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Stress Strain Relations

Fig. 1

A

0

= Original cross section of the specimen.

L

0

= Original gauge length.

A

i

= instantaneous cross section of the specimen.

L

i

= instantaneous length of specimen after extension

2

Fig. 2: StressStrain Diagram.

P = Proportionality limit E = Elasticity limit Y = Yield point

N = Necking Point F = Fracture Point

Fig. 3

3

Fig. 4

4

i. Engineering

Stress

0

A

Fi

S

F

i

= instantaneous load

Engineering strain =

,

_

0

0

0

L

L L

specimen of length Original

length in Change

L

L

ii. True stress

Ai

Fi

and

True strain

,

_

o

i

i

L

0

L

L

L

log

L

dL

True stress is defined as load divided by actual cross sectional area (not original cross sectional area

A

0

) for that particular load.

Ai

Fi

Similarly, true strain is based on the instantaneous specimen length rather than original length. As such

true strain (or incremental strain) is defined as

L

dL

d

Where L is length at load F and is the true strain.

The true strain at load F is then obtained by summing all the increments of equation.

Arithmetically, this can be written as

n

n

L

dL

L

dL

L

dL

L

dL

L

dL

d + + + + +

......

3

3

2

2

1

1

0

0

0

1

1

L

0

L

L

L

log

L

dL

True strain is the sum of each incremental elongation divided by the current length of specimen, where

L

0

is original gauge length and L

i

is the gauge length corresponding to load F

i

. The most important

characteristics of truestress strain diagram is that true stress increases all the way to fracture. Thus true

fracture strength

f

is greater than the true ultimate strength

u

in contrast with engineering stress

where fracture strength is lesser than ultimate strength.

5

Relationship between true and engineering stress strains

From volume constancy, V = A

0

L

0

= A

i

L

i

i

i

A

A

L

L

0

0

e =

,

_

1

L

L

L

L L

0

i

0

0 i

) e 1 (

L

L

0

i

+

0

i

i

0

0

i

i

i

L

L

S

A

A

A

F

A

F

) e 1 ( S +

+

i

L

0

L

0

i

) e 1 ( log

L

L

log

L

dL

) e 1 ( log +

Problems with Engineering StressStrains

1. Engineering stressstrain diagram does not give true and accurate picture of deformation

characteristics of the material because it takes original cross sectional area for all calculations

though it reduces continuously after yield point in extension and markedly after necking. Thats

why we get fracture strength of a material less than its ultimate tensile strength is S

u

> S

f

which is

not true.

2. Total engineering strain is not equal to sum of incremental strains which defies the logic.

6

Let us have a specimen with length of 50 mm which then is extended to 66.55 in three steps

Length before extension (L

0

) Length after extension

L

E =

0

L

L

0 50 50

1 50 55 5 5/50 = 0.1

2 55 60.5 5.5 5.5/55 = 0.1

3 60.5 66.55 6.05 6.05/60.5 = 0.1

Sum of incremental strain =

1 . 0 1 . 0 1 . 0

5 . 60

05 . 6

55

5 . 5

50

5

+ + + +

=0.3

Now we will calculate total strain considering original and final length after of extension L

3

= 66.55

Total engineering strain when extended =

331 . 0

50

50 55 . 66

L

L L

0

0 3

The result is that summation of incremental engineering strain is NOT equal to total engineering strain.

Now same procedure is applied to true strain-

3 2 2 1 1 0

+ +

=

,

_

+ +

2

3

1

2

0

1

L

L

log

L

L

log

L

L

log

=

5 . 60

55 . 66

log

55

5 . 60

log

50

55

log + +

= 0.286

But total true strain equals to

286 . 0

50

55 . 66

log

L

L

log

0

3

3 . 0

In the case of true strains, sum of incremental strain is equal to the overall strain. Thus true strains are

additive. This is not true for engineering strains.

3.

7

Fig

L

0

= length before extension

L

1

= L

0

= length after extension

Strain e =

0

0 1

L

L L

0

0 1

L

L L

I

L

1

= 0

Fig

To obtain strain of 1 the cylinder must be squeezed to zero thickness which is only hypothetical and not

true. Moreover, intuitively we expect that strain produced in compression should be equal in magnitude

but opposite in sign.

Applying true strain formulation, to extension

2 log

L

L 2

log

L

L

log

0

0

0

1

To compression; L

1

= L

0

/2

2 log 2 / 1 log

L

2 / L

log

L

L

log

0

0

0

1

gives consistent results. Thus true strains for equivalent deformation in tension and comprehension are

identical except for the sign. Further unlike engineering strains, true strains are consistent with actual

phenomenon.

Problem:

8

The following data were obtained during the true strain test of nickel specimen.

