Sei sulla pagina 1di 42

# 1

## 2.STRESS STRAINS AND YIELD CRITERIA

Stress Strain Relations
Fig. 1
A
0
= Original cross section of the specimen.
L
0
= Original gauge length.
A
i
= instantaneous cross section of the specimen.
L
i
= instantaneous length of specimen after extension
2
Fig. 2: StressStrain Diagram.
P = Proportionality limit E = Elasticity limit Y = Yield point
N = Necking Point F = Fracture Point
Fig. 3
3
Fig. 4
4
i. Engineering
Stress
0
A
Fi
S
F
i
Engineering strain =

,
_

0
0
0
L
L L
specimen of length Original
length in Change
L
L
ii. True stress
Ai
Fi

and
True strain

,
_

o
i
i
L
0
L
L
L
log
L
dL
True stress is defined as load divided by actual cross sectional area (not original cross sectional area
A
0
Ai
Fi

Similarly, true strain is based on the instantaneous specimen length rather than original length. As such
true strain (or incremental strain) is defined as

L
dL
d
Where L is length at load F and is the true strain.
The true strain at load F is then obtained by summing all the increments of equation.
Arithmetically, this can be written as
n
n
L
dL
L
dL
L
dL
L
dL
L
dL
d + + + + +

......
3
3
2
2
1
1
0
0

0
1
1
L
0
L
L
L
log
L
dL

True strain is the sum of each incremental elongation divided by the current length of specimen, where
L
0
is original gauge length and L
i
is the gauge length corresponding to load F
i
. The most important
characteristics of truestress strain diagram is that true stress increases all the way to fracture. Thus true
fracture strength

f
is greater than the true ultimate strength

u
in contrast with engineering stress
where fracture strength is lesser than ultimate strength.
5
Relationship between true and engineering stress strains
From volume constancy, V = A
0
L
0
= A
i
L
i

i
i
A
A
L
L
0
0

e =

,
_

1
L
L
L
L L
0
i
0
0 i

) e 1 (
L
L
0
i
+

0
i
i
0
0
i
i
i
L
L
S
A
A
A
F
A
F

) e 1 ( S +

+
i
L
0
L
0
i
) e 1 ( log
L
L
log
L
dL

) e 1 ( log +
Problems with Engineering StressStrains
1. Engineering stressstrain diagram does not give true and accurate picture of deformation
characteristics of the material because it takes original cross sectional area for all calculations
though it reduces continuously after yield point in extension and markedly after necking. Thats
why we get fracture strength of a material less than its ultimate tensile strength is S
u
> S
f
which is
not true.
2. Total engineering strain is not equal to sum of incremental strains which defies the logic.
6
Let us have a specimen with length of 50 mm which then is extended to 66.55 in three steps
Length before extension (L
0
) Length after extension
L
E =
0
L
L
0 50 50
1 50 55 5 5/50 = 0.1
2 55 60.5 5.5 5.5/55 = 0.1
3 60.5 66.55 6.05 6.05/60.5 = 0.1
Sum of incremental strain =
1 . 0 1 . 0 1 . 0
5 . 60
05 . 6
55
5 . 5
50
5
+ + + +
=0.3
Now we will calculate total strain considering original and final length after of extension L
3
= 66.55
Total engineering strain when extended =
331 . 0
50
50 55 . 66
L
L L
0
0 3

## the specimen in one step

The result is that summation of incremental engineering strain is NOT equal to total engineering strain.
Now same procedure is applied to true strain-

3 2 2 1 1 0
+ +
=

,
_

+ +
2
3
1
2
0
1
L
L
log
L
L
log
L
L
log
=
5 . 60
55 . 66
log
55
5 . 60
log
50
55
log + +
= 0.286
But total true strain equals to
286 . 0
50
55 . 66
log
L
L
log
0
3
3 . 0

In the case of true strains, sum of incremental strain is equal to the overall strain. Thus true strains are
additive. This is not true for engineering strains.
3.
7
Fig
L
0
= length before extension
L
1
= L
0
= length after extension
Strain e =
0
0 1
L
L L
0
0 1
L
L L
I

L
1
= 0
Fig
To obtain strain of 1 the cylinder must be squeezed to zero thickness which is only hypothetical and not
true. Moreover, intuitively we expect that strain produced in compression should be equal in magnitude
but opposite in sign.
Applying true strain formulation, to extension

