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For applications and designs

M.Tech thesis by

M.Tech,

Optoelectronics and Laser Technology (2009 2011batch) International School of Photonics, Cochin University of Science and Technology

Applied Photonics Laboratory Electrical Communication Engineering Department INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE Bangalore 560012

For applications and designs

A Thesis submitted for the partial fulfillment for the Degree of MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY in OPTOELECTRONICS AND LASER TECHNOLOGY By

M.Tech, Optoelectronics and Laser Technology (2009 2011batch) International School of Photonics Cochin University of Science and Technology

Under the guidance of PROF. T.SRINIVAS Applied Photonics Laboratory Electrical Communication Engineering Department INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE Bangalore 560012

PROJECT CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the thesis work entitled Analysis of point and line defects of 2D PBG structures- for applications and designs being submitted by Mr. Alok Kumar Jha, in partial fulfilment for the Degree of Master of Technology in Optoelectronics and Laser Technology of Cochin University of Science And Technology is a record of the bonafide work done by him during the period July 2010 June 2011 at Applied Photonics Laboratory, Electrical Communication Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore560012, under my guidance and supervision. Project supervisor,

( T Srinvias) 11.07.2011

International School of Photonics Cochin University of Science and Technology Cochin - 682022, Kerala

PROJECT CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the thesis entitled Analysis of point and line defects of 2D PBG structures --For applications and designs is a bonafide record of work done by Mr. Alok Kumar Jha, under the supervision and guidance of Prof. T.Srinivas at Applied Photonics Lab, Electrical Communication Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore in partial fullfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Technology in Optoelectronics and Laser Technology from July 2010 to July 2011during academic year 2009-2011.

Prof. P. Radhakrishnan Project Coordinator and Director International School of Photonics CUSAT, Kochi-682 022 Kerala

Acknowledgements

At the completion of my two semester project work for the M.Tech course I find myself overwhelmed by the support, encouragement and affection of various persons involved with me. The list being larger one so I may miss out some names. I beforehand apologise for that. But some names stand too significant to be forgotten. I express my gratitude to my project supervisor Dr. T Srinivas for his effective guidance and mentorship with constant encouragement. I also thank all the people working in his lab for sharing resources and suggestions and numerous help. Dr. Badrinarayna for helping me the initial days when it was appearing a little difficult to set my work here. I express my gratitude to Mr. Sandeep U for his ever-ready helping hand and trouble shooting approach. I also thankMr. Basavraj Talwar, Mrs. Rajini V Honnungar, Mr. Nivesh Mangal, Ms. Akshata Shenoy, Mr. Yadunath T R, Mr. Kalol Rai, Mrs Sathish Malathi and Mr. Narayan and Mr. G S Hegde for there support and affection. I thank every person in IISc for their support including non-teaching staff. Coming back to ISP,CUSAT I am greatful to my professors and staff.I express my gratitude to Prof. Prof. P.Radhakrishnan (Director,ISP) and Dr. V P N Nampoori (emeritus scientist) and also Dr. Kailasnath M (asst. professor) all other faculties. I thank my batch mates for their camaraderie. I also thank my friends, working professionals in banglore viz. Mr. Pankaj Kumar, Mr. kundan Pandit and Mr. Hari Sai Gangadhar. Finally I thank my family members who are always with me in the thicks and thins of life.

The following three papers are being worked upon at applied photonics lab, ECE Dept, IISc Banglore under supervision of Dr. T Srinivas for the upcoming photonic conferences at the time of project thesis submission.

1. Defect mode analysis involving point and line defects in 2D PBG structures for communication applications Alok Kumar Jha, Sandeep U,Dr. T Srinivas; (Indicon 2011 (IEEE),Hyderabad) underprocess. 2. Analysis of energy profile or energy distribution for various point defect cases in 2D PC lattice structures -- Alok Kumar Jha, Sandeep U,Dr. T Srinivas; underprocess. 3. Design of different types of symmetric and asymmetric binary splitters on 2D lattice structures using multiple line defects underprocess.

Abstract

Photonic crystal provides numerous applications of technology based on photon in two unique ways. First it improves many applications of light and laser which are provided by other means to far greater precision and efficiency. Second various applications which seem to be impossible otherwise or by other methods, it makes them possible and realised. This thesis implores and explores certain important physical aspects of the photonic crystal mediums and the phenomena happening due to that by simulation of the prototype cases and analysis of the factors involved. Although this field of study is too vast and broad that it cannot be covered fully in this thesis. Nevertheless important and significant issues and features have been covered which again can be utilised in many ways. This thesis begins with the basic features and gradually approaches complex cases. The features of phtonic crystal have been observed studied from multiple perspective viz. physical properties involving energy distribution in the medium and band-gap features as well as engineering features related to PBG structures based design possibilities. Explanations and conclusions have arrived at for different modifications and manipulations of the photonic crystals on case to case basis.

Contents

Theory of Photonic Band Gap (PBG) structures Theoretical modelling of photonic crystals

Page number 1

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2. Description of topics and their features undertaken for the project work 3. PART 1: Simulation of PBG structures based prototype cases

Case 1: Simulation of band structure and associated features of a 55 2D rectangular lattice of circular dielectric rods in air. Case 2: Simulation of bandstructure and associated features of a 55 2D hexagonal lattice of circular air holes in dielectric. Case 3: Study of defect modes in 2D rectangular and hexagonal lattices. Case 4: Study of output pattern variation for variation of physical and numerical parameters over certain range. Case 5: Full Brillouin zone analysis for band structure. Case 6: Simulation of bandstructure and associated features of 2D Photonic crystal slabs (a particular case of 3D structures). Case 7: Channel waveguide implementation in 2D Photonic crystal slab of finite thickness. Case 8: FDTD based simulation of prototypes. Case 9: Simulation of real design photonic crystal on the lines of the prototype cases discussed above.

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Analysis of waveguide modes for square lattice of dielectric cylindrical rods in air.

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Analysis of waveguide modes for triangularlattice of dielectric cylindrical rods in air. Analysis of waveguide modes for triangularlattice of air-holes in dielectric slab. Analysis of point defect modes for the three lattice structures by removing central rod or hole. Analysis of D and H energy distribution in point defect region for square lattice structure. Analysis of D and H energy distribution in point defect region for triangular lattice structure. Analysis of point defect modes for the square lattice structure with varying point defect. Analysis of D energy concentration in point defect dielectric rod for square lattice structure. Analysis of D energy concentration in point defect dielectric rod for triangular lattice structure.

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Photonic crystals represent a class of nano-structured materials in which alternating domains of higher and lower refractive indices produce an ordered structure with periodicity on the order of wavelength of light . The periodic modulation of the optical index in the medium with a lattice constant on the order of wavelength of light gives rise to photonics i.e. control of spatio-temporal trajectory of photons at the scale of their wavelength and of their periodic oscillation duration. Photonic crystals are thus arrangements of two or more dielectric media, periodic along one, two, or three dimensions.

This is depicted schematically here by "red" and "yellow" materials arranged in simple 1d/2d/3d lattices from left to right.

In the case of a large refractive index contrast (defined by the ratio n1/n2) photonic crystal with a proper shape of building blocks (domains) and proper crystal symmetry, a complete bandgap develops. In this case, the bandgap is not dependent on the direction of wavevector, which defines the light propagation; also, the density of photon states goes to zero in the bandgap region. These materials with a complete gap are often called photonic bandgap materials.

Photonic crystals are classified into one dimensional, two-dimensional and three dimensional according to the periodicity of dielectric as shown in above picture. The work described in this thesis is based on 2D PBG structures or 2D PBG structures with finite height also called Photonic crystal slabs. Terms and parameters associated with PBG structures (1) Lattice vectors: A periodic function f (R) can be expressed in terms of a lattice for all periodic systems. Let a1,a2, a3 be fixed vectors such that for all points R in the lattice, R = la1 + ma2 + na3, for some integers l, m, and n. The points R are known as lattice vectors, while the basis vectors a1, a2, a3 are termed primitive lattice vectors. (In one or two-dimensional problems, only one or two primitive lattice vectors are needed).

