace
Memorial for a new edition of the NewEncyclopaedia Waite wrote, 'The article
may be not much worse than the alleged peace, but it seems to me pretty bad',
Diary, 11June 1934), there were other rewards. In August 1933Waite was surprised
but delighted to receive a letter from William Moseley Brown, a prominent
American freemason, who wrote, 'as one of your American c1dmirers and a student
ofyour works', to ask 'whether you will do us the honour to accept an honorary
degree from Atlantic University'. Waite was only too willing to accept and he
advised Brown accordingly. A second letter followed on 21 September, in which
Brown announced .that 'it gives me the greatest pleasure to enclose with this
letter the formal notification of the award of the degree of Doctor of Letters .
(honoris causa) to you. The diploma will be duly prepared and, after it has been
signed' by the proper officers, it will come forward to you by registered post.
I hope that this action onour part will afford you a small part of the pleasure,
which we have received in performing it.'
The diploma was finally issued on 7November, duly signed and sealed-the
seal showing the date of the University's foundation: 'AD 1930'. What Waite
was not told at the time, and what he never learned subsequently, was that the
degree was quite worthless; Atlantic University ofVirginia Beach, Virginia, had
existed for some eighteen months when it went into voluntary bankruptcy in
December 1931,.its202 students hurriedly transferring to other institutions-to
their own advantage, for the university was not formally approved by the State
Board of Education as a standard college and was not accredited to award any
type of degree. After 1931 it had ceased to exist in any form and could not issue
even un-accredited degrees. Waite, had he but known, would have been better
served by using 'his existing degree of 'Docteur en Hermetisme', It had at least
the merit of having been awarded in good faith.
_____17__~ __
WAITE'S literary output was prodigious but was maintained by constant
working into the small hours; his diary regularly records 'lights out at 4 a.m,'
and not infrequently at 5 a.m. or 6 a.m. His health inevitably suffered and it
was as much to improve his health as to mend his finances that he moved out
of London in 1919 to settle permanently on the Kent coast.
Shortly after the sale of Eastlake Lodge in 1899, Waite had moved to the
far sideofGunnersbury Park, having acquiredSidmouth Lodge, a much lessgloomy
house at 31 South Ealing Road. The family remained at Ealing for almost twenty
years and Waite took great pride in his home-especially in his library. Philip
WeBby remembered it as 'a long old-fashioned room lined with ponderous book-
cases, with more books stacked in every corner and against the wainscot-an
enviable collection of rare, curious and miscellaneous volumes' (obituary of 1942).
When the house was sold Waite's greatest regretwas having to part with some
1,500 volumes that could not be fitted into the cottage at Ramsgate; his regret
turned to distress when he discovered that Jeffery, the bookseller to whom he
had sold them for 90 ('he has dealt with me as a friend' I), had promptly turned
them over to the highly respected firm of William Heffer & Sons Ltd., who
'made the collection a special feature of their Spring catalogue for 1920-at some
ten times the price received by Waite. 1
The Kent coast had always been a refuge for both Waite and Ada, and when,
after the outbreak of war in 1914, they began actively to seek a house outside
London they turned first to Ramsgate, where they found an ideal home in the
shape of a 300-year-old cottage in the High Street. This was purchased in 1916
and over the next three years Waite made increasingly frequent trips to the coast.
Financial pressures eventually forced a permanent move upon the family:
We were confronted now by the problem of keeping or parting with Sidmouth Lodge. The
cost of living was high indeed, compared with pre-War days, while rates and other charges
were doubling.'] sawmy way no longer, though 1had misjudged the feared fatality concerning
my future books. On the other hand, the value of availablehouses, in the absence of alFfresh
building for the spaceof four years, was such that incredible stories went from mouth to mouth
as to prices asked and obtained for freehold property. In the endit was decided to sell; and
the little old place, with its ancient yews and firs, its roof-high hollies and its summer-houses,
did not indeed realise twice what it cost to purchase, but it was approaching that figure (SLY,
p. 205).
The price obtained for Sidmouth Lodge was' 1350 .+ 25 for Summer House
and fixtures'; but, despite the profit, Waite did not approve of the new owners:
'The purchasers of Sidmouth Lodge', he noted in his diary, 'came in the afternoon
to see the furniture. They are all Russian and believe in Bolshevism' (30 August
After his books, Waite found his garden the hardest thing to be parted from.
he enjoyed gardening and was fascinated by the garden's inhabitants,whether
his wife's cat, the abundant bird life, or the toads; eventhese seemed significant
in a wider sense: 'Even the toads in my garden--:-a great colony-have jewelled
eyes which are outward signs of a grace that is somewhere to be found within,
and the new black kitten on the hearth has a spirit of divine mischief, as in some
wise also an "annihilative" divine power' (review ofE. Underhill, Theophanies,
in The Occult Review, .December 1916).
Butifhe had lost his garden, he had also-for the moment-lost the burden
of financial hardship.
Poverty, alas, was never far away. The proceeds from the house sale were
invested on Sybil's behalf in War Loan stock that returned 85 per annum in
interest. There was little else saveincome from Waite'swriting and more than
enough problems with the cottage: .the .bomb-damaged roof (Ramsgate had
suffered from air raids during the war) had been inadequately repaired, and when
it was finally dealt with in 1923 the rafters were found to be 'like powder' and
renovation used up most of the year's interest from the War Loan. The damp
cellar was a perennialproblem, and Waite periodically spent many hours rescuing
what he could of the papers he unwisely persisted in storing there. His solution
to this problem was original, if odd; by 1924 'many hundreds' of papers had
fallen to pieces, and to save the rest from a similar fate they were 'hung up in
parcels from the rafters'(Diary, 7 October 1924).
And at Ramsgate Ada died. Her relationship with Waite had been a curious
one. They had little in common-she had no interest whatsoever in his esoteric
pursuits and remained content with her devotion to the Anglican Church-but
they were genuinely fond ofeach other. Waite' smultitude of activities, however,
left him with little time for his family and his unconscious .. neglect came home
to him only when he perceived, finally, that Ada was desperately ill. Her periodic
bouts ofillness had not troubled Waite-she always recovered-and his only real
anxiety had been caused by Sybil's attack of double pneumonia in 1919. But
when Ada's father, W.H. Lakeman, died earlyin 1924, Waite noticed how 'very
ill' she looked at the funeral; byJune she was extremely ill, 'perhaps worse than
I dare as yet put down', and, inevitably, cancer was diagnosed. For tenweeks
Waite "alternated between bursts of hope at new treatments and an underlying
blank despair; then, on 18September, Ada died and Waite threw himself back
into his writing and his Order to escape at once from his sorrow, his guilt, and
his loneliness.
Waite's own health was somewhat unstable. Chronic overwork and a
pronounced tendency to hypochondria often laidhim low, but the medical members
of his order usually succeeded in restoring him to health. In 1913 he had been
introduced to Dr Elizabeth Severn, a psycho-therapist (in thesense of one engaging
in psycho-spiritual healing) who had joined the Independent and Rectified Rite
(as Soror Prudentia in libramine) and offered to restore his physical balance.
Whatever process she used, it worked: 'That is no ordinary power which works
in her simpleprocesses, and the result is an almost startling restoration, accompanied
by renewed mental freshness. Tobear this testimony is a matter of commonjustice,
more especiallyas I brought with me no livingfaith, except in her utter sincerity,
and my detachment could not have been encouraging' ('The Way of the Soul
in Healing', in The Occult Review, January 1914). Dr Severn's pupil, Helen
Worthington, maintained the role of 'personal physician' to Waite-in hispersona
of Frater Sacramentum. Regis-for the rest of his life.
An unspecified illness, probably physical exhaustion, prostrated Waite for
some three months at the end of 1927, but the enforced idleness hindered his
recovery because of the intense frustration it caused him. He followed this with
a series of accidents: in March 1928, while staying at Cricklewood as the guest
of the photographer F. C. Stoate (who was alsoan Order member), Waite collapsed
in the bathroom where he had been overcome by gas fumes, and on recovering
consciousness became 'hysterical for the first time in [my] life' (Diary, 2March
1928). Later in the same year he burnt his hand badly and was unable to write
for four weeks. Fire indeed, or rather smoke, caused him more than one problem:
in 1933 the New Year came in with a chimney fire at the Ramsgate cottage,
which Waite later learned had been smouldering for some weeks and was only
discovered when 'smoke from one of our chimneys was filling the street'.
Some months later 156 High Street was sold, and Waite and Sybil moved
to Betsy Cottage at Broadstairs, where in 1936 he was again affected by smoke.
He had fallen asleep one night, leaving a bedside lamp, 'which never smokes',
'burning quietly'; but it was a false sense of security, for he 'awoke at 4, nearly
strangled by black smoke filling the whole room'. An 'awful day' followed, spent
entirely in cleaning up after the 'foul lamp grease'.
But Waite's ill-health, real or imagined, was exacerbated by domestic stress.
In April 1916 a young schoolmistress, Mary Broadbent Schofield, had joined
the Fellowship of the Rosy Cross and taken the motto of ' Una Salus'. She idolized
both Waite and his work, and after Ada's death she took it upon herself to act
as his private secretary-much to the annoyance of Sybil Waite, who saw her
father as her own private preserve,at least asfar asfemalecompany was concerned.
The closeness between Waite and Mary Schofield continued to grow, however,
and led to frequent jealous outbursts on the part of his increasingly neurotic
daughter (he was advised by his local physician of the 'need of rest and change
for Sybil and myself, apart from one another' and told that her state was partly
due to thyroid poisoning). In spite of the intolerable atmosphere in Waite's home
they eventually married, on 15 August 1933, and Mary moved to
only to liveapart from her husband: 'All is peaceat Westfield Lodge, whereMary
is', wrote Waite in his diary on 15December, 'and all is dreadful at my supposed
When the F..R:.C:. moved to 104 Maida Vale, Mary occupied a flat in
the building where Waite was able to staywhen in London, and thus gain some
peace from the querulous Sybil, but even here there were problems. In October
1937 Waite 'fell heavily from steps to path and was much bruised and hurt';
he had, in fact, badly gashed his leg and was bed... ridden for two months. He
returned to Broadstairs for Christmas but Mary remainedin London, diplomatically
'too ill' to join them. She could also be difficult herself. Those who knew both
Waite and his second wife all recall her as being 'perpetually ill', and when in
1938 the property adjoining Betsy Cottage was bought (cheaply, because of its
ruinous state) with the intention of providing a second home for the Order and
also a separatehome for Waite and his wife, she 'decided suddenly that she would
have nothing to do with housekeeping'. The old shuttling from one menage
to another continued.
Waite was already used to such changes. In 1927 Sybil Waite had purchased,
in addition to their Ramsgate home and at her father's suggestion, a small house
at Bishopsbourne near Canterbury, known as The White Cottage, where they
spent much of their summers. Waite created regular chaos by insisting on a large
part of his library travelling with him-to Bishopsbourne in the Summer and
back to Ramsgate or Broadstairs at the end of the season. But although it was
a working second home, Waite enjoyed the tranquillity of village life while
welcoming the occasional visitor: Moseley Brown from Virginia, and Colin
Summerford with his news of Arthur Machen, in particular. He did not neglect
his old friends and enjoyed to the full his rare opportunities of meeting them.
Since leaving London, Waite had seen little of theMachens, visiting them
annually-more often when possible-until 1925, after which year the intervals
between meetings became ever longer: when he lunched with Machen and Colin
Summerford in April 1933 it was his 'first sight ofMachen for six years'. Their
next meeting was not until 3 March 1937-although theycontinued their joyously
controversial correspondence-when Waite and Mary were guests at a civic
luncheon in Newport arranged to celebrate Machen's 74th birthday. The Waites
stayed at Brynhedydd with their mutual friend, Ada Forestier... Walker (whose
sonJocelyn had been a pupil of Mary), and returned for a longer holiday in July
1938. On that occasion Jocelyn Forestier... Walker took Waite and Mary for an
extended tour of central Wales, stopping at Nant Eos to see the 'Sacred Cup
ofTregaron'. When they arrived at Nant Eos, 'Mrs Powell, Keeper of the Cup
and last of her line, gave us a most warm welcome'. They stayed for three days,
during which they saw 'the fragments which remain of the Cup and certain
records chiefly concerned with casesofits healing powers' (Diary, 16July 1938),
and on their return to Brynhedydd Waite enjoyed himself immensely, arguing
over the question of eternal life with the younger Forestier-Walkers; it was the
kind ofargument he had with Machen on his rare visits to Amersham-where
Machen and Purefoy then lived-and provided a stimulating change from the
stresses of living in a state of armed truce at Broadstairs.
There had been an earlier visit to Monmouthshire in 1920, when Waite stayed
for a week during October with an American Baconian, Dr William H. Prescott,
who was convinced that both lost Shakespeareanmanuscripts and the Holy Grail
were to be found within the walls of Chepstow Castle. Prescott enthusiastically
dragged Waite around the castle, showing him the various landmarks he believed
he had identified from his cipher, and asked Waite to write a report that'would
the to believe that excavation was worthwhile. After days spent
sight ... seeIng at Tinternand Caerleon, Waite accompanied Prescott on his visit
to Mr Lysaght (the owner), read to him his 'non... committal effort' in support
of Prescott's notions (the sanity .of which he privately doubted), and returned,
somewhat bewilderedby the whole affair, to Ramsgate. For Waite, 'The Arthurian
Caerleon is not on this earth!.-nor was the Holy Grail.
