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EDU 702

PROPOSAL FOR MASTER RESEARCH : Students Awareness, Attitude and Intention Towards Urban Environmental Problems Among Undergraduates Students of Faculty Education, UiTM.





1.1 Background of the Study

Malaysia, nowadays increasingly become urbanized to be the same level as other countries in the world. At the twentyfirst century, almost half of the worlds population (roughly three billion people) is living in urban areas. In the next twentyfive years, nearly two billions Malaysians will move to cities estimated. According to projections, by the year 2020, out of three people two of them projected to be living in urban areas (Tyler, 1989). The significant growth and distribution of population in urbanization and attraction is the main factor (Tyler, 1989). By 2025, 77% from the total world urban population in developing country will be living in urban areas. The beginning of interaction between people and their environment resulted in the industrialization and high population growth come with the process of urbanization. According to Piracha (2003), the extraction and depletion of natural resources, the disposal of urban wastes the conversion of land to urban uses impact on global impact and related to urban environment problems. Besides, lack of infrastructure and efficient social organization in absence also contribute to environmental problems in the earth (Gottdiener and Leslie, 2005). In addition, causeless impact of several form of economic growth and lack of development both arising the environmental challenges (WCED, 2004). The industrialization in developed countries in terms of urbanization, more turgid causes air pollution, acidic rain, accumulation of hazardous wastes, climate change, ozone layer depletion, lost of biodiversity, deforestation and other pertaining problems. All this reflect on the environmental global problem. Besides, the major problems in urban areas in developing countries are the lack of adequate sewage treatment facilities, pure drinking water, encroachment of open space, littered garbage in the streets, polluted river water (Kombewibard, 2002). Refer to Dierig (1999), the attraction the rural population migrate to cities due to job potential and trade prospect in large cities resulted in the

economic activities and expansion of industries. Furthermore, the deforestation of surrounding regions; the reduction or depletion of water supplies in surrounding regions; sewage, solid waste, energy, water, loss of green and natural spaces, traffic, air, and noise pollution; inadequate collection and inappropriate disposal of wastes; and poor housing conditions will impact on global environment problems (Tyler, 1989). In despite of increasingly of the number of lack awareness about the environment issues, the serious level of the environmental problems in urban areas, create the society through education among this scenario. This society purpose on the starting of good awareness of the fact that physical and biological aspects are inter lacking and internal connection will survival the world. The truth is, mankind is actor who can survive on this planet. This also includes students. The role of the education and environment (Daisaku Ikeda, president Soka Gakkai International as stated in Srinivisan, 2004) stated that If people have to take environmental issues as their personal concerns and harmonize their efforts for our common future, the role of education becomes vital. Only education can provide the driving force for such a renewal of awareness. Education should encourage understanding the ways that environmental problems intimately connect to our daily lives..., must also inspire the faith that each of us has both the power and the responsibility to affect positive change on a global scale. In Swedish Higher education, they offer some of large number of courses for undergraduate and postgraduate levels. National Agency for Higher Education (2001) stated according to survey, sustainable development courses are introduced to 3 of 37 universities and university colleges which covering the environmental issues or sustainable development. 16 universities offer courses regarding environmental issues or sustainable development for undergraduate level and fourteen educational institutions offer environmental introductory courses in specific (Cecelia, 2005). Moreover, these universities and university colleges are also offering Environmental Science programs leading to undergraduate and postgraduate student, and also a number of civil engineering programs concentrated on environmental engineering. The students conceptions of ecology and environmental issues, and learning process were viewed according the students aims in their studies called project which are including the analysis

about the students perspective on the environmental education, perceptions on environmental problems then their actions and utterances in educational interviews and setting (Cecilia, 2005). Thus, the main point of education is to instruct the students the directions in this live in align of his life and developing in their mind to carry on their environment. This is to deal with the reality. In order to increase awareness, the development countries should design the environment statement through education and rely on the next generation and population to be aware and concerned about the environment and related issues.