(2) Unit Cell: A unit cell is any region of space which, when translated by every lattice vector in the lattice, maps out the entire function. The unit cell is also not unique. A primitive unit cell is any unit cell that has the minimum possible volume.

Following figure illustrates unit cell determination.

(3) Reciprocal lattice: Associated with every lattice is a second lattice termed the reciprocal lattice. The vectors of the reciprocal lattice are denoted by the vector equations:

The lattice and reciprocal lattice vectors are related by the equation: G R = n2ij, where, G = lb1 + mb2 + nb3 and ij = 1 if i = j otherwise ij = 0 . The lattice and reciprocal lattice are thus essentially inverses of each other. Since the lattice vectors have the dimensions of length, the reciprocal lattice vectors have dimensions of inverse length and span reciprocal space. (4) First Brillouin Zone: It constitutes the unit cell of the inverse space such the solution of the dispersion relation k) is the distinct set of solutions. Any other solution beyond this region is periodic repetition as described by the equation G).

Following figure illustrates determination of Brillouin zone and Dispersion curves (band structures) for modes of a 1 D lattice.

The master equation is the eigen equation for the periodic medium and is derived from Maxwells equations for dielectric medium.

where,

and (r) = (r + R)

Using Blochs theorem, it can be written that H(r) = exp(-ik.r)uk(k) where uk(k) is a function with the periodicity of the lattice. Inserting this expression in the Helmholtz equation, the relation between various mode frequencies and the allowed wave-vector K of the lattice medium constitutes the Band-structure as described in Part-1 of the project work.

The band structure of a given photonic crystal defines its optical properties, such as transmission, reflection, and angular dependence. Many methods for photonic band structure determinationtheoretical as well as numerical have been proposed. These methods fall in two broad categories: Frequency-domain techniques and Time-domain techniques. In frequency-domain techniques the photon eigen-value equation, is solved to obtain the allowed photon states and their energies. The advantage provided by this method is that it directly provides the band structure. Examples are the Plane Wave Expansion Method, PWEM and the Transfer Matrix Methods, TMM. In time-domain techniques, the temporal evolution of the input electromagnetic field propagating through the crystal is calculated. Then, the band structure is calculated by the Fourier transform of the time-dependent field to the frequency domain. A widely used timedomain method is Finite-Difference Time Domain (FDTD) which calculates time evolution of the electromagnetic waves by a direct discretization of Maxwells equations. In this method, the differentials in Maxwells equations are replaced by finite differences to connect the electromagnetic fields in one time interval to the ones in the next interval.

The project work is based on PWEM and FDTD methods using the software tools as mentioned in Reference 1 of this thesis. These two modelling techniques are concisely described as follows: (1)PWEM (Plane Wave Expansion Method): This is a frequency domain technique and involves expanding both the periodic dielectric function and field solution in infinite series of uniform plane waves (as shown) and thus reducing BVP (Boundary value problems) to a set of Eigen value equations as described next.

and,

Hence, it depends on the expansion of the electromagnetic field with a plane wave basis set as per the equation.

Here, k is a wave-vector in the Brillouin zone, G is a reciprocal lattice vector, and e are unit vectors perpendicular to k + G. These descriptions for the reciprocal lattice utilize the terminologies of solid-state physics. The solution of the eigen-value equation (Helmholtz equation),

provides the band structure of the crystal by numerical means. This is a frequency domain technique and involves expanding both the periodic dielectric function and field solution in infinite series of uniform plane waves (as shown) and thus reducing BVP (Boundary value problems) to a set of Eigen value equations.

(2) FDTD (Finite-Difference Time Domain) method Imagine a region of space which contains no flowing currents or isolated charges. Maxwell's curl equations in can be written in Cartesian coordinates as six simple scalar equations. Two examples are:

The other four are symmetric equivalents of the above and are obtained by cyclically exchanging the x, y, and z subscripts and derivatives. Maxwells equations describe a situation in which the temporal change in the E field is dependent upon the spatial variation of the H field, and vice versa. The FDTD method solves Maxwell's equations by first

discretizing the equations via central differences in time and space and then numerically solving these equations in software. The most common method to solve these equations is based on Yee's mesh and computes the E and H field components at points on a grid with grid points spaced x, y, and z apart. The E and the H field components are then interlaced in all three spatial dimensions as shown in Fig. 2-1. Furthermore, time is broken up into discrete steps of t. The E field components are then computed at times t = nt and the H fields at times t = (n+1/2)t, where n is an integer representing the compute step. For example, the E field at a time t = nt is equal to the E field at t = (n-1) t plus an additional term computed from the spatial variation, or curl, of the H field at time t.

This method results in six equations that can be used to compute the field at a given mesh point, denoted by integers i, j, k. For example, two of the six are:

These equations are iteratively solved in a leapfrog manner, alternating between computing the E and H fields at subsequent t/2 intervals.

Description of topics and their features undertaken for the project work

The contents or topics studied and worked upon of this project thesis are divided into two parts. Part-1 comprises of the simulation of some standard prototypes of the PBG structures and there by illustration of their important features and characteristics with relevant comments. Part-2 comprises of the analysis of point and line defects across range of their parameters to get insight into their behaviour pattern and some relevant physical aspects. Three popular 2D lattice structures (out of numerous types of Photonic crystals) have been studied and worked upon viz. square lattice of dielectric rods in air, triangular lattice of dielectric rods in air and triangular lattice of air-holes in dielectric slab. The period for any lattice analysis has chosen as 1 micron in most cases although not always. This is because the parameters and solutions of the PBG structures are scalable i.e making the period of lattice half doubles the corresponding frequency values. The frequency in the PBG structure has been normalised ofr this reason and as such they are expressed in the units of inverse of wavelength i.e per micron following the common and easy to work conventions of expressing the frequency in the PBG structures. Further part-1 is based on the work done on Rsoft CAD tools so the conventional definition of TE and TM modes or EVEN and modes have been altered. While this aspect has been acknowledged and warned at the end of every simulation case of part-1,it was a bit not practical to eliminate it as various CAD tools parameters, features and aspects are directly based on it. So, the final resul and conclusion only needs to be changed as per common conventions. This issue is not present in part-2 which is based on work done on MIT ab initio group software which completely agrees with the standard conventions. Quite few of the simulation cases of part-1 and all the analysis cases of part-2 involve 2D photonic crystal lattice which is mathematical structures of infinite height. But conclusions drawn there come in very close approximation of the various photonic crystal slabs of finite height. However some of the real structure examples also have been worked upon in part-1.

PART 1

Simulation of PBG structures based prototype cases.

Case1: A 55 rectangular array of dielectric cylindrical rods (2D lattice) in air is considered

whose thickness is assumed to be infinite and assumes no significance in band structure analysis. The various parameters are mentioned. The lattice has uniform periodicity in XZ plane.

A 55 2D rectangular lattice, its 2D dielectric constant profile and irreducible Brillouin Zone with wave vector sampled along the sides of the triangle XM.The reason for opting for this line of symmetry is that various maxima and minima of a particular mode or band Occur along this line only and hence band gap along this line gives the band gap for entire BZ. The important parameters for the design of this prototype are mentioned below:

The radius is the radius of the dielectric rod in the air with refractive index of 1 and the refractive index of the dielectric rod is8.9 and is the index difference.

The band structures for TE, TM and both together are shown as follows and are calculated on the basis of PWEM algorithm for first 8 bands.

Conclusion: Bands gap exists for TE case only when the electric field is solely confined in the lattice plane and the magnetic field is normal to it. Further the frequency values have been expressed in length units of microns with a common conversion factor of a/2 . The free space wavelength chosen is 2.5 times lattice period but has no role in determining bandstructure. The bandgap for TE structure comes around 0.4 micron as shown.

NOTE:- The general convention of describing the modes as TE or TM as whether the electric field or magnetic field is in the plane of periodicity has been altered here as per the R-soft CAD tools scheme and hence from conventional perspective TE modes illustrated here are actually TM modes and vice versa. This feature has been retained throughout in this section.