As he passed his eightieth year, Waite's travels grew less in number and he
relied on his friends and Order members to come to him. When they did, they
found that his health was failing-and it was not, as it had often been in the
past, a malade imaginaire (in 1931, the year in which he began his 350,000 word
revised version of TheHoly Grail, he entered his occupation on the census form
as, .'occasional literary work as age and health permit'). While he was at Maida
Vale with Mary he was approached by the publishers Selwyn & Blount with
a request to write his memoirs, and in February 1936 he began his first draft,
unsure whether he would be able to finish it and even less sure that it was a
book worth writing. By May 1937the memoirs were well advancedbut he found
his work increasingly tiring: 'I fell asleep over them', he wrote, 'and who will
keep awake?' By careful and continual prodding, Erle Lunn, Selwyn & Blount's
manager, ensured that Shadows of Life and Thought was completed; in Lunn's
of Waite wrote: 'It was undertaken at his instance. It is owing
to hIS unfailing encouragement that it ever reached completion.'
It was to be his last book. By 1938 Waite had written forty-six books;
translated, edited, or introduced forty others; .and written more than forty distinct
rituals forthe two Orders he had controlled. He dreamed of other works-a
revision and expansion of his Fairy Tales and a completely new edition of his
poems. Tnthelatter project he was encouraged byEthel Archer, a former devotee
of Aleister Crowley who had developed a great admiration for Waite's poetry
and had written an eulogistic article on it for The London Forum (june 1935;
this was.a new name for the old Occult Review). It came to nothing and, as with
all of Waite's other projects,remained a dream.
Waite had long been convinced that his heart was failing, despite assurances
to the contrary from his medical friends untilhe was well past seventy years of
age, and by 1940he was provencorrect. He wrote to Harold Voorhis, his American
correspondent and avid collector. of his .. books, on 16 March to tell him. that,
'I have been seriously ill during most of this year, owing to a distended heart
and Aorta worries'. Over the following two years he grew steadily worse and
hardly moved beyond the new home that Sybil had acquired (Gordon House,
at Bridge near Canterbury; Betsy Cottage was sold in 1941). His last regular
visitors were members of the Order for whom he was still working on revised
rituals; two of them, Thomas Wild and his wife, were raised tothe Grade of
Adeptus Minor on. 24.February 1942. It was. the last act of the Fellowship of
the Rosy Cross during Waite's lifetime. The Wilds went home to Glastonbury
but.returned to Bridge on 15May. They found him, asWild later wrote toJocelyn
In his usual rather uncertain state of health, but with the addition of a chill, which the next
day began to affect his heart. I was with him during the greater part of the last day of his
life. His thoughts were with his work almost to the end. I left him about an hour before he
died, since the nurse wished him to be quiet, but she told me that he asked for a pencil and
traced what he said was a Latin word upon the counterpane-he thought he was writing on
paper-and then said: 'That's the end.' We can only guess what that word may have been
(letter of 8 June 1942). .
The end had come at 11.30p.m. on 19May1942. For Waite the end of the mystical
quest was not union but Unity; his last word could only have been'Unitas'.
The obituarieswere dutiful and praiseworthy, but they did not convey any
sense of Waite's true importance. It has been so also with would-be historians
of the occult ever since; when Waite is mentioned he is praised for his translations
of Eliphas Levi, for his work on the Tarot, and for his alchemical studies; his
New Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry is rightly dismissed; his major studies of the
Kabbalah, the Holy Grail, andtheRosicruciansare respected and quoted from;
his poetry and literary style are both derided; of his mystical works nothing is
saidat alLIn this waylatter-day critics emulate the unthinking, obsessional attacks
upon Waite so often made by Aleister Crowley; like Crowley they also invent
what they do not know. With no more evidencethan her own fertile imagination
Ithell Colquhoun claimed that in 1929 'there was current gossip that he had
already taken to the bottle'; more feasibly, but with equal lack of evidence (his
own senses were clearly unreliable), J. G. Bennett claimed that he 'wasamong
those who found it amusing to hear A. E. Waite, a well-known author, rise
to his feet and say: "Mr. Ouspensky, there is no love in your system," and walk
solemnly out of one of the meetings' (Witness, 1962, p. 95). Waite never read
Ouspensky, never mentioned him, and never attended his meetings.
Waite's name has survived because he was the first to attempt a systematic
study of the history of western occultism-viewed as a spiritual tradition rather
than as aspects of proto-science or as the pathology of religion. His codification
of what he termed the Secret Tradition was a pioneeringeffort that established
'rejected knowledge' as a fit subject for study within the History of Ideas. His
idiosyncrasies and carelessnessover minor details do not weaken the foundations
he laid; his work was sound enough for it to carry the superstructure of modern
scholarship when it begins to build, as it must, upon his researches.
But the outer form of the Secret Tradition, fascinating though it is, is not
its essence. Arthur Machen knew that essence, and although he approachedspiritual
realityby aroad verydifferent from that of Waite, he knew whereWaite's greatness
lay. It was the loss of a great mystic as much as the loss of a friend he had loved
that grieved him when he learned of Waite's death; and it was a sense of that
double loss that led him to express his grief in 'a silence and a sadness' that went
beyond mere words.
Waite's true legacy is in his philosophy of mysticism, but until such time
as it is analysed in something more than a superficial manner, and its originality
and genius recognized, he will not be accorded the placein the history of thought
that he deserves. Until then his reputation will be shrouded in a manner analogous
to that of his grave at Bishopsbourne: a grave that has for many yearsbeen covered
by a rank and spreading growth of Deadly Nightshade.
-----AftetWord _
'I HAVE known my very dear friend A. E. Waite for 38 years; and 1 have not
the faintest notion as to his real beliefs. In hopeful moods I am inclinedto think
that he is a Deist; but in stern fact I should think that Pantheism ishis veritable
label.' So Machen wrote to Colin Summerford in 1925. But he was quite wrong.
Waite was far from being a Pantheist; he referred scathingly to 'the falseteachings
ofpantheistic identity' in his Introduction to Vaughan'sLumfn de Lumine (1910,
p. xxxii). Amore accurateassessmentofWaite's beliefs was made by Ralph Shirley;
in his editorial for TheOccult Review of]anuary 1914 he posedthe question 'Is Mr.
Waite a Catholic?" and gave this answer:
Perhaps the question could be answered both in the negative and in the affirmative. It might
sum up the position more adequately if I were to say that Mr Waite would like to be a Catholic
if the Catholic Church filled that place in the world which our author would hold to be its
true inheritance. An all-embracing Church, in short, with fullpontifical authority, is his ideal-a
Church which, while it teaches to the people that which they can understand, or alternatively
that which without understanding, they may accept on its authority, at the same time has
as its highest mission the handing down through the ages of a secret mystical truth of which
it is the divinely appointed repository. The following out of this secret tradition in the various
phases and forms in which it has been embodied, from the commencement of the Christian
era up to the present time, disfigured sometimes by superstition and distorted at others by
bigotry and prejudice, but still, in whatever guise, containing as its kernel the mystical meaning
of the history of mankind from its creation to the divine reunion which is its term-this has
been Mr Waite's life task. Personally, I would describe him as a Sacramentalist rather than
a Catholic.
But was Waite a Christian? From what he wrote to Robertson Nicoll (see
p. 134) it is clear that he believed in the atonement, albeit as a Universalist who
accepted that all men would ultimately be saved. As to the person of Christ,
he made one dogmatic statement on the nature of the Trinity: 'The Christ is
God immanent in the universe and man. The Father is God in the transcendence.
The Holy Spirit is the bond of unity between them.' But he promptly qualified
it by adding that 'these points are of personal understanding (The UizyofDivine
165 -----------AFTERWORD --=.;=:;.=.
Union, p. 244). In the same work he set out his idea of the nature of Christ:
'Meanwhile, as one who is assured that there have been many saviours, I feel
on my own part that He whom we call Christ, being last, is also the first. He
carriedwith Him throughout the whole crucifixion, which was alsothe concealed
glory of His earthly life, a consciousness of His Divine Nature and Destiny. As
real man He suffered, but as Divine Man He knew-e-knew, that is, 'whence
He came and why; He knew that it was for the working of a mystery; He knew
that this mystery was an epitome of the experience of each individual soul on
the. way of return Godward. He went through the high dramatic enactment
with a conscious and plenary realisation of everyelement therein, from the most
even to the least; and hence for us there is vitalism and grace in all' (pp. 185-6).
Redemption is 'by the finding of life in God' and it is a continuing process,
nota once for all event. Waite was a Christian, but he was certainly not orthodox.
The mystic, specifically the Christian mystic, seeks Divine Union, which
is 'realization in God'; but this can only be obtained, for Waite, by an act of
Mind. But this is not mind as the rational, thinking part of our being, rather
it is, 'the state of pure intelligence in deep contemplation [whichl is a state of
essential love in the highest, as at an apex ofMind. The Mind is love, the Mind
is' high desire, the Mind is,Soul, unless we talk of the Soul .as a kind of psychic
body or vesture of the next life: in this case Mind is Spirit' (SLY, p. 238). And,
Waite maintains, we can know God only by way of the Mind:
It was this threefold conviction-that Divine Union can be attained; that
it can be attained only through the Mind; and that, once attained, it lays a duty
upon us to guide others in the same path-that constituted Waite's faith. He
sawhimself as Christian and his Order as abody devotedto propagating Christian
mysticism-as experience rather than learning. Waite spent his life on a spiritual
quest for his own identity in God; he had no personal roots in the material world
and sought them instead by turning within himself, where against all expectation
he found a unique path to the direct experience of God. All mystics turn within,
but Waite was alone in grasping what he found and bringing it back so that
all mankind could understand its nature and be offered a means of attaining it.
It is our failure, not his, that we have not taken what he offered.
All whatsoever which we know, shall and can know of God, lies within these measures-the
measures of human Mind. It follows that the search after God is a Quest in our own being;
and, linea media or otherwise, supposing that there is a way to God, this way is within. The
reason is that obviously there can be no other, seeing that it is we who ascend the heights,
as it is we who explore the deeps (SLY, p. 237).
In one of his few fully dogmatic statements, Waite concludes that 'there is no
revelation of God except through us as channels '.
The state of Divine Union can be attained by contemplation, but it is not
a permanent state, nor can it be while we are in the material world; it can also
be attained through the use of ritual but this is not the way for everyone. Referring
to his 'Last Grade of the Great Mystery', Waite says, 'It is of necessity for those
only who have a state of realinward illumination, in what is called the mind
at least. To others it will not be intelligible. It is difficult to myself when I am
not in the mood of life' (Diary, 9 August 1926). For the mystic who has attained
Divine Union, return to this world brings a sense of loss, but themystic must
return for he has a duty to guide others on the same path of attainment. 'And
those who enter into this state come back into the world, with the yoke of the
kingdom upon them in a law of service. Then God shall give them work' (Lamps
of "Western Mysticism, p. 329).
______-Appendix A -.:...
Hon. Sec. (pro tern.) to 'The Triad'
The psychological phenomena of the nineteenth century have directed the attention of
many earnest students to the Spiritual Mysteries of the past, and the present epoch of
humanity may be deemed a ripe time for the more general diffusion of the important
philosophical conclusions which havetaken shapein the minds of alarge section of patient
I t is believedthat the lost keysof the ancient secret sciencesmay yet be recovered. Modern
facts, regarded in the light of old theories, and old theories explained by modern facts,
seemto havebrought alreadya number of individual andunassistedseekers to the threshold
of the Ancient Wisdom.
Those who are convinced of the permanence, reality, and proximity ofan unseen world,
and who believein thepossibility of communication therewith, are invited to co-operate
in the first systematic attempt to establish a direct correspondence of an advanced kind
between that world and the .whole body of humanity.
Certain circles of investigation, and certain unattached students working on individual
169 ------ APPENDIX A 168
lines, have set themselves to discover in the literature of Western Mysticism a solution
of the great problems of existence.
The religious aspirations of the age are distracted by the conflict of the sects, and those
principles which are at the base of all religion must undoubtedly be sought as the source
of illumination by the many minds which are weary of vain speculations and disputes
that have no end.
To these it may be stated that a method of transcending the material world, of penetrating
the veil of appearances, and of entering into the realities which underlie sense-delusions
does not seem beyond the reach of the age, An acquaintance with this method will
destroy the philosophy of the materialist; it will realisespiritual aspirations and the hopes
of a larger life.
While the existence of a Supreme Intelligenceisbeing relegatedto the rank of superstitions,
that process is in course of construction, by which the God-illuminated. seers of old-
Plato, Plotinus, Ammonius, Bonaventura, Eckart, Tauler, Vaughan, Theresa, Saint-Martin,
and Jacob Bohme-e-accomplished an individual reversion to the fontal source of souls,
and entered into an ecstatic communion with the universal consciousness.
In view of these facts, in view of the actual discoveries which have been made in the
domain of psychology by various circles of investigation, in view of the singular fields
of experiment on the threshold of which the age now stands, in view of the needs of
the age to which these discoveries and these experiments can alone truly minister, we
invite the co-operation of all persons who are enthusiasts for God and the Soul, who
believe that the revelation of the indwelling Spirit and the. overshadowing Deity can
alone accomplish a conversion in the life of mankind; we invite them in the name of
their divine and sacred zeal to co-operate in the first mystic propaganda which has been
seriously attempted in this century.
To such we would proclaim, on the faith of an unbroken historical testimony, and on
the evidence of innumerable witnesses, that it is possiblein this life, and in this body,
to know God, and that the processis enshrined in the secretlanguage of so-calledalchemy,
in the allegories of transcendental Freemasonry, in the occult initiations of the Mysteries,
and in the books of the Christian mystics.