2 log
L
L 2
log
L
L
log
0
0
0
1

To compression; L
1
= L
0
/2
2 log 2 / 1 log
L
2 / L
log
L
L
log
0
0
0
1

gives consistent results. Thus true strains for equivalent deformation in tension and comprehension are
identical except for the sign. Further unlike engineering strains, true strains are consistent with actual
phenomenon.
Problem:
8
The following data were obtained during the true strain test of nickel specimen.
kN
Diameter
mm
kN
Diameter
mm
0 6.40 15.88 5.11
15.30 6.35 15.57 5.08
15.92 6.22 14.90 4.83
16.32 6.10 14.01 4.57
16.5 5.97 13.12 4.32
16.55 5.84 12.45 3.78
A. Plot the true stress true strain curve:
B. Determine the following
1. True stress at maximum load.2.True fracture stress.3.True fracture strain.4.True uniform strain .
5. True necking strain. 6.Ultimate tensile strength.7. Strain hardening component.
1. True stress at max load =
A
P
max
=
2
3
84 . 5
4
10 55 . 16

= 617.77 MPa
2. True fracture stress =
min
A
P
=
22 . 11
10 45 . 12
3

= 1109 MPa
3. True fracture strain =
2
i
0
d
d
ln

,
_

=
2
78 . 3
4 . 6
ln
,
_

= 1.053
4. True uniform strain =
2
i
0
d
d
ln

,
_

=
2
84 . 5
4 . 6
ln
,
_

=0.183
5. True necking strain = true fracture strain
true uniform strain = 1.053 0.183 = 0.87
6. Ultimate tensile stress =
max
max
A
P
=
2
3
4 . 6
4
10 55 . 16

= 514 MPa
7. Now, n= log(1+e) = log (1.2) =0.183
9
KN
Diamete
r
mm
Area
mm
2
True stress
=
i
i
A
P
(N/mm
2
)
True strain =
2
i
0
d
d
ln

,
_

Engg. Stress
=
A
P
(N/mm
2
)
Engg. Strain
= 1
d
d
2
i
0

,
_

0 6.40 32.17 0 0
15.3 6.35 31.67 48.31 0.0156 475.59 0.0158
15.92 6.22 30.39 523.86 0.057 494.87 0.059
16.32 6.10 29.22 558.52 0.096 507.30 0.10
16.5 5.97 27.99 589.50 0.139 512.90 0.149
16.55 5.84 26,79 617.77 0.183 514.45 0.20
15.88 5.11 20.5 774.63 0.45 493.62 0.568
15.57 5.08 20.27 768.13 0.46 484.00 0.587
14.90 4.83 18.32 813.32 0.56 463.16 0.755
14.01 4.57 16.40 854.27 0.67 435.5 0.961
13.12 4.32 14.66 894.95 0.786 407.83 1.19
12.45 3.78 11.22 1109.63 1.053 387.00 1.866
Applications of Engineering Stress and Strains
Engineering stress and strain are useful for many engineering design applications. Computation of
stress and strain is based on initial area or gauge length and therefore engineering stress and strain
represent only approximations of the real stress and strain in plastic zone.
In elastic deformation region (where dimensional changes are small and negligible) the initial and
instantaneous areas are approximately same and hence true stress equals engineering stress. Therefore,
in design problems where large dimensional changes do not occur, the use of engineering stress is
sufficiently accurate and used extensively as it is easier to measure.
However, for metal working where large plastic deformations occur and are necessary, the
approximations inherent in engineering stress and strain values are unacceptable. For this reason, the
true stress and true strains are used.
Important advantages of true stressstrain curves:
1. It represents the actual and accurate stress and strain. True strain refers to a length from which that
change is produced rather than to original gauge length.The engineering stresse and strains
provides incorrect values after yield point i.e. plastic zone which a main zone of interest for metal
working.
2. True strains additive i.e. the total overall strain is equal to sum of incremental strains.
10
3. True strains for equivalent deformation in tension and compression are identical except in sign.
4. The volume change is related to the sum of the three normal true strains and with volume constancy.
5. True stress can be related to true strain.
n
) ( K
n
0
) ( +

0

= the amount of strain hardening that material received prior to the tension test.
6. Truestresstrue strain values are quite sensitive to change in both metallurgical and mechanical
conditions of matter.
Truestressstrain
Engineering
1. Actual values of gauge length and
cross sectional area is used in
calculating true stress and true strain.
i
i
A
F

i
L
0
L
L
dL
The sum of incremental strains is
equal to total strain
Unlike load elongation curve, there is
no maximum in the true strin curve.
The sloppe of the curve in the plastic
region decreases with increase in
strain
1. Original cross sectional areas (A
0
) is
used for calculating engineering stress.
S =
0
i
A
F
Further strain e =
0
0 i
L
L L
is used.
The sum of incremental strains is not
equal to total strain.
2.
The calculated values of stressstrain
are real and very useful in the plastic
region of the curve.
2. The nominal stress (s) defined for the
tensile test in terms of original cross
sectional area (A
0
) is not really stress
because the cross sectional area A
i
at
the instant of load measurement is less
than A
0
in the evaluation of s.
3. The metal working designers are
interested in plastic region where
difference between A
i
and A
0
is
significant. The true stressstrains
give accurate picture and hence it is
3. The structural designers are interested
in a region where strains are elastic
and difference between A
i
and A
0
is
negligibly small. But this is not true in
the plastic region and especially when
11
more useful to metal working designs. maximum load is reached.
4. It is not easy to obtain values of

from test since the force F
i
and cross
sectional area (A
i
) must be measured
simultaneously. True stress (

