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3) Make long/short list of potential communities.

4) Do ocular survey of listed communities. 5) Conduct informal interviews with community residents and key informants C. Choosing Final Project Site 1) Coordinate with local government and NGOs for future activities 2) Develop community profile for secondary data a) Geography and demographic profile b) Socio-economic status c) Infrastructure/physical resources d) Health conditions and problems e) Community problems 3) Develop survey tools and orient staff and students on how to use them 4) Conduct community assembly 5) Conduct baseline study (spot map making) D. Plan and strategize for entry phase



Initial phase of the organizing process where the community organizer looks for community to serve. - It is the simplest phase in the community organizing process in terms of expected outputs, activities and strategies Activities include:

A. Preparation of the Institution

1) Formulate plans for institutionalizing COPAR objectives, etc) 2) Revise/enrich curriculum and immersion program 3) Train faculty and students in COPAR 4) Coordinate participants of other departments. (goals,

B. Site Selection 1) Conduct Preliminary Social Investigation (PSI), guided by:

Criteria for Initial Site Selection

a) Socio - economically depressed and underserved Indicators: i. High percentage of the family income below national poverty threshold ii. Lack of income opportunity for community residents b) Inaccessible and inadequate health services Indicators: i. Absence of Barangay Health Station (BHS), or if one exists, it is unmanned or nonoperational ii. Lack of Primary or Secondary hospital within 30 minutes ride

II. ENTRY PHASE (Also called SOCIAL PREPARATION PHASE) Crucial in determining which strategies for organizing
would suit the chosen comm. Success of the activities depends on how much the community organizers have integrated with the community Activities include: A. Integration with community members INTEGRATION (Ferrer, 1982) - Process of establishing rapport with the people in a continuing effort for the staff to be involved in community life, sharing their hopes, aspirations and hardships towards building trust and cooperation Guidelines for Entry Recognize the role of local authorities by paying them visits to inform their presence, objectives and activities. Her appearance, speech, behavior and lifestyle should be in keeping with those of the community residents without disregard of their being role model. Avoid raising the consciousness of the community residents; adopt a low-key profile Methods of Integration

c) Poor community health status

Indicators: i. High incidence of communicable diseases ii. High malnutrition rate iii. High infant mortality rate iv. Lack of sanitary toilets d) No strong resistance from the community. e) No serious peace and order problem. f) No similar group or organization holding the same program. 2) Final networking with local government to gather secondary data

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B. Conduct of Information Campaign about HRDP - Simultaneous with integration and social investigation - Information dissemination on HRDP objectives, rationale, main strategies and activities. - Also a strategy to provide initial health education based on initially assessed needs - Done through small group discussions or home visits

C. Conduct of Deepening Social Investigation (Community Study)

SOCIAL INVESTIGATION or COMMUNITY STUDY A systematic and scientific process of collecting, collating and analyzing data to draw a clear picture of the community Pointers during conduct of Social Investigation Use of survey questionnaire is discouraged Community leaders can be trained to initially assist the CHWs in doing social investigation Secondary data should be thoroughly examined because much of the information might already be available Social investigation is facilitated if the health worker is properly integrated and has acquired the trust of the people Confirmation and validation of data with the community should be done regularly

Persons Identified KEY PERSON the star in the sociogram, the person who is approached by most people, an obvious leader OPINION LEADER the person who is approached by the key person and is therefore the person behind the key persons opinion and ideas ISOLATE the person who are never or hardly approached and are therefore not vital to the mobilization of the community Roles and Functions of the Core Group

Final Term (First Semester 2010-2011)Sambolawan

Participation in direct production activities of the people (planting and harvesting of palay, fishing etc.) b) Conduct home visits c) Participation in social activities (birthday parties, wakes, weddings, seasonal rituals, etc) d) Conversing with the people where they usually gather (stores, water wells, washing streams, etc) e) Helping out with household chores (cooking, dishwashing, cleaning, etc) NOTE: Avoidance of gambling and drinking Sharing respect for the peoples strength to handle their values and lifestyle Must be understanding, tolerant, committed, and willing to unlearn personal biases/prejudices He/She must not expect to be treated as a visitor; instead, he/she becomes one of them


D. Identification of Potential Leaders or the formation of the Core Group CORE GROUP a group of 8 to 10 individuals/community residents who possess leadership potentials formed into a cohesive working unit. Some may eventually elected in the CHO or may become CHWs Characteristics of Potential Leaders/Core Group Members 1) A respected members of the community 2) Must belong to the poor sector or classes of the society 3) Must be responsive and willing to work for change 4) Must have potential leadership and management skills 5) Must possess relatively good communication skills Techniques in Identifying Potential Leaders 1) Informal discussion with the community members 2) Observing the people who are active in small mobilization activates like cleanliness and beautification drives , road repairs, mini-medical missions and the like 3) Observing who are in the community readily responds to community problems and emergencies and those whose concern for other people are very well manifested in their actions 4) Observing the people in their natural environment e.g. informal group conversations. It is usually the people who have leadership potential who stand out 5) Sociogram, a systematic process of identifying indigenous leaders in the community who can facilitate the change process

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Data can be more effectively and efficiently gathered through informal methods such as in social gatherings and during house to house visits Workshops and small group discussions are also effective tools in data gathering