1.2 Problem Statement

The mankind endanger with the polluted environment in their survival on the planet by forbidding. Any nations boundaries cannot confine the environment issues contributing to country and region. But it brings impact on a global scale. In the metropolitan areas, these problems become more dangerous. University Technology Mara (UiTM), Shah Alam like many higher learning institution in the city faces a number of these environmental problems. During rainy seasons, flooding and stagnant water always occur. Nevertheless, there are poor converge of water supply and sanitation, discharge and solid waste collection. Raw domestic sewage, industrial and most hazardous waste polluted the surface water bodies. Even regularly collected sludge from latrines is not covered. The environmental pollutions are serious issues among the residents at the city and risk health (Dierig, 1999). The central part in the world in general and metropolises in details discuss the problems environment and the inducing changes in living. Beginning, considered as a part of technical and economic problems, environmental problems linked with the social dimensions problems such like public attention and peoples attitudes towards environment concern (Kalantari, 2007). Furthermore, this natural event in the great scale environmental problems has induced a global concern about the conservation and protection of the earths environment. Therefore, environmental awareness or awareness among the masses requires more global efforts. Only

education can make mankind knowing and perceiving. Through education, mankind realizes that they are supposed to be aware of their surroundings, sensations and thoughts about environment and environmental problems. Besides, awareness completed the action. In the school, the environmental education aim is to introduce and sensitize the young minds about the environmental problems and concerns, moreover in benefit of environment can infuse them in personal health and their social attitude of it (Alison 2011). We can describe the environmental education as important because environmental education is a better transport to bring on a change, a enemy of all evils and a powerful weapon for prevention to play a central role in the society. To make humankind sensitive and alert to nature, they need of the hour of a thought environmental education programs. The education workshop is basically designed to create people who are aware of and concerned about the environment and its associated problems. So, through programs such as these, knowledge, skill, attitudes, motivation and commitment to work individually or together in teamwork can be delivered to people towards the answering the current issues and prevention of future environmental problems (UNESCO-UNEP, 1990). The environmental problems require a specialist and educator to point out the crisis of environment awareness starting with the proper understanding then alternately the education system at all level can be rooted regarding these issues. Everything else will come in its time when people derive their ideas and suggestion. But, only being aware of the negative impacts does not attain of the goal (Shobeiri, 2007). In depth, the environmental education is an attempt to re-arrange the education to align with the basic aims towards personal and social competence so that the environment competence will be accomplished. Through the syllabus in the Biology course offered in UiTM to the Faculty Education undergraduate, the whole philosophy recognizing our environment as will introduce, the needed and understanding about the environment sustainability in the same case will given to personal and social well being. Today, we are facing a lot of environment problems regarding with mankinds behavior to their environment. In despite of todays students, their role in the future are leaders and decision makers who can determine and influence the population distribute, the process of urbanization, the sustainable development and environment preservation through the country, we need them to satisfying this demanding. Readily, further

students awareness, attitude and intension towards the environment and recommendation about the environment, it is a necessity to recognize the levels of awareness, attitude and intension they parties in these areas, and as such there are limited number of researches which were conducted in this field.
1.3 Objective of the Study

At the baseline, this research will be carried out to satisfying the following objectives: i. To investigate the students awareness, attitude and intension about urban environmental problem.
ii. To investigate students level of awareness, attitude and intension about urban

environmental problems.
iii. To determine the relationship between the variables awareness, attitude and intension iv. To identify the sources of students environmental awareness.

1.4 Research Questions This research is aimed to answer the following major questions. i. What is the students environment awareness, attitude and intension predicted about urban environmental problem?
ii. What is the level of students environmental awareness, attitude and intension? iii. What type of relationship among students environmental awareness, attitude and

intension? iv. What are the main sources of students environmental awareness?

