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Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture for Nutritional Security

1 Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture for Nutritional Security Introduction Feeding seven billion people on earth through agriculture in an environmentally sustainable manner has posed a major problem. Based on the current demographic trend, the world population is projected to reach 9.4 billion by 2050 and Indian population 1.5 billion. Though living resources are self-renewable, they have to be utilised rationally on a sustainable basis in harmony with the environment. Hence, scientists all over the world are exploring the possibility of using water as a major source of food production. Seawater is a rich and cheap medium for aquafarming. Moreover, the mechanism of production of organic matter in the ocean is more efficient than that on land. In terms of productivity, slow-growing angiospermous plants cannot match with rapidly multiplying planktonic algae. Aquatic resources of India are vast and diversified. The marine jurisdiction alone spans 2.02 million km2 (EEZ) and the coastline stretches to a length of 8,129 km. Among lagoons and backwaters, the Chilka, and Vembanad alone cover an area of 800 km2, and estuaries spread over 300,000 ha. The potential brackishwater area available for aquaculture is 1.4 m ha. Replenishment and creation of water bodies through Southwest and Northeast monsoon in India are nature s gifts. The river system of the country comprises 14 major rivers (catchments > 20,000 km2), 44 medium rivers (catchments 2,000 to 20,000 km2) and innumerable small rivers and desert streams that have a drainage of about 2,000 km2. Different river systems of the country, having a combined length of 20,000 km, provide one of the richest fish genetic resources in the world. India has 19,134 small reservoirs with a total water surface area of 1,485,557 ha; likewise, the medium (180) and large (56) reservoirs spread over 527,541 and 1,140,268 ha,

respectively. Thus, the country has 19,370 reservoirs covering a total area of 3,153,366 ha. Hence, scientific utilisation of the vast and diverse aquatic resources should immensely benefit us, especially in the food production sector. Fish production in our country has increased by more than five times, and the contribution of fisheries to the GDP of India has also increased three times, a growth, arguably, one of the highest among the food production sectors. The success in induced breeding of carp in 1957 and subsequent technologies on induced breeding and larval rearing for a number of species of carps, paved the way for the current annual freshwater carp production of > 1 million metric tonnes. The Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI, Kochi) developed the hatchery technology of penaeid shrimps during 1973-1978 followed by commercial scale production of PLs started by MPEDA in the late eighties helped the country to export farmed shrimps worth > $ 1 billion in 1999-2000. Hatchery and mariculture technologies for the pearl oyster, edible oyster, mussels and clams have also been developed in the country. Of these, pearl culture and mussel culture have made significant impacts among the entrepreneurs and fishermen.2 Fisheries scientists have designed a high opening trawlnet with the help of gear experts in India. The design has revolutionised the capture fisheries sector. In two decades, all the trawlnets (150,000 in number, in 1998) in the country are of high opening type. They are responsible for an annual fish harvest of > 1.2 million mt. These developments have paved the way for what is hailed as the Blue Revolution or Aquaplosion in India. Marine fisheries production increased from 0.5 million mt in 1950, to 2.7 million mt in 1999. However, the scope for its further increase is limited. During the corresponding period, the inland fisheries production also increased from 0.2 to 2.5 million mt, despite declining riverine fish production. A progressive increase in inland fisheries production has been possible owing to the development of eco-friendly, culture-based fisheries. There is

scope for its further improvement. Per capita fish availability to an average Indian is about 9 kg, less than the world average (12 kg), and the quantity (11 kg) recommended by the WHO for nutritional security. In India, aquaculture activity was ventured first by the farmers of West Bengal and later, in Andhra Pradesh. With 30 billion USD, investment on global aquaculture by 150 countries, which practice aquaculture, and with more than 10 per cent annual growth rate, contribution to fish production through aquaculture is in the range of 36 million mt, worth $ 50.4 billion and Asia s share to this production is 91 per cent. In India, about 100,000 ha have been brought under aquaculture during the last decade to produce about 82,000 t shrimps by small and medium farmers, with the necessary hatcheries and processing plants at a total investment of about Rs. 70,000 million. Unfortunately, our coastal aquaculture has begun to suffer even at the very early stage due to its failure in diversifying candidate species and system and having no regulations for sustainable development of coastal fish farming. Following the directions of the Supreme Court, the Government of India has constituted the Aquaculture Authority , whose main function is to give approval to farmers to operate traditional and improved traditional systems of aquaculture with improved technology for increased fish production. Asia has been the centre of fishing and aquacultural activity. Among the Asian countries, India ranks second in culture and third in capture fisheries. More than 6 million fishermen and fish farmers of India depend on fisheries for their livelihood. About 5.6 million mt of fish and edible invertebrates worth Rs. 2,22,000 million are now captured or cultured. Our annual fisheries export is 0.4 million mt worth 1.2 billion USD. Thus, the fisheries constitute a highly productive sector, a source of valuable food and employment, and a net contributor to the national income. The export earnings substantially increased from Rs. 25 million in the 1950s to Rs. 52,000 million in 2000. There has been a shift in export from low value fish and fish products towards the high value products. For instance, export of finfishes decreased from

99 per cent of the value during 1940-1946 to 12 per cent during 1990-1994, but that of high value shrimps and cephalopods increased to 72 per cent and 12 per cent, respectively. Also, the export pattern shifted form dried, salt cured and canned products to frozen products/live organisms.3 These issues were examined carefully at a national seminar organised by the National Academy of Agricultural Sciences. * Recommendations, emerging out of the deliberations held at this seminar are summarised below. Policy Recommendations 1. Policy and Legal Issues The instrument on fisheries policy was first devised in 1898 and has undergone only peripheral modifications since then. It is, therefore, necessary that the Government of India formulates a new fisheries policy taking into consideration the need for increasing sustainable fish production. Incidentally, the MPEDA Act, 1972 and a few other Acts of the central and state governments are obsolete in the present context of new developments; they all need revision with proper amendments. India is one of the wettest countries in the world. The average rainfall of the country is 117 cm per annum. The potential of the Indian river basin is 1,869 billion cubic metre, equivalent to 66,000 tmc but the utilised water flow, excluding that of groundwater is 24,367 tmc only. Hence, the unutilised water resource remains as high as 41,637 tmc. Even in penninsular India, which is relatively dry, the level of unutilised water is quite high, viz. 8,637 tmc. Water is the most precious commodity, essential to sustain domestic, agricultural (including aquaculture) and industrial activities, but its per capita availability will progressively decrease from 2,200 m3 in 1998 to 1,500 m3 by 2025. Hence, there is an urgent need that the National Water Research Council takes into consideration the requirement of fisheries sector to

promote fisheries and aquaculture development and conservation of aquatic resources. All efforts should be made to utilise the sheltered bays for mariculture. This will require an enabling conducive policy and creation of basic facilities and essential inputs. In recent years, increasing attention is being paid to the environmental problems of the coastal areas. India too has exercised its powers under Section 3 (1) and 20 (v) of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, through a legal instrument called the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Notification, February, 1991. The CRZ Notification of up to 500 m from the high tide line with the landward boundary has inherent weakness. For a country like India, with diverse physiography, development needs and urban concentrations, a common regulation for the different maritime states is not realistic and desirable. Hence, there is need to evolve scientific policies and legal framework for supporting coastal and opensea aquaculture, particularly on the following critical aspects: carrying capacity of coastal and marine ecosystems of different areas, quantity and impact of groundwater abstraction for shrimp culture, extent of conversion of agricultural lands and impact of untreated wastewater from shrimp farms. * Seminar on Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture for Nutritional Security at Chennai from 29th November to 2nd December 2000.4 The present Environmental Protection Act, 1986 and Rules February 1991, may have to accommodate the coastal aquaculture in the CRZ and declare aquaculture as a permitted activity requiring water front facilities. Coastal aquaculture should be integrated with other activities of the coastal region. 2. Financial Support There is a justifiable claim for increasing financial support for further development of the fisheries sector. Firstly, the projected increase for the production targets for the

next decade in India, is in the range of 22-28 per cent for cereals but 100 per cent for fish. Secondly, the contribution of the fisheries sector to the GDP of India has increased from 0.7 per cent in 1980-81 to 1.4 per cent in 1999-2000, compared to stagnation of the agricultural sector to the total GDP at 28.7 per cent. Consequently, the contribution of fisheries to the GDP of the agricultural sector has increased substantially from 1.97 per cent to 5.35 per cent. Yet, the government investment in the fisheries sector is stagnating at a mere 0.35 per cent of the total plan outlay through the five year plans, compared to the substantial increase from 1.74 per cent to 5.49 per cent in the agricultural sector. Therefore, the fisheries sector deserves better recognition and greater investment for its growth and sustenance. 3. Capture Fisheries The scope for increasing capture fisheries production from the coastal waters is limited. To sustain its present level, which contributes 50 per cent of the total fish production in India, we will have to concentrate on resource enhancement programmes such as sea-ranching and eco-friendly mariculture. Effective implementation of fishing regulations also will have to be given priority. A rational approach to match the fishing capacity with maximum sustainable yield has to be evolved. There is also a need for a scientific introspection on practicality and efficacy of the Marine Fishing Regulation Acts. It is necessary to create a Fishing Regulatory Authority with powers of implementing sustainable fishing. This authority should be bestowed with legal powers. Contributions from inland fisheries to India s total fish production increased from 25 per cent in 1950, to 46 per cent in the 1990s. Despite declining riverine fish production, there is substantial increase due to development of culture-based reservoir fisheries. But the Indian reservoirs produce much less than their potential; their productivity can be increased to three million mt. There is need for an action plan to develop appropriate model for determining management parameters, such

as stocking density, stocking size, size at capture and species selection. Though they are highly productive, we know very little about our wetlands and beels; their development in the Northeast is strategically important. Management norms for the upland lakes are virtually non-existent. A master plan is required for the development of fisheries in wetlands, beels and upland lakes. Suitable strategies for exploiting oceanic tunas and Antarctic krill need to be developed soon.5 4. Aquaculture Aquaculture is the fastest growing enterprise within the agricultural sector. Global aquaculture production increased from 15.5 to 36.0 million tonnes during the years 1988-1997, indicating an annual increase of 11 per cent. The level of increase in aquaculture production is likely to remain high for quite sometime in the future, while other water- and land based food production systems are reaching their limits. However, aquaculture is more complex than agriculture/animal husbandry, owing to diversity of taxonomic groups and unfamiliarity of the environment/medium to the cultivator. China harvests 67 per cent of the world aquaculture production, while India s contribution is stagnating at 6.2 per cent. Unlike China, diversification of aquaculture in India is relatively poor. Even though production is less than half that of India, Japan (4.37 $/kg) and Indonesia (2.75 $/kg) fetch higher value for their products compared to 1.11 $/kg of India. Hence, diversification of candidate species for aquaculture in India has to be judiciously manoeuvred. Of 297 species cultured, 53 per cent are fishes, 15 per cent crustaceans, 27 per cent molluscs and 5 per cent seaweeds. India claims to have mastered the technology of aquaculturing 15 species, whereas as many as 39 and 52 species are profitably cultured by China and Korea, respectively. The need for diversifying taxonomic species and aquaculture systems is obvious to increase cumulative aquaculture production, enhance value for produced fish. Sustainable aquaculture system can be developed

in harmony with the physico-chemical and biological environment as well as the socio-economic environment involving other sub-sectors/sectors, namely fishing, agriculture, forestry, tourism, public health and housing among others, ensuring protection of all the stakeholders involved. Aquaculture thus, would be part of a total sphere development, as envisaged in integrated rural area development or coastal area management. Being basically a small scale enterprise, freshwater aquaculture provides for the domestic food security of rural India. This sector has undergone due intensification and diversification. Likewise, brackishwater aquaculture is a highly promising sector and about 1.4 m ha of potential brackishwater area is available for farming in the country, of which less than 10 per cent area is under cultivation to produce 82,000 tonnes. Its productivity is low (800 kg/ha), in comparison to that of Thailand (2,500 kg/ha). There are 226 shrimp hatcheries with a capacity of 10.5 billion seedlings. There is an urgent need to have a uniform leasing policy. To boost aquaculture of inland, brackishwater and marine organisms, a scientific policy of leasing water bodies will have to be formulated to utilise them rationally and legally. There is also need to provide the required infrastructural facilities such as seeds, finance by the NABARD and aquaculture insurance scheme. Since, recycling freshwater will become increasingly important in the years to come, policy guidelines must be framed for mandatory provision of depuration ponds in farms undertaking sewagefed fish culture. Total feed requirement for carp farms of Andhra Pradesh alone is 200,000 t but only 35,000 t is produced by our feed mills. Hence, there is a gigantic need to increase commercial production of inexpensive, balanced feeds for finfish and shellfish. To encourage establishment of larger fish-feed industries, the aquaculture feed industry must be granted a status of parity with poultry and cattle-feed industries, and given a6 waiver and/or tax concessions, as enjoyed by other feed industries. Regulation

devised for other feed industries may also be imposed on the fish-feed industries to ensure quality control of the products. When formulating standards for quality monitoring, the following must be considered: (i) particle and pellet size, (ii) fibre content, (iii) water stability, and (iv) the permitted levels of steroids, antibiotics, pigments. Specialised fish-feed plants have to be encouraged to provide sectoral development of aquaculture feeds. A major constraint to the development of aquaculture is the loss caused by microbial diseases which inflict heavy mortality. The loss due to such disease problems in Asia has been estimated to be several hundred million dollars. To contain microbial diseases, early detection of pathogens is very important. Molecular techniques for early and rapid detection of pathogens are being developed in India. Diagnostic laboratories with facilities for rapid detection of pathogens by molecular methods, such as PCR should be set up in all the fisheries colleges of India. Farmers should have easy access to these laboratories to get the desired diagnosis, medicine and suggestions at subsidised cost, as is being done for livestock animals. Intense anthropogenic activity and heavy load of pollutants have driven several aquatic organisms, especially commercially important fishes to the status of threatened/endangered species. There is a need to prioritise species and aquatic habitats for conservation. Financial support for research on cryopreservation of fish sperm and cell-lines has become of paramount importance. Training and capacity building for fish taxonomy and genetics merit support on priority basis. With regard to exotics and related issues, more research attention has to be given to mitigate their negative impacts. Greatest emphasis and financial support must be given to the post-harvest technology. On the global basis, around 27 per cent of the harvested fish are being discarded as bycatch. The proportions of discards are also high in India. Larger trawlers should be provided with additional storage facility for the bycatch of low

value fish, or they should have an installed plant, that would process about one mt bycatch per day for fish meal and fish oil. This installation must be encouraged and subsidised. A survey conducted at different fish landing centres, clearly indicated that five per cent of the landed fish is of unacceptable quality. Hence, fishermen should be encouraged to carry ice on board to preserve the harvest. There is a need to create an awareness among fishermen and processors about the need for hygienic handling of the harvested fish. The traditional bamboo basket must be replaced by insulated container. The fish can be carried to the urban consuming centre in good condition within four hours after harvesting. Transport by air, where required, should be encouraged and subsidised. Fish is a highly perishable commodity; the processes responsible for its decomposition are autolysis, bacterial spoilage and oxidative rancidity. These processes can be retarded effectively by chilling with ice. Radurisation is an irradiation process for extension of shelf life of fresh fishery products in ice or under refrigeration by reducing the number of spoilage bacteria. The major benefit of the7 application of radiation in fishery products is in the reduction of post-harvest losses and improving the hygienic quality. Recognising the technoeconomic advantages, 40 countries including India have permitted such radiation treatment. It is recommended that irradiation facility be established by the government at least in two strategically important landing centres in each maritime state, each installation at the minimum cost of Rs. 75 million. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids present in fish and fish oils have several positive health benefits during different stages of human life conception, growth and development, and prevention of diet-related chronic diseases. Iron deficiency is the most common micronutrient disorder. This problem is most severe in India, where 88 per cent of pregnant women are anaemic. Eating fish 1-2 times/week

before conception, during pregnancy, lactation and breast feeding will significantly contribute to the growth and development of babies and ensure good health of both mothers and babies. The public should be made aware of the health benefits of fisheating habits. 5. Fisheries Education and Research Publications Qualified and trained manpower is a critical input for sustainable fisheries development. Fisheries education had a late start in India. Till the sixties fisheries education was confined only to a special paper in postgraduate programmes, in disciplines like zoology in some universities. Under the State Agricultural University (SAU) system fisheries education the first College of Fisheries was established at Mangalore under the auspices of the University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, in 1969. A four-year degree course in fishery science is offered in 11 colleges to train about 300 students. Two-year-postgraduate and doctoral degree courses are offered only at 8 and 6 institutions, respectively. About 150 and 50 candidates secure their M.F.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from these respective institutions annually. Unfortunately, 28 per cent of the sanctioned faculty positions lie vacant in these colleges. The Education Division of the ICAR must devise a method to make the vacant positions filled by the respective colleges. As over 18 per cent of the sanctioned scientific and technical positions are vacant in the eight national fisheries institutions, many qualified fisheries graduates remain underemployed or unemployed; the government should give consideration to these nascent institutions to grow by filling the vacancies. There is a need for colleges of fisheries to establish linkages with other national laboratories and institutions of the conventional universities. Although, fisheries scientists have accomplished a commendable task of increasing fish production in the country, both the number and quality of their publications suffer at the international level due to poor visibility. An important reason for this is that our

fisheries scientists publish mostly in non-indexed journals. An all-out effort must be undertaken to improve the image of the premier fisheries research journal of the ICAR, namely, Indian Journal of Fisheries.

REPORT OF THE WORKING GROUP ON FISHERIES FOR THE ELEVENTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (2007-2012) GOVERNMENT OF INDIA PLANNING COMMISSION DECEMBER 2006 i CONTENTS Sl. No. Contents Page List of Tables vi List of Figures Viii List of Boxes Ix Glossary X Acknowledgements Xiii Executive Summary Xiv Chapter 1 Working Group and Terms of Reference 1.1 Working Group 1 1.2 Terms of Reference 8

Chapter 2 Indian Fisheries Status, Potentials and Issues 2.1 Fish for All 10

2.2 Indian status in global fisheries 13 2.3 Livelihood 15 2.4 Employment 15 2.5 Exports 16 2.6 Coastal fisheries 17 2.7 Island fisheries 17 2.8 Demand and supply for fish 17 2.9 Water quality and ownership 19 2.10 Diversification 19 2.11 Seed 19 2.12 Conservation 22 2.13 Aqua-shops 24 2.14 Infrastructure 24 2.15 Capital formation and output 24 2.16 Community participation 25 2.17 Gender issues 25 2.18 Disaster management 25 ii Sl. No. Contents Page 2.19 At par with agriculture 26 2.20 Public-private partnership 26 2.21 Capacity strengthening 27 2.22 Finance 27 2.23 Policy 28 2.24 Governance 29 2.25 Linkages 29 2.26 Benefit cost ratios 29 2.27 Approach to Eleventh Plan 30

Chapter 3 Programmes for Fisheries and Aquaculture during the X Five Year Plan 31

3.1 Financial achievement 31 3.2 Marine fisheries 32 3.3 Development of inland fisheries and aquaculture 35 3.4 Development of marine infrastructure and post harvest operations 45 3.5 Welfare programmes/policy issues/human resource development 47 3.5.1 National Scheme for Welfare of Fishermen 47 Development of Model Fisherman Villages 47 Group accident insurance scheme for active fisherman 47 Saving-cum-relief scheme 48 3.5.2 Scheme on Fisheries Training and Extension 48 3.6 Centrally sponsored Scheme on strengthening of database and information networking for the Fisheries sector 52 3.7 Fisheries Institutes 53 3.7.1 Fishery Survey of India (FSI), Mumbai 53 3.7.2 Central Institute of Fisheries Nautical and Engineering Training (CIFNET), Kochi 54

3.7.3 Integrated Fisheries Project (IFP), Kochi 56 3.7.4 Central Institute of Coastal Engineering for Fishery (CICEF), Bangalore 57 3.8 National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB), Hyderabad 58 3.9 National Co-operative Development Corporation (NCDC), New Delhi 62 3.10 National Federation of Fishermen s Co-operatives Limited (FISHCOPFED), New Delhi 64 iii Sl. No. Contents Page 3.11 National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD), Mumabi 66 3.12 Coastal Aquaculture Authority, Chennai 67 3.13 Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi 69 3.14 Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA), Kochi 72 3.15 Department of Biotechnology (DBT), New Delhi 72 3.16 National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa 74 3.17 Bay of Bengal Programme (BOBP-IGO), Chennai 74 3.18 Plan budget utilisation 75

Chapter 4 Programmes for XI Five-Year Plan 78 4.1 Scenario 78

4.2 Objectives 80 4.3 Thrust areas, strategies and Schemes 80 4.3.1 Marine 80 Coastal Fisheries 80 Island Fisheries 86 Mariculture 89 4.3.2 Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture 91 Inland Fisheries 94 Riverine fisheries 94 Reservoir fisheries 95 Fisheries of floodplain wetlands and lakes 96 Inland environment and fish stock health 98 Freshwater Aquaculture 99 Coldwater Fisheries/culture 100 Brackishwater Aquaculture 101 4.3.3 Infrastructure 105 Harvest and post harvest infrastructure 105 Marketing 107 Processing 109 Value addition 110 4.3.4 Welfare Programmes, Governance, Transfer of Technology

and Capacity Building 111 Welfare programmes 112 iv Sl. No. Contents Page Housing 112 Insurance 113 Modification of Group Accident Scheme for active fishers 113 Hut insurance scheme 113 Group insurance for fishing craft and gear in the event of natural disasters 113 Mediclaim policy 113 Saving-cum-relief 114 Safety at sea 114 Gender issues 114 Policy issues 115 Management and governance 115 Aquarian reforms 116 Human resource development 116 Service delivery system 117 Fisheries cooperatives 117 Revitalization 118 Capacity building 118 Public Private Partnerships 118 Accreditation of Shrimp Hatcheries 118 Demand generation and Value addition 119 Research 119 Deep Sea Fishing 119 New enterprises 120 Transfer of Technology 122 Capacity building and awareness creation 122 Demonstration and exhibitions 123 Co-ordination and linkages 124

4.3.5 Strengthening of Database and Information Networking 128 Sample survey for estimation of inland fishery resources, their potential and fish production 128 Census on marine fisheries 129 Catch assessment survey for inland and marine fisheries 129 Catch assessment survey for inland fisheries 129 Marine catch assessment surveys 129 Development of GIS 130 Inland Fisheries 130 v Sl. No. Contents Page Marine Fisheries 130 Assessment of fish production potential in coastal areas 130 4.3.6 Fisheries Institutes 132 Fishery Survey of India, (FSI), Mumbai 132 Resources survey / monitoring in the Indian EEZ 132 Development of fishery forecasting models including application of remote sensing technology 133 Training of deep sea fishing operatives 133 Creation of infrastructure facilities: facility centre at Mumbai and laboratories at Base offices 133 Exploration of oceanic tunas and allied resources in the international waters between the EEZ 133 Special drive for survey and assessment of oceanic tunas

and allied resources 134 Application of diversified longlining technologies 134 Survey of surface swimming larger pelagic resources by purse- seining 134 Acquisition of new vessels on replacement basis 135 Re-commissioning of marine workshop, dredgers and slipway 135 Research Investigations 137 Training of Scientific and Technical personnel 137 Central Institute of Fisheries, Nautical and Engineering Training (CIFNET), Kochi 138 Integrated Fisheries Project (IFP), Kochi 138 Central Institute of Coastal Engineering for Fishery (CICEF), Bangalore 140 Annexure (Tables A-P) 143 Documents referred 158 Budgetary projections of Schemes in Fisheries during the XI Plan 163 vi List of Tables No. Contents Page 2.1 Growth in fisheries exports and integration with international markets

16 2.2 Capital formation and output of fisheries sector during past three Five Year Plans 25 3.1 Financial achievements of different schemes during X Plan 32 3.2 Physical achievements under Marine Fisheries scheme during X Plan 33 3.3 Physical achievements under Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture scheme during X Plan 35 3.4 Development of freshwater aquaculture (FFDAs) 36 3.5 Development of brackishwater aquaculture 38 3.6 Coldwater fisheries and aquaculture 39 3.7 Development of waterlogged areas 40 3.8 Productive utilization of inland saline/alkaline waters for aquaculture 30 3.9 Inland capture fisheries (reservoirs/rivers, etc.) 41 3.10 Physical achievements under Development of Marine Fisheries Infrastructure and Post Harvest Operations scheme during X Plan 46 3.11 Physical achievements under Welfare Programmes/ Policy Issues/ Human Resource Development scheme during X Plan 49

3.12 Physical achievements of FSI during X Plan 54 3.13 Physical achievements of CIFNET during X Plan 55 3.14 Physical targets & achievements of IFP during the X Plan 57 3.15 Physical targets & achievements of CICEF during the X Plan 58 3.16 Summary of Activities and Budget Provisions for 20062012 and 2006-07 59 3.17 Activity wise targets, anticipated benefits and Budget of the NFDB 60 3.18 Ground level credit disbursements for fisheries by NABARD during X Plan 66 3.19 Ground level credit (GLC) estimates for fisheries for the XI Plan period 67 3.20 Budget outlay and utilization of fisheries sector over various Five Year Plans 76 3.21 Budget utilization of fisheries sector over various Five Year Plans 76 vii Sl. No. Contents Page 3.22 Budget utilization of fisheries sector during X Five Year Plans

77 4.1 Present and projected fish supply by the end of XI Plan 79 4.2 State of exploitable fisheries resources in EEZ 85 4.3 Recommended number of Resource specific vessels for introduction in the EEZ during the coming five years (up to 2009) 86 4.4 Potential for fish production enhancement in reservoirs 95 4.5 Potential for fish production enhancement in flood plain Wetlands 97 4.6 Annual fish seed (Fry) requirement during XI Five Year Plan 100 4.7 Annual fish feed requirement during XI Five Year Plan 100 4.8 Fishing harbours and boat landing centres in India 106 4.9 Present post harvest infrastructure in India, 2005 107 4.10 Exports of ornamental fishes from different ports 121 4.11 Major ornamental fish export markets for India 122 4.12 Projected Budgetary requirements for Fisheries in the XI Plan 142 viii List of Figures No. Contents Page 2.1 Total fish production for past five and half decades 11 2.2 Fish production from marine and inland sectors over the last five decades

11 2.3 Gross Domestic product of agriculture and fisheries sectors 12 2.4 Percentage share of fisheries sector in agriculture 13 2.5 Global and Indian fish exports 14 2.6 Share of Indian fish exports in world exports 14 2.7 Composition of projected fish demands by 2011-12 18 2.8 Sector wise projected fish supply by 2011-12 18 4.1 Marine fish production in India during different phases of growth 81 4.2 Sector wise landings in different regions in 2004 82 4.3 Options for Sustaining and Increasing Marine Fish Production 84 4.4 Pattern of growth of inland fish production in India 92 4.5 Percentage Share of inland fisheries and aquaculture during the past two decades 92 4.6 Transfer of technology model for Fisheries during XI Plan 125 ix List of Boxes No. Contents Page 2.1 Proposals for fish seed certification 21 2.2 Model bill for inland fisheries and aquaculture, 2005 23 3.1 Success Stories: Marine fisheries and Mariculture 34 3.2 Success Stories: Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture 42 3.3 Success Stories: Infrastructure Development 46 3.4 Success Stories: Welfare programmes/ policy issues/ human resource

development 50 4.1 National Consultation on Water Management in Fisheries and Aquaculture , New Delhi, 23-24 June 2006 93 x GLOSSARY AFD Accelerated Freeze Drying BFDA Brackishwater Fish Farmers Development Agency BOBP Bay of Bengal Programme BRD By-catch Reduction Device CBO Community Based Organisation CCRF Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries CD Compact Discs CIBA Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture CICEF Central Institute of Coastal Engineering for Fishery CIFA Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture CIFE Central Institute of Fisheries Education CIFNET Central Institute of Fisheries Nautical and Engineering Training

CIFRI Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute CIFT Central Institute of Fisheries Technology CMFRI Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CoF College of Fisheries CRZ Coastal Regulation Zone CSMCRI Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute DAH&D Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying DAHD & F Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries DBT Department of BioTechnology

DLC District Level Committe DRDA District Rural Development Agency DoD Department of Ocean Development DoF Department of Fisheries EDUSAT Educational Satellite EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone EXIM Export and Import FAD Fish Aggregating Device FAO Food and Agriculture Organization FCR Feed Conversion Ratio FFDA Fish Farmers Development Agency FISHCOPFED National Federation of Fishermen Co-operatives Limited FMCG Fast Moving Consumer Goods FSI Fishery Survey of India FRP Fibre Reinforced Plastic xi FTDC Fisheries Technology Dissemination Centre GDP Gross Domestic Product GFCF Gross Fixed Capital Formation GIS Geographical Information System GLC Ground Level Credit GPS Global Positioning System GRT Gross Tonnage HACCP Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points HRD Human Resource Development HSD High Speed Diesel HP Horse Power IARI Indian Agricultural Research Institute

ICAR Indian Council of Agricultural Research IMO International Maritime Organisation ILO International Labour Organisation IFP Integrated Fisheries Project IRDP Integrated Rural Development Programmes IT Information Technology IWRM Integrated Water Resource Management KL Kilo Litre KM Kilometer KVK Krishi Vigyan Kendra LOP Letter of Permission LPG Liquid Petroleum Gas LDCL Lakshadweep development Corporation Limited LISS Linear Imaging Self Screening MANAGE National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management MBV Monodon Baculo Virus MATSYAFED Kerala State Cooperative Federation for Fishery Development Limited MCS Monitoring Control and Surveillance MFRA Marine Fisheries Regulation Act MoA Ministry of Agriculture MPEDA Marine Products Export Development Authority NABARD National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development NAFED National Agriculture Cooperative Marketing Federation of India

NBFGR National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources NCDC National Cooperatives Development Corporation NCCT National Centre for Cooperative Training

NCF National Commission on Farmers xii NDP Net Domestic Product NE North East NFDB National Fisheries Development Board NGO Non Governmental Organisation NMLRDC National Marine Living Resources Data Centre NORAD Norwegian Agency for Development NRCCWF National Research Centre on Cold Water Fisheries OAL Over All Length PAU Punjab Agriculture University PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction PHED Public Health Engineering Department PRI Panchayati Raj Institutions PUFA Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids PFZ Pelagic Fisheries Zone SAU State Agriculture University SFAC Small Farmers Agro Consortium SHG Self Help Group SIRD State Institute of Rural Development SLC State Level Committee SPS Sanitary and Phyto-sanitary Agreements SPF Specific Pathogen Free TED Turtle Excluding Device ToR Terms of Reference ToT Transfer of Technology TACT Total Aquaculture Centre for Technology TRIFED Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India