Self-Awareness Leadership Training (SALT) seminar among members of the Core Group or Potential Leaders This seminar will help each one discover his/her potentials and talents, as well as the opportunities for growth and development of the entire community

4) Mortality and morbidity data a) Mortality and Morbidity rates b) Leading causes of Mortality and Morbidity 5) Food supply and nutrition a) Quality and quantity of food intake per family member b) Common practices in food handling, preparation consumption c) Weaning process



uses Participatory Action Research (PAR) expected beneficiaries are the main actors of the research process the HRDP staff and students guide the research team members selected from community A. Components of the Study 1) Physical/Geographic Characteristics a) Area and boundaries b) Settlement and road patterns c) Land area d) Climate e) Topography and terrain f) Physical resources 2) Demographic data a) Population b) Family and family structure (in terms of age, sex, and civil status) c) Social relationships d) Origins and migration patterns

6) Cultural patterns, common cultural beliefs and health practices a) Rituals that have bearing on heath and health practices b) No nMEMORY AID: InISIP na HEALTH SERVICES a) Integration with the community b) Conduct of Information campaign abour HRDP c) Conduct of deepening Social Investigation d) Identification of Potential leaders e) Provision of basic HEALTH SERVICES

health related seasonal rituals and their schedules 7) Health services and facilities a) Availability of health center staff b) Availability of medicines and clinic supplies c) Procedures in the referral system d) Sanitation facilities, practices, and problems e) General conditions of natural plants f) Availability of herbs and medicinal plants g) Availabiltity of local health resources as herbolarios 8) Education a) Average level of educational attainment b) Educational facilities



9) Community leadership and organizations a) Existing community organizations, projects and activities b) Existing informal groups

Final Term (First Semester 2010-2011)Sambolawan

E. Provision of basic health services students undertake Home Visits and perform BP-taking, temperature-taking, weighing of children and assessing conditions of the community as a whole

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a) Preparing the community for health and development work b) Organizing a research team for the conduct of community assessment and diagnosis c) Setting up the community health organization and facilitate the identification of possible community health workers or CHWs d) Scrutinizing and mobilizing the community residents to act on their own immediate needs by participating in the delivery of essential health services provided by project implementers

3) Economic conditions a) Sources of livelihood b) Average income c) Systems of production, distribution and consumption d) Patterns of expenditure


c) Nature of leadership for each organizational/informal group, their qualities and methods of selection d) Leadership style and process 10) Development agencies a) List of government organizations and NGOs in the area b) Types of programs and services c) Peoples perceptions of these agencies, their participation in programs and services and benefits derived from these programs 11) Community problems and needs a) Verbalized by the people; and b) Objectively seen by the project implementers B. Staff and Student Participation Activities include:

a) Team-building activities b) Action-Reflection-Action Session(ARAS) D. Setting up of the CHO a) Working out legal requirements for the establishment of the CHO


a) Preparing
the community organization building b) Organizing the CHO c) Training and Education for the CHO d) Setting up of the CHO for

V. COMMUNITY ACTION PHASE 1) Clustering of household and spot mapping 2) Selection of members of the research team Activities include: 3) Training in data collection, methods and development of A. Staff and Student Participation research tools 1) Organization and training of Community Health Workers 4) Plan for actual data gathering 5) Data gathering (CHWs) 6) Training in data validation (tabulation and preliminary analysis a) Development of selection criteria for CHWs of data) b) Selection of CHWs (each zone or group of families will 7) Community validation select from their members) 8) Presentation of community study, diagnosis and c) Training of CHWs the following are the levels of CHW recommendation training: 9) Prioritization of community needs/problems for action IV. COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION AND CAPABILITY BUILDING PHASE
Activities include: LEVEL I (Basic Health Skills) - concepts of health and illness - common illnesses and their respective prevention and treatment - basic procedures, e.g. vital signs taking, sponge bath etc. - herbal preparation - roles and functions of CHWs LEVEL II (Advanced Health Skills) - maternal and child health care - advanced procedures, e.g. injections - first aid LEVEL III (Specialized Health Skills) - hilot training - trainors training - leadership training

A. Preparing the community for organization building

a) Community meetings to draw up guidelines for the organization of CHO b) Discuss advantages and disadvantages of CHO c) Clarify responsibilities of officers and members B. Organizing the CHO a) Election and induction of officers b) Development of management systems and procedures; delineation of roles, functions, and tasks of officers and members c) Organization of working committees and task groups, e.g. education and training, health services and ways-and-means committees C. Training and Education for the CHO

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- occurs when the community organization has already been established and the community members are already actively participating in community wide undertakings functional working committees and actively implementing and evaluating their own programs planning,

Activities include:

1) Education and training

a) Institute continuing education and upgrade the KSA of community leaders, CHWs and CHO members 2) Networking and linkages a) Work for registration of the CHO with the Securities and Exchange Commission to legalize its existence b) Formalize and institutionalize linkages, networks and referral systems c) Negotiate with the absorption of CHWs by LGUs to provide benefits and privileges to CHWs, especially in the form of honoraria 3) Community mobilization on health development concerns a) Develop financial and management systems b) Formulate and ratify the constitution and by-laws of the CHO c) Develop medium and long-term community health and development plans

4) Identify and develop secondary leaders

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2) Setting up of linkages, networks and referral systems 3) Planning, Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation (PIME) of health services, interventions schemes, and community development projects 4) Initial identification and implementation of resource mobilization schemes