1.5 Significant of the Study

This research will be conducted on the level of students awareness, attitude and intension in relation to environmental problems at urban area in the scope of university student perspective. The major significance of this research finding is to give information on the level of students awareness, attitude and intension on issues regarding urban environmental problems, their major causes and management techniques. This information is expected to be valuable for those who are engaged in the activities of curriculum development to show the directions of change in their curriculum revision with respect to environmental education and to incorporate environmental issues in the school subjects at all levels by keeping the students cognitive development for understanding the various environmental issues. Moreover, this research is also significant for individuals, groups, organizations, students and other interested groups to have better understanding about the contribution for sustainable urban environment. Thus, it can serve as a good reference for the new issue of environment.

1.6 Limitation of the Study This study is a descriptive quantitative examination from Faculty Education undergraduate students UiTM. This paper is limited to assess the students awareness, attitude and intension about urban environmental problems. The correspondents are limited to UiTM students only. Though the purposes are complicated to measure in short-term, a group of 100 undergraduate students from Faculty Education which is final year in 2012 will be distributed with a set questionnaire to them.

1.7 Definition of Terms Environmental Awareness: The setting in mindful of the sensitivity and concerning towards the environment and its problems Environmental Attitude: The setting in the behavior about the action towards on values, feelings of concern, and motivations when participated in the environmental improvement and protection

Favorable Attitude: Depends on the students approval or support for a given environment problem Unfavorable Attitude: Depends on the students disapproval or feeling of dislike towards environmental issue Urban Environmental Problems: Something is the source of danger present that will be resulting in affect the human well being in future whether to introduce the damage. This will be show in the physical environment, originating in or assuming urban area Environmental Education: The activities of educating or instructing to the group of people especially called student that impart knowledge or skill in developing specially for students, and for population in generally towards on the total of environmental matter and its associated issues. This is a gradual process of acquiring knowledge, skills, attitudes, motivations and commitment to work individually or in team toward solutions of current environment problems and the prevention of new ones Environmental Intension: The anticipated outcome that is intended or that guides the students planned actions in present or in to engage the attitude and behavior to involving the positive behavior of environmental behavior. This exhales from humankind willingness itself to contribute the environmental security


2.0 Review of Related Literature The theoretical framework is built up to determine the way that individuals decide to participate in different forms of pro-environmental attitude. To play the key role in linking people, the information and action to environmental risk and individual responsibility produce the right and specific action in avoiding the risk (Kollmuss and Agyeman, 2002). Based on Ajzen and Fisheins theory of planned behavior, Model of Responsible Environmental Behavior referred in the Meta analysis of 128 pro-environmental behavior research studies and found six variables associated with responsible pro-environmental behavior (Hines, 1986-87). These six factors that influence pro-environmental behavior and an explanation towards on environmental issues are awareness of issues, knowledge of action strategies. locus of control, attitude, verbal commitment and last not less is individuals sense of responsibility: (Chawla ,1998) Graphic 2.1 : Model of Predictors of environmental behavior adopted from (Hines et al., 1986 as cited in Kollmuss and Agyeman, 2002).

But, in the previous research has shown that based on awareness of the effect environment, mankind can express their concern. Practices needed when to stabilize ones new behavior but it is difficult to link the knowledge of environment and pro-environment behavior (Fliegenschnee 1998 cited in Kollmuss and Agyeman, 2002). Besides, the duration of the learning process, more effective action regarding the environment issues and when the long education does not necessarily mean increased pro-environmental attitude. UNESCO (1978) stated that the goal and objective in the environmental education consist of the clear awareness and concern about economic, social, political and ecological interdependence in urban and rural areas, make humankind prepared with knowledge and skill to face the environment issues and protect them, behavior of person or group or society will build up. This statement supported with the priority of the attitude influencing human behavior (Newhouse, 1990). People living with their values, (Diekmann (1992) as cited in Newhouse 1990) find that the people with a high level of awareness do not make big lifestyle scarifies. This supported with many gaps will block the environmental attitude and pro-environmental behavior in Grob (1991) research. In addition, the researcher found results linked between environmental awareness and attitudes. Turkish students generally have favorable attitudes and interest toward environmental issues. This statement is based on the research Turkish students view on environmental challenges with respect to gender Cavas, (2009). From Intentions to Actions: The Role of

Environmental Awareness on College Students research was conducted by Schmidt (2007) to compared the result to define environmental course whether student enrolled or not enrolled in the difference of pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. Urban areas rapidly grown with less provision for sewage and street drains, covered with rain water and flooding during storms become highly environmental and impact on the development. The pollution of streams, ponds and lakes in the metropolitan region and even the drinking water causes from this run off (WCED, 2004).