TRYSEM Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment TQM Total Quality Management USA United States of America UNDP United Nation Development Programme UT Union Territories VMS Vessel Monitoring System VRC Village Resource Centre VHF Very High Frequency WTO World Trade Organisation WSSV White Spot Syndrome Virus xiii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Fisheries is a sunrise sector in Indian agriculture, with high potentials for diversification of farming practices, rural and livelihood development, domestic nutritional security, employment generation, export earnings as well as tourism. The possibilities extend from vast seas to high mountains with valued coldwater species. Untapped potentials exist in island systems to ornamental fishes to value added products. On behalf of all the members of the Working Group on Fisheries for XI Plan, I place on record our thanks to the Planning Commission, Govt. of India, for giving us this opportunity to discuss the issues and prepare this report as a guiding document for the coming years. Representatives of various aspects of fisheries and aquaculture of Fishing, Fish processing, Aquaculture, Marketing and Trade, Research, Development, Extension, Education, Policy and Administration, both from Public and Private sectors came together in the Working Groups and provided valuable inputs for this document, which are thankfully acknowledged. Material has also been drawn from a number of sources, published and unpublished as also practicing individuals in the

sector. Special thanks are due to the Secretary, Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries and Joint Secretary (Fisheries), DAHD&F, Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India for providing information on the progress of the ongoing schemes. I would like to thank Dr. K. K. Vass, Director, Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, who provided all the logistics support in organizing the meetings and colleagues at the Institute, particularly Dr. P. K. Katiha, Senior Scientist and Shri N. K. Barik, Scientist for their contributions in preparing the Report. It is hoped that the Report would serve as a basic document for planning programmes and activities during the XI Plan for providing Fish for All . New Delhi (S. Ayyappan) Chairman

December 08, 2006

Working Group on Fisheries on XI Planxiv EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Planning Commission, Govt. of India constituted a Working Group on Fisheries to review the progress of schemes/programmes in fisheries sector implemented during X Plan, identify problems and constraints in the implementation of programmes and suggest measures for enhancing fish production in a sustainable manner, along with developmental programmes for the Eleventh Plan. 2.0 India is one of major fish producing countries in the world with third position in fisheries and second in aquaculture. The sector has high potentials for rural development, domestic nutritional security, employment generation, gender mainstreaming as well as export earnings. Indian Fisheries sector has been witnessing a steady growth

since First Five Year Plan. The annual fish production rose to over 6.3 million t during 2004-05 from around 0.75 million t in 1950-1951. The marine fish production increased from 0.53 million t in 1950-51 to a maximum of 2.99 million t in 2002-03 and 2.78 million t during 200405. The contribution of inland sector has increased at a higher rate, from 0.218 million t during 1950-51 to 3.52 million t in 2004-05. Presently, fisheries and aquaculture contribute 1.04% of the national GDP and 5.34% of agriculture and allied activities. Indian exports and its share in the global trade have shown a steadily increasing trend over the years. 3.0 India is endowed with vast fisheries resources in terms of a coast line of 8,118 km and 2.02 million km2 of Exclusive Economic Zone, including 0.530 million km2 of continental shelf. The inland fisheries resources include rivers and canals (1.95 lakh km), reservoirs (3.15 million ha), floodplain wetlands (0.35 million ha), estuaries (0.26 million ha), freshwater waters (2.41 million ha) and brackishwater water bodies (1.24 xv million ha). These resources are one of the main sources of livelihood for the rural poor, particularly the fisher community. Considering the output of the sector, it can provide livelihood for over 90 lakh at subsistence level of annual income. At present, an estimated 14 million people are engaged in fishing, aquaculture and ancillary activities. 4.0 Demand for fish and fishery products is increasing considerably, both at domestic and export fronts. The projected demand for fish in the country by 2012 is 9.74 million t, that can be met by the projected supply of fish is 9.60 million t by 2012 with major share of 5.34 million t from inland aquaculture followed by 3.10 million t from marine fisheries. Presently, fisheries of the island systems, Andamans and Lakshadweep, as well as

the deep sea resources, including the tunas, are highly under-exploited. Further, there is a need of provision for processing for both export and domestic markets and improvement of fishing harbours. Effective marketing system in identified areas is a key requirement for the development of this sector. 5.0 The fisheries of natural waters, including coastal and inland open is under pressure due to high fishing intensities, pollution, open-access, manmade modifications, water abstraction, etc. and lead to problems in maintaining sustainable fisheries. In these waters sustainable exploitation of fish stocks can be achieved through community participation and co-management. 6.0 In the context of increasing concerns of water availability and utilisation in an effective manner, fisheries and aquaculture provide for diversification as well as value addition in farming practies. They enable optimisation of water productivity in different situations including ponds, tanks, lakes, canal systems, water logged and waste lands xvi derelict waters. In case of aquaculture, scope exists for bringing more candidate fish species under the umbrella of aquaculture, both in fresh and brackish waters with a focus on food fish, high value species, ornamental species and those with potentials for sport and tourism. Ready availability of inputs like seed, feed, fertilizer, medicines, fisheries requisites, etc. is a pre-condition for development. Establishment of Aqua-shops , as a single window facility for the purpose is expected to bring about a major change in the sector. 7.0 Seed is a critical input for successful culture and culture-based practices. The projected annual requirement of carp seed is to the tune of 34,000 million carp fry, 10,000 million shrimp and 8,000 million scampi PL and 2

millions seabass. The feed requirements for freshwater aquaculture by the end of next plan is estimated at 3.15 million t for freshwater aquaculture including grow-out and seed production and 0.23 million t for brackishwater aquaculture. 8.0 For all round development of fisheries sector, it is high time to: implement the code of conduct for responsible fisheries; utilize strong traditional wisdom and know-how by active community participation; address gender issues; strengthen the capacities of fishers and aquafarmers regarding latest technological practices, administrative skills, disaster management, etc.; intensify efforts for treating aquaculture at par with agriculture; explore areas of public-private partnerships; strengthen the institutional credit support and public investments; harmonise fisheries policies in concurrence with the recent developments both at national and international levels; and strengthening the inter and intra linkages between fisheries sector and other concerned departments. xvii 9.0 The nomenclature of Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying (DAH&D) was changed to Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries during the X Plan. The Department implemented schemes under two broad heads, Development of Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture and Development of Marine Fisheries, Infrastructure and Post harvest operations during the Plan period, along with some ongoing schemes from the IX plan, modified to some extent. The seven schemes were: Development of marine fisheries, Development of inland fisheries and aquaculture, Marine infrastructure and post harvest operations, Strengthening of database and IT scheme, Welfare of fishermen and training & extension, Fisheries institutes and National Fisheries Development Board. The overall financial achievements indicated that of the allocated budget of Rs 771 crore, the anticipated expenditure is Rs

608.3 crore, which is around 80% of allocation. 10.0 Keeping in view the above scenario and review of the X Plan schemes, it is relevant to look at the prevailing concerns that need to be addressed in order to design intervention points during XI Plan. The concerns pertain to water availability and allocation, biodiversity loss & depletion of fish stocks, excess coastal fishing, enhancing fish productivity, oceanic and deep sea fisheries, impact of climate change on fisheries, trans-boundary fisheries issues, inland & coastal pollution, large-scale sedimentation of rivers, estuaries & lakes/wetlands, effective compliance of code of conduct of responsible fisheries, increasing input costs of water and power, high marine fishing costs & low profitability, mechanization in fisheries and aquaculture, cold chain and hygienic fish handling, quality assurance issues in exports, overseas market fluctuations, disaster management, credit and insurance, inadequate database and poor linkage in domestic marketing. The programmes in the coming plan would need to address these aspects to build in greater resilience and sustainability. xviii 11.0 Further, areas with promise that need to be supported in order to achieve diversification in terms of non-food fisheries are ornamental fisheries, seaweed, pearl culture, aqua-tourism, sport fisheries and molluscan fisheries for ornamental purposes. The strategy for realizing the potentials of the sector are: Ensuring adoption of responsible and sustainable fishery practices and enhancing fish productivity in all cultivable waters, Establishing agro-aqua farms, aqua-shops and fishery estates to incorporate activities from production to consumption, Spreading fish quality literacy among fishers and aqua-farmers, Improving facilities for fish landing and handling at harvest and postharvest stages, Developing social marketing techniques, Introducing

aquarian reforms, with regard to leasing and management of waters, ownership and community management and Training in different aspects of fisheries and aquaculture. 12.0 The main Objectives of the Government of India with regard to development programmes in fisheries and aquaculture during the Eleventh Five Year Plan are: Enhancing the production of fish from Indian waters on an environmentally sustainable and socially equitable basis, Address the hitherto unexplored potentials of Indian fisheries e.g. island fisheries and non-food fisheries, Conservation of aquatic resources and genetic diversity, preservation of health of ecosystems, Increasing profitability of fishers and aqua-farmers through an integrated approach from production to consumption, Promoting fish as health food and meeting the changing requirements of both domestic and export markets, Strengthening of Infrastructure in harvest, post-harvest, value-addition and marketing and Upliftment of fishers and aqua-farmers communities with gainful employment opportunities and capacity strengthening. xix 13.0 To cater to the objectives, the schemes of X Plan are recommended to continue with few modifications and new components. In Marine Fisheries, the existing components to be continued are Motorization of traditional crafts, Forecasting and resource estimation through PFZ and dissemination of estimates, Provision for Ice boxes for traditional/ small scale sector, Sea safety measures, Installation of Artificial Reefs and FADs. The new initiatives suggested are Diversification/reduction of excess capacity of costal fishing vessels, LPG kits for outboard engines, adoption of Squid jigging technology, Introduction of resource- specific deep sea fishing vessels, MCS/VMS activities and Sea ranching. The new activities suggested under mariculture are Fishfish/shellfish hatcheries,

Mariculture development for finfish, open sea cage farming and culture of other commercially important species, Seaweed culture and HRD in modern fishing and open sea mariculture. 14.0 Under the scheme for Development of Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture, ongoing components of Capture fisheries and Aquaculture are recommended for continuation during the XI Plan. The new initiatives suggested under the scheme are: Survey, assessment and evaluation of inland aquatic resources, Improving productivity of inland open-water fisheries including reservoirs; Magur breeding, hatchery establishment and seed production Advanced & Upgraded protocols for Carp breeding, Seed certification, Certified Brood banks for food and ornamental fishes under freshwater aquaculture; Hatchery establishment and Seed production of Seabass and Pearl spot under brackishwater aquaculture, Establishment of Mahseer seed production facility, Construction of Community Raceways for Trout Farming in Hilly Regions under coldwater fisheries; Establishment of Centres/Facilities in States for surveillance, monitoring and reporting of fish diseases, Establishment of Fish quarantine centers under Conservation of fish stock and diversity and general activities as Establishment of Aqua- shops, State level soil-water xx testing and disease diagnostics laboratories and construction of Aqua-TechPark. 15.0 The components suggested under scheme Marine Infrastructure and Post Harvest Operations are: Harvest and post-harvest, Marketing, Processing and Value addition. The harvest activities suggested for the XI Plan are: construction of new and upgradation of existing major and minor fishing harbours and landing centers. The post-harvest activities include construction of processing plants and new model retail fish markets, modernisation of 10 wholesale markets, facilities of Transport & insulated containers to societies,

provision for marketing (Kiosk) for women SHGs and value addition for SHGs. The infrastructures required for aquaculture are: facilities for domestication of Penaeus monodon and Establishment of SPF- seed multiplication center, Holding centres, PCR labs, sales counters for brood stock and Testing facilities for feed, seed & fish. 16.0 Under the scheme Welfare programmes, Governance, Transfer of technology and Capacity building , continuation of ongoing programmes on Development of Model fishers villages, Group accident scheme for active fishers and Saving-cum-Relief under Welfare Programmes and Establishment of Awareness Centers, Training programmes for fishers, Extension literature & Video films, Trainers training & Refresher courses under Capacity building and Awareness creation is recommended. The new initiatives suggested are: Hut insurance scheme, Group insurance of fishers and farmers Mediclaim policy, Incentives to Fisherwomen groups (SHG), Safety at sea and Assistance to FISHCOPFED under Welfare Programmes; formulation of National Fisheries Development Policy under policy issues, Co-management, CCRF and certification of boatyards and hatcheries under Mangement and governance; Capacity building at the State level Use of IT in ToT, Programmes for EDUSAT, Vocational education in fisheries schools, Capacity building of fisheries co-operative xxi Associations, NGOs, SHGs, Strengthening of Service delivery system under Human resource development; Revitalization of Co-operatives, Capacity building/training and Demand generation for fish under Cooperatives and Public-Private partnerships; Location-specific field trials and Demonstration units, Trickle down extension and Involving NGOs in ToT under Demonstration and Exhibitions; and Fisheries Technology Dissemination Centres (FTDC) and ToT units at ICAR institutes /SAUs under Co-ordination and Linkages.

17.0 The scheme on Strengthening of Database and Information Networking includes the activities of Sample Survey for estimation of inland fishery resources, their potential and fish production; Census on marine fisheries; Catch assessment survey for inland and marine fisheries; Development of GIS for inland and marine fisheries and Delineation of Brackishwater areas, assessment of productivity & production. 18.0 The scheme for fisheries institutes has four institutes under DAHD&F. Ongoing Schemes recommended for Fishery Survey of India, Mumbai (FSI) are Survey of coastal pelagic resources and Creation of infrastructure facilities. The new initiatives of FSI are Strengthening of Extension Division, Acquisition of new vessels, dredgers slip-way and Mini Dry-dock at Kochi; Resources monitoring in inshore waters ; Development of fisheries forecast models; Surveys and Investigations of Coral Reef Ecosystems and Training of Scientific and Technical personnel. The activities of Central Institute of Fisheries Nautical Engineering & Training, Kochi are mainly strengthening of infrastructure, besides ongoing schemes. The activities of Integrated Fisheries Project, Kochi are: Induction of new generation technologies and processing in post-harvest sector, Extending marketing efforts to cover large segments of consumers, Establishing rural appropriate technology design and dissemination center, HRD Activities in the xxii fisheries sector, Scheme to strengthen communication and information technology, Capacity building in new technologies among the staff, and Support to on-going and above new activities. The activities of Central Institute of Coastal Engineering for Fisheries are: Engineering and Economic Investigations, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Reports, Updating of Master Plan for the development of fishery

harbours/fish landing centres and Post Investment Evaluation Studies. 19.0 Establsihment of the National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB) during the Tenth Plan is a would give a major fillip to the Indian fisheries sector. It reflects the keen interest of the Government as also the potentials that the sector holds in ensuring domestic nutritional security. The proposed outlay for fisheries development during the XI Plan is Rs 4,013 crores, intended to also include the budgetary allocation made to the NFDB to the extent of Rs 2,069 crores for the XI Plan period. There is a clear delineation of the functions with the Department to focus on marine fisheries programmes, Database and Information networking, Quality broodbank and seed certification, policy and welfare programmes, whereas the Board would address the productionconsumption chain, with an emphasis on marketing, in partnerships with Government and private agencies. 20.0 With the pressures on land increasing, the options are in the seas for fisheries as well as a number of high value products. Further, aquaculture being a compatible activity with other farming practices, is able to use waters of different grades, adding value to farming. Opportunities have also emerged for fostering public-private partnerships in a strong manner. Rural prosperity and gender equity through fisheries are clearly achievable goals in the Eleventh Plan. 1 CHAPTER I 1.0 Working Group and Terms of Reference 1.1 Working Group In of decision by Planning vide pursuance the taken the Commission


No. dated a on for formulation XI Year was up,

Q.13023/1/06#Agri 08.05.2006, Working

Group Fisheries the of Five plan set along with of members on need specialised inputs.

co#opting some based the for

The of Working is the

composition Group as

follows: 1 Deputy Dr. S. Ayyappan Director (Fisheries), General ICAR,

Krishi II,

Anusandhan PUSA,



Delhi 110012

Chairman 2 Adviser Dr. V.V. Sadamate (Agriculture),



Yojana Marg, New



Delhi 110001

Member 3 IAS Joint Secretary Shri Ajay Bhattacharya,


DAHD Krishi


F, Bhawan,

New Member 4 Director, Central


Dr. Dilip Kumar

Institute Fisheries (CIFE), Mumbai 400061

of Education


Member 5 Marine Chairman Products Development Export

Authority of

(MPEDA), Commerce,



House, Avenue,



No Kochi

4272, #



Member 6 Ministry Joint Secretary of Processing Food Industries,

Panch Khel Marg,

Sheel Gaon





Member 2 7 Director Dr. V. S. Somvanshi General,

Fishery India

Survey (FSI),



No.1 Botawala Sir

10004, Chambers, P.M.


Mumbai 400001

Member 8 Director, Central Marine Research Fisheries Institute Dr. M. Joseph Modayil


Kochi #


Member 9. Director, National Cooperatives Corporation, Khel Marg, Gaon Development Shri A. Sarvadeva





Member 10. National Managing Director Federation Fishermen s of Cooperatives

Ltd. 1,

(FISHCOPFED), Sarita Institutional Vihar Area,


Delhi 110076

Member 11 Head, Dr. (Mrs.) Meena Kumari Fishing Technology,


Institute Fisheries (CIFT), Willingdon

of Technology



Kochi 682029 Member 12 (Ex# Dr M. V. Gupta Asst. General, Fish Director World Centre)

302, Plot

Padmajalaya, No. Srinagar 20, Colony,

Hyderabad#500073 Member 13 Chairman Director, Shri Masthan Rao & Managing


Ind. Flat TNHB

Ltd., S#10, Complex,


Luz Road, #




Member 14 Ex# & Sr. National UNDP, Consultant, Dr. V. Sampath Advisor, DOD

39/2 New


Qr., Campus,

Chennai Member 3 15 Former


Dr. K. Gopakumar Deputy General ICAR, Cheruparambath Kadavantahra, # 682020 Director (Fisheries),




Member 16 President, Society of Professionals, M.G. Sastri Aquaculture Shri S. Santhana Krishnan


Road, Nagar,

Chennai 600041 Member 17 Director, Dr. Y. S. Yadava Bay Bengal (BoBP#IGO), of Programme


St. Road,

Marys Abhiramapuram,

Chennai 018


Member 18 Secretary Seafood Shri Elias Sait General, Exporters The




T#23, 4th Main Anna



Road, Nagar,

Chennai# Member 19 Chief


Dr John Kurien General Manager




Mumbai# Member 20 Chairman, National (NFF), 20/4,


Shri Harekrishna Debnath



Sil Kolkata#700015


Member 21 Fish Shri Sultan Singh Seed Butana, Farm,

Nilokheri, Haryana Member 22 Director,


Dr. A.K.Agarwal Department Fisheries, of Haryana,


817, Enclave,

Shivalik Manimajra,

Chandigarh Member 23 Guwahati Member 24 Director, Sri P.K.Sen, IAS Department Fisheries, Bengal, of West Director of Fisheries, Assam

Kolkata Member 4 25 Commissioner Andhra Sri Sundara Kumar, IAS of Pradesh, Fisheries,

Hyderabad Member 26 Gandhi Commissioner of Fisheries, Gujarat Nagar, Gujarat

Member 27 Director, Central Inland Research Fisheries Institute Dr. K. K. Vass

(CIFRI), Barrackpore, 700 Kolkata 120

Member Secretary Co-opted Members (i) Director, II Smt Rugmini Parmar Plan Division, Finance








New 110

Delhi 001

Member (ii) Director, Central Institute Freshwater (CIFA), of Aquaculture Dr. N. Sarangi


Bhubaneswar# Member (iii) Former


Dr. P. V. Dehadrai Deputy General ICAR, 3403, Kunj, Director (Fisheries),




Delhi 110070

Member (iv) Director, Central Institute Brackishwater of Aquaculture, Dr. A.G. Ponniah


Santhome Road, Puram,

High R.A.

Chennai#600028 Member (v) Director, Central Institute Fisheries (CIFT), Island, P.O. Kochi # 682029 of Technology Dr. K. Devadasan



Member 5 (vi) Dr. W.S. Lakra

Director, National Bureau Fish Resources, Canal Ring P.O. Telibagh, Lucknow 226002 Member (v) Director, National Centre Coldwater Anusandhan Industrial Research for Fisheries, Bhawan, Area Complex, Dr. P.C. Mahanta Genetic of

Road, Dilkusha,

Bhimtal# Member (viii) Former DAHD Govt. India, House 12,


Dr. D.P.S. Chauhan Deputy & of F, Commissioner,

No.1321, R.K.Puram,





Member (ix) Dr. A.G. Sawant








No.13, no.2,



Coop. Society, Nagar,

Housing Karve

Pune 411052 Member (x) Former Dr. M. H. Mehta Vice Chancellor,




Chairman, Sciences Ltd., 9, Krishna Gorwa,

Gujarat (P)



Baroda Member (xi) Former Central


Dr. M.P. Singh Vice#Chancellor, Agricultural Manipur, University,

A#5, Plot

National 4,


Sector#3, New

Dwarka, Delhi

Member (xii) Director, PAMETI, PAU Ludhiana#141004 Member 6 (xiii) Secretary/ Dr. Sailendra Pratap Singh Nodal Officer, Campus, Dr. S.P.S. Brar


Clinics Agri# Training

& business Institute,


144 Shivpur,


Varanasi Member (xiv) Ex# Dr. P. Kumar Professor Head, &


of Economics,

Agricultural IARI,

53#A#2/B Ekta


Flat, Apartment,






Member (xv) Director, Pvt. Shri Sudhir Barghava Agroman Ltd., Systems


II TARDO, Market,

floor A.C.

Mumbai#400034 Member (xvi) Member Shri Atul Sinha, IAS Secretary,

National farmers

Commissioner (NCF),








Member (xvii) B Shri Shreekantha Shetty 104, Palace, Cross, Adarsh 47th






Member (xviii) Deputy Shri Vinayak V. Dalvi Secretary Governor Maharashtra, to of


Bhavan, Hills,


Mumbai 400001 Member (xix) Emeritus Dr. V. Veerabhadraiah Scientist, ICAR,




University Agricultural Hebbal, Bangalore

of Sciences,


Member (xx) Chief South Shri Vivekanandan Executive, Indian of Societies, Karamana, Thiruvananthapuram Member 7 Federation Fishermen

(xxi) Palliparampil,

Shri Jossy Balliparambil, Seas, Green

Munambam, Ernakulam Member (xxii) Former & Dr. S.D. Tripathi Director, CIFE, CIFA


Ankita, Nagar, Bunglows,

SVP Four

Versova, Mumbai# Member (xxiii) Former Late Dr. D.N. Jha Director, NCAP, 400053


798 Sushant

A, Lok,

Gurgaon Member (xxiv) ICSF, Dr. Chandrika Sharma 27 Road, College

Chennai#600006 Member (xxv) Dr. R. Srinivasan


Society Aquaculture

of Professionals,

PC#1, Main

Mugappair Road,




Chennai Member 8 1.2 Terms of Reference The


Terms Reference the Group as

of for Working are follows:

i) To a review the of on#going Central Centrally Schemes/programmes fisheries with to objectives targets during Plan to their

undertake critical of progress the

and Sponsored in sector reference their and

XI and recommend continuation/

discontinuation/modifications/ convergence also initiatives,

and fresh if with investments. any tentative

ii) identify various and in implementation the

To the problems constraints the of on#going

development in the sector in of fishing/distant fishing, water coastal aquaculture, development fishing harbours, seed processing marketing network, fishers,


fisheries especially development deep#sea water fresh and

infrastructural including

fish hatcheries, and

welfare etc.


iii) To

suggest including issues

measures policy for



and in aquaculture, fisheries, water including long leasing

productivity freshwater/coastal reservoir cold fisheries uniform term of water etc. suitable bodies,

iv) To

suggest action for and of quantum fish for and

an plan production standardization

adequate of seed freshwater coastal aquaculture



v) suggest measures supplementing fish catch sustainable of sea resources, reduction by mariculture, replenishment

To concrete for marine

by exploitation deep fishery

of catch resource

programmes up artificial etc. vi) suggest steps creation post infrastructure fishing fish centers, processing network inland 9 vii) suggest for of fisheries pearl ornamental etc. supplement production from To To

like of reefs,


necessary for of harvest for harbours, landing


marketing including fisheries.

measures development non#food for culture, fisheries, to

and fisheries.


viii) To effective management for on fishing

suggest fisheries measures ban

during standardization sizes different

monsoon, mesh in

categories fishing conservation aquatic etc.

of gear, of bio#diversity, in with of for fisheries by etc. accordance code conduct responsible



ix) To the fisheries extension, and welfare for and effective for strengthening in and improving economic livelihood socio#economic etc. x) To current of and support, credit suggest to

review on#going training, HRD

measures fishers suggest steps

HRD fisheries for socio# and issues, development,

review availability extension information institutional and measures




xi) To programmes strengthening fishery operatives more units increasing operational xii) Working

develop for of co# into organized and their efficiency.

group co#opt other expert/

may any official/non#official

representative organizations if

of required.

any member(s),

xiii) The group also and any issues,

working may examine address other which be important, not may considered but specifically

spelt in ToRs devise own for

out the and its procedures

conducting including


business meetings.

xiv) The group be by Central Fisheries Institute ICAR), Kolkata. CHAPTER 2

working will serviced the Inland Research (under Barrackpore, 10

2.0 Indian Fisheries Status, Potentials and Issues 2.1 Fish for All India is major state an aquaculture a maritime and important country

in world Indian is sunrise With position

the and fisheries a sector. third in and in the has fisheries second aquaculture, country high

potentials the for

in sector rural

development, nutritional security, generation, mainstreaming well export only other can Look the Seas the thinking harnessing fish#related as also


employment gender as as earnings, few activities provide. to that

is recent for the wealth,

a of products the This not an but a for to over of global with of and of of whole

number related from waters. is only

option, also necessity us sustain 16% the population, 2.4% land 4.2% water the world.

India, water from seas cold streams over 10% the biodiversity earth, high for fish,

with ranging the to hill and

of fish on has scope producing along a possibility utilising variety wastewaters, high of a of with

also them in process fish water#consumptive of coupled its compatibility other systems neutrality scale investments, integrated farming a scale. a

rendering better the of cultivation. nature aquaculture, with


with farming and to of enable fish on large With

heritage marine riverine recent entrepreneurial and creditable in global the is to greater in the

in and fisheries, innovations, enthusiasm a performance the market, sector poised make contributions




Fisheries has witnessing steady from

sector been a growth the

First Year The fish was 6.3 t during

Five Plan. annual production over million

2004#05 around million in (Fig &

from 0.75 t 1950#1951 2.1 2.2).

The fish increased 0.53

marine production from million

t 1950#51 to

in 11 a of million in and million during maximum 2.99 t 2002#03 2.78 t

0.75 1.16 1.76 2.44 3.84 5.66 5.96 6.20 6.40 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 1950-51 1960-61 1970-71 1980-81

1990-91 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 (million t) Figure 2.1 Total fish production for past five and half decades

(Source: 2005) 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0


1950-51 1960-61 1970-71 1980-81 1990-91 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 (million t) Marine Inland Figure 2.2 Fish production from marine and inland sectors over the last five decades (Source: 2005)12 2004#05. contribution inland The of sector DAHD&F,

to fish of country increased a rate, 0.218 t 1950#51 3.52 t 2004#05. from purely traditional aquaculture fisheries transformed commercial throwing uncommon for employment contribution the and security foreign earnings the The of fisheries reached Rs crore 2004#05 about 245

the basket the has at higher from million during to million in Starting a

activity, and have to enterprises, up opportunities

generation, to food nutrition and exchange in country. GDP

sector at 29,707 during from Rs crores

during Presently, and aquaculture

1970#71. fisheries

contribute of national of country the GDP the and



of and activities 2.3 2.4).

agriculture allied (Figs. &

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 1970-71 1980-81 1990-91 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Agriculture in Rs 000 crore 0 5

10 15 20 25 30 Fisheries in Rs 000 crore Total Agriculture Total Fisheries Figure 2.3 Gross Domestic Product of agriculture and fisheries sectors (Source: 2005; 2005)13 1.46 2.17 3.37 4.81 4.87 5.33 5.34 4.70 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1970-71 1980-81 1990-91 2000-01 DAHD&F, CSO,

2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Percentage Figure 2.4 Percentage share of fisheries sector in agriculture (Source: 2005; 2005) Fish as food its in nutritional of DAHD&F, CSO,

health and role ensuring security the

country been with fisheries taking fisheries aquaculture large movement fish becoming reality over country. shifts marine fisheries inland in of became

has appreciated, non#traditional states to and and scale of

a all the Paradigm from

to fisheries terms production clear

during last and increasing from culture over fisheries both and sectors. has significant all from production

the decade, further contributions

practices capture in marine inland Diversification been at stages

to whether is food to it

consumption, from fish ornamental

fish, to and exportable from to variety products further overseas to number countries.

carps catfish scampi, items shrimp a of and the markets a of

2.2 Indian status in global fisheries Globally, production capture and was fish from fisheries aquaculture

over t 000 to 20 t 950. The declined 117 t 1998 now Indian in production reached per with 9.92%

130 in as

million 2 compared nearly million in

production to million in and recovered. share global has 4.36% cent

in and in For sector is

inland 2.8% marine. inland India ranked


after Other producer are Japan,

China. major countries China, 14

the States, Russian and Indian share the trade increased 6.1%

United the Federation Indonesia.

in global has from (4.37

million in 1992 6.5% million in (Figs. and There a steady


to (6.40 t) 2003 2.5 2.6). is

increase the indicating positive exports a trend.