Load

kN

Diameter

mm

Load

kN

Diameter

mm

0 6.40 15.88 5.11

15.30 6.35 15.57 5.08

15.92 6.22 14.90 4.83

16.32 6.10 14.01 4.57

16.5 5.97 13.12 4.32

16.55 5.84 12.45 3.78

A. Plot the true stress true strain curve:

B. Determine the following

1. True stress at maximum load.2.True fracture stress.3.True fracture strain.4.True uniform strain .

5. True necking strain. 6.Ultimate tensile strength.7. Strain hardening component.

1. True stress at max load =

A

P

max

=

2

3

84 . 5

4

10 55 . 16

= 617.77 MPa

2. True fracture stress =

min

A

P

=

22 . 11

10 45 . 12

3

= 1109 MPa

3. True fracture strain =

2

i

0

d

d

ln

,

_

=

2

78 . 3

4 . 6

ln

,

_

= 1.053

4. True uniform strain =

2

i

0

d

d

ln

,

_

=

2

84 . 5

4 . 6

ln

,

_

=0.183

5. True necking strain = true fracture strain

true uniform strain = 1.053 0.183 = 0.87

6. Ultimate tensile stress =

max

max

A

P

=

2

3

4 . 6

4

10 55 . 16

= 514 MPa

7. Now, n= log(1+e) = log (1.2) =0.183

9

Load

KN

Diamete

r

mm

Area

mm

2

True stress

=

i

i

A

P

(N/mm

2

)

True strain =

2

i

0

d

d

ln

,

_

Engg. Stress

=

A

P

(N/mm

2

)

Engg. Strain

= 1

d

d

2

i

0

,

_

0 6.40 32.17 0 0

15.3 6.35 31.67 48.31 0.0156 475.59 0.0158

15.92 6.22 30.39 523.86 0.057 494.87 0.059

16.32 6.10 29.22 558.52 0.096 507.30 0.10

16.5 5.97 27.99 589.50 0.139 512.90 0.149

16.55 5.84 26,79 617.77 0.183 514.45 0.20

15.88 5.11 20.5 774.63 0.45 493.62 0.568

15.57 5.08 20.27 768.13 0.46 484.00 0.587

14.90 4.83 18.32 813.32 0.56 463.16 0.755

14.01 4.57 16.40 854.27 0.67 435.5 0.961

13.12 4.32 14.66 894.95 0.786 407.83 1.19

12.45 3.78 11.22 1109.63 1.053 387.00 1.866

Applications of Engineering Stress and Strains

Engineering stress and strain are useful for many engineering design applications. Computation of

stress and strain is based on initial area or gauge length and therefore engineering stress and strain

represent only approximations of the real stress and strain in plastic zone.

In elastic deformation region (where dimensional changes are small and negligible) the initial and

instantaneous areas are approximately same and hence true stress equals engineering stress. Therefore,

in design problems where large dimensional changes do not occur, the use of engineering stress is

sufficiently accurate and used extensively as it is easier to measure.

However, for metal working where large plastic deformations occur and are necessary, the

approximations inherent in engineering stress and strain values are unacceptable. For this reason, the

true stress and true strains are used.

Important advantages of true stressstrain curves:

1. It represents the actual and accurate stress and strain. True strain refers to a length from which that

change is produced rather than to original gauge length.The engineering stresse and strains

provides incorrect values after yield point i.e. plastic zone which a main zone of interest for metal

working.

2. True strains additive i.e. the total overall strain is equal to sum of incremental strains.

10

3. True strains for equivalent deformation in tension and compression are identical except in sign.

4. The volume change is related to the sum of the three normal true strains and with volume constancy.

5. True stress can be related to true strain.

n

) ( K

n

0

) ( +

0

= the amount of strain hardening that material received prior to the tension test.

6. Truestresstrue strain values are quite sensitive to change in both metallurgical and mechanical

conditions of matter.

Truestressstrain

Engineering

1. Actual values of gauge length and

cross sectional area is used in

calculating true stress and true strain.

i

i

A

F

i

L

0

L

L

dL

The sum of incremental strains is

equal to total strain

Unlike load elongation curve, there is

no maximum in the true strin curve.

The sloppe of the curve in the plastic

region decreases with increase in

strain

1. Original cross sectional areas (A

0

) is

used for calculating engineering stress.

S =

0

i

A

F

Further strain e =

0

0 i

L

L L

is used.

The sum of incremental strains is not

equal to total strain.

2.

The calculated values of stressstrain

are real and very useful in the plastic

region of the curve.

2. The nominal stress (s) defined for the

tensile test in terms of original cross

sectional area (A

0

) is not really stress

because the cross sectional area A

i

at

the instant of load measurement is less

than A

0

in the evaluation of s.