3.1 Research Design The main objective of this research is to investigate students awareness, attitude and intension about urban environmental problems. The target population of this research includes preparatory students who are selected from Faculty Education, UiTM. A quantitative research design is used to answer the research questions and evaluate the students perceptions about the environment awareness and issues.

3.2 Data Sources

In this research both primary data sources were used. The primary sources are the preparatory students and it was collected by using awareness tests, Likert scale and adapted questionnaire. The secondary data sources of this research include books, journals, internet web-sites, student text books and other published and unpublished.

3.3 Subjects and Sampling Procedures The Faculty of Education UiTM has more than 300 students. This faculty consists of three major courses, which are TESL (Teaching English As Secondary Language), Biology and Education. This is not including the part-timer students, PJJ (Pengajian Jarak Jauh), Executive Mode and so on. First, the selected 100 undergraduate students were recognized. Almost, focus to final year students. The demographic part of gender, previously education background, age also included in this survey. This questionnaire will be distributed randomly to 50 Biology Undergraduate Students and 50 non-Biology Undergraduate Students. The main reason of including students from the different types in this study is to identify the differences on students environmental awareness, attitude and intension based on courses types. This sampling technique is good to ensure that the subjects included in the sample are selected in diversity. The sampling size of participants was calculated before by using the population sampling size software. Next, a set of questionnaire consists of three parts prepared to gather data on the sources of students environmental information. This set of questionnaire consists of three parts. Firstly, awareness test. A total of 31 questions were written for the awareness category of the instrument. They are all multiple-choice type questions with only one correct answer and they incorporate issues related to urbanization and its environmental impact in a global and local perspective. This parts of question can overview he/she has awareness in the given issue and wrong response in a given issue interpreted as the student lacks awareness in that issue. Secondly and thirdly, attitude inventory test to identify students attitude concerning urban environmental issues a standardized Likert type of scale was employed and intension inventory test to measure students intension or willingness to improve the environment. Likert scale applies the scales ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. There were 19 items presented to measure students attitude of these some of the items forward definite favorableness while the remaining items forward definite unfavorable. In assigning values to favorable items the scale

were weighted going from strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree, strongly disagree, having 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 values respectively. But, in the case of unfavorable items these values were reversed in the scale strongly disagree, disagree, undecided, agree, strongly agree, having 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 values respectively.

3.4 Data Organization and Analysis Simple descriptive statistics was used to summarize results on students awareness, attitude and intension in relation to urban environmental issues using frequency tables and graphs. To check whether there is a statistically significant difference in students awareness, attitude and intension based on gender, age, academic background independent sample t-test was employed. In order to check whether there exist statistically significant differences in the students performance in the awareness, attitude and intension test based on their age and school One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was employed. SPSS 16.0 version for windows was employed in the process of data analysis.

3.5 Variables of the study The independent variables of this research are gender, age, academic stream, grade level and course type while the dependent variables are students environmental awareness, attitude and intentions to take proenvironmental action

REFFERENCES Tyler, M. (1989). Living in the Environment: An Introduction to Environmental Science/Sixth Edition, Wadsworth Publishing Company Belmont, California. Piracha, L. (2003). Urban Ecosystem Analysis, Identifying Tools and Methods UNU/IAS (accessing on
1st October 2011)

Gottdiener, M. and Leslie, B. (2005). Key Concepts in urban studies, London WCED (2004) .The sustainable Urban development: Towards sustainable development excerpted from our common future, Edited by Stephen. Wheeler and Timoty Beatly ,urban reader series ,Routledge ,London and New York. Kombewibard, J. (2002). Development and cities: Institutionalizing the concept of environmental planning and management: success and challenges in Dar es salaam , Oxfam