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Case2: A 55hexagonal array of cylindrical air holes in dielectric substrate (2D lattice) is

considered whose thickness is assumed to be infinite and assumes no significance in band structure analysis. The various parameters are mentioned. The lattice has uniform periodicity in XZ plane.

A 55 2D hexagonal lattice, irreducible Brillouin Zone and its 2D dielectric constant profile with wave vector sampled along the sides of the triangle MK.

The reason for opting for this line of symmetry is that various maxima and minima of a particular mode or band Occur along this line only and hence band gap along this line gives the band gap for entire BZ. The important parameters for the design of this prototype are mentioned below:

The radius is the radius of the the air hole in the dielectric substrate with refractive index of 1 and the refractive index of the dielectric substrate is13 which serves as the background index and is the index difference.

The band structures for TE/TM are shown as follows and are calculated on the basis of PWEM algorithm for first 6 bands.

Conclusion: Bands gap exists for TM case when the magnetic field is solely confined in the lattice plane and the electric field is normal to it and also for TE case when the electric field is solely confined in the lattice plane and magnetic field is normal to it Further the frequency values have been expressed in length units of microns with a common conversion factor of a/2 . The freespace wavelength chosen is 2.5 times lattice period but has no role in determining band structure. The band gap for TM structure comes around 0.5 microns as shown. The band gap for TE structure comes around 0.5 microns as shown.

NOTE:- The general convention of describing the modes as TE or TM as whether the electric field or magnetic field is in the plane of periodicity has been altered here as per the R-soft CAD tools scheme and hence from conventional perspective TE modes illustrated here are actually TM modes and vice versa. This feature has been retained throughout in this section.

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Case3: Defect modes in 2D rectangular and hexagonal lattices are being considered. The

defects considered are localised point defect and line defect. Various interesting applications of photonic crystals are associated with imperfections or defects in a periodic structure because defects often support localised optical states with completely different properties to the extended states within the band. (1) The point defect in rectangular lattice is created by removing the central dielectric rod and leaving it void as shown.

An 11 11 2D Rectangular array of circular dielectric rods in air with a missing rod in the centre (above arrow mark)and its 2D dielectric constant profile considering a supercell dimension of 55 lattice.

The important parameters for the design of this prototype are mentioned below:

The band structure is plotted with wave vector sampled along the sides of the triangle XM of the irreducible BZ (shown below) as in case of standard rectangular lattice with no defect.

The band structure shows band gap for TE case but not for the TM case just as rectangular lattice without defects do. So TE band structure is exclusively analysed. TE band structure shows one defect state in the band gap represented by constant frequency value all along (flat straight line) otherwise the band structure is typical of the standard rectangular lattice.

So, the next thing done is to get the band structure at single point say k z= 0 or as shown next for 66 super cell dimension for better resolution (initially 55 super cell dimension was considered).

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The defect state comes for mode no.= 35 for 66 super cell which would have been as mode no.=2 for 11 super cell dimension.

By the help of software electric and magnetic field intensities at the defect site can be obtained where electric field for the defect is normal to lattice plane and magnetic field for the defect is in the lattice plane contrary to the normal state where electric field is in the lattice plane and magnetic field is normal to it.

Electric field and magnetic field intensity at defect site; Electric field is normal to lattice plane XZ. Magnetic field intensity is in XZ plane.

(2) The point defect in hexagonal lattice is created by decreasing the central air hole in the dielectric slab as shown.

An 11 11 2D Hexagonal array of circular air holes (red circles) in dielectric slab with a smaller hole in the centre (above arrow mark)and its 2D dielectric constant profile considering a supercell dimension of 55 lattice.

The important parameters for the design of this prototype are mentioned below:

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The band structure is plotted with wave vector sampled along the sides of the triangle MK of the irreducible BZ (shown below) as in case of standard hexagonal lattice with no defect.

The following TE/TM band structure is obtained. The band structure shows band gap for TM case but not for the TE case just as hexagonal lattice without defects do. So TM band structure is exclusively analysed.

TE band structure shows four defect states in the band gap represented by constant frequency values all along (flat straight lines) otherwise the band structure is typical of the standard hexagonal lattice. So, the next thing done is to get the band structure at single point say k z= 0 or as shown for 66 super cell dimension for better resolution (initially 55 super cell dimension was considered).

The defect states come for mode nos. 27, 28, 29 and 30 for 66 super cell. Modes 27 and 28 are very close (almost overlapping). By the help of software electric and magnetic field intensities at the defect site can be obtained where magnetic field for the defect is normal to lattice plane and electric field for the defect is in the lattice plane contrary to the normal state where magnetic field is in the lattice plane and electric field is normal to it.

Magnetic field and intensity at defect site for m=27; Magnetic field is normal to lattice plane XZ.

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Magnetic field and intensity at defect site for m=28; Magnetic field is normal to lattice plane XZ.

Magnetic field and intensity at defect site for m=29; Magnetic field is normal to lattice plane XZ.

Magnetic field and intensity at defect site for m=30; Magnetic field is normal to lattice plane XZ.

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(3) The line defect in rectangular lattice is created by removing the central column dielectric rods and leaving it void as shown.

A 7 11 2D Rectangular array of circular dielectric rods in air with a missing column in the centre created from the standard rectangular array as shown along with its dielectric constant profile. Array without defect:

The important parameters for the design of this prototype are mentioned below:

The band structure is plotted with wave vector sampled along the sides of the triangle XM of the irreducible BZ (shown below) as in case of standard rectangular lattice with no defect.

The following TE/TM band structure is obtained.

The points marked express mode no.=8 and successive nth point for k vector. In this case the super cell dimension comprised 19 lattice point so band gap which appears for 11 cell as first mode appears here as 8th mode but the frequency value does not vary much which can be compared from the standard lattice band structure shown on right side. Unlike as in the case of localised defect the shape of the defect band is not flat. This difference arises because in the present case the defect state is a propagating mode that travels along the line defect.

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By the help of software electric and magnetic field intensities along the defect line can be obtained where electric field for the defect is normal to lattice plane and magnetic field for the defect is in the lattice plane contrary to the normal state where electric field is in the lattice plane and magnetic field is normal to it.

Further some of the electric and magnetic field intensities for different k vectors as marked on the band structure for 8th mode are illustrated.

Conclusion: For localised defects defect modes exist as flat bands. For line defects the defect state is a propagating mode that travels along the line defect and this can be utilised in making waveguides. In both these cases the direction of electric and magnetic fields is exchanged compared to the non-defect parts of the lattice. The electric and magnetic field profile assumes different and complex features for different modes or different k vectors point.

NOTE:- The general convention of describing the modes as TE or TM as whether the electric field or magnetic field is in the plane of periodicity has been altered here as per the R-soft CAD tools scheme and hence from conventional perspective TE modes illustrated here are actually TM modes and vice versa. This feature has been retained throughout in this section.

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Case 4: Scan of lattice physical and numerical parameters for design (input) over certain

range of values taking one or more together is considered. This serves the purpose that for most real applications performing a single band structure calculation is insufficient. In order to create a workable structure it requires to identify the important parameters and optimise their values to achieve the desired result.

(1) A 7 11 2D Hexagonal dielectric slab with circular air holes is scanned for a range of radius values of air holes

Radius is scanned for output pattern from lower value of 0.2m and to beyond 0.5m in the fixed 140 incremental steps.The TE/TM band structure shown is for the lower value of radius of 0.2m.

Next the various output parameters for range of inputs illustrating the lattice behaviour pattern are illustrated.

The following plots band map features for TE and TM band structures varying with radius. Band map as measurement represents all the eigen values from a complete band structure as a single array.

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The hollow regions in the band map plots represent band gaps which are illustrated in the plot of gap map as shown.

Blue region represents band gap for TE band structure and red one for TM band structure exclusively in both the cases. In case both the band gaps exist the region is shown in green colour.

Likewise band gap center for TE and TM band structures exclusively and TE/TM band structure combined are also illustrated as follows.