) is
important in metal working
calculation because of its
fundamental significance.
4. It is easy to obtain these values
through test and convenientless
costly. These values are widely
available and documented.
5. It is more consistent with the
phenomenon of metal deformation.
5. It is less consistent with physical
phenomenon of metal deformation.
Idealisation of stress strain curves
The solutions to the plasticity problems are quite complex. To obtain solution to these problems,
stress strain curves are idealized by [i] neglecting elastic strains and/or [ii] ignoring the effect work
hardening. Idealization and simplification restrict its field of application.
1. Elastic perfectly plastic
It considers elastic strains and neglects effects of work hardening; it yields more difficult constitutive
relations. As a consequence, it also leads to greater mathematical difficulties in practical applications.
It must be used for those processes in which elastic and plastic strains are of the same order. This is the
case in structural engineering or for bending.
2. Rigid, perfectly plastic
In most metal forming operations, the permanent strains are much longer than the elastic. One therefore
in air no great error by assuming the metal to behave as a rigid body prior to yielding. It is for this
reason that one mainly employs perfectly plastic material idealisation.
12
(a) Perfectly elastic, brittle (b) Perfectly rigid plastic
(c) Rigid, linear strain hardening (d) Elastic perfectly plastic
(e) Elastic linear strain hardening
Fig. 5
The flow curve
A true stressstrain curve is frequently called a flow curve because it gives the stress required to cause
the metal to flow physically to given strain.
The plastic region of a true stress strain curve for many materials has a general form in the form of
Holloman equation which is

n
) ( k
where: n is strain hardening exponent
13
k is strength constant
Fig. 6
In a tension test of stell, a specimen of circular cross section with original diameter 9 mm is used. The
loads applied were 22 kN and 28 kN which reduces its diameter to 8.6 mm and 8.3 mm respectively.
Determine (i) true stress and true strain for given loads (ii) strain hardening exponent and strength
coefficient.
Solution:

0
d
original diameter of specimen = 9 mm

1
d
diameter of specimen on application of load
kN 22 F
1

2
d
diameter of specimen on application of load
kN 28 F
2

2
2
3
2
1
1
1
mm / N 78 . 3
) 6 . 8 ( 4 /
) N ( 10 22
d 4 /
F

2
2
2
3
2
2
2
mm / N 5 . 517
d 4 /
10 28
) 3 . 8 ( 4 /
F
T

0
1
e
L
L
log strain true

1
L
Length after deformation

0
L
length before deformation
As volume of specimen remain constant,
1 1 0 0
L A L A
14

1
2
1
0
2
0
L d
4
L d
4

2
1
0
0
1
d
d
L
L

,
_

1
0
2
1
0
d
d
log 2
d
d
log

,
_

1
true strain for first extension
091 . 0
6 . 8
9
log 2

2
true strain for second extension

1619 . 0
3 . 8
9
log 2
d
d
log 2
1
0

Applying Hollomon equation,

n
1
1
K

n
2
2
K

n
1
2
1
2

,
_

or
1
2
1
2
log . n log

54 . 0
091 . 0
1619 . 0
log
378
5 . 517
log
log
1
log
n
1
2
2

## Substituting the value of n in equation (1)

54 . 0
) 091 . 0 ( k 378

2
mm / N 1385 K

strain hardening exponent (n) = 0.54
strength coefficient K = 1385
2
mm / N
15
with this information, Hollomon equation can be written as

54 . 0
) ( 1385
Both n and K are material properties: The strain hardening exponent physically reflects the rate at
which the material hardens. The derivative of this equation

.
d
n
d

,
_

In states that fractional change in true stress caused by a fractional change in true strain is determined by
the strain hardening exponent (n). Therefore, the stress increases rapidly with strain for a material that
has a large strain hardening exponent, such as
2
O 3
stainless steel (n = 0.3) compared to a material
where n is low such as 4.10 stainless steel (n = 0.1).
Plastic Instability
Necking or localised deformation begins at maximum load where decrease in cross sectional area
which hears the load is compensated by increase in strength due in load
dF = 0
Fig. 7

A . F
16

0 d A dA dF +

d
A
dA
From constancy of volume, V = A . L A= cross section of spearmen
L =
length of specimen
dV = 0 = A. dL + dA L

