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Contents

List of Figures xiii List of Tables xvii Foreword xix Preface xxi

Piping Codes, Standards, and Specifications............. 1


1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Definitions 2 1.3 Codes 3 1.3.1 American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler Pressure Vessel Codes 3 1.3.2 American Society of Mechanical Engineers B31, Codes for Pressure Piping 14 1.4 Standards and Specifications 24 1.4.1 American Society of Mechanical Engineers 26 1.4.2 American Petroleum Institute 30 1.4.3 American Society for Testing and Materials 32 1.4.4 American Society for Nondestructive Testing 39 1.4.5 American Society for Quality 39 1.4.6 American Welding Society 40 1.4.7 American Water Works Association 41 1.4.8 Copper Development Association 42 1.4.9 Compressed Gas Association 43

1.4.10 Canadian Standards Association 43


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viii Contents

1.4.11 Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association 43 1.4.12 Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry 43 1.4.13 National Association of Corrosion Engineers 45 1.4.14 National Fire Protection Association 45 1.4.15 Pipe Fabrication Institute 46 1.4.16 Society of Automotive Engineers 48

Piping Components................................................

49

2.1 Introduction to Piping Components 50 2.2 Pipe 51 2.2.1 Pipe Sizes 62 2.2.2 Pipe Ends 67 2.3 Pipe Fittings 70 2.3.1 Butt-Weld End Fittings 72 2.3.2 Socket-Weld and Threaded-End Fittings 73 2.3.3 Flanged Joints 74 2.4 Valves 80 2.4.1 Valve Codes and Standards 82 2.4.2 Classification of Operation Valves 87 2.4.3 Valve Classification 92 2.4.4 Valve Components 94 2.5 Bolts and Gaskets (Fasteners and Sealing Elements) 101 2.5.1 The Process of Joint Integrity 102 2.5.2 Flange Joint Components 103 2.5.3 The Flanged Joint System 111

Metallic Materials for Piping Components ............ 1 15


3.1 Properties of Piping Materials 117 3.1.1 Chemical Properties of Metals 117 3.1.2 Mechanical Properties of Metals 118 3.1.3 Elongation and Reduction of Area 119 3.1.4 Physical Properties of Metals 120

3.2 Metallic Materials 122


3.3 Alloying of Steel 122

Contents ix

3.4 Types of Steel 125 3.4.1 Mild (Low-Carbon) Steel 125 3.4.2 Medium-Carbon Steel 125 3.4.3 High-Carbon Steel 125 3.4.4 High-Tensile Steel 125 3.4.5 Stainless Steel 126 3.5 Steel Heat-Treating Methods 131 3.5.1 Annealing 131 3.5.2 Normalizing 132 3.5.3 Hardening 132 3.5.4 Tempering 132 3.6 Nonferrous Metals in Alloying 132 3.7 Material Specifications 133 3.7.1 American Society for Testing and Materials 133 3.7.2 Unified Numbering System of Ferrous Metals and Alloys 135

Roles and Responsibilities ......................................


4.1 The Lead Piping Engineer 138 4.2 Piping Materials Engineering Group 139 4.2.1 Project Lead Piping Materials Engineer 140 4.2.2 Senior Piping Materials Engineer 141 4.3 Piping Design Group 142 4.3.1 Project Piping Area/Unit Supervisor (Squad Boss) 143 4.3.2 Project Piping CAD Coordinator 143 4.3.3 Project Piping Designers-Checkers 144 4.4 Piping Materials Control Group 145 4.4.1 Project Lead Piping Materials Controller 146 4.4.2 Project Piping Materials Controller 147 4.5 Piping Stress Engineering Group 148 4.5.1 Project Lead Piping Stress Engineer 148 4.5.2 Project Piping Stress Engineer 148 4.6 Other Engineering Disciplines Involved 150

137

4.6.1 Process Engineering 151


4.6.2 Mechanical Engineering 154

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4.6.3 Instrument Engineering 155 4.6.4 Civil Engineering 155 4.6.5 Structural Engineering 155

Projects ................................................................
5.1 Project Types 157 5.2 Project Phases 160 5.2.1 Feasibility Phase 160 5.2.2 Conception Phase 160 5.2.3 Front-End Engineering Development Phase 5.2.4 Detailed Engineering Phase 162 5.2.5 Construction Phase 166 5.2.6 Precommissioning and Commissioning Phase 169 5.2.7 Startup and Handover to the Owner 169

157

161

Fabrication, Assembly, and Erection......................


6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Codes and Standards Considerations 172 Fabrication Materials for Piping Systems 172 Fabrication Drawings 173 Fabrication Activities 174 6.4.1 Cutting 174 6.4.2 Beveling 174 6.4.3 Forming 175 6.4.4 Bending 175 6.5 Welding 178 6.5,l Welding Processes 179 6.5.2 Preheating 181 6.5.3 Heat Treatment 181 6.6 Brazing and Soldering 183 6.7 Protection of Carbon Steel in Corrosive Services 183 6.7.1 Corrosion Allowance 184 6.7.2 Internal Galvanizing of Pipe and Piping

171

Systems 184
6.7.3 Pipe Cladding
186

Contents xi

6.8 Assembly and Erection 186 6.8.1 Alignment 186 6.8.2 Flanged Joints 188 6.8.3 Threaded Joints 188

Inspection and Testing

........................................

191

7.1 Piping Codes 191 7.2 Types of Examination 196 7.2.1 Visual Examination 197 7.2.2 Liquid Penetrant Examination 197 7.2.3 Magnetic Particle Examination 198 7.2.4 Radiographic Examination 199 7.2.5 Ultrasonic Examination 200 7.3 Testing of Piping Systems 200 7.3.1 Some Limitations on the Pressure Testing of Piping Systems 201 7.3.2 Special Provisions for Testing 202 7.3.3 Preparation for Leak Test 202 7.4 Leak-Testing Methods 202 7.4.1 Hydrostatic Leak Test 202 7.4.2 Pneumatic Leak Test 204 7.4.3 Combination Hydrostatic-Pneumatic Leak Test 204 7.4.4 Initial Service Leak Testing 205 7.5 Choice of Testing Medium 205 7.6 Test Pack 206 7.7 Punch List 206

Listed Material ......................................................


A.O. 1 Ferrous Metals 209 A.0.2 Nonferrous Material 213 A.l American Petroleum Institute 217

209

General Engineering Data .....................................


Index 231

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