Also Gap ratio = Gap map / Gap centrefor the three cases are illustrated as follows.

(2) The same hexagonal dielectric slab with air holes is now scanned for a range of radius values of air holes and range of delta values together. Radius is scanned from a lower value of 0.2m to beyond 0.5m in the fixed 70 incremental steps and Delta is scanned from a lower value of -2 to upper value of -1 in 10 incremental steps for output pattern.

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In the previous case the output parameter plot was 2D plane for single input parameter scan; but in the present case with two input parameters scanned together the output parameter plot is 3D volume and for more number of input parameters scanned together a single output plot cant be obtained. So, 2D plane sliced output patterns are provided where principle input parameter is taken on x axis (basis) and output is plotted for different values of other input parameter across its range taking one at a time. In the present case the principal input parameter is radius (taken on x axis) sliced output plot is taken for different values of delta taking one at a time.

Some these sliced plots for different categories as in 1D scan case is shown on the as follows. Sliced TE band map structures:

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Sliced gap enter, gap width and gap ratio for TM bands:

Conclusion: Scanning technique is utilised in optimising the design of photonic crystal (or any device based on it).

NOTE:- The general convention of describing the modes as TE or TM as whether the electric field or magnetic field is in the plane of periodicity has been altered here as per the R-soft CAD tools scheme and hence from conventional perspective TE modes illustrated here are actually TM modes and vice versa. This feature has been retained throughout in this section.

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Case 5: Full Brillouin zone analysis for band structure calculation where every single kvector point on the Brillouin zone is considered and not just points along the line of symmetry.

A 711 2D Hexagonal dielectric slab with air holes, its BZ (sampled along the line shown) and corresponding TM band structure.

Next the entire band structure throughout the Brillouin zone is determined instead of the band structure along a path between the symmetry points. The result is the creation of band surfaces and equi-frequency contours and these plots are called whole zone analysis.

These features are shown on the as follows.

The many oscillations in the diagram are simply a result of the raster scan and have no particular physical significance. As expected the band gap is preserved.

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Following are the equi-frequency contours for different bands of TM band structure. Equi-frequency contours for a particular band exhibit k-vector points on BZ with same frequency connected together.

Conclusion: Full zone BZ analysis is used to get the band surfaces and equi-freqency contours which are helpful in identifying precise band features to improve the photonic crystal design.

NOTE:- The general convention of describing the modes as TE or TM as whether the electric field or magnetic field is in the plane of periodicity has been altered here as per the R-soft CAD tools scheme and hence from conventional perspective TE modes illustrated here are actually TM modes and vice versa. This feature has been retained throughout in this section.

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These are 3D photonic crystal slabs with periodicity in 2D (plane) and a finite thickness. Here light is confined in the third dimension by traditional index guiding. Photonic crystals with periodicity in 3D are difficult to fabricate. Hence, these structures attract considerable interest as they posses many features of full 3D photonic crystals, but are substantially easier to manufacture. Concept of light line or light cone filter By increasing the size of the super cell (number of unit cells considered together from three different directions as a unit for simulation related calculations) a simulation domain is set up that approximates a system where the structure is non-periodic in the vertical direction. However, there are still leaky waveguide and radiation modes that exist for this system. These modes would eventually decay into the background material and are not guided. All these modes have an effective index lower than that of the cladding region, which in this case is air. To remove these from the band diagram, we employ a light line or light cone (full BZ analysis) filter. This filter removes all of the radiation states from the band calculation. Concept of even and odd parity As discussed in 2D crystal structures TE and TM modes cannot be strictly applied here. But if a structure possesses one or more planes of reflection symmetry, the modes can be classified as either even or odd. These modes parallel the meaning of the TE and TM modes that are found in 1D and 2Dstructures. As a result, it is possible that a band gap exists between the even and odd bands of a PCS bases upon their reflection symmetry about the 2D periodic plane being even and odd respectively. Grossly speaking even mode corresponds to TM mode of 2D lattice and odd mode corresponds to TE mode there.

Next the case of a7 11 2D Rectangular array of circular dielectric rods in air with a finite height is considered as shown below. Its parameters are as follows:

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Various band structures along with the light line are shown below where k-vectors are being sampled along the line of symmetry of BZ shown right:

Similarly band structures and equi-frequency contours based on full BZ analysis are also shown:

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Next the case of a 711 2D Hexagonal dielectric slab with air holes with a finite height is considered as shown below. Its parameters are as follows:

Top view

Structural view

Next the case of a 711 2D Hexagonal dielectric slab with air holes with a finite height and periodic cladding is considered as shown below. Its parameters are as follows:

Concept of light line revisited In this case, the light line cannot be defined by the cladding index because the cladding is periodic and not solid. The correct light line to use in this case is defined by the effective index values of the lowest band from a 2D band calculation performed for the cladding structure. To calculate this band, we perform a 2D band calculation in the cladding to find the required effective index curve. This can easily be done with this file by changing the dimensions to 2D (X-Z), and then setting the Y cut plane to lie within the cladding material.

Band structure for light line is calculated as shown. The TE band is the lowest, and this band is used to define the filter; then the following band structure is obtained:

NOTE:- The general convention of describing the modes as TE or TM as whether the electric field or magnetic field is in the plane of periodicity has been altered here as per the R-soft CAD tools scheme and hence from conventional perspective TE modes illustrated here are actually TM modes and vice versa. This feature has been retained throughout in this section.

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Case 7: Waveguide implemented in PCS. Here the case of PC slabs with embedded defect

waveguides is considered.

The PC slab considered is of a 67 2D Hexagonal dielectric slab with air holes with a finite height and periodic claddingand the central column with holes of reduced radius (defect line) forms the waveguide as shown:

Top view

Side view

Red segment represents dielectric slab, blue segment represents periodic cladding and green region represents air. Further, purple rectangle encircling red segments in side view represents super cell dimension for simulation domain.

In this case, we are interested in the dispersion relations of the guided modes which are confined within the defect lines. In the dispersion relation, these modes lie between the projected band structures of the uniform slab modes and below the projected light line of the cladding. The new elements discussed here involve the creation of these projected light lines. The first stage of the analysis is to understand the properties of the slab without the defect line waveguide. This procedure is identical to case 6. In brief, we find the light-line for the periodic cladding by finding the lowest band of the 2D lattice in the cladding region, then find the 3D modes of even and odd parity that fall below this light-line as shown next.

28

Defect mode properties: The essential issue for calculation of defect mode properties is to find projected band structures of the light-line (or more accurately light-cone) and of the regular lattice of the slab. It needs to calculate a Full zone band structure over the slabs entire 2D Brillouin zone, and then project that band structure onto the 1BZ of the linear waveguide.

Projected light line is obtained now over the entire 2D 1BZ of the periodic cladding, rather than just along its symmetry points as shown:

The next step is to determine the correct 1D 1BZ on to which the light-cone should be projected. The defect line is oriented along the Z-axis and that the period along that direction is simply the period of the crystal (say a).

Thus projected light cone along the waveguide (defect line) is obtained as shown:

Blue region represents light line for TE modes and red region represents light line for TM modes. TE modes lie below the TM, as such TE mode is selected for light line.

29

Projected slab modes As the next step an analogous procedure is performed for the slab modes. Modes confined in the 0-1 gap of the odd mode band structure need to be searched.

Full BZ slab modes and there projected bands as the function of kz is shown next:

Finally, the mode guided in the defect guide is found. Band structure for BZ along the defect line region is calculated first and then the three different modes along the waveguide are combined on a single graph to present the complete picture of analysis as shown.( X2 is the BZ along the waveguide).

The range of kz along the defect line has been chosen to illustrate the area of interest.

NOTE:- The general convention of describing the modes as TE or TM as whether the electric field or magnetic field is in the plane of periodicity has been altered here as per the R-soft CAD tools scheme and hence from conventional perspective TE modes illustrated here are actually TM modes and vice versa. This feature has been retained throughout in this section.