From the same circle of esoteric literature it is believed there may be elaborated the true
methods for the
(a) Interior regeneration of humanity.
(b) The manifestation of the soul in man.
(c) The unification of the soul and spirit, which are Pneuma and Psyche.
(d) The transfiguration of the body of man by the splendour of spirit and soul.
(e) The physical glorification of humanity.
(/) The evolution of the perfect man.
(g) The elaboration of the Christ in man.
(h) The attainment of the crown of evolution.
All aspirationsof religion, all dreams of idealismadmit of realizationby the application
of the arcaneinstruments which were known to the mystics, and the gulfbetween actuality
and poetry can be bridged by their means.
A society, brotherhood, or club, is in course of formation for the diffusion of the scientific
and philosophical doctrines of the Light and the interior religion of the Light, as they
have been expounded by the children of the Light, who are the mystic seers of old,
and for the exerciseof the spiritual methods of perfection on the transcendental plane.
The number of postulants or members which the existing circle is at present prepared
to receiveis of necessity limited, .and earnest seekers after the interior knowledge of the
soul, men and women of culture, intuition, and nature will alone be eligible.
It is designed in the first instance to take possessionof a suitable Mansion in a convenient,
London centre, which will be made use of as a nucleus for the propagation of the New
Mysticism and of those high doctrines of Transcendental Religion which are destined
for the conquest of the world. It will combine at thesame time all the conveniences
of an institution, to which members may resort for the more ordinary purposes of life,
and for harmonious communication within the bonds of a common sympathy.
The private objects of prosecution on the part of associates and)members will be the
attainment of the following exalted interior states:
(a)' The Manifestation of the Divine Virgin.
(b) The Manifestation of the Dual Flower.
(c) The Vision of Diana Unveiled.
(d) The New Birth or Interior Regeneration.
(e) The Revelation of the Holy Graal.
(/) The Interior Translation.
(g) The Mystic Marriage.
By the exerciseswhich give entrance to these states, it is intended to qualify and prepare
at all points an elect, esoteric circle for the Regeneration of Humanity, the propaganda
of the New Mysticism, the erectionof the first temple, and the creation of the coming man.
The erection of the first temple of the soul as a visible witness of the way of positive
truth is the grand design of the order, and it is to assist in its promotionthat this present
invitation is extended to all persons who have received the mystic gospel and have been
___________APPENDIX A ..:..:....=.
illuminated by the interior Light. The rituals and liturgies of this Temple, by which
humanity at large is to be led to the threshold of the New Life, are already in course
of development.
The creation of the perfect man can be accomplished solely by correspondence with
Evolution, which is the abiding law of life. '
The law of evolution may be sub-divided into-
The laws in the development of physical beauty and perfection.
The lawsin the development of the-. higher morality,
The laws in the development of intellectual aspiration and the realization of intellectual
-The laws in the development of the spiritual principle in the direction of the perfect
rest and the perfect activity in God.
In the' physical order: In the realization of the dream of beauty.
In the moral order: In the realization of the dream of love.
In the intellectual order: In the realization. of the dream of poetry.
In the spiritual. order: .In the realization of the dream of the mystics.
[Note: The prospectus was issued in 1891.1have been unable to identify Mr Rothwell
or to determine his relationship with Waite. RAG]
WE ARE told by the Mystics that there is an exterior evolution on the physical plane,
and an interior evolution on the psychic plane. There is a promise to the outward man
and a promiseto the inwardman. They prophesyunto us of a glory to be revealed outwardly
and of a glory to be realized within-oran exterior splendour and an interior light.
This two-fold evolution will be represented in. the ministry of devotional Mysticism
by the liturgy and the ritual. The liturgy will be concerned with the inward man; in
the symbolicritual there will be a serviceof the outwardsenses,and as there is a solidarity
between the two evolutions, so there should be a solidarity between the liturgy and
the ritual. There arealsofour chief processes in Mysticism-Regeneration, Illumination,
Dedicationvand.the Mystic Marriage, .orcommunication with Deity. These will be
represented in" the four divisions of the service-s-Regeneration through Aspiration by
an opening aspirational rite, Illumination by the instruction. of lessons and discourses,
Dedication by asacrificial service, the Mystic Marriage bya Eucharistic rite. Three other
ideas would also be involved by the Ministry. of a Mystic service-s-a possibility of
communication with the. Divine; and the way and the means thereof, with thetwo
who seek to communicate, namely, Pneuma and Psyche-the Spirit and the Bride. If
we'educe these processesand ideas into form on the exterior plane, we shall havedefinite
points for our guidance:
(a) The Templeinto which all retire to establish correspondence withthe Divine-and
this is the Interior Sanctuary.
(b) The visible body .of the Church, corresponding to the physical body, and
represented by the concourse of worshippers.
(c) The Ritual of the Temple, which creates theconditions that are required in the
exterior man.
(d) The Soul and the Spirit which do reside in the interior man, and wherewith
the outward man must be unified. These are represented within the interior
sanctuary by the ministry of a man and a woman.
(e) TheLiturgy, or devotionalservice, bywhich it is sought to unite the threeprinciples
of man in a common aspiration and outreaching towards the Divine.
(/) The high ..priest, also within the Sanctuary, who is the chiefcelebrant, the 'sign
of the possibility which exists, the type of communication, the living symbol
of the bridge between the seen and the unseen, the representative of God, the
speaker who, symbolically, is commissioned from the other side of life.
In the order of mystical ideas, the priest ministersto the Three Principles, but especially
to the Spirit; the Spirit ministers to the Two inferior Principles, but especially to the
Soul; the Soul ministers to the whole body. Our Mystic service will be shaped along
these lines; they are not arbitrary; they are the orderof spiritual procedure. The liturgic
portion of the servicewill be compiled from the Mystics. It will be wholly aspirational
and devotional, and will embody the .aspirational Mysticism of the Old and New
Testaments of all religion. There will be a hymnal portion, selected from the metrical
literature of Mysticism. The instructional section will be derived mainly from the lives
..and teachings of the Mystics. We shall select from the concourse of the Sages fifty-two
'representative men, taken in historical order, beginning with Pythagoras and Plato. The
lessonsof each week will be taken from the works of one of these men, andthe discourse
will interpret his wisdom, or some important factor in mystical philosophy which may
be said to take shape in him. During seven days he will rule our thoughts, and will
be therefore the ascending star which will govern during that period in the spiritual
sky. The lessons and discourses which constitute the second division of the servicewill
be followed by a dedicatory rite, which will open with a choral hymn and a devout
invocational litany. A solemn act of Dedication will then be made, and the seven-branched
candlestick, which now overshadows you, will be lighted on the altar, representing the
fivesenses, or faculties, and the two principles of the interior man, among other profound
significances. The symbolic sacrifice of incense and perfume will be offeredto the Divine
Substance, representing the aspiration of the worshippers. Acts of Mystic Renunciation
will then be made by all present, after whichthe priest, asthe ambassador of the superior
world, will proceed to the consecration of bread and wine, symbolical of the divine
principles which constitute the food of the interior man. After the consecration, the
priest will partake of the elements, and then all present, to signify the communication
with Deity, which is the end of the Mystic process. The order of procedure will be
as follows: The elements will be received by the deacon from the hands of the priest
himself, for he stands as the Spirit in Man. The lady sub-deacon will receivethem from
the hands of the Pneuma, who is the proper mediator to the Soul, and she in turn will
communicate them. to the body of the worshippers, as she is the proper ministrant to
the Body. After an interval of interior recollection, the service will conclude with an
act of thanksgiving; a solemn charge, a benediction, and a finaljubilatory hymn.
When prompted by genuine enthusiasm, propositions like these are pleasing, but
of little practical value. The church. of the future can become actual only by evolving,
and the modes of its ministry must be left to evolve with it. The essential quality of
life escapes. in the ready-made ritual. We are not afraid of the development of another
priestcraft, we believein the magnificence of the exterior sign, and in the grandeur of
outward worship; but, with full sympathy for the spirit which governs them, we must
deprecate these designs, which have only the elements of failure. At the same time, it
is pertinent to draw attention to their existence, for they arepart of that spiritual ferment
in which we all of us breathe and move.
[From Azoth:.or the Star in theEast, pp. 126-8.]
____Appendix B----:..- _
(1) The S. C. R. was constituted on December 2nd, 1902 for the determination in a
particular direction of existing Mystic Interests, more especially in connection with
Masonry and the Orders which are connected with and dependent upon it.
(2) The work of the S. C. lies entirely outside that of any legislative bodies, Grand
Lodges, Grand Chapters orSupreme Councils; it does not seek to intrude among them
and it will not tolerate their interference in its concerns.
(3) The S. C. will for its better protection vigilantly conserve an occult and anonymous
character and, savein the SupremeDegrees of the Council, will at no time divulge the
names of its Members to any person in the world.
(4) The S. C. consists of the following brethren. Frater L. S.; Frater M. W. e.; Frater
S.R., under the conditions now to be set forth:-The S. C. of R. does not exist and
no person is, therefore, a Member of it, except when it is called into being and declared
to be in activity by some one or more of the abovementioned Fratres or their successors
for executive or consultative purposes and on the completion of the work in hand, or
beforeif sodeclared, it automaticallylapses until againin likemanner revived. Membership
of the S. C. R. is therefore to be understood in the sensejust defined whenever referred
to in this Constitution.
(5) Frater L. S., Frater M. W. 9. and Frater S. R.being members ab initio by whom
the C. was constituted simultaneously, there is no priority or precedence in respect of
them and this fact is to be borne in mind more especiallyby the Frater S. R. who first
suggested the constitution of the SecretBody for those objectswhich areknown to the C.
(6) The Members of the S. C. can work only in common for the furtherance of the
objects which it proposes and therefore no action must be taken by one independently
of the others in respect of any C.matters.
(7) The S. C. has no power to add to its numbers and the absence of any Member from
the country of its present location does not constitute a vacancy, since an efficient inter
communication can always be preserved. This rule is absolute and invariable in respect
of both its clauses.
(8) Vacancy is constituted by death or permanent alienationasalsoby insanity or unfitness
to act; agreement on the part of the other two Membersasto the existence of either
175 -----------APPENDIX B 174
disability being alone necessary in order to take action. Each Member has the right to
nominate his successor, who shall be of the male sex and a Royal Arch Mason. Such
nomination maybe made absolute prior to decease by the approval of the other Members
and ranks alternatively as a very serious and urgent recommendation to be adopted if
possible, failing which, the appointment rests with the survivors.
(9) In the event of permanent alienation, insanity or unfitness ro act without a successor
having been nominated previously, the other Members shall appoint a suitable Mystic
Mason to complete the Triad at such time as may be advisable and in any case within
a period of twelve months.
(10) In the event of the death,of a Member suddenly and withoutnomination, similar
procedure shall be adopted, as two Members cannot constitute a complete
(11) The C, as it now stands is complete, perfect and permanent, without power of .
expulsion or, the right to insist on resignation.
(12) The S. C.will always deprecate resignation on the part of a Member, but it must
not disallow it altogether. In such event, the right of nomination is abrogated but one
ofcounsel remains, such counsel to be regarded with great respect and followed if reasonable
and desirable.
(13) In the event oftwo Members resigning simultaneously, the C, would cease to exist,
and this therefore is interdicted by the honourable pledge which has been taken by each
Member, as will appear hereinafter.
(14) As it is necessary for the furtherance of its objects that the S. C. shall have a certain
acknowledged existence, it has appointed the Frater S.R. asits present
with full powers in conjunction with the whole C. ,only.
(15) The Envoy-Extraordinary is not as such a Member of the C.
(16) The S. C. may and will appoint Envoys-Subordinate for different countries or districts
for the spread and representation of the Rites conserved by the C. but such Envoys shall
represent special-Rites only.
(17) The Frater S. R. is at this time the sole Envoy-Extraordinary representing all Rites
of the C., under the obedience ofthe C., with the special Envoys to him subordinate,
also under the obedience of the C. ,and this rule .shall be, absolute' henceforward for
every Envoy-Extraordinary successively appointed and for the Envoys-Subordinate.
(18) The S. C. will obtain and exercisejurisdiction over Independent Lodges, Chapters
and Temples of the following Rectified Occult Orders and Masonic Rites:
The Occult Orders.
(a) The Independent and Rectified Rite of Martinism.
(b) The Reformed Order of the G. D. Masonically reconstituted.
(c) The Rectified Rite R. R. etA. C.
(a) The Rectified Rite of Swedenborg,
(b) The Independent Order .of the Illuminati.
(c) The Order of the Novices and Knights Beneficent oftheHoly City ofJerusalem.
(d) The New and Reformed Rite of Adoptive Masonry.
(e) The Incorporated Order of the Eastern Star.
(19) Members of the S.c. are Members of these Bodies and will work them in a
constitutional manner for the purposes of the C., and all other Rites 'and Orders which
it may subsequently acquire for the same purposes in like manner.
(20) The Members of the S. C. will if possible obtain their reception into the Secret
Order 7..16., as it is requisite for the purposes of the C.
(21) The S. C. will if necessary and desirable acquire other Rites and Orders, Masonic
and non-Masonic, to work in connection with.its purposes and will at the proper time
constitute two further Rites for the completion of the existing series as follows:
(a) The Order of the Daughters of Zion.
(b) The Third Order R. R. et A. 'C.
(22) The C. will distribute these Rites upon .an ascending scale as 'follows:
(a) Rite of Martinism, referred to Malkuth.
(b) Rite of the G. D., referred to jesod,
(c) Rite of Swedenborg, referred to Hod (with its complement).