L
dL
A
dA

d
L
dl d

Problem
Prove that uniform strain is equal strain hardening exponent (n).
Solution:

d
d
17
Fig.
P = load at any instance
A = cross section of specimen.

n
) ( k . A A P (1)

A
A
log
o

A
A
e
0

e A A
0
(2)
Substituting value in equation (1)
n
0
) ( K e A P

] ) ( e [ A K P
n
0

At maximum load point on engg.
stress strain curve dP = 0

u

When true strain
0 ] e ) 1 ( ) ( N e [ A K dP
n
u
1 n
u 0
+

n
u
1 n
u
n

Problem 1:
Hollomon equation for a material is given as . ) ( 1400
33 . 0
Find the ultimate tensile strength of the
material.
Solution:
n
) ( k
n
u

18
Ultimate tensile strength of a material is measured at maximum load point and where necking begins.
Upto the necking point, deformation is uniform throughout its gauge length. It is a engineering stress
). S (
u
True strain for uniform elongation is equal to strain hardening exponent. Therefore
. n
u

Ultimate tensile strength =
u
u
u
1
S
+

] S ) e 1 ( [ +

) e 1 ( log
u e u
+

) e 1 (
u u
+
e = 2.71 (logarithmic base)

n
u
e e 1 +

n
n
n
u
n
n
u
n
u
u
e
n
K
e
K
e
. K
e
S

,
_

,
_

=
2
33 . 0
mm / N 1 . 698
71 . 2
33 . 0
1400

,
_

UTS = 698. 1
2
mm / N
This shows that ultimate strength of a material can be calculated from the value of K and n.
Problem 2:
A metal obeys Hollomon relationship and has a UTS of 300 MPa. To reach the maximum load requires
an elongation of 35%. Find strain hardening exponent (n) and strength coefficient (K).
Solution:
UTS = u
S
= 300 MPa = 300
2
mm / N
Engineering elongation strain = u
e
= 35% = 0.35
uniform true strain
+ ) e 1 ( log
u u log (1.35) = 0.3
19

) e 1 ( S
u u u
+
but
3 . 0 n
u

= 300 (1 + 0.35) = 405 . mm / N
2

n n
u u
) n ( k ) ( K

3 . 0
) 3 . 0 ( K 405

2
mm / N 2 . 581 K
Hollomon equation for given metal is
3 . 0
) ( 2 . 581
Deformation work
Work is defined as the product of force and distance. A quantity equivalent to work per unit volume is
the product of stress and strain. The area under the true stress strain curve for any strain
1
is the
energy per unit volume (u) or specific energy, of the deformed material.
Fig. 9

1
0
d u
The true stressstrain curve can be represented by the Hollomon equation . ) ( K
n

20

1
0
1 n
1
0
n
1 n
K
d . ) ( K u

+

similarly mean flow stress can be found

) 1 n (
K
) 1 n (
K
d . K
0
d
n
1
1
1 n
1
1
1
0
n
1
1
0
m
+

+

The work calculated according to above equation assumes that the deformation is homogeneous through
out the deforming part. This work is called ideal deformation work.
1 n
K
u
1 n
1
+

+
1 n
K
n
1
m
+

21
Example: Ideal work of deformation
Deformation of fully annealed AA1100 aluminium is governed by the Hollomon equation. If a 10 cm
long bar of this material is pulled in tension from a diameter of 12.7 mm to a diameter of 11.5, calculate
the following:
a. the ideal work per unit volume of aluminium required;
b. the mean stress in the aluminium during deformation;
c. the peak stress applied to the aluminium.

2 25 . 0
mm / N ) ( 140
Solutions
a. Calculate total strain during deformation

d
d
ln 2
A
A
ln
0 0

199 . 0
5 . 11
7 . 12
ln 2
Calculate the total volume of bar

3 5
2 2
m 10 26 . 1 m 1 . 0
4
m 0127 . 0 (
l
4
d
V

For AA1100, K = 140 MPa and n = 0.25. Note that, as
, n <
the deformation is homogeneous