Ababa:Problems,Policies ,Persepectives and the role of NGOs, Institute of African affairs

Srinivasan, U. (2004). Environmental education a tool to create a greener world Vol.14 No.6 June 2004 Http:// of_1.htm
(accessing on 12th November 2011)

Shobeiri, M., Omidvar, B. and Prahallada, N. (2007) A comparative study of Environmental Awareness among Secondary school students in Iran and India, Int. J. Environ. Res.1 (1): 28-34, Winter 2007.Graduate Faculty of Environment University of Tehran.
(acessing on 12th November 2011)

Kollmuss, A. and Agyeman, J. (2002). Mind the Gap: why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmentalbehavior?
Environmental Education Research, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2002 Taylor and Francis group 731/pwreadings/Mind%20Gap.pdf

Cavas,B., Cavas,P., Takkaya,C., Cakiroglu,J., and Kesercioglu,T. (2009)TurkishStudents Views on Environmental Challenges with respect to Gender: An Analysis of ROSE Data, Science Education International, Vol.20, No.1/2, December 2009, 69-78
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Schmidt, J. (2007). From Intensions to Actions: The Role of Environmental Awareness on College Students, UW-L Journal of Undergraduate Research
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UNESCO-UNEP (1990). Environmentally educated teachers: the priority of priorities, Connect, 15 (1) 1-3.

Allision, A. and Giurco, D. (2011), Campus sustainability: climate change, transport and paper reduction, Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, Vol. 12. No. 3, pp. 269-279. Cecilia L. 2005, Learning about environmental issues : postgraduate and undergraduate students interpretations of environmental contents in education, International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, Vol. 6. No. 3, pp.242-253.


Dear Students,

The purpose of this questionnaire is to examine students level awareness, attitude and in relation to urban environmental problems. There is no need to write your name, and the information you provide is highly confidential. It only serves the research purpose. Hence, would you mind filling the questionnaire! Thank You in advance for your cooperation. Part One: - Socio-demographic Information Please give the information required using words and putting X mark on the appropriate space provided.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Name of the school ___________ School type Government _____ Private _____ Missionary ____ Age: <19 years _____ >19 years ____ Gender: Male _____ Female _____ Course : __________ Academic stream: Natural science ____ Social science _____

Part Two: - Choose the best answer and write your answer on the space provided. 1. In the contemporary world whenever developmental issues are raised environmental issues should be their? This is mainly for_______________ A. Poverty reduction C. Reducing deaths B. Sustainable development D. Economic growth 2. What happens to man -environment relationship as a result of urbanization? It gets _______ A. Simple C. Complex B. Friendly D. Nothing 3. The fastest rate of urbanization takes place in _________ part of the world. A. Developed C. Similar in both cases B. Developing D. I dont know 4. Why do you think urban environmental problems get more attention in the international development agenda? A. The world is more urbanizing B. Ecological crisis become serious in urban areas C. The number of poor increases in urban areas D. All are correct 5. What is the underlying cause of urban environmental problems in developing countries? A. Poverty, population growth and lack of environmental awareness B. Poverty, failure of policy implementation and population growth C. I dont know 6. Identify the wrong statement concerning urbanization. A. Urbanization is not in itself inherently bad for ecosystems B. Urbanization is among the major causes of climate change C. Urbanization causes global environmental burden D. In terms of ecosystem services urban areas are primarily sites of production