3. The metal working designers are

interested in plastic region where

difference between A

i

and A

0

is

significant. The true stressstrains

give accurate picture and hence it is

3. The structural designers are interested

in a region where strains are elastic

and difference between A

i

and A

0

is

negligibly small. But this is not true in

the plastic region and especially when

11

more useful to metal working designs. maximum load is reached.

4. It is not easy to obtain values of

from test since the force F

i

and cross

sectional area (A

i

) must be measured

simultaneously. True stress (

) is

important in metal working

calculation because of its

fundamental significance.

4. It is easy to obtain these values

through test and convenientless

costly. These values are widely

available and documented.

5. It is more consistent with the

phenomenon of metal deformation.

5. It is less consistent with physical

phenomenon of metal deformation.

Idealisation of stress strain curves

The solutions to the plasticity problems are quite complex. To obtain solution to these problems,

stress strain curves are idealized by [i] neglecting elastic strains and/or [ii] ignoring the effect work

hardening. Idealization and simplification restrict its field of application.

1. Elastic perfectly plastic

It considers elastic strains and neglects effects of work hardening; it yields more difficult constitutive

relations. As a consequence, it also leads to greater mathematical difficulties in practical applications.

It must be used for those processes in which elastic and plastic strains are of the same order. This is the

case in structural engineering or for bending.

2. Rigid, perfectly plastic

In most metal forming operations, the permanent strains are much longer than the elastic. One therefore

in air no great error by assuming the metal to behave as a rigid body prior to yielding. It is for this

reason that one mainly employs perfectly plastic material idealisation.

12

(a) Perfectly elastic, brittle (b) Perfectly rigid plastic

(c) Rigid, linear strain hardening (d) Elastic perfectly plastic

(e) Elastic linear strain hardening

Fig. 5

The flow curve

A true stressstrain curve is frequently called a flow curve because it gives the stress required to cause

the metal to flow physically to given strain.

The plastic region of a true stress strain curve for many materials has a general form in the form of

Holloman equation which is

n

) ( k

where: n is strain hardening exponent

13

k is strength constant

Fig. 6

In a tension test of stell, a specimen of circular cross section with original diameter 9 mm is used. The

loads applied were 22 kN and 28 kN which reduces its diameter to 8.6 mm and 8.3 mm respectively.

Determine (i) true stress and true strain for given loads (ii) strain hardening exponent and strength

coefficient.

Solution:

0

d

original diameter of specimen = 9 mm

1

d

diameter of specimen on application of load

kN 22 F

1

2

d

diameter of specimen on application of load

kN 28 F

2

2

2

3

2

1

1

1

mm / N 78 . 3

) 6 . 8 ( 4 /

) N ( 10 22

d 4 /

F

2

2

2

3

2

2

2

mm / N 5 . 517

d 4 /

10 28

) 3 . 8 ( 4 /

F

T

0

1

e

L

L

log strain true

1

L

Length after deformation

0

L

length before deformation

As volume of specimen remain constant,

1 1 0 0

L A L A

14

1

2

1

0

2

0

L d

4

L d

4

2

1

0

0

1

d

d

L

L

,

_

1

0

2

1

0

d

d

log 2

d

d

log

,

_

1

true strain for first extension

091 . 0

6 . 8

9

log 2

2

true strain for second extension

1619 . 0

3 . 8

9

log 2

d

d

log 2

1

0

Applying Hollomon equation,

n

1

1

K

n

2

2

K

n

1

2

1

2

,

_

or

1

2

1

2

log . n log

54 . 0

091 . 0

1619 . 0

log

378

5 . 517

log

log

1

log

n

1

2

2

54 . 0

) 091 . 0 ( k 378

2

mm / N 1385 K

strain hardening exponent (n) = 0.54

strength coefficient K = 1385

2

mm / N

15

with this information, Hollomon equation can be written as

54 . 0

) ( 1385

Both n and K are material properties: The strain hardening exponent physically reflects the rate at

which the material hardens. The derivative of this equation

.

d

n

d

,

_

In states that fractional change in true stress caused by a fractional change in true strain is determined by

the strain hardening exponent (n). Therefore, the stress increases rapidly with strain for a material that

has a large strain hardening exponent, such as

2

O 3

stainless steel (n = 0.3) compared to a material

where n is low such as 4.10 stainless steel (n = 0.1).

Plastic Instability

Necking or localised deformation begins at maximum load where decrease in cross sectional area

which hears the load is compensated by increase in strength due in load

dF = 0

Fig. 7

A . F

16

0 d A dA dF +

d

A

dA

From constancy of volume, V = A . L A= cross section of spearmen

L =

length of specimen

dV = 0 = A. dL + dA L

L

dL

A

dA

d

L

dl d

Problem

Prove that uniform strain is equal strain hardening exponent (n).