V
1 n
K W
1 n
1
i

+

+
) J ( N 5 . 187 m 10 26 . 1
25 . 1
199 . 0
m
N
10 140
3 5
25 . 1
6
6

(b) Mean stress during deformation

1 n
K
n
1
m
+

MPa 8 . 74
25 . 1
199 . 0
MPa 140
25 . 0

(c) Peak (maximum) stress applied, from Hollomon equation

MPa 5 . 93 199 . 0 MPa 140 K
25 . 0 n
1
1

22
Yield Criterion
Yield point under simplified condition of uniaxial tension is widely known and documented. But such
simplified conditions [1 Pure uniaxial tension 2 Pure shear] are rare in reality. In many situations
complex and multiaxial stresses are present and in this situation it is necessary to know when a material
will yield. Mathematically and empirically, the relationships between the yield point under uniaxial
tensile test and yield strength under complex situations have been found out. These relationships are
known as yield criteria. Thus yield criterion is defined as mathematical and empirically derived
relationship between yield strength under uniaxial tensile load and yielding under multiaxial complex
stress situation.
Yield Criterion is a law defining the limit of elastic behaviour under any possible combination of
stresses is called yield criterion. Yield criterion is a mathematical expression which unites experimental
observations with mathematical expressions n a phenomenological manner. Yield criteria is primarily
used to predict if or when yielding
will occur under combined stress states in terms of particular properties of the metal being stressed [
] K ,
0

.
Any yield criterion is a postulated mathematical expression of the stress that will induce yielding or the
onset of plastic deformation. The most general form is
) T , T , T , z y x
zx yz xy
, , ( f
= a constant.
or in terms of principal stresses
f(
) , , ( f
3 2 1

= C
For most ductile metals that are isotropic, the following assumptions are invoked:
1. There is no Bauschinger effect, thus the yield strengths in tension and compression are equivalent.
Bauschinger effect
23
The lowering of yield stress for a material when deformation in one direction is followed by deformation
in the opposite direction, is called Bauschinger effect.
Fig. 10
2. The constancy of volume prevails so that plastic equivalent of poisons ratio 0.5.
3. The magnitude of the mean normal stress
3
3 2 1
m
+ +
does not cause yielding. The
assumption that yielding is independent of
m
(also called hydrostatic component of the total state
of stress) is reasonable if plastic flow depends upon shear mechanism such as slip or twinning. In
this context, yield criterion is written as
F[(
1

2
), (
2

3
), (
3

1
)] = C
which implies that yielding depends upon the size of the Mohrs circle and not their position. It is
shown that if a stress state (
1
,
2
,
3
) will cause yielding, an equivalent stress state
) , , (
3 2 1

## will cause yielding, if,

Two widely used yield criterion:
1. Tresca criterion or maximum shear stress criterion.
2. Von Mises criterion or distortion energy criterion.
1. Tresca criterion
Tresca found that plastic flow in a metal begins when tangential stress attains a value.
24
Assume that a body is subjected to triaxial stresses.
3 2 1
, ,
are principal stresses and
3 2 1
> >
(algebraically).
Then maximum shear stress
2
T
3 1
max

when
max
T
exceeds a certain value c, specific to that material, yielding will occur. To find the value
of c, the material is subjected to uniaxial tensile test and find out yield point strength
). (
0

## For uniaxial tensile test, stress situation is

0 ,
3 2 0 1

c
2 2
T
0 3 1
max

2 2
0 3 1

or
0 3 1

ii) Material is subjected to pure shear:
k
1
0
2
k
3

k = shear strength of the material
0 3 1

0
k k +

0
0
5 . 0
2
k

Application:
i) Plain stress condition. xy , y x
T ,
2
xy
2
y x y x
1
) T (
2 2
+

,
_

+
+
+

25
2
xy
2
y x y x
2
) T (
2 2
+

,
_

+

0 1

when
0
3
>
0 3 1
+
when
0
3
<
ii) Plain strain condition
0
3
) ( 2
2 1 2
+
0 3 1

2
3 1
2
+

Shortcomings
1. An essential short coming of this criterion is that it ignore the effect of intermediate principal stress
). (
2

2. Since pastic flow depends upon slip phenomenon which is essentially a shearing. Slip is
practically absent in brittle materials. Therefore application of this criterion is limited to ductile
materials. This criterion is not applicable to crystalline brittle material which cannot be brought
into plastic state under tension but yield a little before compress fracture in compression.
3. Failure of/ yielding of a material under triaxial pure tension condition where
3 2 1

can not
be explained by this criterion.
4. It suffers from a major difficulty that it is necessary to know in advance which are maximum and
minimum stresses.
5. Moreover, the general form of this criterion is far more complicated than the Von Mises criterion.
Therefore Von Mises criterion is preferred in most theoretical (not practical) work.
For sake of simplicity, in analysis, this criterion is widely used in practice.
26
Von Mises Criterion
According to this criterion, yielding will occur when shear strain energy per unit volume reaches a
critical value. The shear strain energy per unit volume is expressed terms of three principal stresses:
[ ]
2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 1
) ( ) ( ) (
G
1
e + +

## G = modulus of shear which is a constant.

2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 1
) ( ) ( ) ( + +
= Constant.
(i) For uniaxial tensile test, yielding will occur when
0 ;
3 2 0 1