7. Which one of the following is not a consequence of existing environmental problems? A. Death and injury C. Increases in biodiversity B. Resettlement cost D. High health cost 8. Which one of the following is very serious environmental problem in the rich cities of the world in the twenty-first century? A. Sanitation C. Soil erosion B. Lack infrastructure D. Hazardous industrial waste 9. Why rural-urban migration is high in Malaysia? A. Due to rural land degradation C. A and B are correct B. Expectation for better life in cities D. I dont know 10. What are the two most serious environmental problems in Ethiopia? A. Land degradation and air pollution B. Water pollution and climate change C. Land degradation and urban sanitation D. Water and air pollution 11. Identify the three most serious environmental problems in UiTM A Disposal of solid and liquid waste, water pollution and air pollution B. Ozone layer depletion, climate change and water pollution C. disposal of solid and liquid waste, climate change and air pollution D.I dont know 12. Which one of the following is correct concerning water supply and utilization in UiTM? A. There is adequate supply, the problem is only mis-utilization B. The poor suffers from lack of pure drinking water C. There is no area in the city having sever shortage of water D. There is both inadequate supply and unwise utilization 13. What are the two major sources of river water pollution in UiTM? A. Industrial and household waste B. Household and hospital waste C. Industrial and Agricultural waste D. Industrial and hospital waste 14. Which of the following is correct in relation to water drainage during rainy season UiTM? A. Stagnant water is common in most roads B. Flooding is not totally a problem C. There is efficient water drainage D. I dont know

15. Identify the correct statement in relation to water pollution and water born diseases in UiTM A. Water born diseases are serious health threats B. Water born diseases are not common C. . I dont know 16. What is the root cause for improper solid waste management in UiTM? A. Lack of sanitation service B. Lack of public awareness C. Lack of regulation D. High price to use sanitation service 17. One of the following is not an immediate impact of inappropriate dumping of solid waste in the open fields and around roadside. A. The area losses its natural beauty B. Bad odor to the community C. Health problem on the society D. Pollution of surface and ground water 18. Which one the following is correct in relation to air pollution? A. It only anthropogenic causes to air pollution B. Polluted air is transboundary C. It is very easy to return pullulated air in to its original status D. It is very difficult to return back polluted air in to its original status 19. Which of the following is not caused or aggravated by toxic air pollution in UiTM? A. Tuberculosis C. Eye & throat irritation B. Chronic bronchitis D. Baldness 20. High emissions per vehicle are associated with all except one of the following. A. Old vehicles B. Dominance of high quality fuels C. Poorly surfaced or badly maintained roads D. Poor vehicle maintenance 21. What happens to temperature amount of UiTM as the number of buildings and asphalt roads goes on increasing? A. Increases C. Stays the same B. decreases D. I dont know 22. Which of the following contributes to increase deforestation at the Entoto Hillside and in other parts of the city? A. Economic dependency on selling fuel wood

B. Lack of alternative energy source C. Inappropriate regulation D. All are correct 23. Which one of the following is wrong with respect to urban and rural areas? A. Environmental related health threats are common urban areas than rural areas B. Urban areas are centers of resource degradation C. Urban areas are warmer than rural areas D. Rural areas are warmer than urban areas 24. Which of the following area is relatively less prone to air pollution presently in UiTM? A. The city centre B. Areas around the main road C. Residential areas in the outskirt D. Areas of industrial accumulation 25. What is the responsible factor for rapid rate population growth of A.A? A. Improvement of women education C. Low mortality rate B. Rural-urban migration D. Illiteracy 26. As population size increases in A.A, what happens to environmental pollution? It will_______. A. Decreases C. Stays the same B. Increases D. I dont know 27. Which group of the society is disproportionately affected by environmental problems? A. The rich C. Both equally B. The poor D. I dont know

28. All of the following are extra- urban impacts on the surrounding regions except one. A. Deforestation B. Water pollution Minimizing soil erosion D. Declining agricultural land
29. What will be the prospect of Addis Ababa if the existing environmental problems are not solved? A. Nothing will happen B. It continues in the present trend C. Better change in the life of the residents and civilized way of life D. Hinder future development and the situation will grow worse

30. What is the best solution to improve environmental condition of UiTM? A. Legislation B. Environmental education C. Incentives D. Recycling 31. Who is going to be benefited if the environment is managed/protected to stay healthy? A. Present generation C. Both B. Future generation D. I dont know