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Year 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 million t World India Figure 2.5 Global and Indian fish exports (Source: 2005; DAHD&F, CSO,

2005, 2006) 5.20 5.40 5.60 5.80 6.00 6.20 6.40 6.60 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 % share Share


Figure 2.6 Share of Indian fish exports in world trade (Source: 2005; DAHD&F, CSO,

2005, 2006)15 2.3 Livelihood Fisheries one the sources livelihood the poor, particularly fisher The is with enormous and waters, provide livelihood employment In of waters, fisheries open (Rivers, Floodplains Estuaries) is of main of for rural


the community. country endowed

inland marine which immense and opportunities. case inland

in waters Reservoirs, and are, of type, have potentials subsistence yet, high although,

for enhancement. The catches these

production fish from waters

contribute to food nutritional Inland aquaculture witnessed highest rate emerged the important contributing to sector. The livelihood exist both poor large farmers through

significantly their and security.

has the growth and as most and activity fisheries

options for the and fish

horizontal vertical of enterprise. the

and integration Similarly,

marine is major of for of along coast. the fishery almost its

fisheries a source livelihood lakhs people the While inshore has attained

potential, scope in sea along mariculture post#harvest addition. total of fisheries was 31,672 during with domestic valued Rs crores 2005). this level output, 90 people be at level annual of 30,000/Fisherman. The of and is and

immense exists deep fisheries, with and value The output

sector Rs crores 2003#04 net product at 27,026 (CSO, With

of over lakh may employed subsistence of income Rs share marine inland 54 46% respectively. sector

2.4 Employment


fisheries has providing to nine been

sector employment over lakh


time 11 part fishermen fishing

and lakh time through operations.

The of involved marine related included four in marketing, lakh repairs fisheries

number people in fisheries activities nearly lakh fish three in of requisites, 50,000 fish and lakh in processing four in around

other activities. all, estimated lakh are engaged

ancillary In an 31.5 people

in and operations or that

fishing farming directly indirectly, is


to increase the Plan 16

further during XI period.

2.5 Exports Fisheries exports India become important of exports, the of Over products from have an component

agricultural to extent 18%. fifty are exported as destinations over world India making

to many all the and is a in fish also the years. mark ornamental exports in recent

Between and Five Plan, quantity fish increased 62% quantity over in

VIII IX Year the of exports by in and 117% value

(Table It improved share exports total and the integration


the of in output enhanced

of sector global A towards of

the with market. trend export


value and of fish domestic is

fish retention other for market seen

in recent Continuous of markets compliance changing to competitive no emphasis. projected from sector end XI Plan 1.06 t

the years. monitoring overseas and of standards remain needs

The exports fisheries by of

is million in

quantity Rs 000 in (Fisheries

and 15, crore value Division, 2006a).

Table 2.1 Growth in fisheries exports and integration with international markets Average annual exports Average annual production % exports of production Five Year Plan Quantity ( 000 t) Value (Rs crores) Quantity ( 000 t) Value (Rs crores) Quantity Value VIII IX 287 3094 4819 12359 5.95 25.03 379 5536 5595 24558 6.78 22.54

X Source:

463 6716 6301 32327 7.35 20.78 Estimates on 2006, 2000 2005 MPEDA, CSO, & based

A conducted NCAP, Delhi that fisheries

study by New indicated although export performed and competitive the has well quite in global

market, relative advantage declined recent years. in world is major

the competitive has in

However, the trade the



of fisheries from The of export be influenced the compliance

export India. future fisheries would

by consistent with

food measures (HACCP SPS Cost implementation these measures


and standards). of of 17 has a biasness has against scale and worked smaller shown

Plants. requires policies support to designed minimize cost compliance international standards

This government and system be to the of with

to smaller viable export#competitive.

make plants and Steps

should taken devise institutional to bring small and under network enable to

be to appropriate mechanisms

scattered producers processors a to them participate

in emerging procedure reap

the processing to the of global trade. benefits expanding fish

2.6 Coastal fisheries It is knowledge now not in but over common by that only India, all the

world, coastal is pressures high intensities.

that fisheries under of fishing Being multi#gear multi#species open#access, and fisheries,

there been in the units maintaining fisheries. to are incidences pollution coastal waters

have problems regulating fishing and sustainable Added this the of of and thereby,

the healthy fish Interventions introduction by reduction devices,

need maintain


stocks. like of catch

sea fish devices, with

ranching, aggregating along mariculture

practices to and marine in the


necessary compliment sustain fisheries



2.7 Island fisheries While coastal are fishing the of fisheries under pressures, fisheries the

island and as as deep


Andamans Lakshadweep, well the sea

resources, tunas, highly is

including are under#exploited. a



need diversified practices, of sea vessels well on#shore for for export and

for fishing provision deep fishing as as facilities processing, both



2.8 Demand and supply for fish Demand for and products increasing both at domestic export This been due the fish fishery is considerably,

and front. has caused to health


and perception fish a food high 18 digestible PUFA cholesterol capabilities.

the of as healthy with levels

of protein, and lowering The projected for

demand fish

in country 2012 9.74 t (Fisheries 2006a, 2006) 5.9 t domestic (Fig. The Plan need address this along the concerns. the implications WTO, will greater for and value#added and products. projected of is million by with share 5.34 t

the by is million

Division, NCAP, including million for market 2.7) current would to

demand, with quality Considering

of there be demand improved

fish fisheries The supply fish 9.60 t 2012 major of million from

inland followed 3.10 t marine (Fig. Home consumption 60% Exports 7% Other 33%

aquaculture by million from fisheries 2.8)

Home consumption Exports Other Figure 2.7 Composition of projected fish demands by 2011-12 (Source: ICAR, Fisheries 2006a) Division,

2965 680 1121 2728 3150 5338 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000

6000 Marine fisheries Inland Fisheries Inland Aquaculture (000 t) 2005-06 2011-12 Figure 2.8 Sector wise projected fish supply by 2011-12 (Fisheries 2006a; 2006) 2.9 Water quality and ownership India endowed vast large bodies small waters. waters multiple ownerships stakeholders. times, constrain of for realising is with open water and closed These have uses, and At these adoption technologies Division, NCAP, 19 ICAR,

the potentials the and

full of waters result

in levels fish production. of regime, of natural stocks, degradation, losses, require attention. waters also by environmental and modifications water schemes the The ownership such bodies sustainable of stocks be through participation management. also time implement code conduct fish ecosystem economic etc., immediate Open are constrained Therefore,

low of

concerns property overexploitation

degradation manmade through diversion affecting fisheries. multiple of water for exploitation fish can achieved community and It high to the of for is




2.10 Diversification It an fact in fisheries, capture culture, is accepted that inland whether or the gaps significant need be in to realise full Besides the production, production can diversified integration agriculture allied It help optimising water productivity these systems utilisation canal systems, logged lands the potentials. enhancing fish are and to filled order yield

activities be through with and sectors. will in the

using farming and of

water waste and

derelict In of aquaculture, exists bringing candidate species under

waters. case

scope for more fish

the of both fresh brackish

umbrella aquaculture, in and waters


a on fish, value ornamental and

focus food high species, species

those for and


potentials sport tourism.

2.11 Seed Seed the critical for successful practices, a focused with to of existing infrastructure production being input culture needs

attention regard strengthening the

for and

rearing, and aspects. projected of of in culture, wetland reservoir that mostly is the tune 34,400 annually. high commodity has promise in recent is scampi, giant freshwater which require 8,000 seed achieve target coverage over million in XI period. in

transport quality The requirement seed carps, pond 20 and fisheries are carp#based, to

of million Another value that shown the years the the

prawn, would about million to the area of 0.2 ha the Plan Similarly, brackishwater

aquaculture, shrimp requirement

the seed would of order 10,000 In context the of million. the of be

increasing there be requirement seed

diversification, would additional of of species catfishes, and fishes. other like seabass ornamental

There also regarding quality the with reference size species. case freshwater the need improved with to and resistance increasing, also species,

are concerns the of seed

to and In of aquaculture,

for breeds reference growth disease is as exotic both

in of fishes ornamental Availability the Rohu raised productivity in aquaculture similar efforts other and levels dissemination quality seed required. means also increasingly adopted the years accordingly, of and Intellectual Management sharing detailed discussions relevant put place. this certification seed

case food and fishes. of improved has the levels freshwater and

in species higher of of

are Biotechnological would be

in coming and issues biosafety

Property and require

and measures in In context, of and

accreditation hatcheries of importance. guidelines this have prepared, that

of are utmost Relevant in regard been

require be during XI

to implemented the Plan.

21 Box 2.1 Proposals for fish seed certification Domestication species advancements induced technology enabled country achieve propagation several species. seed of industry of and in breeding have the to captive of fish The demand aquaculture is met the systems the Sustainable of quality seed quantities is to rising primarily through hatchery in country. production

in that commensurate the demand

is paramount importance.


To the of it essential production use breeding husbandry as scientific There a need develop

ensure quality seed, is that units broodstock, and practices per norms. is growing to standard



hatcheries accreditation hatcheries on norms be to

and of based these will essential maintain

the quality seed for control

supply seed. sound certification seed for crop

of A system quality the

plants Seed 1966) available, there

(Indian Act, is but is

no guidelines ensure accreditation

definite to proper of in sector policy for seed hatcheries fishery Therefore, guidelines quality production needed the sector.


urgently in fisheries

Seed certification Process through Accreditation of Hatcheries Accreditation hatcheries produce seed be practical than certification seed In other process i.e. of management is considered better than product certification Testing seed words, certification certification hatchery practices a way the alone. of for to norms, be the could part compliance of to certified could more approach

of batches.

of of accreditation Requisites The requisites the process Identification fish are with necessary for certification are: of that cultured hatchery seed; guidelines criteria standards certification seed centres; agency/authority accreditation hatcheries well

the hatchery procedures.

bred Appropriate and of for

of producing

Designated for of with equipped


manpower, and capabilities analytical


Establishment of an Empowered Agency MPEDA is seed fish

entrusted certification brackishwater seed species, for aquaculture no was for

for of hatcheries while

other species agency empowered

accreditation hatcheries. agency will regulated monitored Government India. agency have responsibilities (i) operation seed programme; develop infrastructure manpower financial (iii) or testing laboratories; be

of The

and by of The would the to: ensure of certification (ii) necessary facilities, and resources; establish recognize

(iv) up issues to problem; prescribe certification the

take pertaining (v) the fee;


(vi) for in certification and (vi) educational in and prepare

recommend modification seed standard procedures; develop programme association (vii) detailed

manuals seed practices

on production and procedures testing

Role of ICAR The institutes play crucial towards Disease/pathogen capabilities, for Start#up and facilities, backstopping resolve issues. ICAR will provide to help establishing expertise infrastructure the certification authorities Govt. India. General procedures for accreditation of hatchery Procedures for accredition Registration hatcheries hatchery include: of with ICAR will a role developing diagnostic Guidelines certification, diagnostic analytical Technical to emerging The institutes also consultancies

in technical and with designated

of of


the agency for Necessary and of field production standards accreditation, verifications evaluation prescribed and


by Agency, at stages harvesting, and

the Evaluation various of packing transportation,

Certification accredited for of norms quality for production their Separate for for types species, hybrids improved and and norms verification hatcheries producing varieties hybrids, of certificate


the hatcheries compliance specific or standards

of produce, accredition hatcheries various of

and varieties different stringent for of

improved and Printing test and

sealing as approved

tags per format accredited after of of by hatcheries grant certificate accreditation.

Source: Fisheries 2006b22 2.12 Conservation Indian biodiversity terms over fish shellfish species the brackishwater, and environments a and resource with countries the With climatic as as anthropogenic both and it to



fish in of 2,200 and

in marine, freshwater coldwater is rich diverse available few in world. perceptible changes well

pressures, fishing others, needs be


for fisheries aquaculture. the coastal and

sustained In seas,

overfishing impacting fish requiring like reducing capacities well ranching. measures Fish Devices Artificial are initiated

is the stocks, measures

fishing as as Enhancement like Aggregating and reefs being that greater need emphasis.

Similar the with open such rivers lakes. restoration, up habitats sanctuaries, of with of broodstock require

is situation inland waters as and Habitat setting protected and ranching rivers seed river#based

to undertaken conserve

be to biodiversity.

Ex situ of germplasm also greater In the marine inland implementation regulations compliance conservation fish must receive attention. both

and ecosystems, of in of Code Conduct Responsible (CCRF) the of for Fisheries is

the of hour. this the inland and aquaculture that been during X may enacted.

need the In context, model fisheries

bill has prepared the Plan be

23 Box 2.2 Model bill for inland fisheries and aquaculture The of fisheries most the activities inland in of states

are by Act on antiquated Fisheries of and lack provisions sustainable development fisheries aquaculture. Government India Model on Inland and intends ensure fish to future needs

regulated an based the Indian Act 1897 it necessary for

of and Therefore, of through Bill

Fisheries Aquaculture to sustainable production meet

of country. provisions the for inland are:

the The in bill different waters

Regulations (i) Inland fisheries Control, States adopt approach to regulation and ban on destructive gear: should precautionary

regulate prohibit

and use

of gear conserve protect the

destructive to or biodiversity.

Untenable fishing practices in inland waters: States should check wanton killing of fish juveniles and brooders restriction movement fish any fish and of of in form

Conservation of stock and resources: states notify closed in waters,

should season open make

inventory deep for and declare sensitive as protected protect physical of lakes check obstruction connectivity encroachment. should provision

of pools protection maintenance, biodiversity area

areas; the entity wetlands/floodplain though on in and State make for

protection the interest of traditional


the fishers.

Leasing/licensing of open#waters: It should be with done long#term management perspective, with period five rent should based production lease holders fishing stop of waste water lease above years, fixation be on capacity,

should efforts, dumping solid in bodies.


(ii) Aquaculture Certification of fish seed: should steps registration hatcheries, up fish committee monitor ensure of seed, on and States take for of setting of seed to and supply quality restriction breeding

propagation fish.



Inter-State movement: State to ensure labelling of the seed consignments, inspection of the consignment, provision for confiscation and destruction of the poor quality seeds. Feed quality control and certification: State take should steps to register the feed manufacturing of labelling composition be compulsory. Use of chemicals, antibiotics, etc.: State to use hazardous in units, feed, of feed to made certification

restrict of chemicals aquaculture.

Health monitoring and disease reporting/control: State should monitor the occurrence and containment disease and procedures of diseases, diagnostics reporting

(iii) Coldwater fisheries: The provisions to be made for restriction on: obstructions of the cold water streams, destructive fishing practices, encroachments, pollution, fishing and fish selling in closed season.

(iv) Environmental and human health issues: Systematic environment impact assessments (EIA) shall made for projects with and Assessment health of fish in waste are be be mandatory all related aquaculture fisheries.


hazards the produced the waters to made..

(v) Exotic species: restrictions introduction, or of exotic and

on culture breeding prohibited species, strict of quarantine the norms. enforcement

General guidelines The bill guidelines successful of and of: Responsible and Domestic of Institutional model provides for implementation activities issues

fisheries aquaculture, marketing fish, support,


departmental Stakeholder for management Conservation and

coordination, participation better and



Source: ICAR, 2.13 A constraint aquaculture particularly freshwater, been ready of like feed, fertilizer, fisheries etc. of shops , single facility the is to

Fisheries 2006c24


Aqua-shops major for development,

has the availability inputs seed,

medicines, requisites, Establishment Aqua# as a window for purpose expected bring


a change the

major in sector.

2.14 Infrastructure


perishability fish with post#harvest has coupled poor



lead high even the of in marine inland Therefore, of infrastructure form better landing handling cold storage ice transportation, as as effective system identified is a requirement for

to losses, to extent 15%, both and fisheries. strengthening post#harvest in of fish and facilities, chains, facilities, plants, etc., well

marketing in areas key

the of sector. this


2.15 Capital formation and output Importance capital for of formation long

term of sector well Capital may private public. private sector

growth any is known. formation be or The

capital improves and efficiency

formation assets production and

public investments infrastructure Both are

sector provide support. these essential long growth output economy. The for term of and gross

fixed formation fisheries over past Plans

capital in has increased the three (CSO, & with interesting being there considerable from private 2000 2005), the aspect that


contribution the sector

(Table It emphasised there a for investment the sector that is need greater by public in coming 25

2.2). is

the years.

Table 2.2 Capital formation and output of fisheries sector during past three Five Year Plans Average Annual Output Five Year Plan Average annual Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) (Rs crores) Quantity ( 000 t) Value (Rs crores) GFCF/Output Ratio VIII 4819.06 12.43 IX 5594.60 13.07 1561.80 12566.40

3210.60 24558.00

X 6299.50 15.45 Source:

4896.00 31682.50

Estimates on 2000 2005 CSO, &


2.16 Community participation The has strong wisdom know#how different of and While programmes could greatly harnessing it also that there country a traditional and in aspects fisheries aquaculture. the

benefit by these, is imperative

should an community for successful active

be participation their

implementation. this it be beneficial success

In contenxt, would highly if stories disseminated replicated other are and in places.

2.17 Gender issues Traditionally, have an role the sector, much the handling, and marketing carried by Therefore, need attention improve role status, in of small#scale co#operatives, awareness#raising, savings women played important in fisheries with of post#harvest processing

being out them. women special to their and particularly, case

fisheries, training,

and schemes, implementing promotion

credit planning, and of

alternative strategies.



2.18 Disaster management Fisheries are prone natural in enterprises highly to calamities, the

context both and fisheries, terms cyclones, floods, as as recent which the coastal

of marine inland in of

landslides well the tsunami, struck

India the time havoc misery the

for first created and for fishers

with to livelihood infrastructure. it imperative

regard their and Hence, is to the fishers such in 26 protect coastal from disasters future

for advance systems, rescue and rehabilitation be Necessary in of

which warning timely relief

should ensured. safeguards terms

bio#shields mangrove along coasts well preparedness capacity would to built Comprehensive schemes compensation are

with plantations the as as and building need be in. insurance and mechanisms required provide resilience the to greater to sector.

2.19 At par with agriculture The fisheries in is with poor, and nourished belonging one the sector India associated the illiterate

under population to of economically weakest of society. sector caters the country's

sections the The immensely to

protein and highest earnings registered export


growth among commodities. aquaculture documented of highest rate production, fisheries providing and and security the and greater of Government form the as agriculture. is matter concern aquaculture being as industry concessions

rate agriculture Freshwater

one the growth in while is livelihood food nutritional to community deserves support the in of incentives/concessions in It a of that is treated an and available agriculture not to are extended aqua#farmers. in

The in of: Income relief;

assistance form (i) Tax (ii)

Power water supply concessional (iii) facility interest free/differential of Insurance drought flood


at rates; Loan on

rate interest; cover and relief; subsidy inputs, etc. be (v) on transportation, may provided (iv) and




2.20 Public- private partnership Public#private whether or have contributed success in over years, they are a in marine Most the stocks inland partnerships, formal informal,

to stories agriculture the but

only few the sector. of fish in

and sector either over#exploited reached maximum yields. the to and to production an level, between fishers public institutions needed observing seasons, of craft gear, of marine etc. will to based

marine have been or their sustainable For stocks recover continue provide at optimal collaboration

and sector is in closed use non#destructive and establishment


protected that lead community# fisheries or Greater


management co#management. collaboration

between Government and communities is

the agencies fishing/farming

required the and

for development management

of property resources such village/panchayat etc. is


as ponds/tanks, There ample

scope partnerships from stage seed culture, handling, and addition, marketing, control, Specific by Government terms infrastructure and estates further by private and concessions

for right the of production, post#harvest processing value

quality etc. interventions the in of development fishery for operations the sector tax would needed. be

2.21 Capacity strengthening Sustainable can be through of fisheries only achieved improvement

the technical and of resource managing in country, consonance the changing Raising cadre officers various to and fishery programmes critically For an adequate to and organisations, and would the requirement. also to laid fisher#women operatives self#help Incentive should introduced

quality, skills management human

fisheries the in with rapidly needs. a of at levels plan execute development is important. such effort, funding strengthen streamline infrastructure manpower be basic Emphasis needs be on co# and groups. schemes be to fisheries in promote

the sector, that

co#operative so the

weaker not of due

sections deprived their earnings.


2.22 Finance While has considerable financing activities in there been Institutional of

marine and processing the four that inland and has largely

fisheries fish over last decades,

in fisheries aquaculture been through middlemen, and money This also major for the growth The financing

merchants traditional lenders. is a concern achieving projected rates. major institutions fisheries are sector NABARD for

and The ground credit (GLC) by during three varied Rs crores in to 1,301 crores level disbursements NABARD last years between 539 2002#03 Rs

NCDC. 28

in and provisional for current is the

2004#05 estimates the year

Rs crores. of flow the of hour. For purpose, mechanisms to developed. example, fishers aqua#farmers provide in terms land/water and

1,720 Enhancement credit is need the

this suitable need be For most and cannot security

of holdings several

banks not the requisite to the The GLC XI

do have

manpower evaluate proposals. projected for Plan to tune Rs crores compared a is the of 13,336 as to provisional

estimate 6,198 during X


Rs crores the Plan.

2.23 Policy Fish waters, seas inland is by number processes, natural anthropogenic. and aquaculture multi#stakeholder Existing and regulations regard water, in whether or waters, impacted a of both and Fisheries

are enterprises. laws

with to environment

and resource management high on activities. the country


have implications the Further,

is a to international mostly

also signatory several agreements,


marine While fisheries is subject agriculture, is to a for the acts which is This enable a


S like


it necessary develop broad framework harmonising various

under fisheries administered. would

addressing issues as matters fisheries, Illegal

international such WTO on

Unregulated Unreported quality of

and fishing, control fisheries

products, safety with inclusion Code Conduct for Fisheries, leasing, availability, inter#state

sea measures the of of

Responsible land seed insurance, fisheries introduction exotics management, of fish/shellfish

species, fisheries aquaculture par agriculture tariff for and freight for and seed regular of of and aspects. the to with like wages, long hours, exposure

treating and at with in rates electricity water, rates fish shrimp transport, monitoring patterns subsidy related Also, measures deal issues minimum

working illiteracy, to

high without protection, could incorporated the level document. 2.24 Governance In of fisheries programmes based, the developments at level, is imperative


etc. be in national policy 29

view the development being and rapid happening global it knowledge#

that staff of Fisheries in

the members the Departments the

States continuously and to better management Greater of Departments

are trained retrained, enable

practices. professionalisation the is need the of day. the

2.25 Linkages

Development mandate the provision enabling mechanisms infrastructure, and becomes pivotal While transfer extension become in context, out on continuous in with Departments importance the As example, of fishermen while along southeast northwest coasts need be up the of Affairs,

being of DAHD&F, of


including technologies finance, a function. technology and

important this sorting problems a basis coordination other assumes at macro#level. for imprisonment

straying fishing the and

would to taken with Ministry Home

Defence External Environmental that impacting in situations need be with

and Affairs. restrictions are fisheries several would to discussed the of and and Resources. Ministries Environment Forests Water

Similarly, are that need deliberations with Ministries Commerce, Processing Rural Development, etc. 2.26 Benefit-cost ratios Fisheries aquaculture are the profitable among and activities. is labour intensive average

there issues would continuous

the of Food Industries,



and enterprises among most

agriculture allied Fisheries primarily

with benefit#cost

ratio 3.5 2005). Freshwater dominated carps, a share aquaculture.

at (CIFRI,

aquaculture, by has high in The benefit ratio carp system cost for grow#out is average


that much than farming 30

is higher other practices.

2.27 Approach to Eleventh Plan After analysis the growth and both within country overseas, action#plan provided the document the of sector the five an of resources, trends potentials

the and an is in


realise potentials the in next years.

This specific for development, better practices, control policy issues, of ongoing including institutions coordination stakeholders public#private partnerships. road envisages levels synergy different

includes interventions infrastructure

management quality mechanisms,

strengthening the schemes the and with and

The map high of between players, Government Private, provide for 31 both and to fish all..

CHAPTER 3 3.0 Programmes for Fisheries and Aquaculture during the X Five Year Plan Fisheries Aquaculture come be as economic in country. and have to recognised important activities the The

programmes the Government

of Union as as State were to having well the Governments seen be

perceptible the of sector. positive was that private was in context the partnerships emphasised. Department Animal Husbandry, and term was to the of Department the Plan) the schemes two umbrellas,

impacts growth the A feature


the participation significant the of

being The of

Dairying Fisheries Fisheries added


nomenclature the during X operated

under broad namely,

Development Inland Fisheries Aquaculture Development Marine Infrastructure Post operations the Plan along and


and of Fisheries, and harvest during X period, with ongoing from IX modified some some schemes the Plan, to

extent. 3.1 Financial achievements The achievements different are in Table The expenditure for schemes under financial under schemes stated

3.1. anticipated percentage the

X ranged 37 104% the expenditure around For of schemes,

Plan between to with overall


80%. most the the

utilization more than 70%, inland and and


barring fisheries aquaculture strengthening


database information (IT).

and technology 32

Table 3.1 Financial achievements of different schemes during X Plan (Rs crores) Sl No. Scheme Outlay in X Plan Expenditure till 2005-06 Anticipated expenditure 2006-07 Total expenditure % utilisation 1 Development Inland Fisheries and


Aquaculture 135.00 9.0 56.99 2. Development Marine Fisheries 125.00 14.0 70.67 3. Infrastructure and Harvest Operations 125.00 31.0 72.93 4. of and 60.16 91.16 Post 74.34 88.34 67.94 76.94



Strengthening Database IT Scheme

45.00 5.0 36.93 5. Welfare Fishermen Training Extension

11.62 16.62

of and &

135.00 22.0 89.70 6. Institutes 175.00 45.0 104.66 7. 31.00 31.00 100.00

99.09 121.09


138.15 183.15

NFDB # 31.00

8. Total 771.00 451.30 157.00 608.30 78.90 3.2 Marine fisheries In to marine existing of motorization crafts, on Speed (HSD) oil in during Plan. were and formed were operation the These continued order develop fisheries, programmes

of subsidy High Diesel



a of macro Development marine the

part scheme, of fisheries,

infrastructure post

and harvest

operations Plan. scheme encompassed components to the fishery resources. achievements different of scheme are

in The

new also exploit deep#sea

The under activities the

given Table Out the components this the targets achieved in In four

in 3.2. of five in scheme,


were only one. other components,

the was 22#43% targets, resulted lower utilization (71%). The are to continued during

achievement of which in fund schemes recommended be

the Plan in of

XI period view the

benefits to marine sector. Table 3.2 Physical achievements under Marine Fisheries scheme during X Plan Item/activity Target Achievements % achievement Motorisation craft 10,000 10,910 Introduction craft 109.10 of of

accrued the


traditional (No.)

intermediate of




62 29.03 Resources


specific sea Fishing



including Vessels

50 with

VMS 50 22.00 Safety

(No.) 11

of at (No.) sea 500


1,666 30.01

Fishermen on HSD 166,667 72,000 (KL)





Success Stories Box 3.1 Marine fisheries and Mariculture 1. Crab farming in Kerala Mr Figerado, farmer Kerala succeeded improving farm of his pond training on farming monoculture juvenile crabs Institution#Village Programme the Council Agricultural Research. has a of 49,500 Rs from single Sylvi a in has in the productivity

2#acre with imparted scientific on of

under Linkage of Indian of

He earned profit Rs and 5 a harvest





and year Presently, from monoculture juvenile he rearing high#yielding of

second respectively. apart the crabs,

is the Kuttanad


ducks getting 40#50 eggs

and around per


at 2.50/egg. says other that, whenever am of I the and the amount no

Rs He to farmers now I need money, just crabs earn required in time .


2. Fiberglass canoes for traditional fishing At Central of Technology, a the Institute Fisheries Cochin, small

size reinforced plastic (length breadth depth canoes designed, and which suitable use backwaters, waters beels. different of which commonly in particularly


(FRP) #5.78m, (middle)#0.82m, (middle)#0.385m) was developed constructed, is for in near#shore and Three types canoes, are used Assam, in fishing, fabricated taking a of original Beel were after out mould the wooden

canoes. With any of can at ost


moulds, number

canoes be a of 23,000. breakthrough attracted attention other

fabricated c Rs

This has the of

state in North eastern

governments the

region. canoes maintenance#free, lasting affordable.

(NE) The are long and

3. Mussel farming in Kerala The technology farming mussel developed CMFRI, has of edible (Perna by Kochi been


adopted a scale the of Kerala, the assistance

on commercial in villages Northern with financial from government the Gramseva Yojona state under Swamajayanthi Rosar (SGRY)

and banks. and Women groups are for mussel in

Co#operative More more self#help (SHGs) upcoming

farming the

backwaters to houses. adopting production technology

adjacent their By this

aqua#farmers producing to t in farms. NCF, DARE, 35 0.8 1.0 of their




2005; 2002#03

3.3 Development of inland fisheries and aquaculture Under macro approach, scheme launched under assistance the Plan. scheme six components: development freshwater (ii) development integrated aquaculture, development coldwater the management the was

central during X The had

(i) of aquaculture,

of coastal (iii) of fisheries aquaculture hilly (iv) of and in region, development

water areas aquaculture (v) of saline/alkaline for and

logged into estates, utilization inland soils aquaculture (vi)

inland fisheries (programme


for productivity reservoirs, etc.).

augmenting of rivers,

The assistance Rs crore proposed various States/ to inland and across country. anticipated during Plan 57%. Under the

central of 135 was to

UT s develop fisheries aquaculture the The expenditure the is

schemes, lakh area brought improved

1.3 ha was under practices

of culture

fish and

1.3 fishers imparted in aquaculture

lakh were training

practices 3.3).


Table 3.3 Physical achievements under Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture scheme during X Plan Item/activity Target Achievement % achievement Development Fisheries aquaculture Area be under cultivation to brought Fish (Lakh ha) of and Inland

1.6 81.25 Training Fish (lakh no.) 0.67 135.82 Through programme, than of area been brought aquaculture fishers than targeted


of Farmers


this more 81% targeted has

under and more the


have trained. lower utilisation been

been The fund has mainly

due inability states provide share allocation. scheme

to of to their of The is to continued suggested be with modifications recommended

in The assistance of schemes examined

components. central pattern the was critically the levels assessed with utilisation were along and


factors to observed The suggested fund under programmes given Tables to The suggestion

contributing the levels. revision 36 allocation different is in 3.4



general is

to the share 90%,

enhance central to so

that States to only instead the pattern

the need contribute 10%, of present of 75:25.