Solution:

d

d

17

Fig.

P = load at any instance

A = cross section of specimen.

n

) ( k . A A P (1)

A

A

log

o

A

A

e

0

e A A

0

(2)

Substituting value in equation (1)

n

0

) ( K e A P

] ) ( e [ A K P

n

0

At maximum load point on engg.

stress strain curve dP = 0

u

When true strain

0 ] e ) 1 ( ) ( N e [ A K dP

n

u

1 n

u 0

+

n

u

1 n

u

n

Problem 1:

Hollomon equation for a material is given as . ) ( 1400

33 . 0

Find the ultimate tensile strength of the

material.

Solution:

n

) ( k

n

u

18

Ultimate tensile strength of a material is measured at maximum load point and where necking begins.

Upto the necking point, deformation is uniform throughout its gauge length. It is a engineering stress

). S (

u

True strain for uniform elongation is equal to strain hardening exponent. Therefore

. n

u

Ultimate tensile strength =

u

u

u

1

S

+

] S ) e 1 ( [ +

) e 1 ( log

u e u

+

) e 1 (

u u

+

e = 2.71 (logarithmic base)

n

u

e e 1 +

n

n

n

u

n

n

u

n

u

u

e

n

K

e

K

e

. K

e

S

,

_

,

_

=

2

33 . 0

mm / N 1 . 698

71 . 2

33 . 0

1400

,

_

UTS = 698. 1

2

mm / N

This shows that ultimate strength of a material can be calculated from the value of K and n.

Problem 2:

A metal obeys Hollomon relationship and has a UTS of 300 MPa. To reach the maximum load requires

an elongation of 35%. Find strain hardening exponent (n) and strength coefficient (K).

Solution:

UTS = u

S

= 300 MPa = 300

2

mm / N

Engineering elongation strain = u

e

= 35% = 0.35

uniform true strain

+ ) e 1 ( log

u u log (1.35) = 0.3

19

) e 1 ( S

u u u

+

but

3 . 0 n

u

= 300 (1 + 0.35) = 405 . mm / N

2

n n

u u

) n ( k ) ( K

3 . 0

) 3 . 0 ( K 405

2

mm / N 2 . 581 K

Hollomon equation for given metal is

3 . 0

) ( 2 . 581

Deformation work

Work is defined as the product of force and distance. A quantity equivalent to work per unit volume is

the product of stress and strain. The area under the true stress strain curve for any strain

1

is the

energy per unit volume (u) or specific energy, of the deformed material.

Fig. 9

1

0

d u

The true stressstrain curve can be represented by the Hollomon equation . ) ( K

n

20

1

0

1 n

1

0

n

1 n

K

d . ) ( K u

+

similarly mean flow stress can be found

) 1 n (

K

) 1 n (

K

d . K

0

d

n

1

1

1 n

1

1

1

0

n

1

1

0

m

+

+

The work calculated according to above equation assumes that the deformation is homogeneous through

out the deforming part. This work is called ideal deformation work.

1 n

K

u

1 n

1

+

+

1 n

K

n

1

m

+

21

Example: Ideal work of deformation

Deformation of fully annealed AA1100 aluminium is governed by the Hollomon equation. If a 10 cm

long bar of this material is pulled in tension from a diameter of 12.7 mm to a diameter of 11.5, calculate

the following:

a. the ideal work per unit volume of aluminium required;

b. the mean stress in the aluminium during deformation;

c. the peak stress applied to the aluminium.

2 25 . 0

mm / N ) ( 140

Solutions

a. Calculate total strain during deformation

d

d

ln 2

A

A

ln

0 0

199 . 0

5 . 11

7 . 12

ln 2

Calculate the total volume of bar

3 5

2 2

m 10 26 . 1 m 1 . 0

4

m 0127 . 0 (

l

4

d

V

For AA1100, K = 140 MPa and n = 0.25. Note that, as

, n <

the deformation is homogeneous

V

1 n

K W

1 n

1

i

+

+

) J ( N 5 . 187 m 10 26 . 1

25 . 1

199 . 0

m

N

10 140

3 5

25 . 1

6

6

(b) Mean stress during deformation

1 n

K

n

1

m

+

MPa 8 . 74

25 . 1

199 . 0

MPa 140

25 . 0

(c) Peak (maximum) stress applied, from Hollomon equation

MPa 5 . 93 199 . 0 MPa 140 K

25 . 0 n

1

1

22

Yield Criterion

Yield point under simplified condition of uniaxial tension is widely known and documented. But such

simplified conditions [1 Pure uniaxial tension 2 Pure shear] are rare in reality. In many situations

complex and multiaxial stresses are present and in this situation it is necessary to know when a material

will yield. Mathematically and empirically, the relationships between the yield point under uniaxial

tensile test and yield strength under complex situations have been found out. These relationships are

known as yield criteria. Thus yield criterion is defined as mathematical and empirically derived

relationship between yield strength under uniaxial tensile load and yielding under multiaxial complex

stress situation.