(d) Rite of the Eastern Star, referred' to Netzach.
(e) Rite of the R. R. et A. C., referred to Tiphereth.
(f) Rite of the Illuminati, referred to Chesed (with its complement).
(g) Rite of Adoption, referred to Geburah.
(h) Rite of the Novices and Knights of the Holy City, referred to Chockmah (with
its complement).
(i) Rite of the Daughters of Zion, .referred to Binah.
0) Rite of 7..16, (intermediate) referred to Daath.
(k) Rite of the Supreme Crown or Third Order R. R. et A. C., referred to Kether.
(23) This distribution is in part a matter of convenience and in part arises naturally
from the ascent of the Grades. Its design and arrangements are entirely a C. Secret, as
ostensibly there will be an independent working of all the Rites.
(24) The scheme ofRites belonging to the Pillar of Benignity can be entered only through
Martinism, with the exception of that referable to Daath.
(25) The Masonic Rites can be entered independently without passing from one to another.
(26) The Adoptive Rites can be entered only through the Order of the Eastern Star.
(27) By the design of the S. C., the Rite of Martinism will act as a drag net for all
the Rites, but especially for those of the Central Pillar, and the most suitable Members
who had drifted independently into the Masonic and Adoptive Orders will ultimately
be absorbed by the Androgynous Centre.
(28) With the exception of the Third Order R. R. et A. C., all Rites will meet and
recognize each other in Daath, and so far the Scheme of the S. C. will be at last unveiled.
(29) Those who attain the Third Order will meet the C. for the first time face to face,
and it is hoped that in the course of Nature the C. will be recruited therefrom.
(30) The Members of the S. C. pledge themselves hereby to communicate to one another
all occult knowledge and all knowledge concerning occult Orders which they may possess
now or obtain hereafter, and in the case of such knowledge being communicated to
them individually under binding obligations, each will do his best to obtain for the
two others a participation of such knowledge and reception by such Rites.
(31) The Members also honourably pledge themselves, each to each and all to all, to
workseriously and in harmony for the objects ofthe S. C., to keep their names unknown,
not to desert one another, to resign only by necessity, simultaneous resignation being
interdicted unless it be unanimously determined to dissolve the C., and to bear in mind
the desirability of finding someone to succeed them if possible.
(32) The objects of theS, C. of R. are the stimulation and the nourishment of Mystic
Aspiration, more especially in Freemasonry, towards the Great Work of Reintegration
with the Centre, or Union with the Divine as the Supreme End of all research, such
objects to be pursued by all legitimate means, from which any identification with social
or political movements is expressly excluded, the same being neither means nor ends.
* * * * *
* *
____Appendix c _
These are the 32 Paths of the Absolute in respect of the S. C. of R. and are the irremovable
Landmarks thereof, to which, in token of their agreement, the contracting parties here
append the initials by which they are known to each other within the C.
Dated this 25th day of May, in the year of our Lord 1903.
L.S. [i.e, Lucem Spero = Ralph Palmer-Thomas]
M.W.S [i.e. Ma Wahanu Thesi = Marcus Worsley Blackden]
S.R. li.e. Sacramentum Regis = Arthur Edward Waite]
WE, the undersigned, Members of the Order R.R. et A.C., having been askedto state
the grounds on which we demand independence, hereby affirm as follows:
We object to return of the status quo ante 1890 along the lines proposed by the
Draft Constitution 1903.
We will not be committed definitely to any expression of opinion regarding our
past connection with a Third Order.
We object to the principle of practical examination within theSecond Order.
We object to the continued use of theoriginal defective rituals and we require them
re-edited in strict accordance with the cipher manuscripts.
We are of opinion that Grades within the Second Order should either cease or
advancement therein should take placeotherwise than by the present systemofexamination,
more especially in practical subjects. We do not consider that any person competent
to confer the higher grades is now amongst, us. We regard the examination of one 5
to 6,member by another as childish. We confirm clause 9 of the Draft Constitution
1903, with such modifications as.may seem desirable. The clause is as follows:
Having regard to the fact that the secret knowledge of the Second Order has been and is in
possession of certain Adepti independently of grade and that for the present the side grade
of Theoricus has no special knowledge of importance the existence of grades shall cease and
there shall be an absolute equality of membership apart fromofficial position; any special
knowledge of the Theoricus Grade shall be attainable by 5 to 6 members as such.
We consider that the expectation of an established or renewed connection with
a Third Order cannot be too carefully controlled and if such a connection should be
affirmed by any Chief or 5 to 6 Adept we do not regard the Theorici as the sole or
necessarily the best judges of the evidence.
We object to the statements which havebeen circulated by which we are represented
~ s having affirmed the restoration of the status quo ante 1890. At the Annual Meeting .
m 1902, a temporary and experimental coalition was formed to last till May 4, 1903,
179 -------------APPENDIX C
PERSEVERA [I.e. Miss K.E. Broomhead]
ALTA PETO li.e. Mme Isabelle de Steiger]
TEMPUS OMNIAREVELAT [i.e. Miss Maud Cracknell]
VOLa ASPIRARE Ii,e, Mrs Ada M. Blackden]
7 NOVEMBER 1903)
1. The name of the order shall be the Independent and Rectified Order R.R. et A.C.
2. The Order is the custodian of certain knowledge a part of which only can be found
in printed books or known manuscripts. There is further knowledge obtainable
along the same lines.
3. The Independent and Rectified Order believes that there is a higher or mystical
sense of the entire Order knowledge.
4. It affirms individually and collectively its earnest desire for advancement in spiritual
knowledge by which alone a connection can be established with Masters in Secret
5. The original connection of the R.R. et A.C.. with such Masters under the name
of the Third Order is a matter of opinion but the existence of special knowledge
within the Second Order, however derived, is not a matter of opinion and is its
title to continuation and diffusion.
6. The Chiefs of the Second Order shall be Master Masons of the 3rd, Degree in
accordance with the tradition of the Order holding under the Mother Grand Lodge
of England or some other Grand Lodge recognized by her.
7. All authority within the Order is vested in the three Chiefs. The existing Chiefs
REGIS. In the event of the death or demission of a Chief his place shall be filled
by another Mason from within the ranks of the Second Order.
8. The power of appointment in this case shall rest with the remaining Chiefs.
9. The special Grade of Theoricus is abrogated and the knowledge possessed thereby
is placed at the disposition of the Second Order as a whole.
10. There are no examinations within the 5= 6 Grade which is the sole Grade of the
Second Order.
11. The advancement ofnew members in the knowledge possessedby the Second Order
takes place at the discretion of the Chiefs.
12. The instruction of new members may be delegated to experienced Fratres or Sorores
at the discretion of the Chiefs.
We are of opinion that our objects will be best attained by the constition of an independent
branch of the R.R. et A.C. working under a Masonic regime and that this course does
not involve hostility to those whose requirements are met by the practical part of the
Order knowledge. We have no .ideaof excluding women from membership or from
office within the Order, apart from the Masonic Chieftainship, which is a business and
working headship. We believe that our scheme is calculated to increase the number of
male members and thus ensure the equality of the sexes; and we affirm in conclusion
our intention of insisting on the literal fulfilment of all our requirements for which
purpose We Hereby Declare Our IndependenceFrom The Date Hereof ToBe Reconsidered
If Our Demands Are Granted.
MAWAHANU THESI [i.e. Marcus Worsley Blackden]
VIGILATE Ii.e, Mrs Helen Rand]
A POSSE ADESSE Ii.e. Miss Harriet Butler]
SHEMEBER [i.e. Mrs Pamela Bullock]
CAUSA SCIENTIAE [i.e. Julian L. Baker]
SILENTIO [i.e. Mrs H. Fulham-Hughes]
to prevent the entire paralysis of all business, but the two sections of the Order were
obviously not in agreement then and they are not in agreement now.
We consider that all in our power should be done to corroborate and extend our
knowledge and not to restrict it within the present narrow limits. We consider that
special attention should be given to historical and mystical research.
We hold that the Order should be reconstituted and desire to reconstitute it on
its original basis prior to the ascendency obtained bya single Chief. The Order was
established about 1885 by Chiefs who were Masons and possessed high grades in the
Masonic fraternity. If these Chiefs were warranted bya Third Order, they were in our
opinion warranted as Masons. The Order. at that time was ruled from within a body
in which the Masonic qualification was. required of joining members. The Order in
respect of its rituals as well as of its government was Masonic at that period and is still
Masonic by its rituals. It has become divorcedfrom Masonry solelythrough the dissensions
of the original Chiefs. The period of harmony and progress was the Masonic period
and the difficulties began when the Chiefs forgot that they were Masons. We affirm
the necessity of restoring the Masonic rapport by electing certain Masons as Chiefs and
encouraging, as regards men, the admission of Masons rather than non-Masons to the
Outer and Inner Grades of the order. We believealso that the extension of our knowledge
and the communication with a Third Order must be sought in those fraternities which
some of us know .and others believe to exist behind Masonry.
We affirm that the earliest status of the Order was mystical and that the trend of
the Order practice towards the lower occultism rose with the rise and grew with the
growth of the ascendency of a single Chief. Attention was originally paid to the mystic
way, more especially when the studies were chiefly directed by S..A. We desire to give
prominence to this method of progress.
13. The V. H. Soror VIGILATE is hereby appointed Keeper of the archives of the
Independent and Rectified Order withthe .title ofRecorder,
14. The V. H.. Soror SHEMEBER is appointed the Bursar ofthe Order.
15. The Order.' shall as soon as possible acquire a permanent habitation which shall
be placed under the control ofa librarian to be hereafter appointed.
16. There shall be a special meeting of the Order in January of each year when the
Recorder shall present the Report of the progress of the Order and the Treasurer
the financial statement.
17. All disputes and complaints shall bein the sole jurisdiction of the Chiefs and in
the case of differences between members they shall be determined as privately as
18. Every member of the Independent and Rectified Order shall be honourably bound
to. abide by the constitution and the regulations.
19. Simple resignation or demission from the Second Order shall not of itself involve
the forfeiture of manuscripts. All manuscripts are however held by members at the
will of the Chiefs.
20. Expulsions can only take place by fiat of the Chiefs or at their discretion by a vote
in the Vault of the Adepts with a 3. 4ths majority, notice having been sent seven
days before the meeting to every member.
21. The C. C. Ceremony will be retained but will undergo a certain slight revision
in order to bring it more into harmony with the traditions of past ages.
22. The subscription of the Second OrderisTXs] per annum which can be, remitted
at the discretion of the Chiefs in certain cases.
23. The Trustees of all the Properties of the Inner and Outer Orders are MAWAHANU
24. The regular meetings of the Second Order are the first Saturday in January, April,
July and September at such times and places as may be appointed.
----Appendix D _
[From Waite's summary of the controversy with Felkin over the Concordat ('Notes
upon certain points dwelt upon by F.R.') the following clauses of the Concordat can
be reconstructed.]
Clause 4: The full membership of each section shall be known to the Chiefs of each
section. [Felkinproposed to add the words, 'Solelyand under pledge of secrecy"]
Clause 5: The Rolls of the two Orders which are now in possession of Finem Respice
shall be used in common.
Clause 6: [This clause evidently related to the exclusion of certain members from both
Clause ,12: The password of each Equinox shall be arranged between the Chiefs of the
two sections and shall be one password.
Clause 15: No member shall be permitted to work with both sections simultaneously
in so far as the degrees recognized up to the separation are concerned.
Clause 17: Subject to the independence and autonomy of each section there shall be no
reserve ofdoctrine, instruction or means of ceremonial working between the
Chiefs of the two sections.
Clause 18: There shall be no secrecybetween the two sections in respect of those grades
of the Order known and recognized up to the time of the separation of the
sections but grades and rites worked subsequently by one section if any shall
be communicated only under the rules by which they are governed.
[A further clause (the number of which cannot be identified) 'affirms that in the one
case there is a triple Headship and in the other that the Head is "the Most Honoured
Frater Finem Respice, 7=4," and him only'.]
__-_Appendix E _
1. The Fellowship of the Rosy Cross is the guardian of a path of symbolism
communicated in Ritual after the manner of the chief Instituted Mysteries, past
and present.
2. The symbolism is concerned only with the quest and attainment of the human
soul on its return to the Divine Centre: it is sought thereby to recall its members
to the true object of research and the living method of its attainment.
3. The Fellowshipdoes not profess to communicate knowledge of the soul and experience
in the path of return otherwise than by the mode of symbolism; but this way is
sacramental and those who can receive into their hearts the life and grace of the
symbolism may attain both knowledge and experience thereby and therein.
4. The symbolismof the Fellowshipimplies a Doctrine and Practiceof MysticalReligion,
understood in its universal sense.
5. It has a message to those who areprepared in Christendom, though the lower Grades
of the Fellowship are not explicitly Christian Grades.
6. The tradition and symbolism of the Fellowship are a derivation from the Secret
Doctrine of Israel, known as Kabalah and embodied in the SEPHER HA ZOHAR.
7. The mode of interpretation in respect of Kabalistic Tradition is a Christian Mode.
8. It is to be understood that the Fellowship is similar to other Instituted Mysteries
working under particular veils, the Masonic Brotherhood, for example, which uses
building symbolism to produce upright and honourable members of the Speculative
Art, while the Fellowship of the Rosy Cross uses theosophical symbolism of
Israel and seeks to lead thereby into a deeper knowledge of the soul and its relation
to GOD.
9. The Fellowship is open to all who desire the knowledge of Divine Things and union
with GOD in Christ, and its path of symbolism is a true light of understanding
on the Path of Union.