Table 3.4 Development of freshwater aquaculture (FFDAs) Description of items Current level of assistance Proposed level of assistance Construction new Rs ponds 2 per in plain lakh ha the of

areas Rs 3 per in plain lakh ha the



3 in hill and

lakh/ha the






4.5 in hill and region

lakh/ha the

States/Districts #Eastern


Reclamation/ Renovation ponds/ Rs Rs of tanks 60,000/ha 90,000/ha

Cost (i)

of Finfish

inputs Culture




a) #






Freshwater culture


Rs lakh/ha



Freshwater culture


Unit 1.8


Rs lakh/ha

Running fish

water culture in





as plain


areas Rs 20,000/unit 100 of m2

. The is of Rs 4,OOO inputs above cost inclusive



40,000/unit 100 The cost inclusive Rs towards

of m2

. above

is of



Integrated farming


Rs Rs1.20

80,OOO/ha lakh/ha

Aerators/ Rs

Pumps 5O,OOO/unit two#1

of HP




pump Same as earlier

Freshwater seed Rs fish hatchery million 8 for seed

fish hatchery lakh a

with (fry)


capacity plain

for areas



Rs lakh same in hill

12 for


the States/




Region Rs fish 12 for seed lakh a

hatchery million

with (fry)


capacity plain and Rs 16 for capacity

for areas


lakh same in


hill Districts

States/ and

North#Eastern Fish Units Unit is 5 with capacity 1.2 quintals feed Small # cost Rs lakh a of

Region units


Small Unit is

Units cost Rs10


with capacity 1.2 /day of

a of

quintals Training



Stipend 100/# day during of

@ per


training 10



and lump of

a sum Rs




expenses/field Stipend 200/# day during of training @

visits Rs per

period 10


and lump of

a sum Rs




expenses/field Establishment freshwater seed (i)

visits of prawn hatchery Unit of 30 for large fres prawn cost Rs lakh

a hwater


with minimum of million


25 PL/year as 37 cost Rs for


Same earlier Unit is lakh a hatchery 5#10

(ii) 8


of million

PL/year (ii) Unit is lakh a small 5#10

capacity cost Rs15 for

hatchery million


PL/year Establishment laboratories State

capacity of at level for




fish investigations Unit


cost Rs lakh 25 30 (Rs



for construction

the of

building 5 for equipment,

and lakh




chemicals, Unit Rs lakh 25 lakh cost

etc.) of 35 (Rs

for construction

the of

building 10 for equipment,

and lakh




chemicals, Provision

etc.) of soil





to FFDA cost each and testing at Rs



of soil

water 30,000.



kits sanctioned

are once


each as time one


grant Unit cost each and of soil water


kit Rs1,00,000.

at The


are once each as time

sanctioned to


one grant




integrated including hatcheries ornamental Unit cost Rs lakh,


for fishes is 15 which

include 5#10

hatchery m










ornamental Not Rs existing 25 per including


lakh unit a




for Ornamental seed units Not Rs

dissemination fish certification

existing 25 per including holding and diagnostic

lakh unit






will applicable for hill and region of as

be only



North#eastern Transportation Same




Subsidy 20 1000

@ for fry


transported FFDAs.

to Not


applicable fish farmers Subsidy 50 1,000 @



Rs for fry

transported FFDAs.

to Not


applicable fish farmers Purchase vehicle 50% cost vehicle each FFDA 50% for the




of for


and cost

replaced (Second


vehicle) Same as earlier

Note: on

Existing all


the items purchase vehicles shared 75:25 basis the and which proposed be 90:10 respectively vehicles. above under programme available once a These Subsidy the of ponds tanks, of ponds/tanks first inputs an individual up 5 is with without finance the areas 1.0 by Centre States, is to on basis, barring The assistance FFDA is only to beneficiary. are for construction new and Reclamation/renovation

above except of is on

and year to beneficiary to ha available or institutional in plain and ha

in hill on rata

the States/Districts pro# basis DAHD&F, & 38 (Source: 2004b modified)

Table 3.5 Development of brackishwater aquaculture Description of items Current level of assistance Proposed level of assistance Renovation construction Brackish fish or of water farms

Beneficiaries small shrimp land holding ha less. of





2 or The

assistance cost to a

is subject


maximum Rs as

of 40,000/ha

subsidy Beneficiaries small will be

shrimp land holding ha less.



of or The

assistance 25%

would cost


subject a of

to maximum Rs







Shrimp Training be

farmers part managed could


the government

state by





scheme fisheries and or to specific/specialized through centers of




provide training


expertise centers




under programme 100% will



expenditure be

incurred Centre Same as




Establishment demonstration# cum# center One government India of amounting to time training


of share grant

Rs lakh as



Unit at and supporting

head Delhi




Institute) units

and one



on and Coast

east West

100% be incurred



by Centre


Aquatic Same



quarantine inspection (AQIU) 100% be incurred Centre Same as by

and unit





Network diagnostic laboratories aquatic health One of s share


for animal

time India


of amounting Rs

grant to 5

lakh Same as earlier

Note: expenditure all

Existing on the

above is on basis the and States, is to on basis, barring quarantine inspection (AQIU) of laboratories aquatic health which 100%

items shared 75:25 by Centre

which proposed be 90:10 respectively, Aquatic and unit Network diagnostic for animal for

expenditure proposed be by GoI DAHD&F, &

is to borne the (Source: 2004b modified)

Table 3.6 Coldwater fisheries and aquaculture Description of Items Current level of assistance Proposed level of assistance Preparation of resource




report Rs as 5 lakh one

time to the State









breeding etc Rs 5 as time to the State



lakh one grant


Same 39 Construction, renovation,





remodeling farms One time Amount be on merit the proposal Same as



grant. to


the of


Farming cold



water and first





Unit Rs (Rs 25,000+ for unit size 2 m3


of 35,000

Rs a


15 x

x 1


cost Rs lakh for 1.5


a 2 m3

unit 15 x

size x 1


for water culture cost input


fish Unit

including Rs

42,500 Unit cost input 60,000 including





logged Unit

areas cost 1.25 cost 3 Rs lakh/ha Rs lakh/ha








fertilizers, measures

preventing for diseases,

transportation etc. Unit Same cost 75000/ha as


Rs earlier

Training Stipend 100 day during

@ per




period 10 and lump sum Rs

of days) a

payment 100








Stipend 200 day of

@ per




period days) a lump of


10 and

sum Rs








trainee Note: expenditure all above except of is on basis the and which proposed be 90:10 respectively DAHD&F, Existing on the items purchase vehicle shared 75:25 by Centre States, is to on basis, (Source: 2004b modified) &

Table 3.7 Development of waterlogged areas

Description of Items Current level of assistance Proposed level of assistance Development water logged Unit areas cost 1.25 cost 3 Rs lakh/ha Rs lakh/ha of


Inputs prawn) seed, manure, fertilizers, measures diseases, transportation etc, Unit Same



preventing for


cost 75,000/ha as

Rs earlier

Training @ 100 day during (maximum period a

Stipend Rs per



period 10 days) a sum payment 100


and lump


Rs towards

travel visits per Stipend 200 day of


trainee @ per Rs

training a of period



days) a sum lump


payment Rs towards expenses/ field

of 1,000 travel

visits trainee Existing on the items shared 75:25 by Centre



expenditure all above is on basis the and

States, is

which proposed

to on basis, (Source: 2004b modified)

be 90:10 respectively DAHD&F, & 40

Table 3.8 Productive utilization of inland saline/alkaline waters for aquaculture Description of Items Current rate of assistance Proposed rate of assistance Cost Unit 2.5 Unit 3 cost for cost construction Rs lakh/ha Rs lakh/ha

Input Unit 1 Same

cost cost

Rs lakh/ha earlier


Training Stipend 100 day during

@ per




period a of

of period 10

days) lump


the sum

payment 100


Rs towards

travel field

expenses visits

per Stipend

trainee @ 200 day per Rs


training a of days) a sum

(for period


and lump

payment 1,000 towards






visits trainee Existing on the items shared 75:25 by Centre



expenditure all above is on basis the and

States, is to on basis, (Source: 2004b

which proposed be 90:10 respectively DAHD&F, &

modified) Table 3.9 Inland capture fisheries (reservoirs/rivers, etc.) Description of Items Current rate of assistance Proposed rate of assistance Fish Unit h/ha Unit h/ha Pens Unit with cost inputs Rs 15,000/0.1 seed units cost 2 cost 3 Rs lak rearing Rs lak

ha Unit cost Rs 60,000/0.1

ha Cage Unit per unit Rs 4,50,000/battery 16 (3 3 m3 per cage) x x 2 of with cost 15,000/ inputs Rs


Input feed, manures, preventive for



fertilizers, measures disease etc.)



Rs 30,000/ha

(one Same

time) as earlier

Training Stipend 100 day during

@ per




period a of

of period 10

days) lump


the sum

payment 100


Rs towards




per Stipend

trainee @ 200 day per Rs


training a of period



days) a sum lump


payment 1,000 towards






visits trainee and (net,




boat, Unit Rs Unit Rs akh Construction landing Unit 1 per landing

etc) cost of 15,000 of 1 l


of Centre cost lakh Rs






Unit 5 per landing

cost lakh







Riverine conservation awareness Financial

fisheries and programme assistance to




conservation/ ranching, a maximum Rs lakh in year as 41 Note: Existing on the items shared 75:25 by Centre etc

river with

ceiling 2 a




expenditure all above is on basis the and

States, is to on basis, (Source: 2004b modified) Success Stories

which proposed be 90:10 respectively DAHD&F, & 42

Box 3.2 Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture 1. Success of carp Farming in Andhra Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab Andhra Pradesh, and have as states respect the development freshwater of fish of country. Andhra to extent a fish state, and are states fish started during seventies. freshwater from Pradesh the Pradesh some Punjab emerged progressive with to Haryana



is traditional farming Haryana Punjab non#traditional and farming only early Today, fish Andhra is marketed almost state the and in neighbouring like Bangladesh, and

in every of country also the countries

Bhutan Nepal.

Similarly produced Punjab Haryana marketed in

fish in and is

the states meeting own

neighbouring after their requirements.


Krishna East West district Andhra is hub freshwater farming. Indian Carps as and farmers raise The productivity the in lake is 5#6 per

and and Godavari of Pradesh the of

fish Besides, Major such Catla, Rohu, also catfishes.

average from farms Kolleru area around t ha

and method farming deployed maximize returns the The

scientific of are to the from ponds.



and inputs systems well in area, is support

feed supply are organized the which a to


fish Similarly, marketing is well that care the packaging transportation refrigerated to areas the Per production Haryana Punjab close 4 besides Major the are raising prawn. these states, markets close the centres therefore,

farmers. the infrastructure also knit takes of

fish and by vans far#flung of country. hectare

in and is to t Indian Carps, a


farmers also freshwater In two the are to production and,

the kilogram to fish is higher

per realization the farmer much as to the get Andhra compared what farmers in Pradesh.

2. Reservoir Fisheries in Govind Sagar, Himachal Pradesh Govind reservoir located Bilaspur of Pradesh. reservoir formed Sagar is in district Himachal The is on river and an of 10,000 at storage The water at storage encompasses ha. Sagar one the managed the from fisheries of spread full level 16,000 Govind is of well reservoirs country the point view. in the Sultez covers area about ha effective level.

The fish

average production



the during last years about t or kg/ha/year. maximum obtained Govind has to tune 122

reservoir the five was 1,000 per 100

The yield from Sagar been the of kg/ha/year, which

is in country a reservoir. the

highest for large

The has predominant of exotic Carp by Major Carps,

reservoir a fauna the Silver followed Indian

Mahseer Minor Catla the major Department

and Carps. dominates Indian carps. of


Fisheries, of

Government Himachal

Pradesh several and oriented

implements welfare production scheme the of reservoir These sponsored for benefit the fisherman. Centrally schemes

include, Scheme, Insurance, for Fishermen the Housing

Saving#cum#relief Group scheme Active and

Scheme. schemes under state include Fund

The implemented the Plan Risk Scheme


a Relief

Calamity Scheme.


closed which implemented the for months June is

season, in reservoir two (1st through

31st July) year, suitable natural in every areas for breeding the

reservoir also to allow fishes breed thereby in stocking the To species the to and help auto of reservoir. maintain balance, stocking done time time.

are protected

supplementary is from to

Box 3.2 continued43 continued Box 3.2 About registered inhabit the of reservoir which 1,900 active. fishermen grouped into co#operative which then grouped an body the Fisheries and Federation. 3,000 fisherman in periphery the of about are These are 16 societies, are

into apex called Bilaspur Marketing Supply

The assists fishermen sale marketing fish its include cold an plant refrigerated The is in towns

Federation the in and of and assets a storage, ice and vans. Govind fish marketed major / in Jammu Kashmir Delhi also bordering in


cities Punjab, and and and the areas Uttar

Pradesh Govind is excellent

and an

Haryana. Sagar of well large

example a managed reservoir the adopted to replicated other and reservoir the

and practices need be in large medium of country.

3. Trout Farming in private sector in Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir Over years, trout in states Jammu Kashmir Himachal Pradesh become enterprise. farming rainbow mykiss commercial been possible the states the The system demonstrated state farms generated enthusiasm the in the rainbow farming the of and and

has an The of trout on scale made in hill of country. farming



the run have tremendous among local

unemployed take farming trout as of With support,

youth up of fish a



livelihood. the

motivation know#how the

and by extension

wings the Governments, farming units come even the hill of States Himachal Uttaranchal

of State better

have up in remote pockets the of Pradesh, and Sikkim.

The reasons to upfront of technology by growers (i) Import

main attributed the acceptance the success the are:

of growing Swedish of trout. of hatcheries easy adequate of to trout

quick European/ strains rainbow

(ii) Modernization trout vis and availability troutlings


private growers.

(iii) Evolvement compounded feed all

of palletized for the

stages trout high FCR,

of with

appetence and factor. stability


(iv) The

bulk of trout and transplantation rivers

quantities farm#reared seed its in and

streams contributed in revival sport in states. Country s farming need both strength scale. the current

have significantly the of fisheries the

trout programmes strengthening in and Against

production 150 farm#reared trout production be

of t rainbow annually, could


raised ten a short

fold period.

within The

success the of Pradesh and & in farming worth by states generating employment

achieved sates



Jammu Kashmir trout is emulating other for

and proteinous for inhabitants. food hill


Box 3.2 continued 44 . continued Box 3.2 4. Ornamental Fish Culture and Trade in Chennai Kolathur the of is for fish by village outskirts Chennai famous ornamental cultivation small on


producers. are 600 earning livelihood ornamental

There about families their through fish

cultivation Kolathur on average each

in and an household

in village over 5,000 per through fish About km Kolathur, village another of fish where SHGs successfully taken

the earns Rs

month ornamental farming. 45 from Gummidipoondi is hub ornamental production women have

up and of fish earn livelihoods. the front, ornamental trade a business Chennai

breeding raising ornamental to their

On commercial the fish is growing with and Kolkata out be major and centres. domestic is mix medium

turning to the production export The trade a of and

small fish In many grow in their

ornamental farmers. Chennai, farmers fish

backyards sell stock bigger which engaged export

and the to companies, are in business.

The Government Tamil Fisheries Corporation joined field the 2000. rears varieties Goldfish, Fish, and

State undertaking Nadu Development (TNFDC) the in year It popular like Angel Mollies Fighters its near These are in local in farm Coimbatore. fishes sold the markets.

The trade the fish estimated Rs crore,

global in ornamental is at 5,000 of

which has minuscule

India a Rs crore. is the tropical varied sources 2 This despite country s climate, freshwater


8,000 km line. the demand ornamental and

plus coast However, growing for fisheries the


interest aquarium change this soon. and South Asian account 80 of global

in may all very

Singapore other East countries for percent the trade. The markets the the Belgium, Japan, Australia, South Africa.

main are US, UK, Italy, China, and

According industry India s

to estimates, domestic

annual is Rs crore, but the market much With tropical India become key

turnover about 15

global is bigger. its climate, can a player

in field. Indian like Dwarf, Giant and are popular

this Many species Catfish, and Gouramis, Barbs

abroad fetch prices. good


To ornamental production trade, is excellent to emulate. provides good of domestic well commercial production, which to

popularize fish and Kolathur an example

It a mix both as as scale

largely the




5. Pen and cage culture in Wetland and small reservoir in Asom The Central of Research Barrackpore, successfully Institute Fisheries Institute, has developed

package practices raise carp freshwater seed to them table size enclosures, pens cages in reservoirs wetlands. Asom, 100 ranging 37.5 1100

of to the and prawn and grow to

in viz., and installed small and In

pens from to m2 covering ha installed beels

2.73 were in (floodplain wetlands), Shankar, Samaguri, Kumri, Haribhanga,46

viz, Goruchara, Charan, Morakollang,,

Rowmari, and in district Golaghat, Morigaon Goalpara Asom. technology used raise right of for in beel improving fish In pens, species carps, rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala, gonious

Borghuli Dek the of Nagaon, and of This was to the size seed stocking the for its yield. the different of viz Catla Catla, labeo registered maximum growth 295g, 110g 75g, in months. beels managed the societies.


a individual of 265g,


respectively, 3#5 The were by co#operative In

Assam, of in was for


culture carps beels promoted micro

financing is accepted 45 3.4 Development of marine infrastructure and post harvest operations In order develop infrastructure post operations, programmes construction fishing and

and now as

to marine and harvest

existing of of harbour fish landing were after period. formed part the scheme Development marine infrastructure post operations Plan. the Plan, assistance Rs crore provided various components the

centre continued IX Plan These a of macro namely of fisheries, and harvest in During X central of 125 was under X

of aforesaid

scheme development marine fisheries The fund is 73%. Since of scheme establishment fishing and

for of

infrastructure. expected utilization about

inception the on of harbours fish centres, major harbours, minor landing six fishing 58 fishing

harbours 189 landing were up implementation 3.10). Of six fishing 40 minor harbours 151 landing have completed to The

and fish centres taken for (Table these, major harbours,

fishing and fish centres been and use. 18 harbours put

remaining fishing




landing are various of Considering importance the for fisheries the is to continued the Plan.

centres at stages construction.

the of scheme marine development scheme

recommended be during XI

continued Box 3.2 6. Exotic carp farming in mid-hills Previously exotic farming for involving species combination grass silver and carp successfully in farmers situated different in districts Uttaranchal. of fish standardized carp technology mid#hills, three

of carp, carp common was demonstrated

ponds at altitudes two of One the

farmers Toli achieved estimated production (6942 by harvesting 162 fish 300

from village highest fish of kg/ha/year)

kg from m2 pond, an income Rs11340 the area. supplements income small holdings, which

with additional of from same This the from farm in cereals, vegetables, fruits produced. integration crops fish hill remunerative

and are This of and makes farming and All ponds two under programme the in districts this registered sustainable.


estimated fish of kg/ha/year

average production 3508 with


actual in range

harvest of

0.012 0.39 in ranging size

to kg/m2/year ponds in between .The


programme motivated farmers in of and to up culture. group been in to to farmers from adjoining in region. NCF, DARE, 2004, 200646 Table 3.10 Physical achievements under Development of Marine Fisheries Infrastructure and Post Harvest Operations scheme during X Plan 2003, 2005, other villages the the Toli transfer technology more especially districts Champawat Nainital take fish A self#help has organized village this



Item/activity Targets Achievements % achievement New projects Major 6 100.00 Minor 58 68.97 Fish 189 79.37 Repair and Renovation (No.) 40 (No.) 6 fishing harbours



Landing (No.) 150


Major (No.) 1 Minor 6 83.33 Fish 9 33.33 Maintenance of Dredger (In 800,000 22.95 Success Stories Box 3.3 Infrastructure Development 1. Utilization of Prawn Shell Waste (No.) 5





Landing (No.) 3


cubic 183,618


At Central of Technology, a for of chitosan glucosamine from shell was The chitosan glucosamine as dietary controlling and as polymer dye and treatment. technology been transferred

the Institute Fisheries Kochi, technology production chitin, and hydrochloride prawn waste developed. chitin, and hydrochloride used a supplement obesity arthritis, a flocculent, fixing water The has for


to sector India abroad. patent already filed production in and A has been for of



bulk chitosan high glucosamine from

density and purity hydrochloride shrimp



2. Ready-to-serve fish curry in flexible pouches At Central the Institute Fisheries Kochi, process production fish in flexible using pressure was developed of Technology, the of of

curry retortable pouch over autoclave successfully and standardized. flexible can the function well metal and free the met them. technical on of retort

The pouch perform packaging equally as cans, is from disadvantages within The guidance production

pouch has given the to sector commercial

products been by institute private for exploitation.

Source: DARE, 2004, 200647

NCF, 2003, 2005,


3.5 Welfare programmes/ policy issues/ human resource development The has components, Scheme Welfare Fishermen Fisheries and Under components, number activities been up. budget allocation the was 135 and anticipated expenditure 21 crore, for of outlay. scheme two National for of and Training Extension . these a of have taken The

for scheme Rs crore the

is Rs

over 1 accounting 89% target

3.5.1 National Scheme for Welfare of Fishermen The centrally national of of has sponsored scheme Welfare fisherman

broadly as

three follows:

components, Development of Model Fisherman Villages The of component to basic amenities, such housing, water construction community for The were be with wells the rate objective this is provide civic

as drinking and of hall fisherman. villages to provided tube at

of tube for 20 For and

one well every houses. recreation common


place, fisherman with least houses eligible

a village at 75 is to

avail assistance construction

financial for of

a hall. Unit

community The costs the since have Rs for under scheme 2000#01 been 40,000 a

house, Rs 30,000 tube and Rs hall. The is equally Central State governments.

for well 1,75,000 community for

expenditure shared between and

The level for at assistance house Rs that to enhanced Rs in of escalations. be to 1,00,000 view cost


40,000 needs Group accident insurance scheme for active fisherman The of component to objective this is provide

insurance to fishermen


for 50,000 against death permanent

Rs accidental or total

disability Rs 25,000 permanent disability. upper limit insurance is Rs per The and State are share annual on basis and case Union 100% is by Government India. policy taken respect all

and for partial The

for premium 15 head. Central

Governments to the premium 50:50

in of Territory, premium borne the of Single is in of those


states/Union who participating National Federation

Territories are through

of Co#operatives (FISHCOPFED).

Fishermen Limited Saving -cum relief scheme The of component to financial to fishermen lean season. this the beneficiary to a of during months. monthly for fisheries Rs for eight objective this is provide assistance

during fishing Under component,

has contribute part earnings non#lean The contribution marine is 75

months, that inland is 50 nine A of fisher Rs for months.


matching is with

amount provided equal

contribution Central and government the amount distributed back in four/three installments rate Rs per to fishers. case UTs, matching share of 300 State


and accumulated is

to equal at



month marine/inland In of entire

is by Central the

borne Government.

During first year X central of 93.06 crore extended States/UTs/FISHCOPFED implement scheme.

the four of Plan, assistance Rs

was to to the

3.5.2 Scheme on Fisheries Training and Extension The objective main of

the is provide to personnel enable to fisheries programmes The also assistance fisherfolk upgrading skills. enhance facilities, scheme provides for up upgrade centres States/ territories. achievements various components

scheme to training fishery to them undertake extension effectively. scheme provides to in their To training the also assistance setting or training in Union The under

of scheme given Table 49 are in 3.11.


Table 3.11 Physical achievements under Welfare Programmes/ Policy Issues/ Human Resource Development scheme during X Plan Item/ Activity Targets Achievements % achievement

Welfare schemes Fishermen houses 26,000 64,831 249.35 (lakh 12.25 16.04 130.94 (lakh 56.01 63.08 112.62 No.) (No.)




Fisheries Training & Extension




(No.) 12,000 19,608 163.40 Establishment of Training

Centre 60 28 46.67 Establishment




Centre 20 9 45.00 This an programme fishers, accomplishments against set have satisfactory. scheme recommended


is important for where

the targets been The is to continued. 50 be

Success Stories Box 3.4 Welfare programmes/ policy issues/ human resource development 1. Self-help groups in Fisheries in Tamil Nadu The Southern of Nadu witnessed increase the of fisherwomen Groups Punnakkayal has largest of Self Districts Tamil have significant in number

help (SHGs). village the number SHGs


an village over groups exclusively fisherwomen. there several of fisherwoman in region their need be in states fish at is

Indian with 50 consisting of

Today, are examples successful SHGs the and experiences to promoted other also. The market Nilankarai

managed fisherwomen to SHGs. management established this demonstrate efficiency unity. The formed fisherwomen

by belonging 12 The practices by group their and Similarly, SHGs by in village Tuticorin enabled members conduct in has its to individual Vellapatty


involving wide of including of for in local

a range activities, fattening crabs sale the

market. SHGs have linkages the who them the promotion

These also good with NGOs helped in

of business.


2. Mudialy Fishermen s Co-operative Society, Kolkata The registered Society, in

1961, 70 of wasteland cum# dump

obtained ha waterlogged garbage from Port and ha the Government. Society since in of in sewage and also up Park fish the water has set a involving Calcutta Trust 10 from State The has




growth an centre extensive of plants, absorbing plants, trees agri#horticulture In process, society not been in 25 litres waste

of eco#tourism and plantations fodder dust

canopy and plants. the the has only successful treating million of water

through means pisciculture, has provided facilities its like medical and assistance, aid, aid Housing The and beneficial of activities converted stinking, area an friendly of The has cultured Indian carps well many carps successfully the technology sewage fisheries. work the has

biological of but also various to members daily#wage

educational funeral marriage and advance. integrated mutually nature these has a disadvantaged into ecologically expanse greenery. Society successfully

major as as exotic and demonstrated

for water The of society won

it National Productivity twice well Indira Brikshamitra award overall in and for excellence NCDC. Mudialy has demonstrated feasibility production fish establishment an friendly even utilizing wastewater disadvantaged Box 3.4 continued 51 .. continued Box 3.4


Award as as Priyadarshini Award, for performance pisciculture Award overall from The Model successfully the of of and of eco facility while industrial and wetland.

3. Farmer s Associations or Aqua clubs in Thanjavur and Bhimavaram (i) Thambikottai-Vadakadu Shrimp Farmers Association in Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu In Tamil shrimp in have village level Nadu, farmers Thanjavur formed




organize meetings follow management for eco#friendly sustainable farming. of best of association the Vadakadu Farmer The of Association themselves before pond introducing in ponds, and of seed, management, health prevention disease, of separate

regular to good practices achieving and shrimp One the examples this is Thambikottai# Shrimp Association. members this consult

initiating preparation, water their selection stocking

feed shrimp management, of formation

channels draining waste time harvest the fixing out water, for of crop, of




The members inspect shrimp located Chennai Marakanam and seed for in least PCR to ascertain

Association also the hatcheries at and areas collect samples testing at three laboratories

the absence pathogens. tested is in which of

presence/ The seed purchased bulk, is

then amongst members the as their If viral disease

divided the of Association per requirement. a

affects farmer s all measures taken prevent spread the to

any crop, precautionary are to the

of disease

the ponds. Association suitably the farmer s The takes responsibility road and other infrastructure drainage and lamps the adjacent shrimp cluster.

other The also compensates affected loss. Association the of laying providing

like canal street to village to farm The organizes of members fortnightly and Association meeting the on basis discusses


solves problems mutual

their with consent.

(ii) Sri Subrahmanyeshwara Aqua Club in West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh To co#operative in of farming and common promote approach management shrimp activities other issues commonly in that arise cluster#based

shrimp aqua have set up Andhra A of aqua with a of farmers now existing the However, of best of kind the Subrahmanyeshwara club Mogalthur is Godavari of Pradesh. in Pradesh. total 128 clubs membership 3367 is

farms, clubs been

in state. one the initiative this is Sri Aqua in Village West district Andhra The Aqua comprises farmers 108 spread 58 and Club 58 with ponds over ha the SS

farmers are small#scale, improved

involved mostly practicing traditional

farming low investments.


Based the inputs by Network Aquaculture in

on technical provided the of Centres

Asia#Pacific (NACA), and Export

Bangkok the Products Development Kochi, farm better practices the were in shrimp of SS Club great the Aqua with success. Marine Authority,

the level management or BMPs demonstrated the ponds


above initiatives the farmers the Nadu Andhra need

two by shrimp in Tamil and Pradesh to


replicated the coastal also shrimp

in other states where is

fast on scales. Source: DARE, 2004, 2006 3.6 Centrally sponsored Scheme on strengthening of database and information networking for the Fisheries sector The is with objectives: to database and fisheries and of by adoption standardized of collection sample for of fisheries; to information of methodology data through survey estimation inland and (ii) improve technology in States/Union as scheme implemented the (i) improve of NCF,

developing commercial#

2005; 2003, 2005, 52

inland marine resources catch fish

systems the Territories well

as level

national fishery

institutes that collection their analysis be efficiently effectively. the components the are: assessment on fisheries, technology, of information census inland census marine fisheries, assessment on fisheries strengthening head at budget for scheme Rs crore, which anticipated is 16.62 (37%).

so data and

can done and Accordingly,

of scheme catch surveys inland information development geographical system, of fisheries, of

catch surveys marine and of quarter center. The outlay the was 45 of the expenditure Rs crore It

is on side compared other The fisheries has been by Kochi

comparatively lower as to schemes. marine census already completed CMFRI, and is In of assessment document published. case catch survey

for of fish CIFRI, provided training the of collection analysis staff from

estimation inland catch, Barrackpore

on methodologies data and to

24 A has been and to

States. software also developed distributed

the for entry analysis computing estimates

states data and for catch

from resources. development GIS inland bodies mapping water with and monsoon was The of fisheries is The of scheme significant generating fishery across country. is a in utilization. the of scheme, is recommended

various For of for water in of bodies monsoon post# data completed. process Inland census underway. contribution the is in valuable data the There however shortfall fund Considering importance the it India,


to continued with emphasis GIS.

be scheme greater on

3.7 Fisheries Institutes 3.7.1 Fishery Survey of India

The Survey India was by Government of at in under different the Sea Fishing (DSFS). The is responsible the survey assessment marine resources the Exclusive Zone which undertakes deploying total

Fishery of (FSI) established the

India Bombay 1946 a name, Deep

Station FSI presently for

and of fishery of Indian Economic (EEZ), it by a of ocean#going vessels both coasts well 13 survey along the as as

the & islands. Besides

Andaman Nicobar resource

surveys, the of includes of resources the of regulation management, of of types

work FSI monitoring fishery for purpose

and assessment suitability different of and for and fishing, in# training CIFNET/Polytechnic dissemination craft gear deep#sea oceanic providing

vessel to trainees, of information

on resources various to fishing

fishery through media the

community, and end#users. The fleet the institute bottom survey, resource and line

industry other survey of

undertakes trawl midwater/columnar survey long survey

for columnar oceanic

demersal, and tunas allied and for sharks. and resources also oceanic

As the Plan of crore, Institute incurred

against X outlay Rs 130 the has an of crore first years expenditure Rs 123.85 during four of

the and the year crore was received, which expenditure is crore, indicating fund The targets achievements the

Plan during current Rs 35.07 allocation

against the anticipated Rs 29

satisfactory utilisation. Physical and of Institute

during X are below (Table

the Plan furnished

3.12): 54

Table 3.12 Physical achievements of FSI during X Plan Particulars Targets Achievements* % achievem ent Days sea 13,472 87 Days 10,654 75 Survey efforts 11,701 out at

fished 8,031







37,389 67 Long Surveys (hrs) (Tuna & bottom line)







1,620,250 66 Experimental undertaken Trap



fishing groupers deep lobster.

for and sea


jigging neritic oceanic

for and squid

species line for


hand fishing groupers.