Yield Criterion is a law defining the limit of elastic behaviour under any possible combination of

stresses is called yield criterion. Yield criterion is a mathematical expression which unites experimental

observations with mathematical expressions n a phenomenological manner. Yield criteria is primarily

used to predict if or when yielding

will occur under combined stress states in terms of particular properties of the metal being stressed [

] K ,

0

.

Any yield criterion is a postulated mathematical expression of the stress that will induce yielding or the

onset of plastic deformation. The most general form is

) T , T , T , z y x

zx yz xy

, , ( f

= a constant.

or in terms of principal stresses

f(

) , , ( f

3 2 1

= C

For most ductile metals that are isotropic, the following assumptions are invoked:

1. There is no Bauschinger effect, thus the yield strengths in tension and compression are equivalent.

Bauschinger effect

23

The lowering of yield stress for a material when deformation in one direction is followed by deformation

in the opposite direction, is called Bauschinger effect.

Fig. 10

2. The constancy of volume prevails so that plastic equivalent of poisons ratio 0.5.

3. The magnitude of the mean normal stress

3

3 2 1

m

+ +

does not cause yielding. The

assumption that yielding is independent of

m

(also called hydrostatic component of the total state

of stress) is reasonable if plastic flow depends upon shear mechanism such as slip or twinning. In

this context, yield criterion is written as

F[(

1

2

), (

2

3

), (

3

1

)] = C

which implies that yielding depends upon the size of the Mohrs circle and not their position. It is

shown that if a stress state (

1

,

2

,

3

) will cause yielding, an equivalent stress state

) , , (

3 2 1

Two widely used yield criterion:

1. Tresca criterion or maximum shear stress criterion.

2. Von Mises criterion or distortion energy criterion.

1. Tresca criterion

Tresca found that plastic flow in a metal begins when tangential stress attains a value.

24

Assume that a body is subjected to triaxial stresses.

3 2 1

, ,

are principal stresses and

3 2 1

> >

(algebraically).

Then maximum shear stress

2

T

3 1

max

when

max

T

exceeds a certain value c, specific to that material, yielding will occur. To find the value

of c, the material is subjected to uniaxial tensile test and find out yield point strength

). (

0

0 ,

3 2 0 1

c

2 2

T

0 3 1

max

2 2

0 3 1

or

0 3 1

ii) Material is subjected to pure shear:

k

1

0

2

k

3

k = shear strength of the material

0 3 1

0

k k +

0

0

5 . 0

2

k

Application:

i) Plain stress condition. xy , y x

T ,

2

xy

2

y x y x

1

) T (

2 2

+

,

_

+

+

+

25

2

xy

2

y x y x

2

) T (

2 2

+

,

_

+

0 1

when

0

3

>

0 3 1

+

when

0

3

<

ii) Plain strain condition

0

3

) ( 2

2 1 2

+

0 3 1

2

3 1

2

+

Shortcomings

1. An essential short coming of this criterion is that it ignore the effect of intermediate principal stress

). (

2

2. Since pastic flow depends upon slip phenomenon which is essentially a shearing. Slip is

practically absent in brittle materials. Therefore application of this criterion is limited to ductile

materials. This criterion is not applicable to crystalline brittle material which cannot be brought

into plastic state under tension but yield a little before compress fracture in compression.

3. Failure of/ yielding of a material under triaxial pure tension condition where

3 2 1

can not

be explained by this criterion.

4. It suffers from a major difficulty that it is necessary to know in advance which are maximum and

minimum stresses.

5. Moreover, the general form of this criterion is far more complicated than the Von Mises criterion.

Therefore Von Mises criterion is preferred in most theoretical (not practical) work.

For sake of simplicity, in analysis, this criterion is widely used in practice.

26

Von Mises Criterion

According to this criterion, yielding will occur when shear strain energy per unit volume reaches a

critical value. The shear strain energy per unit volume is expressed terms of three principal stresses:

[ ]

2

1 3

2

3 2

2

2 1

) ( ) ( ) (

G

1

e + +

2

1 3

2

3 2

2

2 1

) ( ) ( ) ( + +

= Constant.