2
0
2
y
2
y
2 t tan cons ) ( ) ( +
Therefore Von Mises criterion can be stated as
2
0
2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 1
2 ) ( ) ( ) ( + +
2
0
x
2
z z
2
y y
2
x
2
x z
2
z y
2
y x
2 ) T T T ( ) ( ) ( ) ( + + + + +
i) For plane stress:
0
2

ii) For plane strain:
2
3 1
2
+

iii) For pure shear stress condition:
k 0 k
3 2 1

2
0
2
1
3 2
3 2
2
2 1
2 ) ) ( ) ( + +
2
0
2
0 0
2
0
2
0
2 ) k k ( ) k 0 ( ) 0 k ( + +

2
y
2
0
2 k

3
k
y

= 0.557
0

This is the relationship between shear yield strength and tensile yield strength of the material as per Von
Mises criterion.
27

2
0
5 . 0 k Tresca criterion
0 0
577 . 0 k
Von Mises criterion.
Von Mises criterion satisfy the experimental data better than Tresca and therefore
3
k
y

value is
normally used.
1. It overcomes major deficiency of Tresca criterion. Von Mises criterion implies that yielding is not
dependent on any particular normal stress but instead, depends on all three principal shearing
stresses.
2. Von Mises criterion conforms the experimental data better than Tresca and therefore more
realistic.
3. Since it involves squared terms, the result is independent of sign of individual stresses. This is an
important since it is not necessary to know which is the largest and the smallest principal stress in
order to use this criterion.
Von Mises yield criteria:
[ ]
2
0
zx
2
yz
2
xy
2 2
x z
2
z y
2
y x
2 ) ( 6 ) ( ) ( ) ( + + + + + T T T
Effective stress
With the yield criterion, it is useful to define an effective stress denoted as which is function of the
applies stresses. If the magnitude of reaches a critical value, then the applied stress will cause
yielding.
For Von Mises criterion

[ ]
2 / 1
2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 1
) ( ) ( ) (
2
1
+ +
For Tresca criterion
3 1

28
0

. For both the criteria.
k 3 . Von Mises
k 2
Tresca
Plane stress condition Plane strain condition
1. In plane stress condition, there is no stress
in third direction.
But there is strain in third direction. Two
principal stresses
1. In plane strain condition, the strain
in third direction is absent.

[ ] ) (
E
1
1 3 2 2
+

2

(
)
3 1
+
Near yield point and in plastic zone

2
1

(For plastic defo)

,
_

+

2
3 1
2
( )
2
xy
2
y x y x
1
T
2 2
+

,
_

+
+
+

( )
2
xy
2
y x y x
2
T
2
)
2
+

,
_

+

[ ] ) (
E
1
2 1 1

[ ] ) (
E
1
1 2 2

[ ] ) ( 0
E
1
2 1 3
+
Plane strain condition
In majority of metal forming operations the problem can be simplified by assuming a condition of plane
strain is one. One of the principal strains is zero.

[ ] ) (
E
1
3 2 1 1
+
[ ] ) (
E
1
3 1 2 2
+
29

[ ] ) (
E
1
2 1 3 3
+
let
) ( 0
3 1 2 2
+
for plastic region, Nadai has shown that 5 . 0

,
_

+

2
3 1
2
Thus, for Tresca criterion:
3
3 1
1
,
2
,
+

0 3 1

Von Mises criterion in plane strain:

2
0
2
1 3
2
3
3 1
2
3 1
1
2 ) (
2 2
+
,
_

+
+
,
_

+

( )
2
0
2
3 1
2 .
2
3

,
_

'
0 0
2
3 1
3
2
)
0
'
0
155 . 1 = constrained yield strength of the material.
30
Yield criterion
Maximum shear stress Maximum distortion
Criterion (Tresca) energy criterion (Von Misces)
Plane Plane Pure
Stress Strain Shear
2 min 2
, 0
2
2 1
+

0 k
2 3 1

ve .....
3 0 1

0 3 1

0 3 1
+
ve
3 0 3 1
+ 2 k =
0

k =
2
0

## Plane stress Plane strain Pure Shear

2
0 3 1
2
3
2
1
+
2
3
1
2
+

0
3
1
k

0 3 1
3
2

Tresca criterion Von Mises yield criterion
1. This criterion is also known as
maximum shear stress criterion and
attributes yielding to slip
phenomenon which occurs when
maximum shear stress exceeds a
value, characteristic to the material.
Mathematically it can be stated as

0 3 1

1. Van Mises criterion is also known as
distortion energy yield criterion. It states
that yielding occurs when deformation
energy per unit volume of material
exceeds certain value which is
characteristic of the material.
Mathematically, it can be stated as
31
where 3 2 , 1
,
are principal
stresses, and
.
3 2 1
> >
2. Phenomenon of slip is limited to
ductile materials and hence
application of this criterion is limited
to ductile materials. This criterion do
not yield good results for brittle
materials.
3. Tresca criterion ignores the effect of
intermediate principal stress and this
is a major draw back of this.