Including achievements 2006#07. physical of was two of plan for efforts. The for of of

projected during

The achievements FSI nearly third the target

survey percentage number days fishing

and the was higher number hours

in sea comparatively than of of


suggesting need spending time the while for more in effort




3.7.2 Central Institute of Fisheries Nautical and Engineering Training (CIFNET) The was under Department Animal Husbandry Dairying, of at in for developing manpower manning fishing operating the EEZ. Subsequently, sub#centres CIFNET CIFNET established the of

& Ministry Agriculture, Kochi 1963

technical for large vessels within Indian two of were at in and Vishakhapatnam Chennai 1968 at established

in for the of manpower

1981, meeting requirements additional


for ever#growing fleet.

the fishing

The has upgraded two training to 24#month in of directions the General, Shipping. Institute starting 4#year course Fishing and

Institute already 18#month courses

courses view the of Director

The is a Degree in

Nautical and to a Course Marine plans initiate Diploma in


Engineering. the had by end the fourth of X an of

However, Institute incurred the of 55 year the Plan expenditure Rs 8.78

crore as against allocation Rs 38.85 This that Institute first to itself the manpower and before on new as proposed. physical and of Institute during


an of crore. indicates the would need equip with required

infrastructure, embarking the programmes

The targets achievements the

the Plan furnished Table are

X in 3.13.

Table 3.13 Physical achievements of CIFNET during X Plan Item/Activity Targets Achievements % achievement 1 of and Training Fishermen

students 3,355 144.77 2 Institutional (nos.) 13,440 77.95 3 Institutional days (nos.) 14,028 104.48 At the is three vessels at Kochi, and excluding old transferred Integrated Project October for imparting training the All the vessels are than years Post

(nos.) 4,857

trainee 10,476




present, Institute having training stationed

Chennai Vishakhapatnam, one vessel from Fisheries in 2005

practical to candidates. three

more 25 old

and frequent The docking have increased It therefore proposed replace two vessels new vessels equipped modern and accommodation during

require repairs. dry# expenses also considerably. is

to the old with training

with machinery sufficient

the Plan.


The needs upgrade skills its for the areas are: Fishing design fabrication;

Institute to the of personnel, which training identified (i) gear and (ii) at with Maritime Safety sea International Organisation


regulations; Marine &

(iii) pollution marine

environment; (iv) Marine The countries the training programmes arranged Japan, Norway, Korea and Italy. where proposed refrigeration.


can are France, South


3.7.3 Integrated Fisheries Project (IFP), Kochi 56 The was as Project 1952 renamed Fisheries in This institute under Department Animal Dairying Fisheries, Ministry the of Husbandry, and IFP established Indo#Norwegian during and as Integrated Project 1972. pioneer

of is in development technologies harvesting marine

Agriculture, engaged the of


of fish

resources. Institute an

The has outreach


at besides headquarters Kochi. IFP been and the

Vishakhapatnam the at

The has spearheading pioneering technological advances the processing in country. As of diversification specialization the of have reorganized its redefined. Under new and revised IFP s have more on harvest

in fish sector the part the and Plan, activities IFP been and mandate the mission

objectives, activities been focused post# sector. of X targets the Plan were Most

achieved IFP

by barring

quantity processed (88%). is looking marketing processed products Indian establishment low processing for SHGs, of and Information

of fish It now for of fish in metros, of cost units women use Communication

Technology advanced for personnel. training its



it an of 5.60 during X the

had allocation Rs crore the Plan, IFP

could an of crore by end the

incur expenditure Rs 2.62 only the of

fourth of X In of new to undertaken, is to the for Plan according demands per activities. physical & achievements

year the Plan. view various initiatives be it necessary rationalize outlay next

to as new The targets

of during X are in 3.14. the Plan mentioned Table


Table 3.14 Physical targets & achievements of IFP during the X Plan

Item/Activity Targets Achievements % achievement 1 Fish 422 2 Fish 414.48

Processing 650 88


Marketing 420 99


3 No. 1,559 190 4 No. 9,000 128

of Trained 2,955


of days 11,531 57


3.7.4 Central Institute of Coastal Engineering for Fishery (CICEF), Bangalore The Institute Coastal for was named Pre#Investment of Harbours It Central of Engineering Fishery initially as Survey Fishing (PISFH) . was

established the of Husbandry Dairying, Ministry Agriculture, of in 1968 Bangalore, the objective

under Department Animal &

of Government India, January, at with primary of out and

carrying engineering

economic and techno#economic reports

investigations prepare feasibility for development fishery at sites the of harbours suitable along

the coasts to fishery facilities mechanized vessels. In 1983, was as Central

Indian and provide harbour to fishing August it renamed

Institute Coastal for

of Engineering Fishery.

The the is the as to

mandate Institute almost same earlier, conduct


necessary studies identify sites development fishery and prepare

pre#investment to priority for of harbours to techno#economic

feasibility covering construction for harbours their facilities. Institute the of construction ongoing harbours under Centrally

reports plans these and support The monitors progress

of fishery sanctioned the Sponsored by Department renders the and technical Scheme

guidance the State/Union in implementation the The targets achievements of

to Maritime Territories the of projects. physical &

the during X are in 3.15.

Institute the Plan contained Table

Table 3.15 Physical targets & achievements of CICEF during the X Plan Item/Activity Targets Achievements %

achievement 1 Investigation






9 100 2 Preparation

of for





15 160 3 No. for



sites which




(No.) 40 250 100 58

3.8 National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB), Hyderabad The Fisheries Board a body under administrative of Department Animal National Development (NFDB), registered

the control the of

Husbandry, and Ministry Agriculture, of India, registered

Dairying Fisheries, of Govt.

was on July, 10th

2006. aim the is realize full of fisheries coordination different and partnerships. objectives the

The of Board to the potentials Indian through of agencies public#private The of NFDB are:

To major relating fisheries aquaculture for

bring activities to and

focused and management coordinate pertaining fisheries by Ministries/ in Central

attention professional

To activities to undertaken different Departments the Government

and coordinate the Union Governments To production, storage, and marketing

also with State/ Territory

improve processing, transport

of of and fisheries products capture culture



achieve management conservation natural resources the stocks fish

sustainable and of



To modern of and including biotechnology optimizing and from fisheries To modern mechanisms for and

apply tools research development

for production productivity

provide infrastructure fisheries


their management optimum

effective and utilization


generate employment



train empower in fisheries

and women the sector

To contribute fish food nutritional security The

enhance of towards and

59 Board total of 2,100 during with year of Rs crore. activities the about 31 The of Board has budget Rs crore 2006#2012;




their provisions summarized Table

budget are in 3.16.

Table 3.16 2006-07

Summary of Activities and Budget Provisions for 2006-2012 and

Sl. No. Activities Budget for 2006-12 (Rs crores) Budget for 2006-07 (Rs crores) 1 Intensive Ponds Tanks 10

Aquaculture and


620 2 Reservoir 400 3 Coastal 15 4 Deep

Fisheries 10

Aquaculture 2

6 5 105 6 Sea 11 7 Seaweed 30 8 Infrastructure

Sea and Processing # Mariculture 1

fishing Tuna

Ranching #

Cultivation 1



600 9 Fish

Processing 5

Dressing and Drying Solar of


Fish 22 10 Domestic 250 11 Other 14 12 Administrative 27 Total 2,100 31 The activity targets, benefits Budget the wise anticipated and of board #

Marketing #

Activities #

Expenses 2


presented Table

in 3.17.

Table 3.17 Activity wise targets, anticipated benefits and Budget of the NFDB Sl. No Activity Target Anticipated benefits

Budget & items 1 Aquaculture in and Ponds Tanks Intensive

50,000 new


of area;





5 year 8 ha annual production

t/ha/ in

lakh Additional fish


26.5 and employment




lakh Rs

people 620 crores

Training Demonstration; Capital requirement through 2


banks Reservoir

Fisheries Productivity of 150

kg/ha/year lakh ha Additional fish



annual production of

2.25 and Rs




Training employment

& for

60 7.5

lakh Demonstration; Provision







reservoirs on basis

leased competitive for five

years 3 Coastal Aquacult ure

Additional ha under





and for brackish culture Good






diversified production coastal aquaculture; Enhanced exchange employment foreign and for 7.5 from

lakh Rs

people 15 crores

Training Demonstration 4 Deep Fishing and Processing Facilitating fishing




Tuna and value

addition Additional fish annual production of

lakh Optimal of




resources enhanced Rs 6

and exports crores

Training Demonstration 5 Facilitating mariculture supplementing fisheries Additional fish



for marine

annual production of

lakh and of











Demonstration 6 Ranching Stocking of selected fin fish/shell of seed Sea

fish a conservation Sustained fish Rs



activity marine production 11 crores;

Training Demonstration 7 Cultivation Diversified in mariculture utilizing coastal areas Diversified products activity




for the

marine and for fishers;

Export Employment

potentials, for

coastal Rs 30

population crores

Training Demonstration; Provision




input processing market 8 e harvest Processing Improvement

costs; and linkages Infrastructur for Post#






facilities Better handling and to quality seed Rs 600 crores fish facilities access


Infrastructure development improvement, and

with and agencies

Government private on 61 a



basis 9 Dressing Centres Solar Drying Fish Model fish dressing of and Fish




drying Hygienic of

units handling fish; dry for Better



consumption well as

as export;

Reduction harvest Rs 22

in losses crores




Demonstration; Provision of total

input 10 marketing Upgradation wholesale

costs Domestic

of fish markets







Hygienic of Better fish;










Reduction harvest Rs 250

of losses



Partnerships Government private with participation to 20%

with and agencies, equity up

11 Other Activities Innovative areas in

fisheries aquaculture Innovative and models Rs 14


fisheries aquaculture


Evaluation interventions, Workshops, Interaction meetings, concepts designs


new and

3.9 National Co-operatives Development Corporation (NCDC), New Delhi Major of activities on of for weaker thrust NCDC is promotion programmes

sections scheduled and

including castes scheduled




started and programmes the

promotional financial in field

of poultry, and development 1974. adopted

dairy, fishery handloom in It two#fold i) of co#operatives strategy: Strengthening existing by

providing liberal for of activities; and development potential by functional operatives sectors. ii)

assistance pattern expansion their


of areas organising co# in these

The has specific and of assistance enabling fishery to up

Corporation formulated schemes pattern

for the co#operatives take activities


to processing, marketing, Assistance provided fisheries on terms the as section for: of

production, storage, etc. 62

was to co#operatives liberal treating activity weaker programme purchase operational inputs as boats, and creation infrastructure for transport ice cold retail processing etc., of inland

such fishing nets, engines, of facilities marketing, vehicles, plants, storages, outlets, units, development

fisheries, farms, etc., of

seed hatcheries, preparation feasibility

reports integrated projects. 2005#2006, Corporation

and fisheries Till the sanctioned assistance Rs of 948.39 an

crore released Rs crore fisheries through in different and fisheries as under: (i) Scheme development co#operative storage, & for co#operatives in co#operatively developed Under scheme, Sponsored for of 716.29 for development co#operatives


States UTs. NCDC co#operatives supported


processing marketing the situated

under/least States/UTs. the Rs crore sanctioned six and was for projects/units 355.21


33.25 was

crore released.

(ii) assistance Rs crore

An of 10.26 was

sanctioned 44 projects/units a higher of 37.65 was released Corporation Scheme fisheries operatives co#operatively States/UTs. was of


and much amount Rs crore

under Sponsored for co# in developed It because better for in states. Corporation Scheme Integrated prospects development these

(iii)Under Sponsored for Fisheries Development all activities production final marketing

Projects, the from to

are with and linkages.

integrated forward backward The

main of projects fishing

components such are inputs,

infrastructure, project extension, training, etc. these special emphasis laid improving of member education societies, of for

marketing management,


computerisation, Under projects,

is on skill fishermen,


the creation infrastructure production,

storage, and of Under scheme NCDC in developed During 2005#06,

processing marketing fish. this

assisted co#operatively States/UTs.

an of 5.52 was against 63 Rs

amount crore released ongoing

projects this Till 2006 has 48 Fisheries Projects

under scheme. March, NCDC assisted Integrated Development (29

in sector and


19 inland at cost Rs crore. impact the was in of in

in sector) the of 645.91


of schemes realised terms increase marine

fish of in States Gujarat, Maharashtra West benefits a number fishermen Integrated estimated fish production 3.60 t year, management functioning co#operatives, income beneficiary than etc.

catch co#operatives the of Kerala, and Bengal; for large of from Projects, additional

over lakh per democratic and of higher for fishermen non#beneficiaries, NCDC's

assistance has fishermen by


reducing of increase the of days work,

drudgery in number fishing

and increase fish of Fish infrastructure the co#operatives realising value fish in market. increased catch the fishermen its remuneration improved economic

thereby in catch fishermen. marketing helps fishermen's in better for catch the The fish by

and better has the conditions the perceptibly. fishermen socio# of

3.10 National Federation of Fishermen s Co-operatives Limited (FISHCOPFED), New Delhi National of Co#operatives (FISHCOPFED) Federation Fishermen s Ltd.

established 1980, the organization fishermen operatives

in is apex of co# in country. activities be mainly the Its could classified into

two promotional welfare. activities FISHCOPFED organization conferences, capacity

categories: and Promotional of include of supporting building at levels, of to various transfer technology initiatives

stakeholders, with organizations agencies, Welfare of federation implementation the centrally Group Insurance Active scheme,

liaison member and etc. activities the include of

sponsored Accident for Fishermen etc.

While co#operatives, has in for decades

the FISHCOPFED been existence

and benefits their yet co#operatives not operating optimum due various The in sector slightly organized in of capture (in reservoirs,

shown from existence, the 64

are been at level to reasons. co#operatives marine are better than case freshwater fisheries rivers, common property in etc.). problems the operation co#operatives optimum are collaboration/coordination various involved management operation

ponds/tanks villages, The besetting

of at levels weak among institutions in and of

co#operatives primary, and state rivalry individuals/groups, of infrastructure; of and resources, of among management and FISHCOPFED play important in the and among co#operative levels. The Group Fisheries the Plan suggested allocation Rs crore FISHCOPFED human development, aquaculture, social and

at district

level; among lack adequate lack human financial lack skills the workers fishers. can

role strengthening linkage co#ordination



Working on for X has

of 229 for for resource freshwater marketing, security

Housing. this not The may supported XI with a financial assistance. addition, FISHCOPFED be Rs crore grant#in#aid other fisheries under administrative of to take activities the development over million Following are for of FISHCOPFED:

However, was provided. component be in Plan rational In

may provided 10 as like

institutes the control DAHD&F

up for socio#economic of two fishers. suggestions made working

Centrally group insurance for

sponsored accident scheme active

fishermen, a of 1/fisher assistance FISHCOPFED

with provision Re as to being implementing the agency.

Provision is made administrative @17% FISHCOPFED funds for building in for expenses for in allocated capacity programs fisheries co#operatives.

any information available the co# operatives the Assistance be to FISHCOPFED developing and networking. in country. to provided 65 for database information

Hardly statistical is on fisheries

3.11 National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD), Mumbai The Bank into in NABARD established a Bank, providing regulating Credit other for promotion development agriculture, scale cottage village handicrafts rural and allied activities in areas a to integrated development and rural with view promoting rural National came existence 1982. was as Development for and

and facilities the and of small industries, and industries, and other crafts other economic

securing of areas. is institution, with matters

prosperity rural NABARD an

apex accredited

all concerning

policy, and

planning operations

in field credit agriculture other activities rural

the of for and economic in areas India. in

The has plans investment marine of traditional introduction mechanised introduction item vessels), (renovation existing for farming,

Bank credit for: in (Motorisation

crafts, of vessels, of specific inland of ponds fish creation new for farming, hatcheries, ponds fish carp fresh of

water farming, water hatcheries, fish farming the

Prawn fresh prawn integrated

in inland

sector, fish and reservoir units), aquaculture farming, hatcheries mariculture and including and

ornamental breeding rearing, fishing coastal (shrimp shrimp and units) others processing cold plants, mills infrastructure storage feed and development.

The of level disbursements NABARD fisheries

trend ground credit by for sector X are in 3.18. Plan indicated Table 66 during

Table 3.18 Ground level credit disbursements for fisheries by NABARD during X Plan (Rs crores) Year GLC in Fisheries Sector 2002#2003 2003#2004 2004#2005 2005#2006 2006#2007 539 1142 1301 1496* 1720*

* Considering

Provisional the growth fisheries X it in during Plan, is e GLC

stimated that ground credit the of Plan touch Rs 13,337 The share sub would marine (10%), (25%), (50%) agro#processing including exports. year credit for XI Plan given Table the level at end XI would

crore. estimated of sectors be

brackish inland and (15%), infrastructure The wise estimates for

are in 3.19.

Table 3.19 Ground level credit (GLC) estimates for fisheries for the XI Plan period (Rs crores) Sub sectors

200708 200809 200910 201011 201112 Total Marine Brackish Inland Agro# 519 2,000 198 227 262 301 346 1,334 495 569 654 752 865 3,335 989 1,137 1,308 1,504 1,730 6,668 processing 297 341 392 451

Total 1,979 2,274 2,616 3,008 3,460 13,337 With experience microfinance the is planning implement schemes a way increasing of to engineering delivery to micro#financing in big for access women credit, credit good of in recent NABARD years,


and capacity needs fisheries

addressing building in sector.

3.12 Coastal Aquaculture Authority, Chennai The Aquaculture is to the ecologically areas, waterfront other Coastal Authority mandated protect

fragile seashore, and areas


through of culture coastal and Territories India. The promotes of sustainable responsible farming within outside

regulation shrimp in States Union of Authority development


and shrimp practices and the Regulation Coastal Zone.


functions the are: to that shrimp

of Authority (i) ensure no culture

pond be (or) up Coastal Zone and

can constructed set within Regulation

up 1,000 of lake Pulicat (ii) ensure

to m Chilka and Lake; to and

give to farmers are traditional improved systems aquaculture adopting technology increased (iii) ensure the agricultural

approval the who operating and traditional of for improved for production; to that

lands, pan mangroves, lands, lands, lands, wet forest


land village purposes the meant public

for common and land for

purposes not used converted construction shrimp culture

shall be (or) for of

ponds; to the Principle the

(iv) implement Precautionary and


Pays in shrimp activities; to and the approvals/ for

Principle coastal aquaculture (v)

regulate give necessary authorisation shrimp activities

outside Regulation areas 1000 from

Coastal Zone and m the

Pulicat and lake; to scheme/schemes reverting damages to ecology environment pollution coastal Union

lake Chilka (vi) frame for the caused the and by in States/ Territories;

(vii) ensure payment compensation the employed the culture (viii) comply the orders by the

to the of to workmen in shrimp industries; to with relevant issued

concerned Courts Supreme from to and to with other environment pertaining

High and Court time time;

(ix) deal any relevant issues to coastal with culture including which

areas respect shrimp farming, those may referred it Central in Ministry Environment Forests. discharging above


be to by Government the




For the

functions, Authority constituted State Committees and Level (DLCs). DLCs

the has

Level (SLCs) District Committees

receive applications shrimp and scrutiny verification the etc., to SLCs

the from farmers after

and of information, forward the for consideration.

applications recommendation the are forwarded to Authority consideration issue approvals. 68 The Department Animal Dairying Fisheries, Ministry Agriculture the of places

The after of SLCs

the for for of

of Husbandry, &


in Government India, the

required at the of the its budget meet the to expenditure implementation schemes programmes for sustainable aquaculture in country. disposal Authority from annual to day day and of and


achieving shrimp development the

3.13 Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi Indian Agricultural is the body for and in aspects agriculture for in the The areas Council Research apex research education all of including fisheries of

country. thrust of

fisheries are: assessment monitoring commercially marine resources, of fishing and for deep fishing, of harvest Development value#added products domestic export Extraction, and of from organisms for industrial pharmaceutical Upgradation fish technologies, of and shellfish, of in processing, resource of

research Stock and of important fishery Development fuel#efficient crafts gears

sea Prevention post losses, of fishery for and markets, production evaluation bio#molecules marine and and applications, of processing Mariculture fish plants

Introduction HACCP seafood Fishery inventory inland

waters GIS Estimates environmental in systems, impact assessment of waters regard different developmental Utilization inland water aquaculture, of productivity from Rural aquaculture integrated farming, of for fish Brackishwater Aquatic and conservation endangered species, of fisheries,

on format, of flows river Environmental

(EIA) open with to

protocols, of saline for Enhancement fish reservoirs,

and fish Development vaccines

diseases, aquaculture, Biodiversity

of fish Development Coldwater Organic farming Genetic of fish and characterization aquatic


of importance. are addressed the through network eight Fisheries Institutes, follows with


These being by ICAR a of resource#specific

Research as (also a


of organisations a mode): 69 Marine Research (CMFRI),

other in network

Central Fisheries Institute Kochi conducts on marine resources their exploitation, related and programmes.

research a fisheries and

besides training extension


Inland Research (CIFRI),

Fisheries Institute Barrackpore

has extension training

research, and activities

on open water


systems reservoirs, and

(rivers, wetlands/lakes estuaries).

Central of Aquaculture Bhubaneswar with extension training programmes production productivity freshwater aquaculture.

Institute Freshwater (CIFA), deals research, and

on and in


Institute Brackishwater (CIBA),

of Aquaculture Chennai

concentrates research, and programmes on

on extension training

brackish aquaculture shrimp fish.

water for and


Institute Fisheries (CIFT), conducts programmes design

of Technology Kochi

R&D on

of crafts gears, technology, processing, It helps Quality

fishing and fishing fish preservation. also in Control for of products. export fishery certification

National Centre Coldwater (NRCCWF), Bhimtal

Research on Fisheries

carries research coldwater resources

out on fishery and

biology, and hatchery aquaculture indigenous

breeding developing and for and coldwater exotic fishes.

National of Genetic (NBFGR), conducts on characterization, bio# diversity

Bureau Fish Resources Lucknow work genetic gene#banking,

database conservation

and of



Central of Education Mumbai, 'Deemed underakes education graduate and conducts training programmes. The achievements the Fisheries Institutes during X have to Increase total production

Institute Fisheries (CIFE), a University' fisheries at level also speicalised


research of ICAR Research

the Plan contributed the in fish to level about million in Cataloguing fish of 6.4 t 2004; of

70 a

genetic of Database marine resources India;

resources India; on fisheries of Assessment mangrove of diversity

in Development of production for freshwater and ornamental Pen technology flood lakes; Genetically rohu IR#1) enhanced seed technology catfishes, prawns


fishes; culture for plain

improved (CIFA with growth;


Development milt technique carps; portable

of cryopreservation for FRP hatchery carp Nested kit the detection seed; PCR for rapid for


White Syndrome (WSSV); design fishing and for and waters; of

Spot Viruses Indigenous of

crafts gears marine inland Development value added products

fishery for

domestic export Culture freshwater marine fish; and of Turtle Device and Catch Device Invitro

and markets; of and ornamental Design fabrication

Excluder (TED) Bye Reduction (BRD);

marine production tissue techique the pearl Pinctada fucata abalone of lobster in condition; of catfish, and eel,

pearl through culture in

Indian oyster and Breeding sand orientalis captive Breeding brachysoma

Haliotis varia;


yellow Horabagrus freshwater

Mastacembalus aculeatus captive Design fabrication a of m made aluminium for

in conditions; and of boat 5.22 OAL of alloy


in and and Marine Census 2005.

island reservoirs; National Fisheries

3.14 Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA), Kochi The Products Development (MPEDA) constituted Marine Export Authority was in The envisaged MPEDA comprehensive role for is # 1972.

covering of kinds, exports, standards, marketing, and in aspects the MPEDA under Ministry Commerce, of and as co#ordinating with Central

fisheries all increasing specifying processing, extension training various of industry. functions the of Government India acts a agency different and

State establishments in

Government engaged fishery and activities. Plan of Authority implemented four the are under major production allied 71 schemes



(i) production capture (ii) production culture (iii) of technology modernisation processing and market

Export # fisheries; Export

fisheries; Induction new and


facilities; (iv) promotion.

The programme MPEDA (i) of infrastructure for Export (ii) and dissemination trade (iii) of marine

work of includes: Registration

facilities seafood trade; Collection

of information; Projection Indian

products overseas by in fairs organising seafood in (iv) of development vital the like of insulated boxes, up landing improvement of

in markets participation overseas and international fairs India; Implementation

measures to industry distribution

fish putting fish platforms,

peeling modernisation industry as of

sheds, of such upgrading plate

freezers, of machinery, sets, making machineries,

installation IQF generator ice

quality laboratory, (v) of etc.; Promotion brackish


water for of

aquaculture production prawn

for and Promotion deep fishing through fishing, venture

export (vi) of sea projects test joint and participation. equity

3.15 Department of Biotechnology (DBT), New Delhi Department (DBT) under of and Technology a impetus the of field modern gave new to development the of biology biotechnology India. department made achievements the and of in broad of health animal environment, industry. and in The has the Ministry Science of Biotechnology

significant in growth application biotechnology the areas agriculture, care, sciences, and

The areas DBT the field aquaculture marine are: of recombinant and for diseases aquaculture; Molecular of species, of useful and of gene for transgenesis

thrust of in

of and biotechnology (i) Development

diagnostics vaccines major in (ii) biology Indian identification

genes development indigenous constructs fish work; Genomics proteomics in (iii) & studies aquaculture

species; Bioactive from organisms therapeutic industrial (v) tissue cell culture in

(iv) molecules aquatic for and applications; In vitro culture, 72 system various development

aquaculture (vi) line to techno#economic of production aquaculture non#traditional (vii) Programmes new development, breeding, agents, and harvest etc. enhancing aquaculture (viii) support marine biotechnology; (ix) Programme molecular for fisheries demonstrations prove viability seed and in species;

species; Front#

on feed nutrition, spawning health post aspects for

productivity; Programme in

and Training in biology


Some the achievements the are: of diagnostics vaccines

of relevant of DBT Development

and in

aquaculture; of cell systems, anti#bacterial cancerous Isolation novel from fungi, molecular and expression alkaline and molecular of spot disease brackish water Use Immunodot#based kit detection of spot virus in and Development

Development suitable culture immunostimulants, and agents; of enzymes deep#sea


cloning gene for protease

epidemiology white shrimp in

system; of diagnostic for

white syndrome (WSSV) shrimp prawn; of kit detection IgM Indian for of of major ELISA#based

carps hydrophila Formulation

against infection; of

Aeromonas anti#

WSSV a measure shrimp management; Standardization Biosurfactants from wastes employing acinetobacter New of fluorescent

as prophylactic in health

of production marine

the strains; source molecular dyes been from cucumber for has attempted sea tissues

bioactive and in applications; properties ink of have studied antibacterial, and agents; of culture in species seaweeds; Development a on aquaculture

compounds use biomedical Bioactive of gland cuttlefish been for antiviral anticancer Development

technology non#conventional like and of protocol better management

practices. 3.16 National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa The of is develop on chemical, biological, mandate NIO to knowledge physical,

geological, engineering pollution of waters India to support various

geophysical, and aspects 73 around and provide to industries,


government non#government through and research to knowledge the around The has undertaking on Oceans Climate, and ecosystems, Living

and organisations, consultancy contract and disseminate on waters India. Institute been researches

and Biogeochemistry marine Non# Resources Indian Pollution in ocean, and




coastal and of of stresses coastal Drugs Chemicals the Autonomous for and analysis

activities modeling impacts environmental

in zone, and from Sea, Instrumentation Oceanography engineering and design for structures, of and methods marine and explorations, Seabed exclusive

methodology marine Application geological geophysical in archaeology underwater

Surveys economic of India and of tool acoustic classification. for

of zone


modeling seafloor

3.17 Bay of Bengal Programme (BOBP-IGO), Chennai The of Programme, Inter#Governmental Bay Bengal an Organization

(BOBP#IGO) has the of Bengal of Food Agriculture of United It mandated enhance among countries, countries organizations provide and advisory for coastal development management Bay Bengal It focusing helping member in fisheries and livelihood

evolved erstwhile Programme the and Organization the Nations. is to cooperation member other and and technical management services sustainable fisheries and in of region. is on the countries sustaining production ensuring security millions fisher in region. of folk the In

from Bay




their a range activities for implementation. Its is promote, and the development

felt of are



mission to facilitate secure long#term and of fisheries of Bay utilisation coastal resources the of

Bengal on fishing and sound programs. achieve mission, objectives of (BOBP#IGO) to: awareness knowledge the needs, and of fisheries enhance through

based responsible practices environmentally management To this the

are increase and of

benefits practices coastal management; skills training

and transfer technologies techniques development small#scale establish regional networking; promote participation

education; appropriate and for of fisheries; a information and women s in fisheries at all coastal development


levels. 3.18 Plan budget utilisation Fisheries is of fastest sectors agriculture. is the growing in It also one

reflected the increment successive The outlay increased Rs. crore the five plan (1951#56) Rs. 2069.7 in X

in outlay over plans. Plan has from 5.13 in first year

to crores the plan

(both and States/UTs). outlay, and percentage different


The expenditure utilisation for Plans mentioned Table is in 3.20.

