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Cornell Notes Topic AP Psychology Chapter 1 PowerPoint Notes

Essential Question:
Main Concepts Psychologists Hindsight Bias Overconfidence Critical Thinking Notes/Details - Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct theories that organize observations and imply testable hypotheses. - We tend to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen it. - The I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon - We tend to think we know more than we do. - Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. o Examines assumptions o Discerns hidden values o Evaluates evidence - An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations. - A testable prediction - Often implied by a theory - A statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variables o Intelligence may be operationally defines as what an intelligence test measures - Repeating the essence of a research study to see whether the basic finding generalizes to other participants and circumstances. o Usually with different participants in different situations. Psychologists describe behavior using case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation. - Psychologists study one or more individuals in great depth in the hope of revealing things true of us all. - Technique of ascertaining the self-reported attitudes of behaviors of people. - Usually by questioning a representative, random sample of people. - A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion. - Tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.

Theory Hypothesis Operational Definition Replication

Case Study Survey

Random Sample False Consensus Effect

Population Naturalistic Observation Correlation Coefficient Scatterplot

Illusory Correlation Experiment

Placebo Double- Blind Procedure Experimental Condition Control Condition

Random Assignment

Independent Variable Dependent Variable

- All the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study. - Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation. - A statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other. - A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. - The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship. - The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the strength of the correlation o Little scatter indicates high correlation - Also called a scattergram or scatter diagram. - The perception of a relationship where none exists. - An investigator manipulates one of more factors (independent variable) to observe their effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent variable) - By random assignment of participants the experiment controls other relevant factors. - An inert substance of condition that may be administered instead of a presumed action agent, such as a drug, to see if it triggers the effects believed to characterize the active agent. - Both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment of a placebo. - Commonly used in drug-evaluation on studies. - The condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable. - The condition of an experimental that contrasts with the experimental treatment. - Serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment. - Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance. - Minimizes pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups. - The experimental factor that is manipulated. - The variable whose effect is being studies. - The experimental factor that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.

Mode Mean Median Range Standard Deviation Statistical Significance Culture

In psychology it is usually a behavior or mental process. The most frequently occurring score in a distribution. The arithmetic average of a distribution. Obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores. The middle score in a distribution. Half the scores are above it and half are below it. Difference between highest and lowest scores in a distribution. A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean. A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance. The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.

Summary or Reflection