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# Heat production Penghasilan haba Analysis: 1. Heat energy 2. Feel hot 3.

## Drying wet clothing Conclusion: The sun gives out heat

Ways to produce heat Cara-cara menghasilkan haba Observation: 1. The hand feel hot after the fast rubbing 2. The base of the test tube feels hot Analysis: 1. Heat energy 2. a) Kinetic energy to heat energy b) Chemical energy to heat energy Conclusion: 1. Rubbing two objects together produces heat 2. Chemical substances, such as solid sodium hydroxide, produce heat energy when dissolved in water

Temperature Suhu Analysis: 1. a. Heat is a form of energy which raises the temperature of an object b. Temperature is the degree of hotness of an object 2. So that they would have the same initial temperature i.e 100 oC 3. `Yes 4. No

5. a. The 100 g weight b. That weight had a bigger mass 6. The higher the heat content of an object, the higher will be its temperature Conclusion: Heat and temperature are different

## Heat and temperature Haba dan suhu

1. Heat is a form of energy Haba adalah suatu bentuk tenaga 2. The bigger the mass of a substance, the more will be its heat content Semakin besar jisim bahan, semakin banyak haba yang terkandung di dalamnya 3. Heat flows from a hot section to a cold section Haba mengalir dari bahagian panas ke bahagian sejuk 4. Temperature is a measurement of degree of hotness Suhu ialah sukatan darjah kepanasan 5. A hot substance has a high temperature while a cold substance has a low temperature Bahan panas mempunyai suhu yang tinggi manakala bahan sejuk mempunyai suhu yang rendah 6. The heat content of a substance depends on the temperature and mass of the substance Kandungan haba di dalam suatu bahan bergantung pada suhu dan jisim bahan tersebut

The effect of heat on solids Kesan haba ke atas pepejal Result: Condition of the metal ball Keadaan bebola logam Before heating After heating After cooling

Observation Pemerhatian

The metal ball can fit into the ring The metal ball cannot fit into the ring The metal ball can fit into the ring

Analysis: 1. It increased 2. It decreased 3. The ball expanded when heated and contracted when cooled Conclusion: 1. The metal ball expands and increases its size when heated 2. The metal ball contracts and decreases its size when cooled

The effect of heat on liquids Kesan haba ke atas cecair Analysis: 1. a) Held in between the palms? The mercury level rise b) Placed between the ice cubes? The mercury level fell 2. It expanded 3. It contracted 4. The mercury level would rise and reach a temperature of 100 oC Conclusion: A liquid expands when heated and contracts when cooled

The effect of heat on gases Analysis: 1. The air in the round-bottomed flask cooled and contracted 2. The air in the round-bottomed flask heated and expanded 3. Submerge the ping-pong ball in hot water for a while. The air in the ball expands when heated and pushes against the dent, and the dent is repaired Conclusion:

## Gas expands when heated and contracts when cooled

Heat transfer through conduction Observation: Thumbtack A fell first, followed by thumbtacks B and C Analysis: 1. Heat energy 2. The particles vibrate faster 3. From the hot end to the cold end

4. Conduction 5. To prevent the heat transfer through radiation to the thumbtacks 6. Conduction is a process of heat transfer that occurs in solids from the hot end to the cold end Conclusion: Heat is transferred through solids by conduction from the hot end to the cold end

## Heat transfer through convection

Observation: Analysis: 1. a) It moved upward b) hot fluid is less dense 2. a) It moved downward b) cold fluid is denser 3. Convection 4. When one part of the fluid was heated, the fluid expanded and became less dense. This less dense fluid moved upwards and the denser fluid on top flowed downwards to take the place of the hot fluid 5. To enable the convection current to be clearly seen 6. No 7. No. Solids do not flow. All their particles are in a compact condition and do not move freely

## Conclusion: Heat transferred through fluid, liquid and gas, by convection

Heat transfer through radiation Analysis: 1. Radiation 2. No. To prevent heat from being transferred to the thermometer through convection

3. No. to prevent heat from being transferred to the thermometer through conduction 4. No. air is a weak conductor of heat 5. a) yes b) heat from the sun arriving on the earth Conclusion: The transfer of heat through radiation can take place through atmosphere

## Activity: heat transfer

Solid Upward

Gaseous Convection

Less Medium

Liquid Heat