Table 3.20 Budget outlay and utilization of fisheries sector over various Five Year Plans (Rs crores) Central Sector Centrally sponsored State Total Plan Outlay Expend iture Outlay Expend iture Outlay Expendit ure Outlay Expendi ture

1.00 0.38 4.13 2.40 5.13 2.78 3.73 1.80 8.53 7.26 12.26 9.06 6.72 3.03 21.55 20.29 28.27 23.32 28.00 8.11 6.00 5.17 48.68 40.83 82.68 54.11 51.05 39.93 17.00 4.07 83.19 71.11 151.24 115.11 137.10 75.54 36.62 28.80 197.42 182.61 371.14 286.95 156.58 116.93 60.75 53.26 329.19 307.40 546.52 477.59 139.00 161.01 300.00 268.02 766.39 689.43 1205.39 1118.46 240.00 124.37 560.00 273.18 1269.78 1016.26 2069.78 1413.81 175.00 183.15 565.00 485.15 1320.54 2060.54 by trends, expected budget during




Going the the plan utilisation X Plan

period be the 80% 3.21).

would of order (Table

Table 3.21 Budget utilization of fisheries sector over various Five Year Plans % Utilisation Plan Central Sector Centrally

sponsored State Total I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X 38.00 48.26 45.09 28.96 86.17 83.87 65.45 78.22 23.94 85.48 76.11 55.10 78.65 92.50 77.32 74.68 87.67 93.38 87.39 115.83 89.34 89.96 92.79 51.82 48.78 80.03 68.31 104.66* 85.87 58.11 54.19 85.11 73.90 94.15 82.4975



Table 3.22 Budget utilization of fisheries sector during X Five Year Plans Items Amount (Rs crore) Outlay Expenditure 451.30 Anticipated 157.00 Total 608.30 Anticipated 78.90 It seen the that is from above, the expenditure expenditure 2006#07 771.00 till 2005#06


achievements well the utilisation the for development have satisfactory would improve adoption some the made this as as next

as as fund by DAHD&F fisheries programmes been and further with of of recommendations in Chapter well the one, regard areas well mechanisms. with to as as 76

CHAPTER 4 4.0 Programmes for XI Five-Year Plan 4.1 Scenario While presenting programmes the Five Plan, is to at prevailing that to addressed the for Eleventh Year it

relevant look the concerns need be

in to intervention They to availability

order design points. pertain water and biodiversity & of stocks, coastal enhancing productivity all allocation, loss depletion fish

excess fishing, fish in cultivable waters, and sea impact climate on fisheries, fisheries inland coastal large#scale of estuaries lakes/wetlands, effective of of of fisheries, increasing

oceanic deep fisheries, of change

trans#boundary issues, & pollution, sedimentation rivers, &

compliance code conduct responsible

input of and high fishing & water power, marine costs


low mechanization fisheries aquaculture, chain

profitability, in and cold and fish quality issues exports, hygienic handling, assurance in

overseas fluctuations, management, and insurance, database poor in marketing. in coming would to

market disaster credit

inadequate and linkage domestic The the plan need address programmes


aspects build greater and in

to resilience sustainability.

Demand for

projection fish the of XI 9.74 t by end

the plan is


(Fisheries 2006a) an

Division, at estimated




growth The

rate 3.5%. required growth for the would of order 5.4% the projections 2006) given Table

of annual rate meeting

demand be the of and supply (NCAP,

are in 4.1.

Further, with that to supported order achieve in of fisheries ornamental fisheries, pearl aqua#tourism, fisheries molluscan

areas promise need be in to diversification terms non#food are

seaweed, culture, sport and fisheries ornamental 77 for purposes.

Table 4.1 Present and projected fish supply by the end of XI Plan Area Present

production, (2006) million t Projected production, (2012) million t Approach Marine capture fisheries 2.958 Regulated 3.10 fishing capacity in sector, sea ranching, fishing Deep sea & resources 0.007 of sites the coastline, Hatcheries grow#out for value crustaceans, sea along suitable FADs, in Diversified

and reduction




Mariculture 0.05 Identification

and systems


fish, molluscs,

cucumber, Cage in open seas island

ornamental culture


& ecosystems

Enhanced Inland fisheries 0.68 Culture#based 1.12 fisheries Reservoirs with in

stocking fish Pen


advanced fingerlings, &


culture large bodies Canal development,

in water and

fishery fic harvesting code


techniques, of



of fisheries


Coldwater fisheries 0.0003 Seed 0.001 production trout mahseer,

of and Hill

aquaculture, streams,

Ranching Sport


fisheries Coastal aquaculture 0.113 Increasing under from existing 13% potential Diversification species, existing to & spot, saline as 0.25 water

area aquaculture,

of area,


from shrimp Seabass


Inland aquaculture an

added Freshwater aquaculture 2.6145 Increase


5.088 in coverage areas ponds

the of of and


for culture, of

fish Reclamation weed

chocked of and Intensification

waters, species


of practices,

culture Integrated


farming wastewater to water

and aquaculture



Total 6.3728 9.609 (Source: ICAR, Fisheries 2006a) Division,


strategy realizing potentials the are:

for the of sector

Ensuring of and fishery practices

adoption responsible sustainable

Enhancing in cultivable

fish all waters



agro#aqua aqua#shops fishery

farms, and estates


production consumption



fish literacy fishers aqua#farmers

quality among and

Improving fish and at and post#harvest

facilities landing handling harvest




Developing techniques



Introducing with to and management ownership community

aquarian regard leasing



waters, and management


in aspects fisheries aquaculture

different of and

4.2 Objectives The Objectives the of with to development in main of Government India regard

programmes fisheries

and during Eleventh Plan as

aquaculture the Five are follows: Year

Enhancing production fish Indian both marine inland, an sustainable socially

the of from waters,

and on environmentally and equitable basis;

Address hitherto potentials Indian such

the unexplored of fisheries as fisheries non#food island and fisheries;

Conservation resources genetic as


aquatic and diversity, also

preservation of

of ecosystems;


Increasing of and through

profitability fishers aqua#farmers an


approach production consumption; fish health and the

from to

Promoting as food meeting changing requirements both and markets make sector

of domestic export to the globally competitive;

Strengthening Infrastructure harvest, addition

of in post#harvest, and

value# marketing;

Upliftment fisher aqua#farmer with employment

of and communities gainful opportunities capacity strengthening. and

4.3 Thrust areas, strategies and Schemes 4.3.1 Marine Coastal Fisheries The fisheries in has a marine sector India registered phenomenal

growth the five both and qualitatively 4.1). While subsistence during early produced 0.5 t the annual production about million forming of revalidated fishery of million comprising million of demersal, million of and million of resources.

during last decades quantitatively

(Fig. the fisheries the 50's about million annually, current 79

is 2.9 t, 73.8% the

potential 3.93 t 2.02 t

1.67 t pelagic 0.24 t oceanic

Figure 4.1 Marine fish production in India during different

phases of growth (Source:



The fishery over commercially finfish shellfish Currently traditional centres, minor six fishing serve base 1,04,270 of non#motorised 75,591 scale landing crafts 58,911 crafts (mainly trawlers, gill and seiners). sector#wise fish are in 4.2, indicating major from

multi#species comprises 200 important and species. 2,251 landing 33 and major harbours as for numbers traditional crafts, small beach motorised and mechanised

bottom drift netters purse The marine landings presented Fig. also the share the

mechanised (Mechanised: 67.9%; 25%; 7.1%, Mechanised motorized 93% the catch).


Motorised: Artisanal: with and boats of total contributing

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 1950 1953 1956 1959 1962 1965 1968 1971 1974 1977 1980 1983 1986

1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 Phase-I Phase-II Phase-III Landings predominantly by non mechanized craft & gear Use of improved gear materials, export trade expansion, increased mechanization, initiation of motorization of country craft Intensification of mechanized fishing, substantial growth in motorization, multi day fishing, extension of fishing grounds, Seasonal closure of the fishery 80 0 100

200 300 400 500 600 700 Landings ('000 t) NorthEast SouthEast SouthWest NorthWest Mechanised Motorised Traditional Figure 4.2 Sector wise marine landings in different regions in 2004 (Source:



The Committee (DAHD&F, in report that present are long two purse 420

Empowered 2004) their indicated at there 52 liners, oceanic seiners, pole line and pelagic/mid and vessels 17 water



in EEZ. This in to coastal vessels upgraded/modified fishing the waters specific resources.

the is addition the small#scale

for in deeper for

The in sector excess fishing capacity overexploitation, open fisheries, at capture/indiscriminate

issues the are coastal fleet and unregulated access discards

capture downgrading juveniles sub of and


adults, degrading, loss ineffective regulatory increased costs decreased

environmental biodiversity and

measures, fishing and

profitability, infrastructure linkages domestic underutilization and sea and inter and sectoral Hence paradigm from marine production increasing and the marine resources management would need be during XI In context, overcapacity

poor and for marking, of deep resources emerging oceanic

intra# conflicts. a shift increasing fish to profitability sustaining

fishery through interventions

to focused the plan. this reducing in mechanized and of for the sector diversification fishing


of deep and resources high

underutilized sea oceanic assume

significance. harvest product value addition domestic Development coastal open sea Conservation stock through ranching, Restoration threatened habitats the other points ensure annual rate 5% increased

Post handling, diversification, 81 and marketing, of and

mariculture, and enhancement sea FADs, of critical are

action to an growth of by annual of million marine 0.5 t fish. production

The for and marine production (Fig 4.3) from open

strategy sustaining augmenting fish

comprises over an access


to regulated regime,

employing fishery regime by

a management supported a

multi# dimensional platform, technologies capabilities the and mechanized for diversification, the capacity fishing freezing the of coastal fishing establishing oceanic and fishery, mariculture finfishes, edible sea and commercially species and fish through effective of information upgrading and in artisanal small sector

reducing excess of fleet,

entry new mechanized crafts, an tuna squid promoting for

bivalves, plants, other important

sustain production the enforcement



Figure 4.3 Options for Sustaining and Increasing Marine Fish Production The of initiated the has been successful and future course action be on need/area#based traditional with of process motorisation in 1980s largely

the of could only selective, motorisation crafts engines less of

than HP The needs be fuel including use LPG the Diversification shrimping an need the fleet to

10 capacity. emphasis to on efficiency, the of for purpose. from is immediate and trawling needs be

reduced resource#specific sea fleet for offshore Combination vessels gill hooks, trawls, fish capacities ice facilities improve quality the and discards required. Co#management to encouraged empowering and Management Options

and deep fish introduced

fishing. gear with nets,

enhanced hold and storage to the of catches reduce are

needs be for fisher

Sustain Production Increase Production Responsible fishing Deep sea/Oceanic fishing Restriction on fishing effort Utilization of discards and bycatches Restriction on fiishing area Value addition Restriction on fishing gear FADs Enforcement of FMRA

Shift from open to rightbased access Sea ranching Alternatives (sea farming) 83 other for opportunities an needs be for to with Government in Attempts be to private fishers stakeholder the and environment to created them work the hand hand. are to made push sector/progressive in




There a regarding plateauing catches inshore waters in context, is to the in the

is concern the of from

and this it relevant consider potentials

offshore that detailed

waters, are in



Table 4.2 State of exploitable fisheries resources in EEZ (In 000 t) Resource Potential yield Harvestable stock Yellowfin Big tuna eye 12.5 6.25 85.2 42.60 tuna 115.0 57.50

Skipjack Billfishes 5.1 2.55 Sharks Coastal Oceanic Deep

26.2 13.10 pelagics squids sea 2.3 1.10 6.8 3.40 19.9 9.90 lobsters

Total 273.0 136.40 (Source: DAHD&F, 2004)

In to this the suggested Introduction vessels the five as by Empowered constituted the of

order exploit component, steps are of in next years recommended the Committee by Ministry Agriculture,

including & vessels, purse 58 long

80 line

pole 16 seiners, tuna liners,


squid 55 water


Hook liners deep lobster other Table

jiggers, pelagic/mid trawlers and &


sea and resources 4.3) as al

so storage

developing and facilities total management and concepts. harbour incorporating quality



Table 4.3 Recommended number of Resource specific vessels for introduction in the EEZ during the coming five years (up to 2009) Resource type Vessel type Fishable Potential (t) Total No.

of vessels recomm ended No. of vessels already in operation Additional boats that could be permitted during the next 5 years Oceanic and Longliners Oceanic sharks Longliners 110 58 Pole 500 420 Skipjack 42,600 18 16 2 80 Purse#seiner 52 13,000 tuna billfishes 66,300



Coastal pelagics Pelagic/ mid trawler 3,400 17 Oceanic Squid 9,900 # Deep lobsters 1,100 Other finfish Trap/ hook & 1,000 liner bottom 72 55 squid jigger 15 15 sea water

10 # 10 (Source: DAHD&F, 2004a) Island Fisheries The coastal offshore of have of world s and waters Andamans some the

richest tuna

of t. In to 82,000 of tunas also for exploitation export. the harvest only 800

stocks per potential estimates 1,00,000

as the yield

addition this, t oceanic are available

and However, present is about t. tuna in seas Lakshadweep Potential resources the around have

been to between t 90,000 About t of

estimated be 50,000 and t. 10,000

tuna caught by & and little troll Pole

are mostly pole line a by lines.

& boats of feet) conduct day fishing and operate trips the season. Lakshadweep, 85% the landings tunas which 50% the tuna is for production

line#fishing (OAL 25#36 mostly single

trips often two during peak At over of total constitute of about of total landings used Masmin and remaining consumed Presently the 50% fresh. Masmin

is in traditional by tuna to fillets,

prepared the way cutting in longitudinal boiling seawater, and sun for 7#8 in smoking then drying about 85

days. recent years, tuna and

In frozen export tuna preparation being by Lakshadweep Corporation Marketing chilled from to mainland of tuna Lakhshadweep the


is promoted the Development (LDCL).


an viable but requires for

economically proposal, this facilities icing

and distribution the The need be transported chilled to mainland, proper for

rapid to markets. fishes to

in condition the but facilities chilled at receiving also to created. the end need be storage

The constraints marketing are: of fish marketing chain, not getting value for

main in tuna lack proper

fishers enough their diversified

catch and species), cost tuna poor connectivity the lack public on environment#friendly e

(yellow#fin non#tuna high of cans,

with mainland, of awareness

and ways fishing for practices.


By of located close the rich stocks the Indian Central Oceans, can

virtue being strategically to world s tuna in Eastern and Pacific India

wrest lead

the from which currently producer canned in world. Malaysia launched

Thailand, is

the largest of tuna the Recently, has many initiatives increase share the market establishing infrastructure including tuna in and announcing trade We to concentious efforts

to its in world by

facilities a harbour Penang

several concessions. need make

to the resources the and Oceans. tuna

utilize in Indian Pacific

In to a module fishing, and

order establish standard of processing

export tuna, is that new including mother/collector are and existing are upgraded FRP of hull, live tanks, fish and panels the

of it necessary modern vessels

vessels introduced the boats

by lamination underwater providing bait insulated box solar in boats. Important for handling tuna in of

requirements post#harvest of are terms ice plants, storage, facilities, cold canning insulated

chilled freezing storage, plant, vehicles, facilities, disposal etc. waste facilities, curing

86 In the Japan, consumer

supermarket for is high US 75/kg. the be

price Sashimi Tuna as as $ Therefore ultimate should to aim develop

tuna the of a name international market. of advantages the & islands their

in form Sashimi with brand in

One the of Andaman Nicobar is strategic close major tuna in location to world markets Singapore


Bangkok. take of Port could linked

To advantage this, Blair be by

air sea these especially transport chilled

or to cities, for of (#60C)

Sashimi grade

tuna. Blair serve an point export linking other such Kochi, and similar the tuna of

Port could as ideal for

tuna with ports as Chennai Vishakapatnam, to international port Malaysia. Facilities

for of added such ready#to#eat, breaded battered etc. necessary

production value products as

ready#to#serve and products, are in these processing to realize return.

plants maximum The


market are be before products designed.

demands to researched the are

The benefits of 70% in production, particularly high grade (50,000 by year 2017. this skill of needs be that enable of than job Further, only of potential are for harvest, is likely be environmental to the

likely consist a increase fish

in value tuna t) the sashimi

In regard, upgradation fishers to done, would creation more 10,000 opportunities. since 50% the stocks targeted

there not to any consequences

marine and Acquisition special both the

habitats life. of vessels, in


of m over m be former fishing

15#30 and 30 would required, for

Sashimi tuna. & concept being in countries

grade Pay Fish is practiced some including that be with in would practical VMS place. Oman,

Apart fishing, practices very for exports, retain texture in overseas in to command

from handling are important tuna to the required exports order


price. While farming been commercial in country, shrimp has a activity the


culture other organisms as and has not a level. the past, country made beginning mariculture, through farming (annual 8,900 consisting mussels t edible oysters t) the of but yet pick in maritime in of immense Potential mariculture

of marine such mussels oysters 87 reached commercial In recent the has a in mainly bivalve

production t of 7,500 and

1,400 in State Kerala, is to up other states spite its potential.

sites bivalve along east farming the and


west of India been by Mariculture for edible mussels, pearl in oysters, seaweeds, marine fishes clown and seahorses) available. would enable required diversification non#food of have mapped CMFRI. technologies


oysters, marine production pearl

and ornamental (damsels, fishes

are This also the

into fisheries terms seaweed

in cultivation,

pearl and on, high potentials.In of above, following is for fisheries

farming, so with export view the the approach suggested marine and

mariculture XI period. Continuation of existing Schemes Scheme Implementation Budget (Rs crores) Capture Fisheries Need

for plan




motorization 10%

of of





(10,000) HP

using diesel


engines areas Through





Co#operatives/NGOs, 20.00 Short and resource estimation term





and efficient through




and Through

TV State Governments/




5.00 Increase fish quality catch of

using for traditional/





sector Through State Governments/




10.00 Sea like GPS, VHF, saving etc. State Governments/ life safety measures

gadgets, Through

Co#operatives/ , 10.00 Installation

NGOs, etc.


of Reefs





Devises DAH D F, Governments, & State




20.00 Sub-Total 65.00 88 New schemes Scheme Implementation Budget (Rs crores) Diversification/reduction excess costal fishing 17#19 vessels m of capacity of of


of fishing (intermediary




Diversification 1%

of shrimp



per thereby reduction 5%



the of

end the



(17 #19m OAL) deep fishing sea for

Decommissioning of

of coastal


mechanized year, 5% reduction end XI by providing (coastal aquaculture, mussel, seaweed, fish programs, farming at

crafts thereby


the of plan







pearl and


pearl in deep



sea sector;


Thr ough State Governments/

Co#operatives/NGOs 75.00


kits outboard for efficiency reduce









Co#operatives/NGOs, Entrepreneurs, 5.00 Adoption jigging technology unit value Training, realization foreign diversified upgraded specific collaboration, for high of squid etc.


resource# squid



Through Co# operatives/ FSI, and entrepreneurs 10.00 Introduction







specific fishing vessels 234 by



vessels the


Empowerment the plan: Tuna long

Committee XI



58 Pole

Nos and vessels: Nos Seiners: line

80 Purse

16 Pelagic/mid trawlers:

Nos water

55 Squid

Nos jiggers:



Traps/hook vessels:





Through State Governments and private entrepreneurs 234.00 MCS/VMS DAHD activities & FSI, CIFNET, F, CMFRI, State

Governments, 10.00 Massive sea




NFDB, Institutes,



Governments, NGOs PRIs


and 11.00 (NFDB) Mariculture Fishfish/shellfish (snappers,

hatcheries rabbit fishes,




Research support,


Development pilot


demonstrations, extension; DAHD F, Institutes, ICAR etc. &



25.00 (NFDB) Mariculture Research support, 80.00 finfish (Sea#bass, development and for Development pilot 89 groupers,


fattening, edible open cage







commercially species scale


demonstrations, extension; DAHD F, Institutes, ICAR etc. &



(NFDB) Seaweed Through culture ICAR




CMFRI, and entrepreneurs 30.00 (NFDB) Human Resource Development HRD



in fishing, sea





D F, Institutes,

& NFDB, State

Government 5.00 Sub-Total 485.00 Total 550.00 4.3.2 Aquaculture Inland resources terms rivers canals lakh km), fisheries in of and (1.95 Inland Fisheries and

reservoirs m floodplain (0.35 ha), ha),

(3.15 wetlands m estuaries


m etc a opportunity fostering production

ha), offer major for fish

enabling of of Majority these multiple use

livelihoods lakhs people. of are

waters multiple The operations

benefiting stakeholders. fishery in

these include fisheries, fisheries other of enhancement. is both in and waters different systems a number fish/prawn species. Freshwater is primarily

waters capture culture#based and forms fisheries Aquaculture practised

fresh brackish with culture and

of candidate aquaculture

confined smaller bodies water including


ponds tanks, in private public Coldwater is segment needing attention investment the plan period. shift inland from to is quite the (Fig. 90 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 1984-85 1989-90 1994-95 2005-06 Year evident both or domains. fisheries a


greater and during coming

paradigm in fisheries capture culture

over years 4.4).

Production (000 t) Aquaculture Fisheries Figure 4.4 Pattern of growth of inland fish production in India (Based on & 2004 DAHD&F, Katiha, & 2005) Pillai

Freshwater had share 46% inland in the has to 80% recent (Fig. Freshwater is of fast enterprises agriculture activities. the of pressure

aquaculture a of in fisheries


mid#1980s increased about in years 4.5). aquaculture one the growing in and In wake increasing on allied


resources the it become to up

in country, has necessary draw a




54 28 16 20 46 72 84 80 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1984-85 1989-90 1994-95 2005-06 Year Percent of total Fisheries Aquaculture Figure 4.5 Percentage Share of inland fisheries and aquaculture during the past two decades


on & 2004 DAHD&F, Katiha, &



Major share of capture Fisherie Major share of 91 Integrated Resources (IWRM) factoring fisheries aquaculture it. on suggestion the National on of of for Responsible a consultation water was during 2006. recommendations the Consultation given Water Management and

and into Based a from

Committee implementation Code Conduct

Fisheries, national on management held June, The of

are in

Box Along water plans are for specific of farming water fish

4.1 with budgeting,

afoot prescribing models integrated and reuse in farming.

Box 4.1 National Consultation on Water Management in Fisheries and Aquaculture was held on 23-24 June 2006 at NASC, Complex, New Delhi Following recommendations made action suggested the were and plans at Consultation

Recommendations Development of predictive models for minimum water flow requirements in the major rivers for sustainable fisheries. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and loss of biodiversity. Holistic approach for conservation of water and biodiversity. Integration of fisheries development with new irrigation projects. Assessment water for species for and maintenance health of requirements various suitable culture for of of ecosystem

rivers reservoirs.



of methods estimation environmental in rivers.

standard for of flows our

Development and resistant of

of salt

drought varieties fish.

Conservation of and

and rainwater wastewater.


Community awareness and water productivity enhancement. Development running culture for regions designing movement migrating of water system Himalyan and of passages stocks. for

Development devices prevent loss juveniles operating mills

of to the of while water



the regions.


Sedimentation rational abstraction rivers germplasm


and water in for conservation.

Action Plans

Revitalizing/reorientation for reservoir integrated

of addressing productivity, farming,



in transfer.


Effective s.

implementation scientific

of decisions/recommendation


adequate coordination fisheries other departments

functional among and related in




policy and budgeting sustainable

formulation water for production.


should considered par agriculture.

be at with

Strengthening ges

inter#ministerial at centre.


Source: CIFRI CIFA, 92 Inland Fisheries Riverine fisheries The riverine the

AoA, & 2006


systems country 14 and minor with tributaries streams, major

in comprise

44 rivers innumerable and harnessing significant biodiversity. through years anthropogenic

fish However, the of stresses, have under threat loss come serious of in they

ecosystem and

properties fish

stocks considerable loss the country. a initiative needed the XI to river and with such as of on Yields production estimates to

causing economic

Therefore, major is during

plan restore ecology fisheries, programmes

Generation database resources, and

on format, restoration pollution

GIS Habitat and abatement

for of grounds, ranching, passes migratory species, Regulated practices closed seasons mesh in with Code

protection breeding River Fish for fish and fishing with

and regulations accordance the of

Conduct Responsible The Committee implementation Code Conduct Responsible has made of for of in these waters. include: Central should provide support the to them implement the Act, with to conservation (ii) institutes fabricate safe gear suitable the waters; The Government

for Fisheries. National on of of for Fisheries

number recommendations conservation fisheries

natural These (i) Government

necessary to States enable to

Fisheries especially respect the aspect; R&D should environmentally fishing

for inland (iii) Central should

encourage uniform season for rivers the States; (iv) sustainable of in rivers and estuaries, community#based management should introduced, has very demonstrated by

a closed policy the across

and For management fisheries the

their the fisheries

be which been effectively

Bay Bengal (BoBP) coastal fisheries. increasing on canal is a for cultivation, to as supplementary to fisheries. culture

of Programme in marine

With emphasis irrigation, network becoming resource fish even serve a resource riverine Fish

in within canals

enclosures the as in submerged along canals a 93 deserves and Issues be are and rights, duration water also the areas the is possibility

that attention investments. to addressed ownership harvesting leasing, of retention and



Estuaries important grounds a of commercially fish shellfishes, special in of discharge freshwater, fishing particularly

being breeding for variety

important and require attention terms regulated of reduced efforts, with to fishing, collection regard mechanised controlled of


fish/shellfish and conservation. mangrove

seed Reservoir fisheries Indian are and under climatic classified large, and The yields these have in range 12#15 kg/ha reservoirs diversified located different situations as medium small. fish from reservoirs remained the of


in of and ones it kg/ha small (Sugunan, & But reservoirs the which subjected scientific recorded higher indicating higher production

case large medium while is in

reservoirs 1995 2001). some in country, were to management significantly yields, their fish

potential. production can harnessed providing enabling and support improve overall productivity reservoirs the and the by

This potential be by

policy technology to the

of in country enhance production more 160% 4.4). than (Table

Table 4.4 Potential for fish production enhancement in reservoirs Category Production (in 000 t) Existing Potential Gap % Increase Small 148.6 100.4 Medium 39.6 510.0 Large 57.0 337.4 Total 93.7 245.2 151.5 161.8 (Source: CIFRI, 2005) 74.2 74.4

6.5 33.1

13.0 44.0

Special are

efforts required

to made reach reservoir productivity of countries Asia China yields

be to the

levels other in especially where more 800 have achieved reservoirs. 94 a open#water resource, can than kg/ha been from

This is major fishery which significantly contribute the fish basket our and provide to large of who ousted riverine due different diversion in country. and of

to inland production of country

livelihoods a number fishers are from stretches to water projects the Ownership leasing reservoirs

on term issues to

long are

be with, enabling fishery and

dealt for complete rights interventions

for higher The to pursued Stocking fingerlings carps other species (requirement 9 Provision adequate space (on/off for production, and culture, Appropriate/improved harvesting & Post#harvest (Storage, hygienic etc.) Manpower development reservoir

achieving productivity. programmes be are with of and relevant

being billion), of rearing

site) fingerling Cage pen

fish gear crafts,

transportation, marketing, and

for fisheries

managers skill among The on of of Conduct Responsible also for standardization management for categories reservoirs medium large). further to a consultation promote based in open

and development fishers. National

Committee implementation Code

for Fisheries recommended

of norms different of (small, and It suggested organize National to culture fisheries Indian waters. Fisheries of floodplain wetlands and lakes The resources floodplains associated are in States Assam, West and Pradesh the of and wetlands significant


of Bihar, Bengal Uttar while

lakes are in states southern uplands. wetlands lakes significant biodiversity, indigenous

resources restricted Northern and

Both and have fish

and and sustaining of number are

exotics, livelihoods large


people providing security local These ecosystems rich nutrients biodiversity,

and nutritional to population.

unique are in and having significant

potential raise productivity 4.5). 95

to fish (Table

Table 4.5 Potential for fish production enhancement in floodplain wetlands Production ( 000 t) State Area ( 000 ha) Existing Potential Gap

% increase West Bengal 42.5 9.56 53.15 43.59 455.96 40.0 4.80 30.00 25.20 525.00 100.0 12.00 95.00 83.00 691.67 Pradesh 152.0 22.80 114.00

Bihar Assam Uttar 91.20 400.00 Other

NE 19.2.0 1.49 15.78 14.29 959.06


Total (Source:

353.7.0 50.65 307.93 257.28 507.96 CIFRI, 2005)


from fish, ecosystems large of these

food have varieties potential

ornamental species. ecosystems in regions offer for sport and tourism.

fish These especially Himalayan also opportunities developing fishing eco# Some these bodies ecologically and water are sensitive are of

declared Ramsar but be

as sites can harnessed

as fish production without their functions. Therefore, during plan, need approaches for fishery conservation, fishing eco#tourism There also indirect to community as recharging aquifers, water crops other etc. approaches integrated development, sport and promotion are to significant and


systems altering ecological

XI these specific


integrated development, sport and promotion. are other benefits the such water of ensuring for and uses, Specific for fishery conservation, fishing eco#tourism

suggested bring direct indirect

benefit all stakeholders. proposed for wetlands are of seed right and requirement requirement about Provision adequate space site) raising, of through desilting, construction removal aquatic Integrating fisheries agriculture animal and and culture. fisheries is suitable approach, which incentives terms


The strategy/programme these

stocking fish of species size (seed being 1.4 of rearing (on/off Fingerling Restoration habitat billion),

dyke & of weeds,

with and husbandry, pen cage Community#based management the

for necessary in of

lease the fisher


community, supply market has be 96

seed and linkage to provided. fish stock health The status environment the water is

Inland environment and

of in inland bodies deteriorating,

which impair production Therefore, have develop technologies mitigate levels pollution waters, the good water raise identify hardy

will the systems. we to suitable to the of in reuse limited quality to fish,

species can the water Based

that withstand stressed quality. on

the data

time#scale collection

on environment fisheries, capabilities forecast anticipated in stocks, potential zones ecosystem need be in to timely appropriate and the machinery

aquatic and

to the changes fish

harvest and changes to developed order take and action equip

at level meet challenge. to the


The fish from waters in and quality past decades emergent for conservation fish and original germplasm.

declining catch natural both quantity

over four raised concerns

of biodiversity our fish

Further, of fish and

human/natural exotic species rising


trend fish in and waters need special

for diseases natural cultured also

monitoring. In context, the areas are

this thrust suggested

National surveillance, & mechanism

Documentation reporting for fish


shellfish Diseases, of centre import live Exotics Propagation#assisted of species.