(i) For uniaxial tensile test, yielding will occur when

0 ;

3 2 0 1

2

0

2

y

2

y

2 t tan cons ) ( ) ( +

Therefore Von Mises criterion can be stated as

2

0

2

1 3

2

3 2

2

2 1

2 ) ( ) ( ) ( + +

2

0

x

2

z z

2

y y

2

x

2

x z

2

z y

2

y x

2 ) T T T ( ) ( ) ( ) ( + + + + +

i) For plane stress:

0

2

ii) For plane strain:

2

3 1

2

+

iii) For pure shear stress condition:

k 0 k

3 2 1

2

0

2

1

3 2

3 2

2

2 1

2 ) ) ( ) ( + +

2

0

2

0 0

2

0

2

0

2 ) k k ( ) k 0 ( ) 0 k ( + +

2

y

2

0

2 k

3

k

y

= 0.557

0

This is the relationship between shear yield strength and tensile yield strength of the material as per Von

Mises criterion.

27

2

0

5 . 0 k Tresca criterion

0 0

577 . 0 k

Von Mises criterion.

Von Mises criterion satisfy the experimental data better than Tresca and therefore

3

k

y

value is

normally used.

Advantages of Von Mises criterion

1. It overcomes major deficiency of Tresca criterion. Von Mises criterion implies that yielding is not

dependent on any particular normal stress but instead, depends on all three principal shearing

stresses.

2. Von Mises criterion conforms the experimental data better than Tresca and therefore more

realistic.

3. Since it involves squared terms, the result is independent of sign of individual stresses. This is an

important since it is not necessary to know which is the largest and the smallest principal stress in

order to use this criterion.

Von Mises yield criteria:

[ ]

2

0

zx

2

yz

2

xy

2 2

x z

2

z y

2

y x

2 ) ( 6 ) ( ) ( ) ( + + + + + T T T

Effective stress

With the yield criterion, it is useful to define an effective stress denoted as which is function of the

applies stresses. If the magnitude of reaches a critical value, then the applied stress will cause

yielding.

For Von Mises criterion

[ ]

2 / 1

2

1 3

2

3 2

2

2 1

) ( ) ( ) (

2

1

+ +

For Tresca criterion

3 1

28

0

. For both the criteria.

k 3 . Von Mises

k 2

Tresca

Plane stress condition Plane strain condition

1. In plane stress condition, there is no stress

in third direction.

But there is strain in third direction. Two

principal stresses

1. In plane strain condition, the strain

in third direction is absent.

[ ] ) (

E

1

1 3 2 2

+

2

(

)

3 1

+

Near yield point and in plastic zone

2

1

(For plastic defo)

,

_

+

2

3 1

2

( )

2

xy

2

y x y x

1

T

2 2

+

,

_

+

+

+

( )

2

xy

2

y x y x

2

T

2

)

2

+

,

_

+

[ ] ) (

E

1

2 1 1

[ ] ) (

E

1

1 2 2

[ ] ) ( 0

E

1

2 1 3

+

Plane strain condition

In majority of metal forming operations the problem can be simplified by assuming a condition of plane

strain is one. One of the principal strains is zero.

[ ] ) (

E

1

3 2 1 1

+

[ ] ) (

E

1

3 1 2 2

+

29

[ ] ) (

E

1

2 1 3 3

+

let

) ( 0

3 1 2 2

+

for plastic region, Nadai has shown that 5 . 0

,

_

+

2

3 1

2

Thus, for Tresca criterion:

3

3 1

1

,

2

,

+

0 3 1

Von Mises criterion in plane strain:

2

0

2

1 3

2

3

3 1

2

3 1

1

2 ) (

2 2

+

,

_

+

+

,

_

+

( )

2

0

2

3 1

2 .

2

3

,

_

'

0 0

2

3 1

3

2

)

0

'

0

155 . 1 = constrained yield strength of the material.

30

Yield criterion

Maximum shear stress Maximum distortion

Criterion (Tresca) energy criterion (Von Misces)

Plane Plane Pure

Stress Strain Shear

2 min 2

, 0

2

2 1

+

0 k

2 3 1

ve .....

3 0 1

0 3 1

0 3 1

+

ve

3 0 3 1

+ 2 k =

0

k =

2

0

2

0 3 1

2

3

2

1

+

2

3

1

2

+

0

3

1

k

0 3 1

3

2

Tresca criterion Von Mises yield criterion

1. This criterion is also known as

maximum shear stress criterion and

attributes yielding to slip

phenomenon which occurs when

maximum shear stress exceeds a

value, characteristic to the material.

Mathematically it can be stated as

0 3 1

1. Van Mises criterion is also known as

distortion energy yield criterion. It states

that yielding occurs when deformation

energy per unit volume of material

exceeds certain value which is

characteristic of the material.

Mathematically, it can be stated as

31

where 3 2 , 1

,

are principal

stresses, and

.