30

photonic crystals). (1) Transmission spectra of semi-infinite square PBG lattice. This prototype simulation discusses the computation of a transmission spectrum for a semiinfinite photonic crystal lattice. Several band-gaps will be found for one propagation direction with in the crystal.

Crystal layout for simulation is as shown. Its parameters are as follows:

The computed spectra can be viewed which contain the frequency and wavelength spectra respectively. In both cases several band gaps are clearly visible. Computation of a transmission spectrum for a semi-infinite photonic crystal lattice gives several band-gaps for one propagation direction with in the crystal.

31

Crystal layout for simulation is as shown. Its parameters are as follows:

32

33

Case 9: Simulation of real design photonic crystal on the lines of the prototype cases

discussed previously. A 2525 hexagonal PCS with air holes and uniform air cladding is used to make waveguide by creating a defect line along the central row. The simulation is performed on the lines of the simulation of prototype of case 7.When the holes along the central row are simply removed (effectively filled with the same dielectric) the waveguide strip has the width of W = (2Periodsin600 - 2Radius).Further two other waveguides with widths 0.85W and 0.75W respectively are simulated.

Lattice layout (red circles represent air holes) is as shown. The common parameters for the waveguides are as follows:

Structural view

The central dielectric strip represents the waveguide. Hybrid Band structure of the slab without considering the defect is shown as follows:

Defect mode properties The essential issue for calculation of defect mode properties is to find projected band structures of the light-line (or more accurately light-cone) and of the regular lattice of the slab. It needs to calculate a Full zone band structure over the slabs entire 2D Brillouin zone, and then project that band structure onto the 1BZ of the linear waveguide. As the next step an analogous procedure is performed for the projected slab modes. Modes confined in the 0-1 gap of the odd mode band structure need to be searched.

34

Full BZ slab modes (and their projected bands as the function of kz ) and projected light cone along the waveguide (defect line) is obtained as shown:

As the next step an analogous procedure is performed for the projected slab modes. Modes confined in the 0-1 gap of the odd mode band structure need to be searched.

Full BZ slab modes and there projected bands as the functions of kz are shown below:

Guided waveguide modes Finally, the mode guided in the defect guide is found. Band structure for BZ along the defect line region is calculated first and then the three different modes along the waveguide are combined on a single graph to present the complete picture of analysis as shown.

(1) Modes when strip width is W (defined initially):

Guided modes: The range of kz along the defect line has been chosen to illustrate the area of interest.

35

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

The computed a) time b) frequency c) wavelength spectra for waveguide involving TM CW input and d) electric field strength profile.

36

(e)

(f)

(g)

The computed e) frequency f) wavelength spectra for waveguide involving TM pulsed input and g) electric field strength profile.

37

PART 2

ANALYSIS OF POINT AND LINE DEFECTS

38

ANALYSIS 1:

Analysis of waveguide modes for square lattice of cylindrical dielectric rods in air.

Description: Line defect is created in the square lattice structure of cylindrical dielectric rods of infinite height in air with periodicity plane profile as shown below. Three types of defects have been analysed with chosen values of the defect-rod epsilon as mentioned in the regular lattice parameters and the line defect parameters. This lattice structure is analysed for TM band structure. Band-structure and the line-defect or wave-guide modes for the line-defect are explained.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Regular lattice parameters: Here the geometric and physical parameters of the non-defect dielectric rods are described. Period = 1m, radius of rods = 0.19m, height of rods = infinity, epsilon of rods = 12.

Line-defect parameters: Here the geometric and physical parameters of the defect dielectric rods are described. A defect row is created in three possible ways as shown above and described below. (a) Line defect created by removing a horizontal row of dielectric rods. (b) Line defect created with the horizontal row of dielectric rods of half the radius of the regular rods and their epsilon values as 4,8,12 and 16 analysed as four different cases. (c) Line defect created with the horizontal row of dielectric rods of twice the radius of the regular rods and their epsilon values as 4,8,12 and 16 analysed as four different cases.

39

PLOT1:- TM band-structure for the line-def on square-lattice of dielectric rods in air with a horizontal row of rods removed. A distinct waveguide mode is present between upper and lower PC modes.

K-points as indicated by k-index are sampled along the X direction of Brillouin zone as shown as 18 equi-distant points between (k = 0) and X (k = 0.5) including the both .

Subsequently, the other cases are also analysed along the same k-points as shown next.

40

PLOT 2:- TM band-structure for the line-def on squarer-lattice of dielectric rods in air with the horizontal row of dielectric rods of half the radius of the regular rods and their epsilon values as 4,8,12 and 16 as different cases.

PLOT 3:- TM band-structure for the line-def on square-lattice of dielectric rods in air with the horizontal row of dielectric rods of twice the radius of the regular rods and their epsilon values as 4,8,12 and 16 as different cases.

41

Conclusion: 1. A distinct wave-guide or line-defect mode is observed for the cases (a) and (b). 2. The normalised eigen-frequencies in these cases are centred around 0.3 to 0.35 etc. and are expressed in inverse of wavelength units (m) for 1 m period. So,the corresponding free-space wavelengths come around 3.3 m. As PBG structures are scalable, so for a lattice period of about 0.5m, the frequency becomes twice and wavelength half i.e around 1.55m which can be utilised for single mode optical communication applications with proper fine tuning of the fill ratio of the lattice, finite height of lattice of epsilon of regular of defect rods. 3. Also as observed in the case (b) with increasing defect-rod epsilon the line-defect modes approach the lower photonic crystal modes. 4. No distinct wave-guide mode is observed for the case (c). 5. But in the case of defect-rod epsilon being 8 as shown in plot 3, a distinct pair of linedefect or waveguide modes with positive and negative group velocity respectively is present and can be suitably used for meta-material applications. 6. Further the distinct waveguide modes from the cases (a) and (b) are shown below for comparision.

42

ANALYSIS 2:

Analysis of waveguide modes for triangular lattice of cylindrical dielectric rods in air.

Description: Line defect is created in the triangular lattice structure of cylindrical dielectric rods of infinite height in air with periodicity plane profile as shown below. Three types of defects have been analysed with chosen values of the defect-rod epsilon as mentioned in the regular lattice parameters and the line defect parameters. This lattice structure is analysed for TM band structure. Band-structure and the line-defect or wave-guide modes for the line-defect are explained.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Regular lattice parameters: Here the geometric and physical parameters of the non-defect dielectric rods are described. Period = 1m, radius of rods = 0.19m, height of rods = infinity, epsilon of rods = 12. Line-defect parameters: Here the geometric and physical parameters of the defect dielectric rods are described. A defect row is created in three possible ways as shown above and described below. (a) Line defect created by removing a horizontal row of dielectric rods. (b) Line defect created with the horizontal row of dielectric rods of half the radius of the regular rods and their epsilon values as 4,8,12 and 16 analysed as four different cases. (c) Line defect created with the horizontal row of dielectric rods of twice the radius of the regular rods and their epsilon values as 4,8,12 and 16 analysed as four different cases.

43

PLOT1:- TM band-structure for the line-def on triangular-lattice of dielectric rods in air with a horizontal row of rods removed. A distinct waveguide mode is present between upper and lower PC modes.

K-points as indicated by k-index are sampled along the M direction of Brillouin zone as shown as 18 equi-distant points between (k = 0) and X (k = 0.5) including the both .

Subsequently, the other cases are also analysed along the same k-points as shown next.

44

PLOT 2:- TM band-structure for the line-def on triangular-lattice of dielectric rods in air with the horizontal row of dielectric rods of half the radius of the regular rods and their epsilon values as 4,8,12 and 16 as different cases.

PLOT 3:- TM band-structure for the line-def on triangular-lattice of dielectric rods in air with the horizontal row of dielectric rods of twice the radius of the regular rods and their epsilon values as 4,8,12 and 16 as different cases.