Establishment quarantine for

of Aquatic and rehabilitation threatened

Introduction exotic for both food ornamental in

of species aquaculture, for and purposes, cases

of and is matter be

finfish shellfish, a to considered a basis, on relative on continuous based needs, merits,

market and on biodiversity. view the concerns biosecurity, strong mechanism, was initiated

demands impacts local In of

on a quarantine that

during XI needs be in to these plan, to put place, address


concerns. Freshwater Aquaculture Production has up 0.37 t 980 to million at with 2.4


from gone from million in


t present, carps

alone over per cent. host technologies over years largely contributed such growth the Carps, and prawns the components culture in country. three major rohu mrigal, together a share over million with silver grass and carp the important group. giant

contributing 85

A of developed the have

to a in sector. catfishes

are important of practices the The Indian carps catla, and

contribute lion s of two t exotic carp, carp common forming next


of freshwater

prawn catfishes magur

and like and

singhi also increased in recent due high

has received attention the past to market prices.


the resources terms ponds tanks the

available in of and and fish


doubling fish through aquaculture

of production freshwater is


seen a possibility. with availability clear

as However, water going

to restricted the years, of use, and

be in coming strategies multiple reuse integration aquaculture other systems of with farming need



developed. the time, of and waters as saline provide opportunities aquaculture Water would the issue farming Therefore, strategies are: extending coverage freshwater area; productivity existing diversification species intensification culture and health and disease

At same resources wastewater degraded such ground water new for practices. productivity be key in practices. developmental proposed

the of aquaculture optimising of waters; of and of practices fish management

diagnostics. should greater on be reliance air#breathing


fish backyard The fish requirements the period aquaculture culture#based are in

and fisheries. annual seed over plan for and fisheries given Table 98 4.6.

Table 4.6 Annual fish seed (Fry) requirement during XI Five Year Plan Water resource/fish Area (million ha) Stocking rate (Fry/ha) Requirement (million fry or PL) Ponds 2.00 Reservoirs 3.00 Wetlands 0.35 Seabass Scampi 2.00 Brackishwater 2.50 The requirements freshwater & (Carps) 12,000 24,000 (Carps) 3,000 9,000 (Carps) 4,000 1,400 # farming 4,000 8,000 (Shrimp) 40,000 10,000 feed for aquaculture 10,000 2 tanks

by end next plan estimated t, for aquaculture

the of

is at 3.15million while brackishwater it 0.23 t 4.7). million (Table is

Table 4.7 Annual fish feed requirement during XI Five Year Plan (million t) Freshwater Aquaculture Grow-out systems Seed production Total 3.05 0.1 Rice bran/wheat requirement 70% the bran @ of total feed requirement**

2.14 Oil cake @ of total 0.91 requirement 30% the


Brackishwater 0.23



Considering of to produced 6 with 2.5 20% fish fish be @ t/ha FCR and of to



produced 4 with of and from systems

@ t/ha FCR 1.5, rest fertilizer#based

The to these requirements made continuation ongoing on aquaculture. suggested programmes/schemes breeding, establishment seed of and prawn; advanced upgraded

provision meet input is by of scheme freshwater The new are: hatchery and production Magur freshwater

& Protocols

for breeding, certification, certified

Carp seed

brood etc.

banks, Coldwater Fisheries/Culture The country significant fishery extending north#western north#eastern region some of Ghats, about states. coldwater utility in#terms gene and sport ornamental value diverse resource#base, climatic This natural wide diversity Western encompassing ten The has coldwater/hill resources

from to Himalayan and parts

fish is of pool food, and fishes


vis--vis are to and different species, domestic for

altitude conducive conserve rear fish developing market high

value and interest

fish growing of in including within outside country. contribution coldwater to national people eco#tourism angling and

the The of fish the fish basket about which is low#volume category, the volume the XI is the order The

is 1.5%, however of high#value,

and projected at end the plan of


of main and conceptualized the period Establishment small units seed of and

6%. issues programmes for

plan are: of hatchery for production

mahseers snow#trouts;

The exotic

mid#altitude carp

farming; fish with horticulture livestock

Integrated farming agriculture, and and of fishery streams high sport in & altitude Development

lake. success trout of growing of trout

The in farming fast variety rainbow in and Pradesh to extended other Kashmir Himachal needs be to

Central and states.

Himalayan, southern

northeastern Brackishwater Aquaculture Brackishwater has as important production playing vital in of products. aquaculture emerged an food sector a role export marine

The under production expanded about ha traditional system) 1989#90 1,84,115 during

area shrimp has from 50,000 (including farming in to ha 2005#06. Shrimp increased about t to t by shrimps 45% Cultured contributed

production from 30,000 in 1,85,990

1989#90 2005#06.

of total exported accounted 60% the exchange Concomitant the growth the commodity, all development

the shrimp and for of foreign earnings. to above in

round was in of establishment witnessed

hatcheries shrimp production,

for seed shrimp

feed ancillary industries aquaculture drugs chemicals, marketing, and activities. The has employment than lakh


in engineering, and

processing export sector given to three people. more


major limiting growth aquaculture the of free and dependence a 100 (Penaeus There about shrimp in

bottlenecks the of are non#

availability disease seed the on single species monodon).

are 320 hatcheries


country an installed capacity 12

with annual production of billion

post (PL).


There however drop the for shrimp due the diseases White Syndrome Virus

was a in requirement

seed to recurring like Spot

(WSSV), shell and Baculo (MBV) The need to the and

loose syndrome Monodon Virus


imminent is domesticate shrimp produce

Specific Free seed overcome problems. there R&D in in country, of biosecure and seed is important requirement. the

Pathogen (SPF) to the While are efforts place the establishment

facility dedicated centres an

Further, mechanism

of to the imported that initiated the Tenth period to strengthened centres major cities Chennai, Kolkata

quarantine screen

seed, was during plan needs be with at port like




is that area shrimp will to

expected the of farming expand 2,26,000

ha the of plan the production be the order 2,30,000

by end XI and expected will of

of t. The seed at end XI

shrimp requirement the of

plan will around billion this be with existing (12 annual capacities). Considering

period be 9 and can met the hatcheries billion production

the issues shrimp National

sustainability in aquaculture,

Committee implementation Code Conduct Responsible Fisheries that voluntary of for operators in should revised made binding. Establishment

on of of for

suggested the code practices hatchery framed past be and

of along coastal on pattern the areas the of


industrial with effluent

estate, proper treatment

plants be promoted. There about feed with annual production capacity 1,50,000 However, feed will up 2,25,000 accounting an requirement 75,000 of feed, needs be by the capacity installing mills. It necessary remove single dependence brackishwater with shrimps well is


are 35 mills an installed

of t. the requirement go to t for additional of t

that to met expanding present or new 101 feed

to this species in aquaculture, other as as

brackishwater Both production one and processing export new at other need be addressed achieve desired in culture practices. aquaculture expected be up about 2,000

finfishes. seed on end

and of species the would to

to the diversification the

Finfish is to taken in

ha the plan mostly on of

during XI period, focusing culture the

seabass calcarifer),

(Lates with expected of 8000 t. At stocking of seabass

an production around

million a density 10,000

seed hectare, the requirement be million. In to this requirement, about seabass with production of lakh per are be Inland aquaculture assume importance the years, with


seed will 2 order meet seed

20 hatcheries a capacity 10 seed annum to established. saline would greater in coming

increasing in parts the

salinisation different of country.

Continuation of existing schemes Scheme Implementation Budget (Rs crores ) Development of Inland Fisheries & Aquaculture Capture fisheries

Development fisheries capture
















Development in

of hill



Development fish

of culture


Development logged for aquaculture

of areas


Development saline for aquaculture

of soils


Development coastal



aquaculture State Departments 432.00 New schemes Scheme Implementation Budget (Rs crores ) Capture Fisheries Survey, assessment evaluation and of 102 Fisheries

inland using

aquatic remote


sensing tools inland fisheries

and for




State Departments technical

Fisheries with guidance from

CIFRI, 60.00 Improving


productivity of open# inland

water pens, and

fishery cages


ranching. State Departments 35.00 Improving in Reservoirs and canals Fish Productivity Fisheries

State Departments 305.00 Aquaculture Freshwater Magur




establishment production State Departments 6.00* Advanced Up#graded for Carp Fisheries



& Protocols


State Departments technical

Fisheries with guidance from



10.00 Seed both fish and ornamental certification food (for


State Departments technical

Fisheries with guidance from




NBFGR, 10.00 Certified for fish


Brood food and


ornamental State Departments technical

fish Fisheries with guidance from

CIFA, 30.00 Brackishwater Hatchery




production and spot

of Pearl


(Etroplus), units




be through in states 50.00*




Coldwater Establishment Seed production rearing & brood#stock and tanks other facility (Hatchery, of Mahseer

support) State Departments 5.00* Construction Raceways for Trout in Regions State Departments 2.00 Conservation of fish stocks and fish diversity Fisheries Hilly Farming of Community Fisheries

Establishment in States for monitoring



surveillance, and

reporting diseases State Departments established



Fisheries through channel of







Lucknow 10.00 Establishment quarantine centers at airports strategic and of Fish

State Departments 30.00 international technical from

Fisheries with 103 boarders assistance ICAR institutes

General Establishment shops of at Aqua#

district states






Fisheries 25.00 State level testing and diagnostics soil#water






Fisheries 15.00 Aqua#Tech#Park State



Fisheries 10.00 Sub-total 583.00 Total 1,035.00 * Subsidy only component

4.3.3 Infrastructure Harvest and post harvest infrastructure The projected of

annual rate fisheries during is

growth sector XI


of order 5%, 2.5% marine and in aquaculture, a annual production the of 9.6 t. order ensure fisheries would to strengthen infrastructure both and handling in big

the of with in fisheries 8% inland with projected fish to tune

million In to this, sector need

the for harvesting post#harvest and a This modern sea way. includes deep processing

fishing fisheries both and other landing etc. the facilities the and

vessels, harbours major minor, fish centres, As existing at harbours

landing (Table are and conditions unhygienic, need be by additional facilities storage, and packaging transportation. additional for and centers

centres 4.8) inadequate the

they to modernized providing

for icing handling, and The requirement harbours landing by is at major harbours, 2012 estimated two fishing 13 minor


harbours 46 centers. potable availability to ensured washing cleaning. waste mechanisms, platforms hygienic and of

and landing

Continuous water has be for and Suitable disposal raised for handling packaging

fish availability sufficient

and of quantity quality etc. to ensured. of of ice, are be Installation

efficient plants ensure use potable water


treatment to economical of


and environmental is need. 104 needed improve and harvest

minimize pollution an The

steps to harvest post activities are: information Market at centres, towers deep solving and problems, of private at and centre recording catch

on price landing communication for sea, law order involvement

sector harbours landing for of



Table 4.8 Fishing harbours and boat landing centres in India State Major fishing harbours Minor fishing harbours Landing centres Andhra 1 2 Goa 2 Gujarat 5 21 Karnataka 8 14 Kerala 10 Maharashtra 2 Orissa 4 Tamil 1 11 West 1 12 1 28 1 36 1 26 Nadu 7 Pradesh 4

Bengal 3

Andaman 1 Daman &



Diu 2

Lakshadweep 3 Pondicherry 1 1 Total 45 Sanctioned 6 184 Major in 6 158 Total 50 operation

harbours: where 600



can operated a basis harbours: where boats be on basis state#wise of post infrastructure

be on daily


Harbours 300 can operated a

daily The distribution existing harvest is given

in 4.9.


Table 4.9 Present post harvest infrastructure in India, 2005

(Capacity in t) Freezing Plant Canning Plant Ice Plant Fish meal plants Cold Storage State No Cap/day No Cap/day No Cap/day No Cap/da y No Cap/da y Kerala 1 Tamil Karnataka Andhra Pradesh 56 1,159.4 9 91 56 14,050 Goa 5 269.5 2 13 7 278.5 6 2,300105 Nadu 44 812 30 511 4 73 93 11,735 12 308.4 26 549.5 3 259 28 5,080 105 2,042 2 1.5 58 147 167 30,697.

Gujarat Orissa Maha# rashtra 34 1,940 11 423 4 73 39 26,263 West Bengal 32 488.1 4 81.5 31 7,014 Delhi Total 366 10,359. 8 6 18.5 210 4,116.3 13 428 503 1,39,42 4 The

59 2,981.6 2 4 49 1,628.3 2 23 63 38,075 19 359 16 406.5 19 4,195

1 15

new in plan be towards of harbours, of harbours, chain

programmes next may directed creation


modernization existing cold facilities


factory to island

vessels develop fisheries. Marketing About of produced the 75% fish in country

is domestically through major minor (including markets. This is unorganised, some development in export Majority domestic are and fish and facilities extremely There lack proper system including


wholesale, and retail roadside)

however highly with planned only the sector. of markets unhygienic the storing handling are poor. is of transportation

roads, vehicles, Availability potable

refrigerated etc. of water,

good ice, and disposal is inadequate. There considerable lag

quality electricity waste system

is time during

the of from the landing to interior which in quality the leading high and losses.

transportation fish

centre the markets results poor of material to nutritional post#harvest A in Ernakulam of and Godavari the District Kerala West study

Other Storage Peeling Shed AFD Plant State No No No Kerala Tamil Karnataka Andhra Goa Gujarat Orissa Maharashtra West Bengal Cap/day Cap/day Cap/day 3 27.0 185 2,379.1 2 3.1 Nadu 9 972.0 16 160.7 1 0.4 Pradesh 6 72.0 23 2,295.0 65 693.7 9 202.0 18 120.4 22 1,695.0 49 696.6 2 14.5 30 116.6 3 16.0 64 339.9 165 5,830.0 44 67.5

Total 236 11,051.5 477 4,646.7 3 3.5106 District of Pradesh the losses fish Andhra indicated post#harvest in to

the of amounting over 2,700 annually a national

extent 15%, to Rs crores on


The system rather that the level, product hands the retailer vendor Consequently, primary gets very share the rupee. should a for eliminating

marketing is complex from producers the changes to wholesaler, and levels. the producer a small of consumer s There be mechanism

middlemen fixing prices floor by




cooperative etc. that revenue ensured the fishermen. mechanism monitor document fish diseases also to prevent of diseases, is is nations. is at present and cases unnoticed. railway air containers, cold are essential for fish

societies, so fair is to

A to and food borne is needed effectively outbreaks any as done developed This lacking

many go The vans, transport, and chain the components efficient marketing system.

The Committee implementation

National on of

Code Conduct Responsible the measures promote and exports domestic Collection complete details

of for Fisheries suggested following to

monitor and marketing: of

of coming the Panel WTO, up a data Necessary to to

cases before Appellate of Setting

of National centre, support trade fight antidumping, up network cold refrigerated outlets small#scale units, domestic for a

Setting a of storages,

and training Exploring market

variety value products related

of added and aspects.

During XI

the Plan,

model are be up major centres. can good driers to landing centres

markets to set in landing Fishermen have solar near the

to all thereby post losses.

utilize catches, reducing harvest Processing India 5,12,164 of during valued Rs 7245.3 During current the has a growth of in and in With proposed additional provided XI exported t seafood 2005#06 at

crore. the year, export registered 107 rate 11% quantity 9% value. the

infrastructure during Plan,

an growth rate


of in can visualized accordingly export

12% export be and the by


has go to million to foreign of up 1.13


t fetch exchange around


15,000 For this, existing has

crores. obtaining the infrastructure to

be Presently utilization the capacity the fish

upgraded. the of installed in

processing is 25% on working of only (based annual days



days 2 If existing capacity

in shifts). the utilized can



to by of of material re#export, may require additional installed of lakh by end XI However, development fish infrastructure almost handled the sector. Import, and of will ensure capacity Diversification the shrimp industry

40% way import raw for we still an annual capacity 7.68 t the of Plan. the of processing is completely by private

processing re#export fish also better utilization. of presently oriented and of lucrative like tuna, new products sashimi introduction


squids other items needed. similar is


The Committee implementation Code Conduct Responsible suggested to fish processing the such Upgradation preprocessing processing in time manner, a mechanism monitoring quality ice by plants not to plants, Monitoring of shrimp from and water

National on of of for Fisheries also measures promote

in country, as of and units a bound Evolving suitable for the of produced ice

attached processing and samples fish, etc. farms from bodies

susceptible be contaminated etc. Value addition The addition one the components increasing exports in and terms. addition fish fisheries great for in country. value is of major




in the both quantity value Value in and products scope improvement our To has

facilitate value National on implementation Code Conduct Responsible suggested as fish and

increased addition, Committee

of of for Fisheries measures Improving handling preservation 108 such

facilities board vessels,

on fishing Encouraging

fishing to insulated refrigerated holds, quality the Imparting

boats have and fish Ensuring of ice, training workers pre#processing processing of and plants to

on aspects with Sanitary Handling of material production value products, in the Policy as grant to added over products, promotion through under like Equity Market Initiative, Joint

various connected hygiene, drills,

raw and of added Changes

EXIM so to preference value products commercial Market steps benefits schemes Brand Fund, Access

ventures production

for and

marketing value products, Adequate catch at harbours landing jetties and for preservation as storage, up scale for of processed fish from valued fish facility

of added

for handling fisheries and

facility catch such chilled/cold

Setting small projects production semi ready#to#cook products low fishes, pickles, quality

dried fish etc. coastal promoted

products, curry by population,


families, youth,

unemployed etc.

Continuation of existing schemes and New schemes Scheme Number Total budget (Rs crore)

Suggested Share of Govt. of India (Rs crore) Harvest New fishing 2 100.00 50.00* minor harbours of fishing harbours 6 150.00 150.00 Upgradation fishing harbours 45 450.00 225.00 New fish centres of centres Sub total 1,301.00 783.50 Post Harvest Processing (Private sector) New model fish 50 500.00 100.00 retail markets plants landing 46 92.00 46.00* landing 184 184.00 150.00 of minor harbours


fishing 13 325.00 162.50* major



Modernisation wholesale markets 10 725.00 145.00 Transport & containers societies





50.00 50.00109 Women's SHGs marketing for

(Kiosk) 50.00 50.00 Value 50% SHGs addition to 50.00 50.00 Sub total 1,375.00 395.00 Culture @

Domestication and

of Establishment SPF#

Penaeus monodon of seed


centre 50.00 50.00

Holding labs,

centres, sales


counters stock



4 4.00 4.00

Testing feed, & fish 20 10.00 10.00 Sub total 109.00 64.00 Grand total 2785.00 1242.50 * of total Total to shared the and State

facilities seed


50% the requirement. requirement be by Central

Governments a basis.

on 50:50

4.3.4 Welfare Programmes, Governance, Transfer of Technology and Capacity Building Fishers to of most and privileged community the programmes the objective the for and community belong one the poor under

of society. Welfare become core of plan fisheries fisher development.

In plans, was subsidized inputs, model villages, and relief. Some the schemes not down the fishers

earlier emphasis on production

fisher premium#free insurance saving#cum

of welfare have percolated to target due their literacy awareness implementation to poor level, and

lacunae. urgent is to these The first towards welfare the and community to them bring co#operatives self help A

Therefore, need felt address issues.

step the of fishers aqua#farming is organize and under or

groups. complete

registration the and farmer population by to them train in fishing aquaculture along necessary for subsidized

of fishers aqua

followed steps literate and them latest and practices with provision

necessary would the for welfare. pave way their The


basic of primary credit drinking water

amenities education, health, and

also strengthening with infrastructure.110

need along necessary Welfare programmes Holistic developmental would to kept mind devising welfare To people#centered approach need be in while the programmes. empower

fishing/small marginal communities, must address issues primary groups as and health, drinking communication access information, welfare support Sharing cost responsibilities complementing with development departments the rural

and farming schemes

the of target such education

housing, water, and to and and services. the and while efforts other

of States development, animal rural PHED, etc. be basic like agriculture,

husbandry, electrification, PRIs, shall the approach. Besides line the of welfare be

the departments, implementation the schemes given could

to private KVKs,

NGOs, sector, SIRDs,

etc. proper mechanisms. National on implementation Code Conduct Responsible suggested Government with worker organisations develop and sustainability criteria

with monitoring The Committee

of of for Fisheries that together fish the

should realistic practical

and management This ensure trade do impact livelihood the Based the and from quarters, welfare are to in

a mechanism. would that

barriers not the of fishers. on discussions inputs various following schemes

suggested implement the


Plan. Housing The of Fishers scheme to continued this with in of cost escalation the level Rs to 1,00,000. provision drinking sanitary and hall needs be which function Village Centres (VRC). Insurance The Insurance should a for General companies consider package Development Model Village needs be in Plan enhancements view the

from present of 40,000 Rs The of water, latrine community

to made shall as Resource


insuring aquaculture a basis. other schemes

freshwater on priority Some


are: Modification of Group Accident Scheme for active fishers The group scheme modified include one lakh death permanent and 50,000 partial permanent the premium not than existing accident be to Rs

for or disability Rs for

disability annual of more Rs


30/head. premium be by and on 50:50 The be by which may paid service

The shall subsidized Centre State

basis. scheme implemented FISHCOPFED,

be a charge

@ 1/client annum implementing

Re per for the scheme Hut insurance scheme A new of insurance a of for loss and for loss all huts fishers the Rs 1000 partial of registered of against annual of exceeding 20 introduction. not Rs deserves premium scheme hut with cover Rs 5,000 total Group insurance for fishing craft and gear in the event of natural disasters A scheme group for craft gear the event new of insurance fishing and in

of disasters to

natural needs be

initiated. Mediclaim policy Jan Arogya for sum of 5,000/family GIC implementing may initiated cover medical expenditure fishers. policy a insured Rs with

agency be to the


the Saving-cum-relief The present for season marine inland is relief closed to and fishers not


It proposed remove distinction the

is to the between sectors

and the by the of @

uniformly relief increasing savings fishers


112 Rs during fishing of months. the matching from and Governments individually, relief Rs 120/month be to fishers 120/month the season eight With

contribution State Central

the of may provided the for months. four Safety at sea To safety sea, Life equipment as floats bouys be at rates, State ensure at the saving such jackets, and may provided subsidized with share subsidy 50:50.

Centre# for being Gender issues

Special are to given women (SHGs) to alternative generating/livelihood activities. SHGs be @ Most the

incentives suggested be to groups

encourage income development Women to supported Rs.10,000/SHG. of fish and harvest are by marketing post activities performed women

folk. it suggested ladies and shelters are at sites. involvement women the suitable may enhanced indoor like and

Therefore, is that toilets night

constructed these The of in

areas be in activities, propagation seed of fish, raising ornamental seed

raising farming trout, etc. marketing, retailing, being out women long. increase efficiency marketing, skills in marketing be with to and maintain and The ensuring of insulated low drying have good to remunerate returns. fisher may involved awareness, and income schemes. their The women be in saving fish Fish particularly is carreid by for To their in their

and of

fish may upgraded regard upkeep


texture quality. programmes supply

boxes, cost rakes shown results

credit alternate generating The participation be approach this to propel development sector. Public#private community shall the at juncture the in

Policy issues

overall fisheries An

overarching Fisheries Policy is needed

National Development framework

to the Governments formulate own

guide State to their policies

suiting the needs, and environment. a national policy to the fishing regulations the and bodies aquaculture management in

to local aspirations the Such

level needs encompass capture 113 in marine freshwater and

practices the

marine, and bodies well the sector, the strategies address issues as matters fisheries, Unregulated Unreported Quality of products, safety with inclusion Code of for Fisheries, leasing, availability, insurance, water Exotics, fisheries Aquaculture par agriculture tariff for and water, rates fish

coastal brackishwater as as freshwater including effective to international such WTO on Illegal and fishing, control fisheries Sea measures the of

Conduct Responsible Land Seed

Interstate bodies, Treating and at with in rates electricity

Freight for and

shrimp transport, monitoring pattern subsidy, rates, costs the thereon a pre#requisite. the measures the problems human issues fisheries poor long hours, illiteracy, to risk protection, to incorporated

seed Regular of of the the and prices is Also, to of right in like wages, working deal

exposure high without etc, be in national policy. level the

The National Development formulation a of at levels incorporate views

draft Fisheries Policy requires series consultations various to the

aspirations of the The be the of comprehensive National Developmental and formulation state policies reflecting


concerns all stakeholders.



development a overarching Fisheries Policy the of level

the framework national policy.

basic of level governance Pilot for building protection aquatic resources the of need be initiated. pilot to awareness CCRF the schemes capacity and of

Management and

through principle co#management to

A scheme create on at National


State is suggested. also


Certification boatyards FRP and of boat and of voluntary guidelines

of manufacturing boats training

surveyors incorporation FAO/IMO/ILO

for design, and of fishing

the construction equipment small 114 required. shrimp prawn certification


is Fish, and hatchery may

also in


put place.

Uniform long leasing particularly reservoirs required

and term policy for

if reservoir to developed proper

the have be with management


to enforced. major in

be A constraint aquaculture

is it treated an on counts as of and as industry several such provision water electricity, etc. is opined steps be to Aquaculture par agriculture, it a activity.

that is

taxation, It strongly that should


treat at with as is b

asically farming Aquarian reforms The

comprehensive reforms inland coastal for and use overdue. help fishers

aquarian in and waters

sustainable equitable are To the and aqua

farmers, should based gender social and

these be on and equity

eco#system The include: policy major

sustainability. reforms leasing for inland and waters aquaculture, coastal for concessional waters


and tariffs par agriculture, of at with


enforcement closed

season large easy support production feed aquaculture

in waters, credit for of for species, etc. Human resource development Institutional reorientation/reorganization face emerging are focus HRD for Eleventh Year The should formation of strengthening, to the challenges the of programmes the Five Plan. State/UTs encourage

Fish Associations

Farmers' to

promote idea collective

the of farming

Capacity the level

building State


Establishment Centres State District

of at and level


Training in#service Department and (one year as Centrally

of State Officers Staff

Diploma a Sponsored with

programme Scheme

stipend) Central support the of officials Government for participation State in workshops, cross#country

115 seminar, and visits

Capacity of Co#operative NGOs CBOs Hands#on Pilot#scale

building Fisheries Associations, and

Training demonstrations

On#site Service delivery system A and of functioning the and are in to them meet emerging challenges. two need be and revitalized giving thrust the of services


review evaluation the of FFDAs BFDAs suggested, order equip to the

These programmes to strengthened

by adequate on delivery technical and to and communities. farmers fishing assistance

Fisheries cooperatives country one level co#operative

The has national fish federation namely, Federation Fishermen Limited

National of Co#operatives

(FISHCOPFED). The of is central societies 108 primary societies 11,847. The number fishermen of societies 19,17,305, which over of fisher The operatives

number state co#operatives 17,


# and co#operative #

of members co#operative is

are 32% the population. fisheries in country considered very which to are as weak, needs

co# the


organized strengthened.

and Revitalization As earlier, need felt revive fisheries operatives. start about mentioned a was to the co# To with, 500

cooperatives have potential grow be up an of 10 per cooperative may provided merit Further, exclusive societies societies a participation of may given & financial assistance/benefits. Capacity building Cooperative institutes every will 1,000 personnel each 500 which a of

that the to may taken and amount Rs lakh

society be on basis.

women and having higher

women be preference liberal


training in state train

(2 from societies), have turnover less


Rs lakh year. in

25 per Later a manner, it also

phased will train the society In manner, persons the cooperative

other personnel. this 1,000 of

societies be by level Training trained State Cooperative


Institutes. For societies a over more Rs lakh, orientation refresher be Two per other having turn or than 25

and courses organised. representatives society other societies be will organized NCCT/ Level from 1000 will trained. The

training be by State

Cooperative Institutes/ District Cooperative Institutes the societies, shall provided through State / District Cooperative


Level Training of remaining 2,000 be training the personnel

Level Institutes. Public Private Partnerships Accreditation of Shrimp Hatcheries Quality is of critical in of culture seed one the inputs development shrimp in country. accreditation hatcheries their monitoring essential already by Coastal Authority. By the of plan hatcheries end the period, the Therefore, of and

regular is steps, initiated the Aquaculture


accreditation not allowed operate ensure be to to supply



disease shrimp to shrimp out

free seed the grow farms. Value addition With expected of per during Eleventh the fish production expected increase 9 t. order ensure million In to remunerative for producers, fishers aqua# farmers, it essential undertake campaigns fish the an growth 5 cent the plan,

Demand generation and

is to to


prices both and

is to publicity about as

health and fish in country. value is considering higher and well to to needs domestic income & markets exports. current utilisation the processing needs be it a attention

food enhance consumption the Further, addition important the production as as cater the of high consumers


and The capacity of

plants to upgraded. Thus requires special from Ministry Food Industries introduce the of Processing to

value project. associates be the

chain Potential could from following

segments: feed FMCG New in the business, cooperatives, and agribusiness, houses/agencies Existing with good

Existing suppliers, companies, entities

retail Consumer NGO/agro#clinics

Export and Cooperative

record performance.

of Research Depending the of schemes, research be out public#private like alternate upon success different demand#driven may carried in partnerships

culture # practices, and culture

species marketability export,

etc. Deep Sea Fishing To in seas it operate deep segment, is

a to big companies of need large and necessary

necessity involve

because the for investments the know#how market produce the market. the in world Deep to

Sea issue modification the policy. activity require of companies world markets,

fishing needs in existing This will participation foreign covering

without the of fisherman. interests existing

harming Ne w enterprises Canal is ew aspect attention, high partnership, view the fish a needing with public# culture n

private in of

ownership the country an canal

of resource. The has extensive network about lakh spread different systems vast fishery

of 1.5

km over river with unrealized potential. Although good of canal is channels little for culture, substantial area the can be for culture, on water availability.

a part this network small with scope fish a canal in country effectively used fish depending the

Fish be in in ways, open cultured canals various viz., 118 in placing to


stocking canals, screens

create areas, culture

sheltered cage and in pools the (where can culture deep in channel fish stay


even the canal dry). from culture

when main is Apart appropriate

techniques, several that to resolved as: ownership fish right access ensuring availability crucial of operation sharing

there issues need be such


of stocks, to and water during time culture and of the

benefits stakeholders. technological coupled policy in fish

among Necessary interventions with support canal culture

can to substantial


increase inland production.

in fish

Similarly, fish both and requires investments. fishes a export worth 250 with Asian of million. exports fishes US$ million just

Ornamental culture, marine freshwater, greater Ornamental support global trade US$ million, the share US$120 Singapore ornamental worth 50

from farms 156 Considering farm and richness the India easily the in sector. the to

70 covering ha the facilities

species of country can become leader this However, key

success in packaging technology.

lies the

Quick mortality#free is main

and transportation the factor

that the They repacking lowering temperature packing and of additives, These practices reduce effective mortality

determines success. include starvation, of of water use chemical etc. packing can the

up 2#3% the industry of

to against accepted standard 5%.