10. The common aspiration of its members is a living bond between them, the Fellowship
___________APPENDIX "E .:=:.=_ 184
isa living body, and to those who are properly prepared it should be a source of
spiritual life.
11. Initiation and advancement in the Fellowship take place under pledges of secrecy,
being (a) the condition imposed invariablyby all Instituted Mysteries; (b) the outward
indication of the inward way of the spirit, which is secret and apart from the world;
(c) a sacrament of the analogy between birth into physical life and the new birth
or regeneration of mystical life, which are both secret processes, as are also those
of physicaland spiritual growth; (d) the proper method by which things appertaining
to the Sanctuary are reserved to the Sanctuary alone.
12. The Brethren of all Grades are covenanted (a) to remember that if they seek first
the Kingdom of GOD and His Justice, all other things shall be added unto them
which are needful for the soul's progress and its attainment of the Divine Term;
(b) to seek the knowledge of DivineThings and conscious union with GOD, so
far as it may be possible in that sphere oflife in which it has pleased GOD to call
them; (c) to maintain the veil of secrecy; (d) to live in peace with one another; (e)
to help eachother in spiritual things, as they would wish to be helped themselves;
(j)-toavoid all interference with the Official Religion professed by their co-heirs
in the Fellowship and to discourage it when attempted in their own case, (g) to
endeavour before all things to realize in their own hearts those high intimations
which are contained in the symbolism of the Grades.
13. The Constitution of the Fellowship is hierarchic and not elective, its government
being vested in the Imperator of the Rite, who has power to appoint his successor,
subject to confirmationby the body general of Adepti Exempti, and also to appoint
substitutes for the government of the Temple.
14. The conditions on which persons are received into the Fellowship are embodied
in the Form of Profession supplied through their Sponsors to Postulants and such
persons may be of either sex. The decision as to reception -rests solely-with the
15. This general principle being recognized as irrepealable, it shall be lawful to establish
Templesconsisting of men or women only, under proper warrant from the Imperator,
should a sufficient reason be forthcoming.
16. The conditions of advancement from Grade to Grade in the Fellowship are: (a) the
Warrant of the Imperator or his substitute; (b) the desire of the Postulant on his
own part; (c) sufficient evidence that he or she has fulfilled the duties of the Grade
to which he belongs.
17. No transcription of manuscripts is permitted without authority, which must be
applied for and_obtained -in writing.
18. All copies of Rituals and other papers in the possession of members shall be kept
in a locked case or box, bearing the label issued by the Fellowship and certifying
that the package must be returned unopened to the address given thereon at the
death of the member.
19. Members arecovenantedto return all Rituals and papersin the caseof their resignation
or dismission.
20. The Obligatory Meetings of the Fellowship are the Festivals for the celebration
of the Vernaland Autumnal Equinox, under reasonablereserves in respect ofsickness,
prohibitive distance and real inability of other kinds. Attendance is a matter of duty
when there is no absolute hindrance.
21. The history of the Fellowship is communicated in the Third Order only but in
one of its forms it is referable to the third quarter of the 18th century, without
such antiquity being -regarded as persee a test of value.
22. The construction of the Constitution and of these laws rests in _the authority of
the Imperator, it being laid down that alterations herein or additions hereto shall
be made only with. the concurrence of the body general of Adepti belonging to
the Third Order.
id est, Propositum Conscium Dei
Master of the Temple
id est, Desiderium -Conscium Dei
m,rden of the Temple
id est, Mens Conscia Sponsi
Guide of the Paths and Grades
id est, Terra Illuminata
Proclamator et Lucifer
id est, Thuribulum Ferens
idest, Aquam Benedictam Ferens
id est, Custos Liminis, A Novice of the Rosy Cross
N.B. The Imperator, or Chief of the Rite, presidesexofficio in all Gradesof the Fellowship,
either personally or by his appointed Substitute.
In those caseswhere certain Offices are taken by Sorores of the Fellowship, the necessary
alterations are made in the modes of address.
187 ___________APPENDIX E ..=...:....
1. THE HONOURABLEFRATERPHILOSOPHICUS wears a green robe over his black
habit and a collar of red silk, from which depends a circular lamina, inscribed
with the letter YOD. The green colour of the Master's robe represents the growth
in life which is of GOD. The symbol of the Lion is embroidered thereon, upon
the left side, with the inscription: FACIES TERTIA, FACIES LEONIS. The Master
bears a Wand, surmounted by a Calvary Cross, having four circles at the end
of the four arms and one circle toward the centre of the lowermost arm.
2. THE HONOURABLE FRATERPRACTICUS wears a yellow robe over his black habit,
symbolizing the beginning of transmutation in GOD. The symbol of the Eagle
is embroidered thereon, upon the left side, with the inscription: FACIES QUARTA,
FACIESAQUILAE. His collar is of violet silk, from which depends a circular
lamina, inscribed with the letter HE, being the first HE of the Divine Name.
He bears a ~ a n d .surmounted by a flaming heart.
3. THEHONOURABLE FRATERTHEORETICUS wears a blue robe over his black habit,
symbolizing the aspiration and desire which initiate the great quest and reflect
things unrealized. It bearsthe symbol of the Man embroidered thereon, upon
the left side, with the inscription: FACIES SECUNDA, FACIES HOMINIS. His collar
is oforange silk, from which depends a circular lamina, inscribed with the letter
VAU. He bears a Wand, surmounted by an open eye, signifying the eye of mind.
4. THEAUXILIARY FRATERZELATOR wears a cloak of reddish brown, corresponding
to the Adamic earth and symbolizing the first movement of the Divine Spirit
toward the making of aliving soul. The symbol of the Ox is embroidered thereon,
with the inscription: FACIES UNA, FACIES CHERUB. His collar is of blue-green
silk, from which depends a circular lamina, inscribed with the letter HE, being
the HE final of the Divine Name. He bears a Wand, surmounted by a Calvary
Cross, having a crown upon the upper arms. The Frater Zelator is in symbolical
correspondence with the Guide of the Paths and Grades.
5. THE FRATERTHURIFICANSwears a red surplice and a collar of green silk, from
which depends a circular lamina, inscribed with an equilateral6, having the
apex upward, as a symbol of Fire. He is in symbolical correspondence with the
6. THE FRATER AQUARIUS wears a blue surplice and a collar of orange silk, from
which depends a circular lamina, inscribed with an equilateral'\h having the
apex downward, as a symbol of Water. He is in symbolical correspondence with
the Warden.
7. THE FRATEROSTIARIUS, who is not strictly an Officer, has no special vestments.
he carries a Wand, surmounted by a Dove of Peace. There is no Sword in a Temple
of the Rosy Cross.
8. In addition to the black habit, the Frater Ostiarius and all unofficial members wear
a collar of white silk, emblematic of purification in progress, from which depends
a crimson Calvary Cross. It is the general jewel of the whole Fellowship on the
external side.
9. In Grades below the Third Order, the Imperator wears the general Rose-Cross of
the Third Order and the clothing of an officiating Adeptus Minor. He carries
a Wand surmounted by a triple Sephirotic Cross.
[Printed before the text in The Ceremony of Reception into the Grade of Neophyte, 1916.]
1. Waite: letter to Harold Voorhis, 24 September 1936. Voorhis visited the site of 206
Washington Street on7 March 1937and sent his description to Waite on the sameday.
2. Reuben H. Walworth, Hyde Genealogy; orthe descendants, in the female as well as
in the male lines,jrom William Hyde of Norwich (Albany, 2 vols., 1864). The entry
relating to the Waite family is in vol. 2, p. 905.
3. The Thomas Waite who signed the death..warrant of King Charles lin 1649 was
imprisoned at the Restoration and died in 1668. For genealogical information on
the Waite family I am indebted to Mr Charles J. Jacobs of Bridgeport, Connecticut;
he has traced one line of descent from AliceSouthworth, who sailedon the Mayflower
and became the second wife of William Bradford, the first Governor of Plymouth
4. See C, P. Magrath, Morrison R. Uizite: the Triumph ojCharacter (NewYork, 1963), p. 25.
5. For a more detailed account of A Soul's Comedy, see ch. 5. The passages referring
to Lyme a r ~ on pp. 23 and 189; the date 1857 can be deduced from references to
the Civil War and to a period four years previously; see pp. 202 and 145.
6. Harleian Society Publications, vol. 25, The Register Book of Marriages belonging to
the Parish ofSt George, Hanover Square, inthe County ofMiddlesex, p. 19. My attention
was drawn to this entry by Charles Jacobs.
7. Waite, Diary, 29 September 1937.
1. This was evidently Trinity Church, Kentish Town, where the Revd T.W. Hathaway
was curate during the early 1860s.
2. The Revd Seton Patterson Rooke (1824-1901) was a graduate of Oriel College,
Oxford, who seceded to Rome in 1851 and became a Dominican Friar. See W.
G. Gorman, Converts toRome(1910), p. 236. The date of the baptism was supplied
by Fr Hubert Edgar, O.P., ofSt Dominic's Priory, Southampton Road, Haverstock
3. St Joseph's Retreat was founded in 1858. By 1863 a permanent building had been
completed and it was this that Waite remembered. The present structure dates from
4. Waite lists a number of them: 30 Windsor Road, Holloway, then Angler's Lane,
________- NOTES --=.;:;...::.
journals-and information about them is sparse. Among the printed magazines
to which Waite contributed were TheIdler, TheLondon Amateur, Green Leaves, The
Cloucesttian, Echoesfrom the Lyre, TheSentinel, and TheCentral Review. Manuscript
magazines included The Rambler, Amateur Standard, and The Golden Pen.
3. See Echoes from the Lyre, vol. 1, no. 7 and no. 8 (September and October 1878),
and The Poet's Magazine, vol. 4 (1878).
4. The Amateur Conference was the brainchild of Arthur Loseby, a Leicester solictor.
The solitary issue of TheCentral Review appeared on 15October 1878, priced at ld.
1. James Henderson was both founder and editor of YOung Folks Paper. It started life
at Manchester in 1870 as OurYOung Folks' ~ e k l y Budget, changing its title in 1879.
Later still it was known as Oldand YOung and finally as TheFolks atHome. Henderson
died in 1906 at the age of 83.
2. AuntJudy's Magazine was founded in May 1866, by Mrs Margaret Gatty (1809-73),
the name being taken from the nickname of her daughter, Juliana Horatia Ewing,
the author ofJackanapes. Publication ceased in 1885.
3. For Chester's life, see the anonymously edited Obituary Notices ofthe late Rev. Greville
John Chester, B.A. (Watlington, 1892). The account of his life in Sheffield was
contributed by the Revd Alfred Gatty.
4. Printed in Strange Houses of Sleep (1906), pp. 93-6.
5. The Revd James Scratton M.A. was a graduate of St John's College, Cambridge.
He had seceded to Rome in 1851.
6. These 'fragments' extend to 28quarto pages. They are preserved in the Collectanea
Metaphysica volume.
7. Mr Timothy d'Arch-Smith, the author of Love inEarnest (1970), the classic study
ofUranian verse, read-at my request-e-d Soul's Comedy and agreed with me over
its Uranian content. He suggested that Waite was portraying what Freud believed
to be 'a natural homosexual phase in adolescence' and that one should not over-
emphasize such behaviour. However, in 1881 Waite was 23years of age, and at the
time I discussedthis with Timothy d'Arch-Smith neither of us had seenthe manuscript
8. Israfel. Letters Visions andPoems (E. W. Allen, 1886). Waite presented a copy to Chester,
to whom he also gave a copy of A. Soul's Comedy. Both copies are in the collection
of the author.
9. 'Mysticism: its use and abuse', a review ofA Book of Mystery and Vision, printed
in The Speaker (31 May 1902).
1. It can be dated by Waite's reference to the reprint of Godfrey Higgins's Anacalypsis,
whichJames Burns 'had begun to reprint'. The incomplete reprint was issuedin 1878.
2. This is the definition adopted by the National Spiritualist Association of America.
It is quoted in full in Fodor, Encyclopaedia of Psychic Science (1933), p. 360.
3. James Burns (1833-94) was the proprietor of The Medium and Daybreak, which
periodical he founded in 1869; it did not survive him. The Revd William Stainton
_____________NO.TES--------------.;;;.;;-=- 192
1. Beyond the Ken: a Mystical Story of Styria, was published in 1886. Miss Corner had
previously published one volume of fiction and two books on travels in Germany.
Waite's article; 'Nuremberg',was printed during 1891 but I have been unable to
ascertain the exact date.
2. Granville belonged to a cadet branch of the Stuart-Menteath family. None of his
children married, and with the death of Ludivina-his and Dora's daughter-the
branch became extinct.
3. The information about W. H.Lakeman and the Queensbury Nursery was supplied
by MrS.]. Relfof]ames Relf & Sons Ltd., Sanderstead, through the kind offices
of the Horticultural Trades Association.
4. Letter ofMay 1942. Quoted in A. Reynolds andW. Charlton, ArthurMachen (1963).
5. Two catalogues are attributable to Machen: 'The Literature of Archaeology and
Occultism' of188S; and 'List ofbooks chiefly from the library of the late Frederick
Hockley, Esq.' (1887). He also wrote some of the brief paragraphs of 'Notes and
News' in George Redway's Literary Circular (1887-8).
6. Letters of 19 December 1935 and 17 August 1940.
7. letter of 21 February 1906. The texts of all these letters are printed in the forthcoming
Selected Letters of ArthurMachen (Wellingborough; Crucible, 1988).
8. This 16-pageparnphletwas issuedin 1887; the text was later reprinted in the American
edition of The Shining Pyramid (Chicago, 1923), pp. 63-71.