[
]
2 / 1 2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 1 0
) (
) ( ) (
2
1
+
+

Or
]
2 / 1
zx
2
yz
2
xy
2
2
x z
) (
) (
2
)
z

y
(
2
)
2
)
y

x
(
2
1
0

+ +
+ +

+

2. The application of this yield criterion
holds good for both ductile and brittle
materials.
3. Von Mises criterion take into considera
tion the intermediate principal stress and
hence move realistic. The predications
offered by Von Mises criterion conforms
empirical data.
4.
5. Locus shown in Figure.
It is Hexagonal.
4. The yield stress predicted by Von Mises
criterion is 15. 5% greater than the yield
stress predicted by Tresca criterion.
5. . Locus shown in Figure.
It is Elliptical.
32

Superimposed
6. Tresca criterion is preferred in
analysis for simplicity.
6. Von Mises criterion is preferred where
more accuracy is desired.

Locus of yield as per Tresca criterion
Biaxial stress condition is assumed to present locus of yield point on plane paper.
0 , ,
2 3 1

yielding will occur if the point plotted is on the boundary or outside.
33
Fig. 11 : Tresca yield locus. In the six sectors, the following conditions apply:
I
Y so , 0
3 1 3
+ > >
II
Y so , 0
3 1 3
+ > >
III
Y so , 0
3 1 3 1
+ > >
IV
Y so , 0 0
3 3 1
> > >
V
Y so , 0
1 1 3
> >
VI
Y so , 0
1 3 1 3
+ > >
Locus of yield as per Von Mises criterion
1. For a biaxial plane stress condition
) 0 (
2

the Von Mises criterion can be expressed
mathematically,
2
0 3 1
2
3
2
1
+
This the equation of an ellipse whose major semiaxis is
0
2 and whose minor semiaxis is
.
3
2
0
The plot of equation is called a yield locus.
34
Fig. 12
1. Yielding will occur if the point representing the given stress is plotted and is on the boundary or
outside the boundary.
2. The yield locus of maximum shear stress criterion [Tresca criterion] fall inside the maximum
distortion energy criterion [Von Mises] yield locus.
3. Two yield criteria predict the same yield stress for conditions of uniaxial stress and balanced
biaxial stress
). (
3 1

The greatest divergence between the two criteria occurs for pure shear
). (
3 1

4. The yield stress predicted by the Von Mises criterion is 15.5% greater than the yield stress,
predicted by Tresca criterion.
Derive a mathematical expression for Von Mises yield criterion applicable to plane strain stress
condition:
Solution:
Von Mises yield criterion is stated as

2
0
2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 1
2 ) ( ) ( ) ( + +
where
3 2 1
, ,
are three principal stresses and
0

## is the yield strength of material. In plane strain

stress condition, the intermediate principal stress is arithmetic mean of other two. Assuming
,
3 2 1
> >
we can write

2
3 1
2
+

substituting the value of
2
in the above expression
( )
2
0
2
1 3
2
3
3 1
2
3 1
1
2
2 2
+
,
_

+
+
,
_

+

2
0
2
1 3
2
3 1
2
3 1
2
1
) (
4
) (
4
) (

+

+

35
2
0
2
3 1
2
4
) (

2
0
2
3 1
6 / 8 ) (
'
0 0 3 1
3
2

'
0
is called constrained strength of material and is 115 times the yield strength under uniaxial tensile
test.
PROBLEM
A stress analysis of a space craft structural member gives the state of stress as below:

1
1
1
]
1

50 0 0
0 100 30
0 30 200
T
ij
If the part is made of aluminium alloy with strength 500 MPa, will it exhibit yielding as per Tresca yield
criterion and von Mises yield criterion? If not, what is the safety factor?
Data given:
MPa 200
x

MPa 100
y

MPa 50
z

MPa 30 T
y x

(1) Applying von Mises criterion

( ) ( ) ( )
2 / 1
2
x
2
z z
2
y y
2
x
2
x z
2
z y
2
y x c
T T T 6
2
1
1
1
]
1

,
_

+ + + +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 / 1
2
2 2 2 2 2
c
0 0 30 6 200 50 50 100 100 200
2
1
1
]
1

+ + + + + +

MPa 224
c

The calculated stress (
c

) (
0

## , yielding will not occur as

per von Mises criterion
36
Factor of safety =
MPa 224
MPa 500
c
0

= 2.2
(ii) Applying Tresca Criterion
In order to apply this criterion, it is necessary to know the magnitude and sign of three principal
stresses stress situation can be written in matrix form.