45

Conclusion: 1. A distinct wave-guide or line-defect mode is observed for the cases (a) and (b). 2. The normalised eigen-frequencies in these cases are centred around 0.35 to 0.4 etc. and are expressed in inverse of wavelength units (m) for 1 m period. So,the corresponding free-space wavelengths come around 2.7m. As PBG structures are scalable, so for a lattice period of about 0.5m, the frequency becomes twice and wavelength half i.e around 1.31m which can be utilised for single mode optical communication applications with proper fine tuning of the fill ratio of the lattice, finite height of lattice of epsilon of regular of defect rods. 3. Also as observed in the case (b) with increasing defect-rod epsilon the line-defect modes approach the lower photonic crystal modes. 4. No distinct wave-guide mode is observed for the case (c). 5. But in the case of defect-rod epsilon being 8 as shown in plot 3, a distinct pair of linedefect or waveguide modes with negative group velocity each is present and can be suitably used for meta-material applications. 6. Further the distinct waveguide modes from the cases (a) and (b) are shown below for comparison.

46

The distinct waveguide modes from the cases (a) and (b) of the square and the triangular lattice structures each of the cylindrical dielectric rods in air is shown below for comparison.

47

ANALYSIS 3:

Analysis of waveguide modes for triangular lattice of cylindrical air holes in dielectric slab.

Description: Line defect is created in the triangular lattice structure of cylindrical air-holes of infinite height in the dielectric slab of infinite thickness with periodicity plane profile as shown below. Four types of defects have been analysed with chosen values of the defect-hole radius as mentioned in the regular lattice parameters and the line defect parameters. This lattice structure is analysed for TE as well as TM band structure of which the TE case is prominent. Band-structure and the line-defect or wave-guide modes for the line-defect are explained.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Regular lattice parameters: Here the geometric and physical parameters of the non-defect air-holes and the dielectric slab are described. Period = 1m, radius of air-holes = 0.42m, height of air-holes = infinity, epsilon of dielectric-slab = 12.

48

Line-defect parameters: (a) Line defect created by replacing a horizontal row of air-holes with dielectric or in other words radius of air-holes becomes zero. (b) Line defect due to the horizontal row of smaller air holes of radius 0.1m. (c) Line defect due to the horizontal row of smaller air holes of radius 0.2m. (d) Line defect due to the horizontal row of smaller air holes of radius 0.3m.

K-points as indicated by k-index on the following plots for TE and TM line-defect modes are sampled along the M direction of Brillouin zone as shown above as 18 equi-distant points between (k = 0) and M (k = 0.5) including the both.

Subsequently, TE and TM band structures are shown on next page for the four cases of the line-defects each and 0.1r, 0.2r and 0.3r refer to defect-hole radius of 0.1,0.2 and 0.3 microns respectively.

49

PLOT 1:- TE band-structure for the line-def on triangular-lattice of air-holes in the dielectric slab with a horizontal row of air-holes of zero radius or smaller radius than the regular air-holes as described above.

PLOT 2:- TM band-structure for the line-def on triangular-lattice of air-holes in the dielectric slab with a horizontal row of air-holes of zero radius or smaller radius than the regular air-holes as described above.

50

Conclusion: 1. No single distinct waveguide mode is present between upper and lower PC modes in either case TE or TM. 2. In both these cases the waveguide modes are very narrowly spaced with the PC modes. 3. In the TE band structure a near horizontal line-defect or waveguide mode is present for each defect case and it will have a very small group velocity can be utilised for very slow propagation of light. 4. In TM band structure the various modes diverge at point and converge at M point. This feature can be utilised in making the super-prism.

51

ANALYSIS 4:

Analysis of point defect modes for the three lattice structures by removing central rod or hole.

Description: Point defect in the square and the triangular lattice structure of cylindrical dielectric rods of infinite height in the air is created by removing one of the rods (shown in the centre of the lattice structures). Point defect in the triangular lattice of air-holes in the dielectric slab of infinite thickness is created by replacing one of the air-holes (shown in the centre of the lattice structure). The point defect modes (expressed in terms of eigen-frequency and Q-factor of the localised mode in the defect region) for both the dielectric rods in air lattice structure are TM where as the point defect mode for the air-holes in dielectric slab is TE considering their band-gap features. The point defect modes for the three lattice structure are analysed for the epsilon range of the rods or slab from 4 to 20 each with radius of the rods or the holes in each structure being fixed at an optimal value for which average TM (for dielectric rods in air) or TE (for air-holes in dielectric slab) bandgap of regular lattice structure is maximum across the range of epsilon.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Regular lattice parameters: (a) Square-lattice of dielectric rods in air with period = 1m, radius = 0.20m and epsilon of the rods = 4 to 20. (b) Triangular-lattice of dielectric rods in air with period = 1m, radius = 0.18m and epsilon of the rods = 4 to 20. (c) Triangular-lattice of air-holes in dielectric slab with period = 1m, radius = 0.42 and epsilon of the dielectric slab = 4 to 20. Height of the dielectric-rods or air-holes = infinity.

52

Band structures for point-defect cases and confined D-field profile Typical band structure for the square and the triangular lattices of dielectric rods in air with the point defects and their D-field profile in the defect region are illustated respectively. The resonant mode in each case is represented by constant value of frequency (shown as straight horizontal line) across the band structure. Band structure is taken along the conventional contour of BZ.

PLOT1:- Band structure and energy profile for square lattice structure of dielectric rods in air. colour scale on the energy profile picture has red for positive, white for zero and blue for negative.

PLOT2:- Band structure and energy profile for triangular lattice structure of dielectric rods in air. colour scale on the energy profile picture has red for positive, white for zero and blue for negative.

53

PLOT3:- Resonant frequency (point-defect-mode) variation for three lattice cases with variation in epsilon of dielectric rods (square and triangular lattice of dielectric rods in air) or that of dielectric slab (triangular lattice of air-holes in dielectric).

PLOT4:- Q-factor variation (on logarithmic scale) corresponds to the resonant frequency (point-defectmode) variation for three lattice cases with variation in epsilon of dielectric rods (square and triangular lattice of dielectric rods in air) or that of dielectric slab (triangular lattice of air-holes in dielectric).

54

Conclusion: 1. As observed from plots 1 and 2 the point-defect mode has a constant eigen frequency across the band-structure and the energy is confined in the region of the point defect which confirms the standing wave pattern for the point-defect mode. 2. As observed from plot 3, the eigen frequency continuously decreases with increasing epsilon of the dielectric rod or the dielectric slab for all the three lattice structures. 3. The nature of decrease in defect mode frequency indicated by slope of the frequency curves on plot 3 reveals the decrease to be steepest in the case of air-holes in dielectric slab structure. For the two dielectric rods in air structure the relative decrease is almost identical indicated by the almost parallel frequency curves. 4. As observed from plot 4, the Q-factor more or less continuously increases with increasing epsilon (upto the epsilon value of 12 and then the change is very less) of the dielectric rod or the dielectric slab for all the three lattice structures which indicates stronger confinement of the mode-energy (greater lifetime) for higher epsilon of the dielectric rod or the dielectric slab for all the three lattice structures. 5. These features along with non-linear photonics and electro-optics can be utilized in the design and implementation of digital photonics and bi-state mechanisms utilising the epsilon values with large difference in Q-factors (eg: - epsilon values 4 and 12). 6. The epsilon values between 12 and 16 which offers somewhat constant Q-factor and constant decrease in mode frequency can used for optical mux-demux design.

55

ANALYSIS 5:

Analysis of D and H energy distribution in point defect region for square lattice structure.

Description: Point defect in the square lattice structure of cylindrical dielectric rods of infinite height in the air is created by removing one of the rods (shown in the centre of the lattice structures). The energy distribution (both D and H energy) in the point defect region (corresponding to the point defect modes) for the dielectric rods in square lattice structure is considered for TM modes considering its band-gap feature. The energy distribution of point defect modes expressed in fraction for the square lattice structure are analysed for the epsilon range of the rods from 4 to 20 each with radius of the dielectric rods being fixed at an optimal value for which average TM band-gap of regular lattice structure is maximum across the range of epsilon. Further to explain the energy distribution profile four zones of increasing area with common centre (at the centre of defect) have been considered as shown and explained below. The spots at the centre of lattice structure are geometric regions and not any substance.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Regular lattice parameters: Period = 1m, radius of the rods= 0.20m, height of the rods = infinity and epsilon of the rods = 4 to 20. Point-defect region parameters: (a) area1: circular region with radius = 0.2 m. (b) area2: circular region with radius = 0.5 m. (c) area3: circular region with radius = 1/2 m.. (d) area4: circular region with radius = 1 m.

