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Cornell Notes Topic AP Psychology Chapter 1 PowerPoint Notes

Essential Question:
Main Concepts Psychologists Hindsight Bias Overconfidence Critical Thinking Notes/Details - Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct theories that organize observations and imply testable hypotheses. - We tend to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen it. - The I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon - We tend to think we know more than we do. - Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. o Examines assumptions o Discerns hidden values o Evaluates evidence - An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations. - A testable prediction - Often implied by a theory - A statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variables o Intelligence may be operationally defines as what an intelligence test measures - Repeating the essence of a research study to see whether the basic finding generalizes to other participants and circumstances. o Usually with different participants in different situations. Psychologists describe behavior using case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation. - Psychologists study one or more individuals in great depth in the hope of revealing things true of us all. - Technique of ascertaining the self-reported attitudes of behaviors of people. - Usually by questioning a representative, random sample of people. - A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion. - Tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
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Theory Hypothesis Operational Definition Replication

Case Study Survey

Random Sample False Consensus Effect

Population Naturalistic Observation Correlation Coefficient Scatterplot

Illusory Correlation Experiment

Placebo Double- Blind Procedure Experimental Condition Control Condition

Random Assignment

Independent Variable Dependent Variable

- All the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study. - Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation. - A statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other. - A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. - The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship. - The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the strength of the correlation o Little scatter indicates high correlation - Also called a scattergram or scatter diagram. - The perception of a relationship where none exists. - An investigator manipulates one of more factors (independent variable) to observe their effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent variable) - By random assignment of participants the experiment controls other relevant factors. - An inert substance of condition that may be administered instead of a presumed action agent, such as a drug, to see if it triggers the effects believed to characterize the active agent. - Both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment of a placebo. - Commonly used in drug-evaluation on studies. - The condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable. - The condition of an experimental that contrasts with the experimental treatment. - Serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment. - Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance. - Minimizes pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups. - The experimental factor that is manipulated. - The variable whose effect is being studies. - The experimental factor that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
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Mode Mean Median Range Standard Deviation Statistical Significance Culture

In psychology it is usually a behavior or mental process. The most frequently occurring score in a distribution. The arithmetic average of a distribution. Obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores. The middle score in a distribution. Half the scores are above it and half are below it. Difference between highest and lowest scores in a distribution. A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean. A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance. The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.

Summary or Reflection