9. Letter of 7 October 1887, now in the Gwent County Library at Newport. I am
indebted to Mr Godfrey Brangham for a transcript.
10. Avalon was published in 1894. An advance copy of the book exists withthe author's
name omitted from the title-page. Waite revised the text extensively in 1941 and
the original manuscript also has many alterations. I suspect that Dora's contribution
did not go beyond putting her name to the poem.
11. Letter to Munson Havens, 1 December 1924; quoted in Reynolds and Charlton,
Ope cit., p. 74.
1. Frank Benson (1858-1939) founded the Benson Company in 1883. He was knighted
in 1916.
2. Waite's records ofthe Order are bound up with his AnnusMirabilis Redivivus diary.
He lists the Lords Maltworm as Arthur Llewellyn Jones Machen, Hugh Christopher
Wilson, Frederick Randle Ayrton, Garnett William Holme, Harry William Hubert,
Ernest George Harcourt Williams, Edward Mall Swete, and Leonard Bultress.
3. The MS is bound up in the same diary as the 'minutes' of the Rabelaisian Order.
4. Letterof 11April 1936. I havebeen unable to determine the date of the incident itself.
5. Letter of9 October 1928. The incident is also referred to, more briefly, in Machen's
letter to Waite (see Note 4).
6. Diary, 12 February 1903. The reviews appeared between February and August of
that year.
7. Letter to the author, 3 December 1986. Mr Machen did not indicate the date of
the 'glorious occasion'.
_____________NOTES ~
1. Alfred Percy Sinnett (1840-1921) had taken up the editorship of the Pioneer in 1872.
He met Mme Blavatsky and Col Olcott in 1879 and was immediately impressed-
and favoured, for he became the recipient of the majority of the allegedly 'precipitated'
letters of the Mahatmas (or ofH. P. Blavatsky, if one is sceptical). His two books,
TheOccult WOrld (1881)and Esoteric Buddhism (1883), did much to promote Theosophy
in Britain. Sinnett has often been claimed as a member of the Golden Dawn although
he had no connection with the Order; the mistake arose because simple-minded
writers on occultism assumed that the initials A. P. S. referred to Sinnett, whereas
they are those of Frater Anima Pura Sit (i.e. Dr Henry Pullen Burry).
2. Dr Richard Hodgson was sent to India in 1884 by the Society for Psychical Research
to investigate the claims of wonder-working associated with H. P. Blavatsky. He
found abundant evidence of fraud and set it out in his Report, which was published
in 1885. Theosophists have attempted ever since to discountenance his findings,
but with little success save among their fellows.
3. Anonymous review in The Theosophist (February 1887).
4. The 'occult' review is that of Mrs Sinnett, in Luciftr (November 1887). The
anonymous review in Nature appeared in the issue of 29 December 1887.
5. Horatio William Bottomley (1860-1933), financier, Member of Parliament, newspaper
proprietor, and swindler, was among the most charismatic rogues of this century.
He was not considered fit to grace the pages of Who's Who after his death, but
there is an entertaining biography of him by Julian Symons (1955).
6. Ruland's Lexicon of Alchemywas printed, in an edition of six copies, in September
1892, but it was not intended for public distribution and The Hermetic Museum
was technically Elliott's first publication.
7. Emma Waite died on 14 December 1893. Her entire estate-of736. 6s. 10d.-was
left to her son. One of the witnesses to her Will was Charles Granville Stuart-
Menteath, shown as living at 31 Harvard Road; presumably he was then living
with the Waites.
8. Some of the stock had also passed to John Watkins; in 1897 both Quaritch and
Watkins issued identical catalogues of the alchemical translations.
9. For the events surrounding this book, see pp. 125-6 below.
10. The pamphlets comprised: Horlick's Malted Milk versus Cow's Milk, Ordered to the
Front, The Medical Profession onHorlick's Malted Milk, Horlick's Malted Milk andthe
Nursing Profession, TheCyclist's Friend, TheEulogy ofHorlick's Milk, LittleMiss Muffet,
and Freddy's Diary. No copies of the last two, which were written for children,
have been traced.
11. The most prolific contributors of 'colonial' stories were Mrs Chan Toon, W. B.
Koebel, and V. B. Paterson. Edgar Jepson's The Horned Shepherd first appeared in
the magazine, while Machen contributed A Fragment ofLift, TheGarden ofAvallaunius,
and The White People.
1. Waite's letter, 'Eliphas Levi and the Antiquity of the Tarot', was printed in Light
(18 December 1886). Macbean's 'Criticism' appeared in the 'Iiansactionsoi the
Metropolitan College, S.R.I.A., for 1888-9.
2. Waite's letter on 'Count Cagliostro' was printed in July 1888; his two letters on
'A New Light of Mysticism' appeared in September and October of the same year.
3. The letters of both Waite and Mr pfoundes appeared in The Medium andDaybreak
during March and April 1889.
4. A Suggestive Inquiry into the Hermetic Mystery was reissuedin 1918with an Introduction
by W. L. Wilmshurst and an Appendix containing Mrs Atwood's 'Memorabilia'.
5. Among Waite's lectures were two to the London Occult Society: 'Alchemy' on
16 December 1888 and 'History of Rosicrucianism: an elucidatory Sketch' on 23
October 1887. He also addressed the Revd G. W. Allen's 'Christo-Theosophical
Society' on three occasions; the lectures were: 'Transcendental Science and
Transcendental Religion', 5 March 1891; 'The Agnostic Standpoint as the Threshold
of Mysticism', 14 May 1891; and 'The Catholic Doctrine of Theosophy and
Mysticism', 28 January 1892.
6. Waite's introductions varied in length from a brief two-page note in Collectanea
Chemica to a fifty-page study for The Alchemical Writings of Edward Kelly.
7. TheZodiac ofLift, by Marcellus Palingenius Stellatus, 'now for the first time rendered
into English prose', was prefaced by Waite's 'Introductory Remarks on Hermetic
Poetry'. The unbound sheets were taken over by Redway and bound up after he
acquired his share of Elliott's stock.
1. A substantial portion of the text had previously appeared in the form of articles
in both Horlick's Magazine and The Occult Review.
2. George Robert Stow Mead (1863-1933) was a classical scholar and a pioneer in
the study of Gnosticism. His translation of Pistis Sophia catches the spirit of Gnostic
thought in a way that is absent from the quite unreadable translations made by
more orthodox academics. Later in life Mead became increasingly interested in
spiritualism. The initial suggestion for the founding of The Hermetic Text Society
came, unwittingly, from Mead. In 1903 he had reviewed the reissue of The Cloud
upon the Sanctuary and was so impressed by Waite's introduction that he wrote:
'Ifonly someone-and why not the scholarly mystic who writes this Introduction?-
would play Max Muller to the "sacred books" of the Christian mystics from the
XIVth to the XVlIIth centuries, what a feast there would be for hundreds of
thousands of starving souls!' (Theosophical Review, January 1903).
1. William Wynn Westcott (1848-1925) was orphaned at an early age and brought
up by an uncle who was a physician at Martock in Somerset. Westcott followed
his uncle's profession, developed a keen interest in occultism and Freemasonry, and
wrote extensively upon both subjects. His career in the Golden Dawn has been
related often but there has, as yet, been no substantial study of his life. A collection
of his essays, under the title The Magical Mason, was edited by the present writer
in 1983.
197 ------------_NOTES ~
2. Samuel Liddell McGregor Mathers (1854-1918) was eccentric, autocratic, and
extremely learned in the practice of magic. He published two important magical
texts. TheKeyof Solomon the King (1889) and TheBook of the Sacred Magic ofAbra-
Melin the Mage (1898), and suffered for his pains under Aleister Crowley, who took
the credit for Mathers's labours in 777, a collection in tabular form of correspondence
between various systems of occultism. Mathers has received little critical or
biographical attention, the only book devoted to him being the hagiography of
Ithell Colquhoun, Sword of Wisdom: MacGregor Mathers and the Golden Dawn (1975).
3. The definitive history of the Golden Dawn is Ellic Howe's, The Magicians of the
Golden Dawn, (1972; reprinted 1985) in which the question of the cipher manuscripts
and the Anna Sprengelletters is treated exhaustively. The official documents of
the Order, an account of its structure, workings and membership, and a list of all
known members, are given in my own study, The Golden Dawn Companion (1986).
For the rituals, the most extensive study-which prints most of the rituals-is Israel
Regardie's Complete Golden Dawn System ofMagic (1984). The instructional papers
of the Second Order, known as 'Flying Rolls', are printed in Astral Projection, Magic
andAlchemy edt by Francis King (2nd edition, 1986).
4. Florence Farr (Mrs Edward Emery, (1860-1917) is better-known as an actress, friend
of W. B. Yeats, and as Bernard Shaw's 'New Woman' than as a magician. But
the Golden Dawn was an important part of her life during its years of activity and
influenced both her writing and her social attitudes. In 1912 she left England to
teach in Ceylon, where she died in 1917. A biography of her, Florence Farr, Bernard
Shaw's 'New UIOman: by Josephine Johnson, was published in 1975.
5. Percy Bullock (b. 1868) was a solicitor and enthusiastic student of alchemy, who
married within the Golden Dawn; his wife, Pamela Carden, had followed her parents
into the Order and playeda prominent role in Isis-Urania during its most activeperiod.
Robert William Felkin (1858-1922) practised medicine in Africa and later in
Edinburgh, where he joined the Amen-Ra Temple. He moved to London and
transferred to Isis-Urania, coming to prominence in the Order during the
'interregnum' of 1900 to 1903. His later yearswere spent in taking the StellaMatutina
down ever more eccentric paths in searchof the Chiefs of the Third Order. Eventually
he believed that he had found them in the person of an imaginary being whom
he called Ara ben Shemesh; when he emigrated to New Zealand-to propagate
further Stella Matutina Temples-he took Ara ben Shemesh and his teachings with
John William Brodie-Innes (1848-1923) practised as a lawyer in Edinburgh
and was active in the Scottish Lodge of the Theosophical Society before founding
the Amen-Ra Temple. He was one of the few genuine scholars in the Order but
wrote principally on occult subjects (both as fact and as overt fiction). He believed
firmly in the Secret Chiefs and established his own Solar Order in 1896 with the
aim of propagating their teachings.
1. Marcus Worsley Blackden was an artist and Egyptologist who later took up
journalism. He prepared many coloured drawings of wall paintings from tombs
at Beni Hasan and El Bersheh for the Archaeological Survey of Egypt. It seems
to have been his Egyptian enthusiasms that drew him to the Golden Dawn. He
was also a keen yachtsman and moved to Fawley to pursue his hobby. In 1925 Waite
visited him and together they 'burnt certain G.D. rituals and papers '. Although
reconciled to Waite as a friend he made no attempt to join the F:.R:.C:..
2. William Alexander Ayton (1816-1909) was .not only a keen alchemist, but also a
Theosophist, supporter of innumerable' Higher Degrees' in Freemasonry, and naive
believer in the credentials of bogus occultists. His correspondence with F. L. Gardner
hasbeen edited by EllicHowe and published as TheAlchemist ofthe Golden Dawn (1985).
1. In fact only 6,100 sets had been printed by 1931. Later printings would not have
increased the total by more than another 3,000 over the next seven years. Waite
may have intended to speak of 'nineteen thousand volumes' rather than 'sets'.
1. There is no reference to dental operations before 1921 in Waite's diaries; but the
diaries for 1914and 1910 are missing so that his experiences can probably be referred
to one or other of those years.
2. Books on the subject of Tarot Cards are legion. For present purposes the most useful
are: S. R. Kaplan, Encyclopaedia of Tarot 2 vols.,(1978, 1986); M. Dummett, The
Game ofIarot (1980) [extremely hostile to all esoteric interpretations; perhaps because
the author is (a) a Roman Catholic, (b) a professional Philosopher, and (c) a confirmed
addict of card games]; and], Shephard, TheTarot 'Irumps: Cosmos inMiniature (1985).
3. Pamela Colman Smith probably joined the Order on 2 November 1901, but her
entry on the Roll is undated (the previous signature is so dated and Neophytes often
entered together), and it may have been closer to the date of the schism of 1903.
By 16 April 1904 she was still in the Grade of Zelator.
4. This lecture, with others written and delivered at the same period, is printed in
Hermetic Papers of A. E. VUzite, edited by the present writer (1987).
5. This identification has been made by Mr Roger Parisious, who will elaborate the
evidence in support of it in a forthcoming study of Waite's Tarot and its connection
with Yeats. Mr Parisious also maintains that Waite is the model for the character
of Peter Roche in Yeats's novel TheSpeckled Bird, but while certain aspects of Roche's
personality could fit Waite, there are many others that do not, and I look upon
the suggestion as being, at best, unproven.
1. In deference to the wishes of the surviving relatives of members of the F:.R:.C:.
I ha:e refrained from identifying more than a small proportion of the membership.
In like manner I have given only a cursory indication of the nature and content
of the rituals themselves; the Fellowship still survives, albeit in a somewhat reduced
and altered form, and I do not intend to cause distress to its members by publishing
the texts of rituals which they perceive as sacred.
2. Coburn's principal published works were: London (1909), New York (1910), Men
of Mark (1913), and More Men of Mark (1922).
3. This is possibly a reference to their mutual interest in Freemasonry; Coburn was
active in the Craft and in many 'Higher Degrees'.
4. In a letter to Alice Meyncll, 14July 1916. It is quoted in A. M. Hadfield, Charles
Williams. An Exploration of his Life and ~ r k (1983), p. 24.
