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Slavery and the Empire

A. Slave trade was complex bargaining over human lives w/the expectation of securing a profit B. Asiento an agreement whereby Spain subcontracted to a foreign power the right to provide slabs to Spanish America C. Rising demand in products like rice, sugar, and tobacco produced the need for more slaves to be transported and traded


Triangular trade
A. British manufactured goods to Africa and the colonies, colonial products including tobacco, indigo sugar, and rice to Europe, and slabs from Africa to the new world B. the idea of slavery being connected w/the black color, and liberty w/the white.


The middle passage

A. Olaudah Equiano rdg/ws

B. An estimated 2.3 million persons in the colonies by 1770 would be African American and their descendants


Chesapeake Slavery
A. B. C. Tobacco-based plantation slavery in the Chesapeake Rice-based plantation slavery in South Carolina and Georgia Nonplantation slavery in New England and the Middle colonies

D. As slavery expanded, planters engrossed the best lands and wealth among the white population became more and more concentrated E. Planters filled the law books w/measures enhancing the masters power over him human property and restriction blacks access to freedom


Slavery in the rice kingdom

A. Rice led directly to economic development, the large-scale importation of slaves, and a growing divide between white and black B. Africans actually taught the English settlers how to grow rice

C. Individual slaves were assigned daily jobs, the completion of which allowed them time for leisure or to cultivate crops of their own D. James Oglethorpe founded a colony in 1733(Georgia) - wanted to improve conditions for imprisoned debtors and the abolition of slavery E. Banned liquor and slavery but the colonists quickly fought back and repealed these bans


Slavery in the North

A. Slavery represented only a small part of these colonies populations and was unusual for even rich families to own more than one slave B. Laws against slaves were less harsh compared to the south

C. Slave marriages were recognized in law and slaves could bring suits in court and testify against whites-rights unknown in the south


Slave culture and Slave resistance

A. Melting pot describes the forging of a new cultural identity from diverse old world backgrounds B. C. Slaves no longer had names they were just African Americans Re-africanization of black life during the 18th century

D. In the Chesapeake, the slave population began to reproduce itself by 1740, lots of contact w/whites, maybe learned English E. Rice plantations low slave birth rate, harsh conditions, seldom came into contact w/whites, far more autonomy, more families were created F. Some slaves rebelled and fled to Florida, became fugitives, pretended to be free G. New York Uprising (1712) a group of slaves set fire to houses on the outskirts of the city and killed the first nine whites who arrives on the scene, 18 conspirators were executed, some tortured and burned alive H. Stono Rebellion (1739) slaves seized a store containing weapons in Stono and marched toward Florida burning houses and barns, eventually 100 slaves were present, after a battle w/the colonys militia the rebels were dispersed some escaped and attacked on St. Augustine

VIII. An empire of freedom

A. War w/France let to military development. High taxes, and creation of the bank of England B. Patriotism brought new songs and unity to the empire, people felt that Britain was a very powerful nation C. D. Freedom celebrated the rule of law Liberty=rights

E. Thought freedom meant having laws, having the right to live under legislation F. Defense of liberty against arbitrary power

G. Republicanism gov w/o king, active participation in gov, only a virtuous people are capable of freedom (public good gave you freedom) civic and social equality H. Liberalism indiv and private, (Two Treatises on Government by John Locke principles that governed the family were inappropriate for organizing public life, mutual agreement between equals) right of rebellion consent of governed I. Lockean liberalism opened the door to the poor women, and even slaves to challenge limitations on their own freedom

J. Government is established to offer security to the life, liberty, and property that are the rights of all mankind


The public sphere

A. Voting laws were to ensure that men who possessed an economic stake in society and the independence of judgment that went w/it determined the policies of the gov B. Slaves, servants, tenants, adult sons living in the homes of their parents, the poor, and women al lacked a will of their own and couldnt vote C. Non Catholics or Protestants, blacks, and native Americans couldnt vote either D. E. Elections were competitive in the middle colonies Salutary neglect left colonies to govern themselves

F. their leaders insisted that assemblies possessed the same rights and powers in local affairs as the house of commons enjoyed in Britain G. the most successful governors were the ones that accommodated the rising power of the assemblies and used their appointive powers and control of land grants to win allies among assembly members H. Ben Franklin founded the Junto which eventually became the American Philosophical Society (men of property and commerce discussed public affairs) I. Colonial taverns and coffeehouses also became important sites not only for social conviviality but also for political debates (Philadelphia had a larger # of drinking establishments per capita that Paris) J. Freedom of speech wasnt generally considered in the ancient rights of Englishmen, it applied more to the parliaments ability to express their views w/o fear of reprisal K. John Zengers trial (1735) wrote a newspaper and the government didnt like what he wrote about the governor so they sent him to trial and he was proven not guilty L. Poor Richards Almanac written by Ben Franklin; contained weather updates, noted tides, moon quarters, court sessions, and schedules for coaches and post riders, gave maxims (the way to wealth)

M. Deism a belief that god essentially withdrew after creating the world, leaving it to function according to scientific laws w/o divine intervention


The Great Awakening (1730s)

A. The religious revivals were less a coordinated movement than a series of local events united by a commitment to a more emotional and personal Christianity than that offered by existing churches B. English minister George Whitefield declared the whole world his parish, said men and women could save themselves by repenting sins C. Minister Jonathan Edwards pioneered an intensely emotional style of preaching, Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God D. Evangelists a host of traveling preachers that held revivalist meetings to the alarm of established ministers E. Effects of GA reflected existing social tensions, threw into question many forms of authority, and inspired criticism of aspects of colonial society


Imperial Rivalries
A. The Spanish empire stretched from the pacific coast and New Mexico into the Great Plains and eastward though Texas and Florida B. Spain ordered the colonization of California so Spanish missions and presidios dotted the coast, Spanish rule in California came to an end in 1821 C. The French controlled Canada and established New Orleans in 1718, they posed a high treat for the British by claiming control of a large arc of territory and by establishing close trading and military relations w/many Indian tribes


French and Indian War (1750s) - 7 yrs war

A. Began w/the British efforts to dislodge the French from forts they made in Pennsylvania B. George Washington constructed Fort Necessity and fought to defend it but lost and had to surrender C. Braddock launched an attack against Fort Duquesne but was ambushed by French and Indian forces and lost


Inhumanity flourished from both sides

E. The British ultimately won and took control of most of the Spanish and French lands (Spain got Cuba and France got two tiny islands by France of the coast of Newfoundland)

XIII. Pontiacs rebellion (1763)

A. Indians of the Ohio Valley and Great Lakes launched a revolt against British rule B. A Delaware religious prophet said that his people must reject European tech, free themselves from commercial ties w/whites and dependence on alcohol, clothe themselves in the garb of their ancestors, and drive the British from their territory C. Ottawas, Hurons, and other Indians besieged Detroit, then a major British military outpost, seized nine other forts, and killed hundreds of white settlers who had intruded onto Indian lands. British forces soon launched a counter attack and over the next few yrs the tribes made peace D. Proclamation of 1763 prohibiting further colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains

XIV. Colonial identities

A. Albany Plan of Union (1754) drafted by Ben Franklin at the outbreak of the Seven yrs war, envisioned the creation of a Grand Council composed of delegates from each colony, w/the power to levy taxes and deal w/Indian relations and the common defense. Rejected by the colonial assemblies, whose powers Franklins proposal would curtail, the plan was never sent to London for approval B. The participation in the 7 yrs war united the British and the colonies and made them feel like they were of one empire