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Module No.

1 Introduction Chemistry - science that describes matter its properties, the changes it undergoes, and the energy changes that accompany those processes Matter - anything that has mass and occupies space Energy - the capacity to do work or transfer heat Scientific (natural) law - a general statement based on the observed behavior of matter to which no exceptions are known 1. Law of Conservation of Mass 2. Law of Conservation of Energy 3. Law of Conservation of Mass-Energy; Einsteins Relativity E=mc2 The Scientific Method a systematic approach
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to research 1. Defining a problem 2. Gathering of data 3. Making hypothesis 4. Observation or Experiment 5. Law 6. Theory 7. Conclusion States of Matter Matter exists in three states: Solids, Liquids and Gases. A good example of this is water which can be found at room temperatures as liquid water. If you freeze water it solidifies to ice. On the other hand, if you heat liquid water it eventually boils and changes to water vapor.

Illustration of changes in state requires energy

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Classification of Matter


Pure substance

Homogeneous Heterogeneous mixtures Separation by mixtures physical method


Separation by chemical methods


Substance matter thatand distinct constant composition has a definite or properties Mixture - a combination of two or more substances in which the substances retain their distinct identities 1. Homogeneous mixture 2. Heterogeneous mixture Practice Exercise 1.1: Give an example of a homogenous mixture and an example of a
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heterogeneous mixture. Pure Substance 1. Elements - substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances via chemical reactions Some Common Elements and Their Symbols Name Aluminu m Arsenic Barium Bromine Calcium Carbon Chlorine Chromiu m Cobalt Copper Symbol Al AS Ba Br Ca C Cl Cr Co Cu Name Fluorine Gold Hydrogen Iodine Iron Lead Magnesiu m Mercury Nickel Nitrogen Symbol F Au H I Fe Pb Mg Hg Ni N

2. Compounds - substances composed of two or more elements in a definite ratio by mass, can be decomposed into the
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constituent elements Water is a compound that can be decomposed into simpler substances hydrogen and oxygen.

Practice Exercise 1.2: Classify each of these as an element or a compound: a. Water b. Helium c. Alcohol d. Platinum Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter 1. Chemical Properties can be measured and observed when a substance undergo chemical change a. rusting or oxidation b. chemical reactions 2. Physical Properties - can be measured and observed without changing the composition
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or identity of a substance a. changes of state b. density, color, solubility Extensive Properties - are affected by the amount of matter measured. Examples: mass, volume ,length Intensive Properties - does not depend on the amount of matter measured. Examples: density, melting point, boiling Point

a. b. c. d. e.

Practice Exercise 1.3: Does each of these describe a physical change or a chemical change? The helium gas inside a balloon tends to leak out after a few hours. A flashlight beam slowly gets dimmer and finally goes out. Frozen orange juice is reconstituted by adding water to it. The growth of plants depends on the suns energy in a process called photosynthesis. A spoonful of table salt dissolves in a bowl of
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soup. Practice Exercise 1.4: Which of these properties are intensive? a. Area b. Color c. Density Homework: 1.7, 1.9, 1.11, 1.73 pages. 23 27, General Chemistry: The Essential Concepts, 5th edition by Raymond Chang

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