5. Williams, The Image vf the City andother Essays, selected by Anne Ridler, with
a critical introduction (1958). See pp. xxiv-xxv.
6. The lecture was delivered on 12December; the member in question, Miss M. C.
.Debenham, joined the Order on 20 March 1924 as Soror Via determinata.
7. Two of the Masonic lectures-e-Robert Fludd and Freemasonry' (Manchester
Association for Masonic Research, 29September 1921) and' Masonic Tradition and
the Royal Arch' (Somerset Masters' Lodge, 28 February 1921) are reprinted in E.
Dunning (ed.) Selected Masonic Papers of A. E. UJaite (1987).
1. This was not the only occasion on which Jeffery offended Waite. He had, over
a number ofyears, acquired a collection of original manuscripts of Waite's works-
largely through Waite exchanging them for books he wanted-and in 1935 he offered
24of them ('22 in half-blue morocco cases, and 2 in bookform') for sale at 3,500.
The outraged Waite advised Voorhis not to consider buying them-his own suggested
valuation was 30.
----------Select Bibliography----
Only the more important works are cited here; for a complete descriptive list the reader
should refer to myA.E. UJaite: aBibliography (Wellingborough: The Aquarian Press, 1983).
1877 An Ode to Astronomy, andother Poems
1879 A Lyric of the Fairyland andother Poems
1886 Israfel: Letters Visons andPoems
The Mysteries of Magic. A Digest of the Writings of Eliphas Levi [tr, and ed.l
1887 A Soul's Comedy
The Real History of the Rosicrucians
1888 Songs andPoems of Fairyland. An Anthology of English Fairy Poetry led.]
Lives of A lchemysticaI Philosophers led.l
The Magical Writings of Thomas Vaughan [ed.]
1889 Prince Starbeam. A Tale of Fairyland
A Handbook of Cartomancy, by Grand Orient [i.e. A.E. Waite; ed.]
1890 Lucasta: Parables andPoems
1891 The Occult Sciences
1892 A Lexicon of AlchemyorAlchemical Dictionary, by Martinus Rulandus [ed.]
1893 The Golden Stairs; Tales from the ~ n d e r - ~ r l d
A New Light of Mysticism. Azoth: or The Star in the East
The Hermetic Museum Restored andEnlarged [ed.]
A Golden andBlessed Casket of Nature's Marvels, by Benedictus Figulus [ed.]
The Triumphal Chariot of A ntimony, by Basilius Valentinus [ed.]
Collectanea Chemica led.l
The Alchemical Writings of Edward Kelly [ed.]
1894 Belle and the Dragon: an Elfin Comedy
201 ____- , - - ~ __SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY--- =
1922 Raymund Lully
Saint-Martin the French Mystic
1923 Lamps of J#stern Mysticism
The Book of Formation (Sepher Yetzirah), by Rabbi Akiba ben Joseph [ed.]
1924 The Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross
1925 Emblematic Freemasonry
1926 The Secret 'Hadition in Alchemy
The Book of Life in the Rose [successive parts appeared. up to .1928]
1927 The Quest of the Golden Stairs
1929 The Holy Kabbalah
1933 The Holy Grail, its Legends andSymbolism
1937 The Secret 'Iradition in Freemasonry
1938 Shadows of Life and Thought
(a) Annus MirabilisRedivivus. Diary from 2October 1902 to 2October 1903. Bound
in at the end are the records of The Rabelaisian Order of Tosspots, and the text
of Machen's Hermetic Ritual.
(b) Business Diaries. 4 vols. 1900 to 1906. A record of Waite's activities on behalf
of Messrs Horlick & Co. and of his work as private secretary to james Horlick.
It includes carbon copies of the more important business letters written by Waite.
(c) Small diaries. Pocket diaries for the years 1909 to 1942. (Those for 1911 and 1914
are missing.)
Collectanea Metaphysica. A bound volume of miscellaneous notes, unpublished and discarded
poems, and records of sittings with mediums c.1880-7.
The Secret Commonwealth of Rogues andVagabonds. A bound volume of typescripts of
unpublished sensational fiction c.1880-1900.
Esoteric Freemasonry. Notes on the esoteric history of Freemasonry, its doctrines, symbols,
and science. Unpublished typescript c.1893.
Avalon. The original manuscript draft of the poem, in Waite's hand.
Diana Vaughan and the question ofmodern Palladism. Unpublished typescript of the sequel
to Devil-UJOrship in France (1897).
The Sodality of the Shadows. Manuscript records of the society, bound up with two
unpublished stories c.1900-10.
Dealings in Bibliomania. Unpublished typescript with MS corrections c. 1923.
The Independent andRectified Rite of the Golden Dawn
(a) Manuscript rituals, 2vols. c.1904-6.
(b) R:.R:. etA:.C:. Convocations. Typescriptsand manuscripts of Waite's Addresses
to the Order, together with copies of the Preliminary Report, Declaration of
Independence; and circular letters 1903-8.
(c) Bound volume of completed Forms of Application for candidates for the Order,
together with Order Summonses. 1904-13.
(d) The Testimonies ofFrater Finem Respice (i.e. R. W. Felkin). Manuscript transcript
of Waite's conversations with Felkin over the Third Order, the German Rosy
Cross, and other matters concerning Felkin's Temple. 1915. (The conversations
from 1906 to 1915.)
Fellowship of the Rosy Cross
(a) Minute Books of theF:.R:.C:. and O:.S:.R:. et A:.C:. 5 vols., 1915-38.
(b) Register of Addresses, 1920-8.
(c) Forms of Profession for candidates for the Order. 2 vols. of completed forms,
Concerning Malted Milk. Typescript copies of two hundred promotional circular letters
written by Waite for Horlick & Co.
Printed papers
EarlyWritings. 3 vols. Two contain prose contributions to periodicals; the third contains
verse. 1876-81.
Reviews of early poetical works of Waite. 2 vols. 1878-9.
Miscellaneous Writings andReviews. 23vols. Periodicalcontributions by Waite and reviews
of his work. 1884-1938.
ActaLatomorum. 4 vols. Printed ephemera relating to Waite's masonic career. 1901-38.
Announcements andProspectuses. A volume of printed ephemerarelating to Waite's published
works. 1886-1911.
In addition to the above, the papersinclude revisedtexts of rituals; unbound manuscripts
of lectures delivered by Waite; brief diary notes for part of the year 1901; notes and
correspondence relating to the F:. R:. C:.; and a bound volume of portrait photographs
and snapshots of Waite and his family.
According to the terms of Waite's will, his papers were ultimately to pass to the
keeping of an institutional library; however, the institution in question declined to accept
the papers and they arenow dispersedbetween four private libraries; the owners of which
do not wish to be identified. They are, however, willing to grant access to the papers
to bonafidestudents, who are~ n v i t e d to communicate with the author via the publishers.
Adcock, A. St John, 73, 74
Alchemical Society, 152
Allen, Revd G.W., 82, 195
Andreae, J.V., 105
d'Arch-Smith, T., 191
Archer, Ethel, 160
Arnold, Matthew, 133
Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, 131
Aryan Path, The, 153
Athenaeum, The, 35
Atlantic University, 154
Atwood, Mary Abbe (Nee South) and A
Suggestive Inquiry into the Hermetic
Mystery, 93, 151, 195
Aunt judy's Magazine, 38, 191
Ayton, Revd W.A., 95, 117, 120, 178,
179, 197
Ayrton, F.R., 193
Baker, j.t., 178
Barry, Mgr. William, 140
Bathurst, Mary Catherine, 21
Be19ravia, 35
Bennett, j.G., 161
Benson, Sir Frank, 67, 75, 193
Bensusan, S.L., 152
Berridge, Dr E.W., 82, 108, 110, 111
Besant, Annie, 102, 103
Bibby, Miss, 190
Blackden, Marcus Worsley, 104, 116, 120,
122, 127, 128, 130, 176, 178, 179, 180,
Blackwood, Algernon, 13, 120
Blavatsky, Mme H.P., 76, 88-90, 102, 107,
Blitz, Edouard, 127, 128, 129
Boehme, Jacob, 90
Bookman, The, 140, 151, 153
Bookman's Journal, The, 29
Bottomley, Horatio, 79, 80, 82, 86, 194
Boys of England, The, 26, 28
Brett, Edwin j., 26
Bridge, G.E., 145
British Mail, The, 79, 80, 124
British UJeekly, The, 133
Brodie-Innes, j.W., 108, 113-14, 117,
118-20, 121, 122, 139, 196
Broomhead, Miss Kate E., 179
Brown, William Moseley, 154, 158
Browning, Robert, 14, 33, 34-5, 37, 76,
Bryant, Gilbert, 192
Buber, M., 104
Bullock, Percy, 113, 116, 117, 196
Bullock, Mrs Pamela, 178, 180
Bultmann, R., 104
Bultress, L., 193
Burns, james, 49, 53, 191
Burry, Dr Henry Pullen, 194
Butler, Miss Harriet, 178
.Camrnell, C.R., 55
Catherine Street Publishing Association,
Cavendish, R., 12
Central Review andAmateur News, The, 36,
190, 191
Central Union, The, 35
Chambers' Journal, 76
Chester, Revd Greville john, 38-40, 42,
44, 190
Chesterton, G.K., 45-6
205 _____________INDEX ---'- ~
Christian Commonwealth, The, 53, 192
Christo-Theosophical Society, 82, 195
Civil andMilitary Gazette, 78
Coburn, Alvin Langdon, 147-8, 150, 198
Coburn, Mrs A.L., 147
Cockburn, Sir J., 146
Collett, Miss A.M., 144
Colley, Revd T., 192
Colquhoun, Ithell, 69, 161
Co-Mason, The, 131
Constant, A.L. (Eliphas Levi), 76, 77,
88-9, 96, 160
Coomaraswamy, A., 104
Corner, Caroline, 57, 192
Cracknell, Maud, 179
Crowley, Aleister, 11, 13, 55, 83, 108, 113,
130, 161, 196
Davis, Andrew Jackson, 48, 55, 127
Debator, The, 79
Debenham, Miss M.C., 198
Dickens, Augustus, 19
Dickens, Harriet, 19
Dobb,G. Barrett, 54, 143, 144
Doyle, Sir A. Conan, 136
Dummett, M., 12, 197
Duncan, H.M., 144
Dyce, Capt. Cecil, 50
East and Ui'st Review, 90
Echo, The, 95
Echoes fromthe Lyre, 35, 190, 191
Eckartshausen, K. von, 134
Eglinton, William, 50-1, 192
Elliott, Hugh, 100, 121
Elliott, James, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 86, 94,
95, 111, 125, 194
Encausse, Dr Gerard (Papus), 12, 126-7
Equinox, The, 11
Ewing, Juliana Horatia, .191
Farr, Florence, 112, 113, 116, 196
Felkin, Dr R.W., JOO, 113, 118, 120-2,
139, 181, 196
Fellowship of the Rosy Cross, 123, 135,
139, 140, (ch. 16) 142-50, 157, 158,
183-7, 197
Perrers, Eleventh Earl, 101
Firth, Frederick, 19
Firth: Frederick Gr.), 19, 23, 39
Firth, Elsie, 19
Firth, Mrs Julia, 19
Firth, Louie, 19
Forestier-Walker, Mrs Ada, 159
Forestier-Walker, Jocelyn, 159, 160
Fox, Kate and Margaret, 48
Freemason, The, 131
Fremasons' Chronicle, The, 132
Fulham-Hughes, Mrs H., 178
'Gabriel', 40-4
Galignani Messenger, The, 80
Gatty, Horatia, 39
Gentleman's Magazine, The, 76
Gladstone, W.E., 50
Gloucesterian, The, 190
Golden Dawn (Hermetic Order of the
Golden Dawn), 11, 24, 66, 80, 100, 102,
104, (ch. 12), 105-15, 127, 128, 137,
138, 153, 194, 195, 197
Goldstone, A.H., 69
Gordon, Harry, 54
Gow, David, 73
Green Leaves, 190
Gregory, Lady, 114
Gunn, Battiscombe, 122
Hacks, Charles (Dr Bataille), 125
Hansard's Parliamentary Debates, 79
Hansard Publishing Union, The, 79, 81,
Harding, S.H., 190
Harris, T. Lake, 82, 108
Harrison, F.V.(Barry Ono), 28, 190
Hathaway, Revd T.W., 20, 189
Hayden, Mrs, 48
Hems, Harry, 39
Henderson, James, 37, 191
Hendon Times, The, 25
Herman, Mrs E., 140
Hermetic Society,The, 106
HermeticText Society, The, 101, 195
Hibbert Journal, The, 134
Hodgson, R., 194
Hogg, Amy (see Machen, Amy)
Hogg, Mysie, 60
Holme,G.W., 193
Horlick, James, 75, 84, 85, 86, 135
Horlick's Magazine, 27,86, 100,136, 195
Horniman, Annie, 80, 108, 111, 113, 114
Horniman, Frederick, 80, 111
Horos, Theo and Mme A., J13
Hubert, H.W., 193
Hudleston, Dorothy Purefoy (see Machen,
Hughan, W.]., 105
Hunter, E.A., 113
Idler; The, 24, 27, 190
Independent and Rectified Rite (of the
Golden Dawn), 104, (ch. 13) 116-23,
124, 134, 137, 138, 139, 142, 146, 153
Inge, W.R., Dean, 12
Isaacs, Sir Henry, 82
Isaacs, Joseph, 82
Isaacs, Rufus (Lord Reading), 82
James, Capt John, 49, 57, 192
Jeffery, John, 155, 198
Jennings, Hargrave, 77, 78
Jepson, Edgar, 86, 194
Jerome, Jerome K., 60, 65
Jogand-Pages, Gabriel (Leo 'Iaxil), 125
Kilburn Times, The, 25
Kingsford, Anna, 82, 106
Kirby, W.F., 128
Koebel, W.B., 194
Kohn, .julius, 95
Lakeman, Ada (see Waite, Ada)
Lakeman, Annie (seeStuart-Menteath,
Lakeman, William Henry, 59, 156, 193
L a m ~ The, 24, 32, 33
Leadbeater, Revd C.W., 102, 103
Leclerc, Joseph, 129
Lee, Revd A.H.E., 149
Lethem, George, 55
Leuliette, Phyllis, 151
Levi, Eliphas (see Constant, A.L.)