3 2 1

> >

2. Phenomenon of slip is limited to

ductile materials and hence

application of this criterion is limited

to ductile materials. This criterion do

not yield good results for brittle

materials.

3. Tresca criterion ignores the effect of

intermediate principal stress and this

is a major draw back of this.

[

]

2 / 1 2

1 3

2

3 2

2

2 1 0

) (

) ( ) (

2

1

+

+

Or

]

2 / 1

zx

2

yz

2

xy

2

2

x z

) (

) (

2

)

z

y

(

2

)

2

)

y

x

(

2

1

0

+ +

+ +

+

2. The application of this yield criterion

holds good for both ductile and brittle

materials.

3. Von Mises criterion take into considera

tion the intermediate principal stress and

hence move realistic. The predications

offered by Von Mises criterion conforms

empirical data.

4.

5. Locus shown in Figure.

It is Hexagonal.

4. The yield stress predicted by Von Mises

criterion is 15. 5% greater than the yield

stress predicted by Tresca criterion.

5. . Locus shown in Figure.

It is Elliptical.

32

Superimposed

6. Tresca criterion is preferred in

analysis for simplicity.

6. Von Mises criterion is preferred where

more accuracy is desired.

Locus of yield as per Tresca criterion

Biaxial stress condition is assumed to present locus of yield point on plane paper.

0 , ,

2 3 1

yielding will occur if the point plotted is on the boundary or outside.

33

Fig. 11 : Tresca yield locus. In the six sectors, the following conditions apply:

I

Y so , 0

3 1 3

+ > >

II

Y so , 0

3 1 3

+ > >

III

Y so , 0

3 1 3 1

+ > >

IV

Y so , 0 0

3 3 1

> > >

V

Y so , 0

1 1 3

> >

VI

Y so , 0

1 3 1 3

+ > >

Locus of yield as per Von Mises criterion

1. For a biaxial plane stress condition

) 0 (

2

the Von Mises criterion can be expressed

mathematically,

2

0 3 1

2

3

2

1

+

This the equation of an ellipse whose major semiaxis is

0

2 and whose minor semiaxis is

.

3

2

0

The plot of equation is called a yield locus.

34

Fig. 12

\Comments

1. Yielding will occur if the point representing the given stress is plotted and is on the boundary or

outside the boundary.

2. The yield locus of maximum shear stress criterion [Tresca criterion] fall inside the maximum

distortion energy criterion [Von Mises] yield locus.

3. Two yield criteria predict the same yield stress for conditions of uniaxial stress and balanced

biaxial stress

). (

3 1

The greatest divergence between the two criteria occurs for pure shear

). (

3 1

4. The yield stress predicted by the Von Mises criterion is 15.5% greater than the yield stress,

predicted by Tresca criterion.

Derive a mathematical expression for Von Mises yield criterion applicable to plane strain stress

condition:

Solution:

Von Mises yield criterion is stated as

2

0

2

1 3

2

3 2

2

2 1

2 ) ( ) ( ) ( + +

where

3 2 1

, ,

are three principal stresses and

0

stress condition, the intermediate principal stress is arithmetic mean of other two. Assuming

,

3 2 1

> >

we can write

2

3 1

2

+

substituting the value of

2

in the above expression

( )

2

0

2

1 3

2

3

3 1

2

3 1

1

2

2 2

+

,

_

+

+

,

_

+

2

0

2

1 3

2

3 1

2

3 1

2

1

) (

4

) (

4

) (

+

+

35

2

0

2

3 1

2

4

) (

2

0

2

3 1

6 / 8 ) (

'

0 0 3 1

3

2

'

0

is called constrained strength of material and is 115 times the yield strength under uniaxial tensile

test.

PROBLEM

A stress analysis of a space craft structural member gives the state of stress as below:

1

1

1

]

1

50 0 0

0 100 30

0 30 200

T

ij

If the part is made of aluminium alloy with strength 500 MPa, will it exhibit yielding as per Tresca yield

criterion and von Mises yield criterion? If not, what is the safety factor?

Data given:

MPa 200

x

MPa 100

y

MPa 50

z

MPa 30 T

y x

(1) Applying von Mises criterion

( ) ( ) ( )

2 / 1

2

x

2

z z

2

y y

2

x

2

x z

2

z y

2

y x c

T T T 6

2

1

1

1

]

1

,

_

+ + + +

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

2 / 1

2

2 2 2 2 2

c

0 0 30 6 200 50 50 100 100 200

2

1

1

]

1

+ + + + + +

MPa 224

c

The calculated stress (

c

) (

0

per von Mises criterion

36

Factor of safety =

MPa 224

MPa 500

c

0

= 2.2

(ii) Applying Tresca Criterion

In order to apply this criterion, it is necessary to know the magnitude and sign of three principal

stresses stress situation can be written in matrix form.