56

PLOT1:- Fractions of D and H energies concentrated in the identified area regions of the point defect for TM mode. D energy is densely concentrated between area1 and area2. H energy is densely concentrated at the periphery of defect zone outside area3.

PLOT2:- (a) Ratios of D by H energies in each of the identified area regions for TM mode. D energy is more concentrated towards the center and H energy is more concentrated towards the periphery of the point defect region. (b) Ratios of the D and H energies separately between one area region and the other area region. D energy concentration increases rapidly outside area1 and within area2. H energy is mostly confined at periphery outside area3. (* is for D-energy curve and + is for H-energy curve).

57

Conclusion: 1. As observed from plots 1 (a), fraction of D-energy present in different area zones continuously increase with increase in area but this increase is very much from area1 to area 2 and then gradual increase to the subsequent areas for a fair range of epsilon (i.e. from 6 to 18). Hence, D energy is densely concentrated between area1 and area2. 2. As observed from plots 1 (b), fraction of H-energy present in different area zones continuously increase with increase in area but this increase is very much from area 3 to area 4 and then gradual increase to the subsequent areas for a fair range of epsilon (i.e. from 6 to 20). Hence, H-energy is densely concentrated at the periphery of defect zone outside area3. 3. As observed from plots 2 (a), the ratio of D by H energy is very large for area 1 and very small for other areas, the smallest being for area 4. Hence, D-energy is more concentrated towards the centre of the defect zone and H-energy is more concentrated towards the periphery of the defect zone. 4. As observed from plots 2 (b), ratio of D-energy in area 1 by D-energy in area 2 is very less compared to those of area 3 by area 4.Hence, D-energy is confined outside area 1. Similarly, H-energy is very less present in defect zone up to area 2.

58

ANALYSIS 6:

Analysis of D and H energy distribution in point defect region for triangular lattice structure.

Description: Point defect in the triangular lattice structure of cylindrical dielectric rods of infinite height in the air is created by removing one of the rods (shown in the centre of the lattice structures). The energy distribution (both D and H energy) in the point defect region (corresponding to the point defect modes) for the dielectric rods in triangular lattice structure is considered for TM modes considering its band-gap feature. The energy distribution of point defect modes expressed in fraction for the triangular lattice structure are analysed for the epsilon range of the rods from 4 to 20 each with radius of the dielectric rods being fixed at an optimal value for which average TM band-gap of regular lattice structure is maximum across the range of epsilon. Further to explain the energy distribution profile four zones of increasing area with common centre (at the centre of defect) have been considered as shown and explained below. The spots at the centre of lattice structure are geometric regions and not any substance.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Regular lattice parameters: Period = 1m, radius of the rods= 0.18m, height of the rods = infinity and epsilon of the rods = 4 to 20. Point-defect region parameters: (a) area1: circular region with radius = 0.2 m. (b) area2: circular region with radius = 0.5 m. (c) area3: circular region with radius = 1/2 m.. (d) area4: circular region with radius = 1 m.

59

PLOT1:- Fractions of D and H energies concentrated in the identified area regions of the point defect for TM mode. D energy is densely concentrated between area1 and area2. H energy is densely concentrated at the periphery of defect zone outside area3.

PLOT2:- (a) Ratios of D by H energies in each of the identified area regions for TM mode. D energy is more concentrated towards the center and H energy is more concentrated towards the periphery of the point defect region. (b) Ratios of the D and H energies separately between one area region and the other area region. D energy concentration increases rapidly outside area1 and within area2. H energy is mostly confined at periphery outside area3. (* is for D-energy curve and + is for H-energy curve).

60

Conclusion: 1. As observed from plots 1 (a), fraction of D-energy present in different area zones continuously increase with increase in area but this increase is very much from area1 to area 2 and then gradual increase to the subsequent areas for a fair range of epsilon (i.e. from 6 to 18). Hence, D energy is densely concentrated between area1 and area2. 2. As observed from plots 1 (b), fraction of H-energy present in different area zones continuously increase with increase in area but this increase is very much from area 3 to area 4 and then gradual increase to the subsequent areas for a fair range of epsilon (i.e. from 6 to 20). Hence, H-energy is densely concentrated at the periphery of defect zone outside area3. 3. As observed from plots 2 (a), the ratio of D by H energy is very large for area 1 and very small for other areas, the smallest being for area 4. Hence, D-energy is more concentrated towards the centre of the defect zone and H-energy is more concentrated towards the periphery of the defect zone. 4. As observed from plots 2 (b), ratio of D-energy in area 1 by D-energy in area 2 is very less compared to those of area 3 by area 4.Hence, D-energy is confined outside area 1. Similarly, H-energy is very less present in defect zone up to area 2.

61

ANALYSIS 7:

Analysis of point defect modes for the square lattice structure with varying point defect.

Description: Point defect in the square lattice structure of cylindrical dielectric rods of infinite height in the air is created by changing the radius and epsilon of one of the dielectric rods (shown in the centre of the lattice structure) for a range of values. For regular dielectric rods their epsilon remain constant. The point defect modes (expressed in terms of eigen-frequency and Q-factor of the localised mode in the defect region) for this lattice structure are TM considering their band-gap features. The point defect modes for this lattice structure are analysed for the six different cases of the defect-rod radius from 0.1 to 0.6 and the epsilon range of the defect-rod from 2 to 16 for each defect-radius case. The figures below represent some cases of the point defects with the relative radius and the relative epsilon of the defect-rod at the centre exhibited.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

Regular lattice parameters: Period = 1m, radius-rods = 0.19 m, height-rods = infinity, epsilon-rods = 12. Point defect parameters: Radius of defect of rods = 0.1 to 0.6 m, height of defect rods = infinity, epsilon of defect rods = 2 to 16. The point defect cases are considered for all the possible combinations of radius and epsilon values for the respective ranges mentioned. Figures shown above: (a) Point defect dielectric rod with radius = 0.1 and epsilon = 6. (b) Point defect dielectric rod with radius = 0.3 and epsilon = 4. (c) Point defect dielectric rod with radius = 0.4 and epsilon = 15. (d) Point defect dielectric rod with radius = 0.5 and epsilon = 5. (e) Point defect dielectric rod with radius = 0.5 and epsilon = 8.

62

PLOT1:- Resonant frequency (point-defect-mode) variation for the six defect-rod radius cases with variation in epsilon of defect-rods. For defect radii r4, r5 and r6 there is steep shift in resonant frequency at a particular value of defect-rod epsilon.

PLOT2:- Q-factor variation (on logarithmic scale) corresponds to the resonant frequency (point-defectmode) variation for the square-lattice structure with variation in epsilon of defect-rod. For the cases of defect-radii having gradual convergence of resonant frequency there is gradual convergence of Q-factor value also. But for the cases of steep change in resonant frequency the large although not very steep change in Q-factor value.

63

Conclusion: 1. As observed from plots 1, there is a steep shift in frequency at a particular value of defect-rod epsilon for the three cases where the defect-rod radius is significantly larger than the regular lattice rod. The greater is the defect-rod radius the lesser is its epsilon value at which this shift occurs. 2. There is large increase in Q-factor for this resonant frequency shift. 3. For the other three cases where the resonant frequency converges or constantly decreases, corresponding Q-factor also converges. 4. For the case of defect-rod radius r1=0.1micron the resonant frequency decreases linearly and Q-factor remains almost the same. 5. For defect radii cases of r4=0.4, r5=0.5 and r6=0.6 microns the steep shift in resonant frequency can be used for digital photonics (binary system logic) designs using nonlinear photonics. 6. The linear variation in resonant frequency with very small change in Q-factor for the case of the defect radius r1 can be suitably used for stable analog system designs. This can also be utilised for optical multiplexer design.