Light, 53, 55, 78, 91, 92,94, 126, 192
Little, R.W., 105
London A mateur, The, 190
London Forum, The (see Occult Review, The)
London Journal, The, 27
London Spiritualist Alliance, 52, 53, 55,
Lovell, Edward, 18
Lovell, Eliza, 18
Lovell, Emma .(see Waite, Emma)
Lovell, Francis, .18
Lovell, Francis, Jr., 18
Lovell,. Mrs Francis, 19, 22
Lovell, .George, 18
Lovell, Harriet (see Dickens, Harriet)
Lovell,Julia (see Firth, Julia)
Lovell, Mary Ann, 18
Lovell, William, 18
Lucifer, 91, 94, 102, 194
Lunn, Erle, 159
Lynd, Robert, 86
Macbean, Edward, 89
Machen, Amy, 60, 61, 62, 64-5
Machen, Arthur, 9, 14, 28-30, 60-2,
64-6, (ch, 8)67-75, 77, 82, 86, 87, 97,
100, 104,120, 158-9, 161, 163, 193, 194
Machen, Hilary, 75
Machen, Revd John jones-, 61
Machen, Purefoy, 74, 159
Maclean, General, 57
Maitland, Edward, 81, 90, 106
Manchester Guardian, The, 95
Manning, William, 22
Martinist Order, 126-7
Mason, Dr T.L., 15
Massey, C.C., 90
Mathers, S.L. MacGregor, 69, 107-9, 110,
112-13, 130, 139, 196
Mead, G.R.S., 102-4, 195
Meakin, Neville, 121
Medium andDaybreak, The, 48, 53, 92,
192, 195
Mitchell-Cox, Revd J., 60
Monck, Revd F.W., 49, 192
Moses, Revd W. Stainton, 49, 191
Mulford, Prentice, 99
Municipal Review, The, 80, 111
National Magazine, The, 24, 190
Nature, 78
Newbold; Revd, 57
Newton, Revd Joseph Fort, 132
Nicholson, D.H.S., 122, 149
Nicoll, Revd W. Robertson, 100, 133-4,
153, 163
207 - - - - - ~ - - - INDEX =_=...;.....
Occult Review, The, 53, 100, 101, 109, 136,
138, 145, 151, 152, 153, 156, 157, 160,
163, 192, 195
Olcott, Col H.S., 89, 103, .194
Old, Mrs, 114
Ottley, Elizabeth, 18
Ouspensky, P.D., 161
Pall Mall Gazette,64
Papus (see Encausse, Dr Gerard)
Parisious, R., 197
Partington, Wilfred, 29
Pasqually, Martines de, 126, 127
Paterson, V.B., 194
Pattinson, T.H., 108
Peck, Miss, 57
Pen and Pencil Club, 73
Pfoundes, C., 92, 195
Phillimore, .Mercy, 55, 192
Phillips, Bertha, 19
Pierpont, Vivienne, 67, 68, 69, 70-1
Pike, Albert, 125
Poetry Lovers' Fellowship, 150
Poet's Magazine, The, 35, 191
Pound, Ezra, 104
Powell, Mrs (ofNant Eos), 159
Prescott, Dr W.H., 159
Prest, T. Peckett, 28, 30
Preston, Richard, 85
Quaritch, B., 83
Quest, The, 103-4, 151
Quest Society, The, 103-4
Rabelaisian Order of Tosspots, 67-8, 73,
Rand, Mrs Helen, 120, 178, 180
Rawes, Revd Henry Augustus, 22, 24, 31,
35, 190
Redway,George, 28, 61, 62, 77, 78, 79,
83, 92, 99, 195
Regardie, Israel, 153
Regime Ecossais et Rectifie, 128-30
Reynolds, G.W.M., 28
Ridler, Anne, 149
Rita, A., 51-2, 57, 192
Rogers, E. Dawson, 49, 192
Rooke, Revd S. Paterson, 20, 21, 189
Rothwell, F.H., 167
St Charles's College, 22, 35, 50, 190
St Joseph's Retreat, 21, 189
Saint-Martin, Louis Claude de, 13, 83,
126-7, .133
Saturday Review, The, 78
Schofield, Mary Broadbent (see Waite,
Mary B.)
Scholem, G., 13, 153
Scratton, Revd J., 43, 191
Searle, R. Townley, 29
Secret Council of Rites, 116, 173-6
Semken, William, 69, 145
Sentinel, The, 190
Severn, Dr Elizabeth, 146, 157
Sharp, William (Piona Macleod), 90-1
Sharp, Mrs Elizabeth (Graham Tomson),
Shirley, Hon Ralph, 100, 101, 131, 132,
152, 163
Shrine of Wisdom, The, 148
Shumaker, W., 12
Sinnett, Alfred Percy, 76-7, 78, 79-80, 90,
Smethurst, James Mellor, 23, 190
Smith, Pamela Colman, 120, 137-8
Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, 105-7, 126,
Society for Psychical Research, 77, 91
Sodality of the Shadows, 73-4
Songhurst, W.J., 131
S:.O:.S:., 116-17
South, Dr Thomas, 93
Spence, Col, 129
Spiritual Temple, Order of the, 94, 167-72
Sprengel, Anna, 107
Springett, B.H., 13
Spurr, Harry, 62
Stafford-Jerningham, Fitzherbert Edward
(Lord Stafford), 80, 81, 95, 96
Stallybrass, S., 150
Steiger, Mme Isabelle de, 151, 152, 179
(and Memorabilia), 152
Steiner, Rudolf, 121
Stella Matutina, Order of, 100, 120-22,
Stevenson, R.L., 38
Stirling, W., 114
Stoate, F.C., 157
Stonor, Oliver, 61. 67
Strutton, Harry, 152
Stuart-Menteath, Charles, 194
Stuart-Menteath, Dora, 58-60, 62, 63, 64,
69-72, 73, 99, 100, 102, 193
Stuart-Menteath, Evelyn Ogilvie, 57, 63,
Stuart-Menteath, Revd Granville Thorold,
57-9, 63, 69, 71, 72, 100, 193
Stuart-Menteath, Ludivina, 63, 193
Summerford, Colin, 71, 158, 163
Summers, Montague, 12, 29
Sweetser, W.,69
Swete, E.M., 193
Tablet, The, 64, 133
Theosophical Society, 76, 89-90, 95, 102,
107, 150, 152
Theosophical Review, The, 102, 195
Theosophist, The, 77, 194
Thomas, R. Palmer, 111-12, 116, 128, 176
Timber Trades Journal, 101, 152
Times Literary Supplement, The, 153
Toon, Mrs Chan, 194
Tourtel, Mary, 99
Trinick, John Brahms, 146
Tynan, Katherine, 13, 151
Underhill, Evelyn, 86, 87, 134
Universe, The, 25
Unknown World, The, 81, 93, 111
Van Hook, Dr Weller, 103
Voorhis, Harold Van Buren, 9, 15, 160,
Waite, Ada, 62, 63, 110-11, 151, 155-8
Waite, Arthur Edward: birth and
childhood, 15, ch. 2 passim; education,
21-2; early writings, 24, 25, ch. 3 and 4
passim; journalism, 76-82; career and
City life, 84-7; health, 157-60;
marriage (1) 62-3, (2) 157-8; death,
160; Spiritualism, ch. 6, passim;
occultism, 88-96; mysticism, 133-6,
163-5; the 'Secret Tradition', 97-9;
Freemasonry, ch. 14, 124-32; Golden
Dawn, ch. 12, 105-15; Independent and
Rectified Rite, ch. 13, 116-23;
Fellowship of the Rosy Cross, ch. 16,
Avalon, 64, 81, 151, 193
Azoth, 80, 92-3, 94, 151, 172
Belle and the Dragon, 63, 64, 81
Boole of BlackMagic, The, 11, 66, 83, 150
Book of Ceremonial Magic, The, 133, 150
Book of Mystery and Vision, A, 45, 99,
100, 135, 191
Book of the Holy Graal, The, 147, 151
Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross, The, 131,
Collected Poems, 151
Devil-Worship in France, 83, 126
Doctrine andLiterature of the Kabalah, 83,
Elfin Music, 91
Emblematic Freemasonry, 142, 143
Golden Stairs, The, 90
Handbook of Cartomancy (Manual of
Cartomancy), 62, 78, 79, 138
Hidden Church of the Holy Graal, The,
74, 98, 100, 102, 148
Holy Grail, The, 151, 159
Holy Kabbalah, The, 151, 153
House of the Hidden Light, The (with
Arthur Machen), 69-72
Interior Lift from the Standpoint of the
Mystics, The, 53
Israftl, 37, 44, 45, 59, 191
Lamps of f#stern Mysticism, 151, 164
Lift of Louis Claude de Saint-Martin, The,
99, 127, 133
Lives of Alchemystical Philosophers, 78, 93,
94, 152
Lucasta, 45
Lyric of the Fairyland, A, 36
Maiden and the Poet, The, 34
New Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry, A.,
131, 146, 154, 160
Occult Sciences, The, 80, 91, 125, 150
Ode to Astronomy, An, 35
Open Vision, The, 151
Pictorial Key to the Tarot, The, 137-8
Prince Starbeam, 53, 90
Real History of the Rosicrucians, 77, 78,
109, 124
Secret Doctrine in Israel, The, 13, 45, 149
Secret Tradition in Alchemy, The, 150
Secret Tradition in Freemasonry, The, 97,
100,125, 131, 132, 142, 151, 153
Serenade, A , 34
Shadows of Lift and Thought, 14, 159 and
quoted passim
Songs andPoems of Fairyland, .91
Soul'sComedy, A, 17, 40-1,42,43-5,
62, 80, 191
Steps to the Crown, 25, 100
Strange Houses of Sleep, 45,74, 100, .135,
136, 191
Studies in Mysticism, 12, 50, 53, 100, 135
f.1izy of Divine Union, 45, 140, 147, 163,
(Davis) Harmonial Philosophy, 55
(Eckartshausen) The Cloud upon the
Sanctuary, 11, 100, 195
(Hockley) Colleccllnea Chemica, 195
(Kelly) Alchemical Writings, 195
(Levi) The Mysteries of Magic, 77
(Levi) Transcendental Magic, 83, 133
(Lopukhin) Some Characteristics of the
Interior Church, 122
(Manzolli) The Zodiac of Life, 96, 195
(Mulford) The Gift of theSpirit, 99
(Mulford) The Gift of Understanding, 99
(Mulford) Prentice Mulford's Story, 99
(Paracelsus) Hermetic andAlchemical
Writings, 95
(Ruland) Lexicon of Alchemy, 80, 95, 194
(de Senancour) Obermann, 73, 100, 133
(Vaughan) Magical Writings, 78, 93
(Vaughan) Works, 152
(Anon) The Hermetic Museum, 81, .111,
(Anon) The Turba Philosophorum, 83, 96
Unpublished works:
Diana Vaughan andthequestion of Modern
Palladism, 126
Notes on the Esoteric History of
Freemasonry, 125
Secret Rituals of the Rosy Cross, 153
Spiritual Philosophy of Paracelsus, The, 96
'Austin Blake', 40, 80
'Philip Dayre', 32, 91
'Laban Rewell', 190
Waite, Capt Charles Frederick, 15, 16, 17
Waite, Emma, 15-19, 20, 21, 26, 33,190,
Waite, Frederica Harriet, 17, 23, 32, 47,
52, 190
Waite, Gamaliel, 16
Waite, john, 16
Waite, Marvin, 16
Waite, Mary Broadbent, 157-9
Waite, Morrison R., 16
Waite, Sybil, 54, 63, 148, 156, 157, 158,
160, 192
Waite, Thomas, 16, 189
Walford's Antiquarian Magazine, 28, 57, 62,
77, 190
Walker, William, 26
Wallace, Col, 86
Ward, j.S.M., 146-7, 150
Watkins, Geoffrey, 9
Watkins, john, 151, 194
Webb, Mrs S., 15
Webster, Nesta H., 153
WeBby, Philip, 69, 71, 72, 99, 100, 101,
102, 145, 155
Westcott, Dr William Wynn, 106-9, 112,
126, 130, 137, 195
White, George, 21, 190
Wild, Mr and Mrs Thomas, 160
Wilkinson, Louis, 11
Williams, Charles, 14, '148-50
Williams, E.G.H., 193
Williams and Husk (Mediums), 51
Wilmshurst, W.L., 131, 195
Wilson, Christopher, 67, 68, 193
Woodman, Dr W.R., 107, 108, 112
Worthington, HelenM., 146, 157
Wronski, ,Hoene, 88
Yarker, John, 126, 131
Yeats, W.B." 9, 13, 66, 104, 113, 114-15,
117, 138, 196, 197
Yorke, Gerald, 69
iiJung F o l k e ~ ' Paper, 38, 45, 58, 76, 90, 191