1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
]
1

50 0 0
0 100 30
0 30 200
T T
T T
T T
T
z zy zx
yz y yx
xz xy x
ij

10
5 0 0
0 10 3
0 3 20

1
1
1
]
1

## To find the principal stresses

0
5 0 0
0 10 3
0 3 20

I
1
=
25 5 10 20
z y x
+ + +
y xy
xy x
2
T
T
I

+
z yz
yz y
T
T

+
z xz
xz x
T
T

= 191 50 100
I
2
= 41
ij 3
T I

0 10
10 3
0
5 0
0 3
3
5 0
0 10
20 +

= 1000 + 45
I
3
= 955
0 I I I ) ( f
3 2
2
1
3
+
37
0 955 41 25
2 3
+ +
Applying standard method to get cubic roots,
0 955 41 25 ) ( f
2 3
+ +
f(y) = y
3
+ py
2
+ qy + r = 0
p = 25
q = 41
r = 955
a =
( ) ( ) 625 41 3
3
1
p q 3
3
1
2

a = 167.3
b =
[ ] r 27 pq 9 p 2
27
1
3
+
=
[ ] ) 955 ( 27 ) 41 ( ) 25 ( 9 ) 25 ( 2
27
1
3
+
b = 139.25
Cos =
3 3
3
3 . 167
2
25 . 139
3
a
2
b

,
_

,
_

= 99.62
0

100
g = 2
,
_

3
a
g = 14.94
y
1
=
3
25
3
62 . 99
cos 94 . 14
3
P
3
cos g +
,
_

,
_

y
1
= 20.83
38
y
2
=
3
25
120
3
62 . 99
cos 94 . 14
3
P
120
3
cos g +
,
_

+
,
_

y
1
= 5
y
3
=
3
25
240
3
62 . 99
cos 94 . 14
3
P
249
3
cos g +
,
_

+
,
_

y
3
= 9.16
1

2

## = 9.16 10 = 91.6 MPa ordered in such a way that

1

>
2

>

3
= 5 10 = 50 MPa
To apply Tresca criterion;
T
max
= MPa 15 . 129
2
) 50 ( 3 . 208
2
3 1

T
max
< MPa 250
2
0

## Hence, yielding will not occur as per Tresca criterion

Factor of safety =
94 . 1
15 . 129
250
T
2 /
max
0

PROBLEM
1. A thin walled tube with closed ends is to be subjected to maximum internal stress pressure of 0.35
N/mm
2
in service. The mean radius of the tube is to be 304.8 mm and it is not to yield in any
region.
a. If the material has
0

= 7 N/mm
2
, what minimum thickness t should be specified according to
Tresca and von Mises criterion.
b. If the shear yield strength K , were specified as 2.8 N/mm
2
, find t.
39
Soln:
a.
1

=
t 2
pr
hoop stress

2

=
t 2
pr
axial stress

3
Using Tresca criterion

0 3 1

0
t
pr

7
t
8 . 304 35 . 0

t = 15.24 mm
Using von Mises criterion
2
1
2

2
0
2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 1
2 ) ( ) ( ) ( + +
( )
2
0
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2 0 0
2 2
+

,
_

,
_

2
0
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
4 4
+

2
0
2
1
2
4
6

0 1
3
2

60
3
2
t
r p

7
3
2
t
8 . 304 35 . 0

40
t = 13.19 mm
when 0

is the specified property and t is the unknown, the Tresca criterion is more
conservative.
b. K = 2.8 N/mm
2
Using Tresca criterion

3 1

= 2K
K 2
t
pr

8 . 2 2
t
8 . 304 35 . 0

t = 19.05 mm
Using von Mises criterion

2 2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 1
K 6 ) ( ) ( ) ( + +
2
2
1
K 6
4
6

K 2
1

K 2
t
r p

8 . 2 2
t
8 . 304 35 . 0

t = 19.05 mm
NOTE:
When K is the specified property, both criteria predict the same value for t.
2. Consider the same problem as above except that t is specified as being 25.4 mm and the values of
0

## and K are unknown using both yield criteria.

a. Determine the value of
0

to prevent yielding.
41
b. Determine the value of K to prevent yielding.
a. Tresca criterion:

0 3 1

0
t
pr

'

0 ;
t
pr
;
t
pr
3 2 1

0
4 . 25
8 . 304 35 . 0

= 4.2 N/mm
2
von Mises criterion
0 1
3
2

4 . 25
8 . 304 35 . 0
2
3
2
2
3
1 0

2
0
mm / N 64 . 3
b.
K 2
1

K =
2
2 . 4
K = 2.1 N/mm
2

2
2
1
K 6
4
6

K 2
1

K = 2.1 N/mm
2
****************
42