1

1

1

]

1

1

1

1

]

1

50 0 0

0 100 30

0 30 200

T T

T T

T T

T

z zy zx

yz y yx

xz xy x

ij

10

5 0 0

0 10 3

0 3 20

1

1

1

]

1

0

5 0 0

0 10 3

0 3 20

I

1

=

25 5 10 20

z y x

+ + +

y xy

xy x

2

T

T

I

+

z yz

yz y

T

T

+

z xz

xz x

T

T

= 191 50 100

I

2

= 41

ij 3

T I

0 10

10 3

0

5 0

0 3

3

5 0

0 10

20 +

= 1000 + 45

I

3

= 955

0 I I I ) ( f

3 2

2

1

3

+

37

0 955 41 25

2 3

+ +

Applying standard method to get cubic roots,

0 955 41 25 ) ( f

2 3

+ +

f(y) = y

3

+ py

2

+ qy + r = 0

p = 25

q = 41

r = 955

a =

( ) ( ) 625 41 3

3

1

p q 3

3

1

2

a = 167.3

b =

[ ] r 27 pq 9 p 2

27

1

3

+

=

[ ] ) 955 ( 27 ) 41 ( ) 25 ( 9 ) 25 ( 2

27

1

3

+

b = 139.25

Cos =

3 3

3

3 . 167

2

25 . 139

3

a

2

b

,

_

,

_

= 99.62

0

100

g = 2

,

_

3

a

g = 14.94

y

1

=

3

25

3

62 . 99

cos 94 . 14

3

P

3

cos g +

,

_

,

_

y

1

= 20.83

38

y

2

=

3

25

120

3

62 . 99

cos 94 . 14

3

P

120

3

cos g +

,

_

+

,

_

y

1

= 5

y

3

=

3

25

240

3

62 . 99

cos 94 . 14

3

P

249

3

cos g +

,

_

+

,

_

y

3

= 9.16

1

2

1

>

2

>

3

= 5 10 = 50 MPa

To apply Tresca criterion;

T

max

= MPa 15 . 129

2

) 50 ( 3 . 208

2

3 1

T

max

< MPa 250

2

0

Factor of safety =

94 . 1

15 . 129

250

T

2 /

max

0

PROBLEM

1. A thin walled tube with closed ends is to be subjected to maximum internal stress pressure of 0.35

N/mm

2

in service. The mean radius of the tube is to be 304.8 mm and it is not to yield in any

region.

a. If the material has

0

= 7 N/mm

2

, what minimum thickness t should be specified according to

Tresca and von Mises criterion.

b. If the shear yield strength K , were specified as 2.8 N/mm

2

, find t.

39

Soln:

a.

1

=

t 2

pr

hoop stress

2

=

t 2

pr

axial stress

3

= 0 radial stress

Using Tresca criterion

0 3 1

0

t

pr

7

t

8 . 304 35 . 0

t = 15.24 mm

Using von Mises criterion

2

1

2

2

0

2

1 3

2

3 2

2

2 1

2 ) ( ) ( ) ( + +

( )

2

0

2

1

2

1

2

1

1

2 0 0

2 2

+

,

_

,

_

2

0

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

4 4

+

2

0

2

1

2

4

6

0 1

3

2

60

3

2

t

r p

7

3

2

t

8 . 304 35 . 0

40

t = 13.19 mm

when 0

is the specified property and t is the unknown, the Tresca criterion is more

conservative.

b. K = 2.8 N/mm

2

Using Tresca criterion

3 1

= 2K

K 2

t

pr

8 . 2 2

t

8 . 304 35 . 0

t = 19.05 mm

Using von Mises criterion

2 2

1 3

2

3 2

2

2 1

K 6 ) ( ) ( ) ( + +

2

2

1

K 6

4

6

K 2

1

K 2

t

r p

8 . 2 2

t

8 . 304 35 . 0

t = 19.05 mm

NOTE:

When K is the specified property, both criteria predict the same value for t.

2. Consider the same problem as above except that t is specified as being 25.4 mm and the values of

0

a. Determine the value of

0

to prevent yielding.

41

b. Determine the value of K to prevent yielding.

a. Tresca criterion:

0 3 1

0

t

pr

'

0 ;

t

pr

;

t

pr

3 2 1

0

4 . 25

8 . 304 35 . 0

= 4.2 N/mm

2

von Mises criterion

0 1

3

2

4 . 25

8 . 304 35 . 0

2

3

2

2

3

1 0

2

0

mm / N 64 . 3

b.

K 2

1

K =

2

2 . 4

K = 2.1 N/mm

2

2

2

1

K 6

4

6

K 2

1

K = 2.1 N/mm

2

****************

42

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