64

ANALYSIS 8:

Analysis of D energy concentration in point defect dielectric rod for square lattice structure.

Description: Point defect in the square lattice structure of cylindrical dielectric rods of infinite height in the air is created by changing the radius and epsilon of one of the dielectric rods (shown in the centre of the lattice structure) for a range of values. For regular dielectric rods their epsilon remain constant. The D-energy fraction in the point defect region (corresponding to the point defect modes) for the dielectric rods in square lattice structure is considered for TM modes considering its band-gap feature. The energy distribution for this lattice structure are analysed for the six different cases of the defect-rod radius from 0.1 to 0.6 and the epsilon range of the defect-rod from 2 to 16 for each defect-radius case. The figures below represent some cases of the point defects with the relative radius and the relative epsilon of the defect-rod at the centre exhibited.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

Regular lattice parameters: Period = 1m, radius-rods = 0.19 m, height-rods = infinity, epsilon-rods = 12. Point defect parameters: Radius of defect of rods = 0.1 to 0.6 m, height of defect rods = infinity, epsilon of defect rods = 2 to 16. The point defect cases are considered for all the possible combinations of radius and epsilon values for the respective ranges mentioned.

Figures shown above: (a) Point defect dielectric rod with radius = 0.1 and epsilon = 6. (b) Point defect dielectric rod with radius = 0.3 and epsilon = 4. (c) Point defect dielectric rod with radius = 0.4 and epsilon = 15. (d) Point defect dielectric rod with radius = 0.5 and epsilon = 5. (e) Point defect dielectric rod with radius = 0.5 and epsilon = 8.

65

PLOT1:- Variation of D-energy (expressed in fraction of the total in lattice) with defect-rod epsilon for six radii cases.

Conclusion: 1. For larger defect-radius cases r4, r5 and r6 energy in defect-rod drops quickly to almost zero with at defect-epsilon = 6 and this feature can be utilized for sensor application, switching and digital photonics in conjugation with non-linear photonics. 2. For defect-radius case r1=0.1, energy in the defect-rod increase almost linearly for the given range of epsilon and this feature can be suitably utilized for analog system designs.

66

ANALYSIS 9:

Analysis of D energy concentration in point defect dielectric rod for triangular lattice structure.

Description: Point defect in the triangular lattice structure of cylindrical dielectric rods of infinite height in the air is created by changing the radius and epsilon of one of the dielectric rods (shown in the centre of the lattice structure) for a range of values. For regular dielectric rods their epsilon remain constant. The D-energy fraction in the point defect region (corresponding to the point defect modes) for the dielectric rods in triangular lattice structure is considered for TM modes considering its band-gap feature. The energy distribution for this lattice structure are analysed for the six different cases of the defect-rod radius from 0.1 to 0.6 and the epsilon range of the defect-rod from 2 to 16 for each defect-radius case. The figures below represent some cases of the point defects with the relative radius and the relative epsilon of the defect-rod at the centre exhibited.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Regular lattice parameters: Period = 1m, radius-rods = 0.19 m, height-rods = infinity, epsilon-rods = 12. Point defect parameters: Radius of defect of rods = 0.1 to 0.6 m, height of defect rods = infinity, epsilon of defect rods = 2 to 16. The point defect cases are considered for all the possible combinations of radius and epsilon values for the respective ranges mentioned.

Figures shown above: (a) Point defect dielectric rod with radius = 0.1 and epsilon = 6. (b) Point defect dielectric rod with radius = 0.4 and epsilon = 6. (c) Point defect dielectric rod with radius = 0.6 and epsilon = 6.

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PLOT1:- Variation of D-energy (expressed in fraction of the total in lattice) with defect-rod epsilon for six radii cases.

Conclusion: 1. For larger defect-radius cases r4, r5 and r6 energy in defect-rod drops quickly to almost zero with at defect-epsilon = 6 and this feature can be utilized for sensor application, switching and digital photonics in conjugation with non-linear photonics. 2. For defect-radius case r1=0.1, energy in the defect-rod increase almost linearly for the given range of epsilon and this feature can be suitably utilized for analog system designs.

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Reference 1 -softwares and simulation tools The following software and CAD tools have been used to work out the contents of this project work.

(i) RSOFT Design Group, INC, USA (1) Bandsolve PWEM simulations. (2) Fullwave FDTD simulations. (ii) MIT Ab Initio Physics Group, MIT, USA (1) MPB PWEM simulations. (2) MEEP FDTD simulations. (iii) MATLAB graphs and plots.

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Reference 2 literature survey (i) Books (1) Photonic Crystals Molding the flow of light -- J D Jonnopoulos, S G Jhonson, J N Winn, R D Meade. (2) Photonic Crystals Advances in Design, Fabrication, and Characterization K Busch, S lolkes, H Foll. (3) Photonic Crystal - Physics & Practical Modeling Springer Series in optical sciences. (ii) Phd thesis (1) Photonic Crystals From theory to practice S G Johnson at Dept of Physics, MIT, USA-- June 2001. (2) Analysis and Simulation of Photonic Crystal Components for Optical Communication -- Dinesh Kumar V at Dept of ECE, IISc Bangalore, India-December 2003.

(iii) Papers (1) Design and fabrication of Silicon Photonic Crystal Optical waveguide -- Marko Loncar, Theodor Doll,J Vuckovic and A Scherer - JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE

TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 18, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2000.

(2) Photonic Bandgap Materials: A semiconductor for light Sajeev John, O Toader, K Busch. (3) Structural Tuning of Guiding Modes of Line-Defect Waveguides of Silicon-onInsulator Photonic Crystal Slabs -- Masaya Notomi, A Shinya, K Yamada, J Takahashi, C Takahashi, and I Yokohama-- IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM

ELECTRONICS, VOL. 38, NO. 7, JULY 2002.

(4) Light Propagation Characteristics of Straight Single-Line-Defect Waveguides in Photonic Crystal Slabs Fabricated Into a Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate Toshihiko Baba, Member, IEEE, A Motegi, T Iwai, N Fukaya, Y Watanabe, and A Sakai -- IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 38, NO. 2, JULY 2002 . (5) Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs -- Steven G. Johnson, Shanhui Fan, Pierre R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 -- PHYSICAL REVIEW B

AUGUST 1999

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(6) Linear waveguides in photonic-crystal slabs --Steven G. Johnson, Pierre R. Villeneuve, Shanhui Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos--Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 -PHYSICAL REVIEW B SEPTEMBER 2000.

(7) Extremely Large Group-Velocity Dispersion of Line-Defect Waveguides in Photonic Crystal Slabs--M. Notomi, K. Yamada. A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama --NTT Basic Research Labs., NTT Corporation, Atsugi, 2430198 Japan-- PHYSICAL REVIEW B DECEMBER 2001. (8) Nature of the photonic band gap: some insights from a field analysis-- R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer and J. D. Joannopoulos -- J. Opt. Soc. Am B 10,

328 (1993).

(9) Existence of a photonic band gap in two dimensions-- R. D.Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer and J. D. Joannopoulos -- Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 495 (1992). (10) Existence of photonic gaps in periodic dielectric structures-- K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan and C. M. Soukoulis -- Phys. Rev.Lett. 65, 3152 (1990). (11) Photonic bandgap formation and tunability in certain self-organizing systems-S. John and K. Busch -- J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1931 (1999) (12) All-optical ultracompact photonic crystal AND gate based on nonlinear ring Resonators -- Parisa Andalib and Nosrat Granpayeh-- J. Opt. Soc. Am. B/Vol. 26, No.

1/January 2009.

(13) Design of Optical Logic Gates Using Photonic Crystal --A.P. Kabilan, X. Susan Christina, P. Elizabeth Caroline -- 978-1-4244-4570-7/09/$25.00 2009 IEEE. (14) Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures -- T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin and T. J. Shepherd-- Electron. Lett. 31, 1941 (1995). (15) Analysis of air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers -- J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, T. Sndergaard and A. Bjarklev -- Opt. Lett. 25, 96 (2000).

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