New comprising and rearing, farms

enterprises larval nursery grow#out and transport to encouraged. packaging need be

Singapore fish all

collects from over


grow and

them supply

to buyers thus become a on ornamental While has inroads ornamental trade the decade 4.10 4.11), present are fraction the It also concern fish are exploited the environs, might to erosion

global and has virtually supermarket

fish. India made into fish during last (Tables & the levels a of potentials. is a that species often from natural that lead

of diversity. development infrastructure 119 suitable policies,

the With of supported

by government

India successfully the Singapore of ornamental for There also

can adopt

model importing fishes re#export.

exists possibility indigenous trade,

immense for ornamental both

freshwater marine, prerequisite development breeding for number these, which efforts need be Documentation ongoing at breeding,

and the being of practices a of towards R&D

to strengthened. of efforts

culture trade for Kolathur in (as example, area Chennai


and in Kolkata), fish with

markets establishment ornamental hubs of

brood and facilities, to markets

stock certification connectivity overseas are emphasized this strongly in approach.

Table 4.10 Exports of ornamental fishes from different ports in the country (Rs lakhs) Port Value Mumbai Kochi Trivandrum Chennai Calcutta Mangalore Calicut Total 4,438.4 (Source: Division, 2006d) Table 4.11 Major ornamental fish export markets for India (Rs lakhs) Country Value Japan USA European 794.6 493.9 715.5 Union Fisheries ICAR, 5.6 544.8 32.3 61.0 1,282.6 2,388.6 123.6

China South#east 2,239.3 Middle 5.5 Others Total 4,438.4 (Source:

83.6 Asia



Division, 2006d)120 Transfer of Technology Transfer technology takes when activities; their strategies, outputs, outcome impacts are of (ToT) place extension

Fisheries ICAR,

approaches, methods, and

designed professionals participatory and

by through mode further

are with technologies, programmes, services, field through two channels the generating

blended appropriate welfare

and experiences a way between technology institutions

and field on hand

the services one and interest clienteles the holders the the of or stake on other. Capacity building and awareness creation Following needed build capacity different and create The activities to development programmes the governments be strengthened. There a to the level of Departments Fisheries in to out is necessity strengthen field staff State of (DoF) order carry unified awareness awareness related fisheries steps to the at levels are

of central/state should




Need training for in and aquaculture marine inland on post#harvest, and issues to organized. These

based programmes fishers fisheries

in and sector value#addition, hygiene safety are be

programmes have on women

would focus fisher also.

Preparation extension in languages pictorial and of need be up. Training trainers KVKs, extension of and NGOs subject

of literature local with presentation production CDs to taken

of of field staff DoFs

in matter,

communication management upgrade and need be their

and to knowledge skill to arranged

Training supporting graduates fisheries establish and on lines clinics agribusiness with from and NABARD is 121

and unemployed in to aqua#clinics aqua#shops the of and centers funding SFAC


through required.



use information (IT) dissemination

of technology for of

information new and information to be Exclusive for on

on technology market need

encouraged. channel fisheries EDUSAT

requires be provided. Vocational and facilities be strengthened


educational training should

in schools students. for


In districts high for the should the Organizer fisheries besides,

the with potential fisheries, KVKs have Training from discipline one subject specialist. fisheries matter

The of should in of clientele widening knowledge favourable attitude new and up and

programmes ToT result empowerment

through their base,

towards technologies skill gradation

not the


meeting targets.


to made promote pisciculture. to

be organic Demonstration and exhibitions Conducting specific trials technology refinement commercial of establishment demonstration and at Fisheries and to persons location field for

and viability technologies, of units exhibitions

Research Colleges attract for


aquaculture, augment awareness. Large of demonstrations to organized following down approach the of

aqua#tourism mass


numbers quality are be

trickle extension on farms 2#3


farmers block demonstrate new to the technology


to farmers. demonstrations indirect on

other These exert influence farmers the Community fisheries of area. based management


to promoted capture

be in fisheries.

Involving and NGOs ToT and reviewing

reputed pro#active in work

their periodically.

performance 122 Co-ordination and linkages Fisheries Dissemination (FTDC) to established the of of literature, of awareness through Technology Centres need be with objectives refinement extension conduct mass programmes

exhibitions the media, production consumption fish fish as as and co#ordinate

and mass on and of and products well monitor

ToT in state the


ToT need be at Fisheries and Colleges

units to established all Institute

of (CoF).


system/procedure to evolved certify hatcheries in case crops, certification seed by is

have be to the

as the of where of produced farmers


Encouraging partnership

public#private involving


groups entrepreneurs co#operatives establishing hatcheries, and of

(SHGs), and in

feed marketing fish.


Following of model 4.6) suggested transfer

transfer technology (Fig is to the outcomes the group: research to clientele 123

Figure 4.6 Transfer of technology model for Fisheries during XI Plan Continuation of existing schemes Scheme Implementation Budget (Rs Crores) Central Share (Rs Crores) Welfare Programmes Development of Model

Fishers State

Villages Fisheries







96.00 Group

96.00 Accident Scheme




FISHCOPFED 30.00 Saving#cum#Relief State Departments, 15.00


NGOs 96.00 Sub total Capacity building and Awareness creation Establishment of 96.00 222.00 207.00

Awareness State 5.00 4.00 Training

Centers Fisheries Departments



fishers State 7.20 Extension literature Fisheries 9.00* Departments

&Video State 2.00 1.60 NGOs Awareness Basic & Strategic Research Fisheries Research Institutes & SAUs Principles, Processes & Methodology Knowledge on Fisheries Applied & Adaptive Research Fisheries Research Institutes & SAUs Technologies DAHD&F,GoI DoFs State FTDC DoFs Aqua-clinics KVKs Awareness Exhibition, Demos , Information Guidance Capacity building Demos

films Fisheries Departments

ATMA124 Trainer s training &

Refresher Fisheries 10.00* 10.00 Sub total 26.00 22.80 Total 248.00 229.80 New schemes Scheme Implementation Budget (Rs Crores) Central Share (Rs Crores) Welfare Programmes Hut 10.00 Group

course Institutes, SAUs

insurance FISHCOPFED 5.00 insurance fishers farmers



and FISHCOPFED 30.00 Mediclaim FISHCOPFED 10.00 Incentives

15.00 policy 20.00



groups FISHCOPFED, Fisheries 2.00 Safety State Departments 10.00 Assistance 10.00 Policy Issues Draft

(SHG) State Departments 2.00 at Fisheries sea




Development formulation ICAR DAHD&F,


Institutes, NCAP, State

Fisheries 5.00 5.00 Management and governance Co#management,




certification and hatcheries Fisheries State



Institutes, Fisheries

Departments 12.00 Human Resource Development Capacity the building State at 9.60

level DAHD&F Fisheries SAUs 10.00 Use in State Departments, Institutes, 2.00 Programmes DAHD&F, Institutes, 1.00 Vocational 1.00 education in 2.00 for Fisheries, SAUs EDUSAT Fisheries Fisheries SAUs of ToT 10.00 IT Institutes,

fisheries State Departments 0.50 Capacity fisheries

schools Fisheries

0.25 building of

co#operative NGOs, SHGs


FISHCOPFED, Fisheries 10.00 Strengthening

State Departments 9.60 of Service

delivery Fisheries State Departments, KVKs 10.00

system Institutes, Fisheries SAUs,


Co-operatives and Public-Private partnerships Revitalization of Cooperatives, & Co#operatives


State Departments 50.00 Capacity Cooperatives, Federation


50.00 building/training



State Departments 7.50 Demand fish


7.50 generation for




50.00 Demonstration and Exhibitions Location trials and






Fisheries SAUs 5.00* Trickle State Departments, Institutes, 10.00 Involving ToT NGOs, 2.00 Co-ordination and Linkages FTDC Fisheries SAUs 30.00 ToT


5.00 down Fisheries Fisheries SAUs 10.00 NGOs PRIs 2.00 in extension


30.00 units Fisheries at

institutes/SAUs Fisheries SAUs Institutes,

27.00 Total 314.00 267.20


Total for ongoing and new schemes 562.00 497.00 4.3.5 Strengthening of Database and Information Networking Reliable, and statistics fishery and production essential for of and programmes. present of with to sector, The status database regard fishery is comprehensive. minimize data especially not To the gaps, in accurate timely on resources


an pre#requisite formulation policies

inland Development Inland Statistics introduced

fisheries, of Fisheries was in VI This the step development plan. was first towards the

of concepts,

uniform definitions

and for of inland production. scheme Inland statistics continued

methodology estimation

fish The on Fisheries

till end IX of plan.



the is for fishery activities for development fishery, working on for of plan a on of and Networking Fisheries with Remote Information GIS,

statistics required entire related and

overall of the group Fisheries formulation X recommended scheme Strengthening Database Information for Sector components: Sensing, Technology, Inland and Fisheries and

Marine Census Catch

assessment marine fisheries, Inland statistics. scheme recommended continuation XI with following components:

of 126 besides, fisheries The is for during Plan the Sample survey for estimation of inland fishery resources, their potential and fish production This component proposed prepare estimates inland production with potential inland production. is to benchmark of


along the of fish The

survey to conducted time the year X with sampling so the estimates

is be one during initial of Plan suitable design that required with

standard can computed States/UTs the estimate All level. task be to The scope the of would confined Inland resources. Census on marine fisheries The on of on fisheries be entrusted Central Fisheries Institute in eleven UTs. respect Andaman Nicobar Lakshadweep the would

error be for and pooled at India The may assigned CIFRI.

of coverage survey be to fisheries

component conduct census marine may

to Marine Research (CMFRI)

States/ In of & and Islands, census be

conducted services of Survey India, It necessary a for


Fishery of Mumbai. is that provision engaging in UTs made 10% the manpower two is and of schedules

filled the of assessment should checked CMFRI 2% the by Governments reports

during conduct catch surveys be by and of same State and of inspection be to DAHD&F. the should submitted the Catch assessment survey for inland and marine fisheries for inland fisheries The for Assessment survey Catch Survey Catch assessment survey

of Fisheries be done per methodology by CIFRI. four under scheme X would continued XI also. addition, the survey, schedule be to incorporate

Inland will

as the developed the The posts the in plan be in plan In for ongoing existing may revised 127 the production from ponds, fish exclusively aquaculture in


to a estimate fish from

have separate of production aquaculture

ponds. Marine catch assessment surveys The catch survey be on marine assessment would conducted the

methodology by CMFRI. Catch surveys adopting CMFRI collection data deep

developed the Besides, assessment by the methodology, of from sea/oceanic including vessels, vessels sectors LOP converted etc.

may included coverage appropriate book system/observer

be for with log


point been by State time again they not manpower go field data and would contractual in regard. view the

has raised various Governments and

that do have to to for collection they require persons this In of

constraints faced all organizations, is that data are for of on Catch

being by the it recommended contractual enumerators hired collection data

Assessment of and Fisheries.

Survey Inland Marine

Development of GIS Inland Fisheries The of is of components the Sector on of and networking Fisheries for fisheries. the Development GIS one the of Central Scheme Strengthening Database Information for the Sector inland During X

plan, bodies area than ha

water of more 0.5 have

been and located satellite of LISS in the and IV in


using images III all states LISS

five only. XI LISS images be for

states During Plan, IV will used all

the and coverage water smaller 0.5 would be up. the developed X would improved for more and equipped more The could assigned the

states the of body than ha

taken Further, GIS during Plan be upon making interactive user#friendly with information. task be to

CIFRI, Marine Fisheries GIS for sector information marine census subsequent data all districts/Islands be during plan. task be assigned



development marine with from

and landings for maritime to initiated XI The could

to CMFRI, Mumbai.

the Kochi/FSI, Assessment of fish production potential in coastal areas The on of of for Responsible (CCRF) for and revalidation fisheries potential coastal It National Committee implementation Code Conduct

Fisheries recommended assessment

of resource for areas. is

essential the on species from aquaculture should included arrive the production A sample methodology be for

that data different harvested the farms be to at correct data. proper survey will evolved collecting information the / centres processing this through farmers collection


The has the for potential identification

CIBA developed methodology the sites for future of aquaculture the development brackishwater

using data LISS LISS Thematic sensors and This needs

satellite from III, I, mapper

GIS. methodology to

be and national study

adapted a level involving the states required be to maritime is to undertaken all


actual presently culture the area

area under and potential that


available the water During XI a quantified on brackish land

for brackish aquaculture. the plan,


data total water resources

of nine states, based plans site#specific designing the and aquaculture with critical habitat, and

the coastal creek master and

of existing future farms the coastal soil water

information would developed. cultivable of and will identified

system be Suitable species shrimp fishes be for different areas GIS the geographical in platform.

The of would 100% by Department

pattern assistance be grant#in#aid the of Husbandry, and Ministry Animal Dairying Fisheries, of

Agriculture, India.

Government 129


Continuation of existing schemes and new schemes Scheme Implementation Budget (Rs crores) Sample Survey estimation for of

inland their potential



and production with



CIFRI, 5.55 Census


on fisheries


DAHD&F CMFRI, 2.00 Catch for inland

with Kochi



and fisheries with Barrackpore,



CMFRI, 45.00 Development for


of inland






with Barrackpore CMFRI, 22.45 of Kochi




assessment productivity production





3.00 Total 78.00 4.3.6 Fisheries Institutes The Institutes the of Department Animal Dairying Fisheries Fishery of (FSI), four under Ministry Agriculture, of Husbandry, & are Survey India Mumbai, Institute Fisheries and Central of Nautical Engineering


(CIFNET), Integrated Project Kochi

Kochi, Fisheries (IFP), and

Central of Engineering Fishery Bangalore. Some for of and of these as

Institute Coastal for (CICEF),

suggestions improvement functioning efficiency

institutions follows:





of of institutes suit

mandate these to to


requirements also in nomenclature

and change the of


as Institute Coastal Engineering

Central of Fisheries


Upgradation posts the

of of Directors.



collaboration FSI Remote institutes and sensing



work forecasting and models be

on models the should more


friendly get knowledge marine more

and about fisheries







of and for


publications resources Indian as

on of seas, also



levels coordination IFP CIFT.

of between and

Reorientation of in with

of CIFNET line changing



of industry.

the Fishery Survey of India Resources survey / monitoring in the Indian EEZ The survey in of the has been adequate the

coverage some areas not and resources, are different of need which under levels exploitation, to

be on continuous the resources projects with fishing eco#friendly diversified using hand#lines jigs proposed continue XI

monitored a basis, on#going survey together experimental by and methods traps, and is to during Plan. the Development of fishery forecasting models including application of remote sensing technology FSI involved developing fishery model collaboration Application Ahmedabad National Remote Agency, by the Surface Temperature Chlorophyll obtained NOAA#AVHRR Sensing Hyderabad, integrating Sea is in a forecasting in with Space Centre, and

and data from and


dedicated satellite SAT#4.

Indian OCEAN fishing operatives FSI practical training the sea operatives fishermen maritime in fishing methods to CIFNET for sea to appear desired of examinations. This activity now a focus diversified techniques. for certificate competency provides onboard to deep fishing and of states different

Training of deep sea

and the

also trainees, acquiring service

will have greater on capture 131

Creation of infrastructure facilities: facility centre at Mumbai and laboratories at Base offices The of construction the

buildings HQ's centre the at Mumbai

at facility of FSI

and Fish Laboratory the Base will in XI research

the Genetics at Visakhapatnam

Office continue the Plan. Inter#disciplinary with provision multi#purpose will initiated the Centre.

of facilities be at Base Exploration of oceanic tunas and allied resources in theinternational waters between the EEZ Exploratory by long have a comprehensive the tunas allied in surveys tuna lining provided

picture oceanic and resources the


Indian the

EEZ. However, areas

in international between the along east and Andaman Nicobar Islands yet be

the waters

EEZ the coast around and

are to surveyed. As tunas of

oceanic are highly migratory survey this sea is crucial importance

nature, of high segment of

in their and in

understanding distribution seasonality the

region. Special drive for survey and assessment of oceanic tunas and allied resources The of tuna around is presently pole line and exploitation oceanic resources Lakshadweep

by and fishing is

mainly at skipjack FSI at times, surveys large

targeted the tuna. The has, different conducted of deep tunas the It proposed conduct to a swimming in region. is

special to and the tunas allied resources the Group Islands consolidate the

drive survey assess oceanic and

around Lakshadweep of and

findings. In of economic stocks high view the importance of value

species, viz., and tuna, of

bigeye albacore exploration equatorial


waters during XI


envisaged the Plan. Application of diversified longlining technologies Apart the and tuna, fishes, and perches the major of long catches. Each these requires of long technique suitable and in gear. During XI long technique be with regard from yellowfin bigeye bill sharks

form other components the line

of components diversification the line with adjustments modifications the


the Plan, line will diversified due to ecological of species the preferences the concerned. Survey of surface swimming larger pelagic resources by

purse-seining No has far made survey surface tunas to non#availability suitable expertise infrastructure attempt so been to the swimming due the of vessels, and for purse#seining. This method the tuna fishing is most

important capture in Indian and accounts

industrial technique the Ocean

for about of oceanic It 35% the


tunas. is t

herefore proposed take the of swimming pelagic resources to up survey surface larger




following projects need

new would new

vessels training the personnel Preliminary of and tuna pole line involved survey skipjack yellow#fin by and fishing Lakshadweep Andaman Nicobar

and of

in and & Waters

Preliminary the resources jigging the

survey squid by in EEZ

of Acquisition of new vessels on replacement basis The is a of vessels present includes that more twenty old. the FSI operating fleet thirteen at which nine are than years FSI vessels


does have vessels effective

not suitable for survey

of smaller pelagics, vessels state#of#the acoustic may acquired replace two vessels, are than years Another vessels be during Plan undertaking survey


two with art systems be to the existing which more 25 old. four may replaced the for diversified activities. On of new an number old will decommissioned

acquisition the vessels, equal of vessels be and disposed so the fleet is and additional

off that same strength maintained no manpower operating involved. 133 costs or


induction these to survey is to a data on coastal, and fishery in Indian and areas rational optimum and management the

of vessels the fleet expected yield

strong base demersal, pelagic oceanic resources the waters adjoining for development, utilisation effective of stocks. marine workshop, dredgers and slipway An Committee been to the requirements re#commissioning facilities from Integrated Project optimization their It Expert has constituted examine

Re-commissioning of

for the transferred the Fisheries for of use. is

proposed the the complex

to Slipway. Once Slipway is


re#commissioned, many seven can slipped a for n

as as vessels be at time under#water On average vessels be in year approximately 20#25 can realized revenue. 20 can repaired repairs. a

and Rs. lakh be as

The Jetty 40m length is a of than It roposed

existing is in and having draught less 1m. is to the area a of dredge waterfront to draught p

5m. the is out, vessels FSI CIFNET can berthed this and the vessels are coming repairs be mount 2#3 of be at Jetty, also private which

Once dredging carried the of and


Slipway can berthed. An Rs. lakh

per can realized renting Jetty the organizations

annum be by the to sister and private Further, Marine the vessels. the Engineering

Workshop from Integrated Fisheries Kochi, Fishery of can fully

transferred the Project, to Survey India, be utilized

in the departmental


as as private the vessels.



is to a dock the Engineering of to vessels to GRT. At the

proposed construct mini#dry at Marine


FSI accommodate up 500 present

vessels FSI other organisations fully on the Sector for dry#dock and been experiencing

of and sister are depending

Public Shipyards their repairs have

difficulties getting for the As 134 slots docking vessels. per


the period dry#docking,

proposed of it

may still difficult to

become more

get docking at shipyards the to This not amount loss survey of vessels also in expenditure. it

the facilities the in years come.

would only to of time our but result

huge Therefore, is have


to devoted to the of and organizations

facility dry#dock vessels FSI sister like CIFNET, CMFRI, CIFE A mini of 70m

IFP, & dry#dock approximately x x can constructed the 20m 10m be in space CIFT.

available the present Slipway. It accommodate the vessels other size average of and


can all survey and

medium vessels. The cost dry#docking other service per at Public Shipyards approximately Rs. lakhs. It also possible

charges vessel the Sector is

30#40 may be to undertake

dry#docking of vessels to Fishing

of the

some belonging the Industry. Research Investigations FSI to research on: stock identification biodiversity propose undertake investigations fish

and studies

using genetics, monitoring the medium long fisheries modeling and reef Technical personnel In to the of work achieve international under of above there a need

fish resources in inshore and term



forecasting coral ecosystem. Training of Scientific and

order upgrade quality the and high standards each the projects, is

to the and personnel internationally#

train Scientific Technical at

reputed The areas been for training

institutes. following have identified

of personnel the Plan.

the during XI


stock by techniques

assessment acoustic


identification genetic

by tools

Age in by hard (including Otolith

determination fishes using parts

studies) modeling applications marine management


GIS in fisheries including Remote



Use advanced equipment board fishery survey Modern handling preservation onboard fishery

of electronics on the

vessels fish and technologies




Depending the and of scientific

on qualifications experience the and

technical two of programmes envisaged such

personnel, types training are

as: Training six to year Masters Ph.D. holders 5#10 experience; (ii) training specialized including and studies

(i) for months one for and

degree with years and Advanced in areas doctoral post#doctoral for young

scientists. The identified the programmes countries for training


USA, Norway, Japan France.

Canada, Denmark, and Central Institute of Fisheries, Nautical and Engineering Training, Kochi The Programmes the are the Training of Institute targeting

development in to the and carry out of different

of skills operate vessels to


types fishing.

At the is three vessels at Kochi, and excluding old transferred Integrated Project October for imparting training the

present institute having training stationed

Chennai Vishakhapatnam one vessel from Fisheries in 2005

practical to candidates. All three

the vessels are than years and frequent The docking have increased

more 25 old require repairs. dry# expenses also considerably.

It therefore proposed replace two vessels new vessels equipped modern and accommodation during Plan. to the old with training


with machinery sufficient




Institute to the of personnel. The upgrade skills its training


areas are: Fishing design fabrication; Safety at with regulations; Marine & Environment; (iv) Refrigeration. The where proposed programmes

identified (i) gear and (ii)

sea IMO (iii) Pollution Marine and Marine countries the training can

be are France, Norway,

arranged Japan,

South and Italy.

Korea 136 Integrated Fisheries Project, Kochi The mandate objectives the have its activities and of added revised and of institute focused


Development diversification value products

and of food, the reach IFP cover consumer Empowerment fishermen community local co#management, resource development fishery and in post

processing sea Augmenting market of to more segments, of

to participatory Human

and science technology the harvest

sector, and of traditional technologies. There an demand fish fishery especially among urban all India special to metros Delhi, Kolkata Chennai. Structured targeted efforts been so it proposed marketing will made the in collaboration

Design dissemination appropriate

is unstated for and products

the consumers over with reference

like, Mumbai, and and marketing have lacking far. Hence is that efforts be in metros

with administration. center low processing


A with cost

techniques to enterprise proposed be at This cater the needs the Help (SHGs) fisherwomen. This also act a processing extending to in their . IFP

suitable micro# is to established IFP. will to

of Self Groups of will

as community center facilities SHGs



had very and in training

been receptive positive addressing needs

of students fisheries and at levels. To and the

the of science technology different

systematize augment above,

the infrastructural requirements to addressed accommodate constantly increasing


have be to the



To and the and communication information infrastructure to strengthened of own and information speedy to technology database,

support catalyze proposals programmes, and technology has be manifold. Development IFP s technology 137 database, access international

redesigning websites IFP imperative. of are


The project upgradation of personnel with it. The

needs skills the working of


areas are: Recent in added processing for varieties sea (ii) Diversified

identified (i) advances value product technology all of food;

processing (iii) Technology; Refrigeration and


(iv) assurance like techniques, assessment countries

Quality concepts Laboratory Risk and The where training be can the Traceability.

arranged Japan, Norway, Korea Italy.


Poland, France, South and Central Institute of Coastal Engineering for Fishery During the Five Plan, Institute to XI Year the proposes undertake:


and Investigations


Preparation Feasibility


Techno#Economic Reports

Updating Master for development fishery harbours/fish

of Plan the of



Monitoring projects




Investment Studies effective of activities during XI it to additional and


For implementation the proposed the plan, proposes purchase computers peripherals and advanced for personnel the designing the harbours jetties infrastructure development fish

organize training concerned in

of fishery and and

for handling


and testing.


Continuation of existing schemes and new schemes Schemes Budget (Rs crores) Fishery Survey of India Ongoing Survey coastal resources acquiring mid#water trawlers 60.95 On going excluding of 210.63 of facilities 138 activities construction buildings of pelagic by two

Creation 16.20 New Strengthening


of Division HQ at


1.10 Acquisition vessels 185.00 Re#commissioning workshop, slip#way Mini of dredgers and marine of new


at (including of

Kochi cost dredging)

10.82 Studies on genetics fish in population of populations collaboration




2.00 Resources inshore 12.00 Development forecast 2.00 Coral Reef Surveys Investigations Ecosystem: and of models monitoring waters in


2.30 Training of and personnel Sub Total 505.00 Central Institute of Fisheries Nautical Engineering & Training Ongoing 10.00 Fishery 40.00 Buildings Equipments marine 8.30 related to engineering, schemes Scientific Technical 2.00



fishing navigation 5.00 Minor works 18.00 2.00


Salaries Sub Total 83.30 Integrated Fisheries Project Induction

of generation and in sector

new technologies processing post#

harvest 3.72 Extending to large of 0.51 Establishing

marketing cover segments consumers


rural technology and

appropriate design dissemination

center 1.85 HRD Activities the sector 0.26 Scheme strengthen and technology of to communication information fisheries in



0.15 Capacity new among staff 0.40 Support on#going above activities Supplies Materials, etc.) 5.35 Sub total 12.24 Central Institute of Coastal Engineering For Fishery Engineering and Investigations of Feasibility Updating Master for development fishery harbours/fish Monitoring projects Post Investment Studies Evaluation of of Plan the of Economic to and new (Salaries, & Office Expenditure, building in technologies the


Techno#Economic Reports


centres ongoing

10.00 Sub total 10.00 Grand Total 610.54

The budgetary for during XI period given Table In of newly National Fisheries Board an of 2,100 (with fund of 2,069 during XI the projected of for Department s would be 1,944.04 As be from above much the fisheries would continued

total requirements Fisheries the Plan are in 4.12. view the created

Development with allocation Rs crores a availability Rs crores the Plan),

requirement funds the activities 139 Rs crores. could seen the account, of marine programmes be under

the and schemes in subsector, also programmes the with to fisheries aquaculture. new like and networking, brood efforts conservation, certification, policy welfare would need

existing new proposed the as the of FFDAs regard inland and Further, activities Database informationa certified banks, on seed

setting programmes to be


addressed the As NFDB has mandated address activities partnerships the Governmental

by Department. the would been to eleven in with

as as agencies, would private it bring



angle the and specific with stress marketing.

to sector address areas a on

Table 4.12 Projected Budgetary requirements for Fisheries in the XI Plan Sl. No. Schemes Budget (Rs crores) 1 Marine 550.00 2 Inland 1035.00 3 1242.50 4 Welfare Infrastructure

Fisheries Mariculture


Fisheries Aquaculture




Transfer and




building 497.00 5 of and Information Strengthening Database


78.00 6 Central 610.54 Total 4013.04 Provision of Rs 2,069 crores made for NFDB during the XI Plan 140 Annexures Table A. Marine Fisheries Resources of India State / Union Territory Length of coast line (Km) Continental shelf ( 000 sq km) No. of landing centres 1 Andhra 974 33 314 2 Goa 104



10 34

3 Gujarat 1,600 123 4 Karnataka 300 88



5 Kerala 590 40 178 6 Maharashtra 720 152 7 Orissa 480 57 8 Tamil 41 352 9 West 158 17 44 10 A




Nadu 1,076


35 11 Daman

& Islands 1,912 57

N (P)

and (P) NA 7


27 12 Lakshadweep 4 13 Pondicherry 45 26

(P) 132 11

Total 8,118 530 1,443 Table B. Marine Fishing Villages and Population State / Union Territory No. of fishing villages No. of fishermen families Fisherfolk population 1 Andhra 1,29,246 5,09,991 2 Goa 39 3 Gujarat 263 4 Karnataka 156 5 Kerala 222 6 Maharashtra 406 7 Orissa 641 8 Tamil 86,352 4,50,391 65,313 3,19,397 30,176 1,70,914 1,963 10,668

Pradesh 498

59,889 3,23,215

(P) 1,20,486 6,02,234


581 1,92,152 7,90,408 9 West 53,816 2,69,565 10 A

Bengal 346

& Islands 45


11 Daman (P) 22 12 Lakshadweep 10 13 Pondicherry 28 Total 3,257 7,56,212 35,19,116 P #


Diu 5,278 29,305


11,541 43,028


Source: Census, 2005 Handbook Fisheries 2005141 Table C. Inland Fishery Resources of India Sl. No. States/UTs Rivers & canals &

Fisheries Part#1, of Statistics,

(km) Reservoirs (million ha) Ponds & Tanks (million ha) Beels, Oxbow lakes & Derelict water bodies (million ha) Brackish water (million ha) 1 Andhra

Pradesh 11,514 0.23 0.52 # 0.06

2 Assam 3 Bihar 4 Goa 5 Gujarat 6 Haryana

4,820 0.002 0.023 0.11 #

3,200 0.06 0.10 0.01 #

250 0.003 0.003 # Neg

3,865 0.24 0.07 0.01 0.1

5,000 Neg 0.01 0.01 #

7 Himachal

Pradesh 3,000 0.04 0.001. # #

8 Jammu


Kashmir 27,781 0.01 0.02 0.01 #

9 Karnataka 10 Kerala 11 Madhya

9,000 0.44 0.29 # 0.01

3092 0.03 0.03. 0.24 0.24

Pradesh 17,088 0.23 0.06 # #

12 Maharashtra 0.01 13 Manipur 14 Meghalaya 15 Nagaland 16 Orissa 17 Punjab 18 Rajasthan * 19 Sikkim 20 Tamil

16,000 0.28 0.06 #

3,360 0.001 0.01 0.004 #

5,600 0.01 0.002 Neg #

1,600 0.02 0.05 Neg #

4,500 0.26 0.11 0.18 0.43

15,270 Neg 0.01 # #

5290 0.12 0.18 # #

900 # # 0.003 #

Nadu 7,420 0.57 0.06 0.01 0.06

21 Tripura

1,200 0.005 0.013 # #

22 Uttar

Pradesh 28,500 0.14 0.16 0.13 #

23 West

Bengal 2,526 0.02 0.28 0.04 0.21

24 Arunachal

Pradesh 2,000 # 0.28 0.04 #

25 Mizoram 26 A

1,395 # 0.002 # #

& Islands 115 0.001 0.003 # 0.12

27 Chandigarh 28 Delhi 29 Lakshadweep 30 Pondicherry 31 Dadra

2 # Neg Neg. #

150 0.004 # # #


247 Neg 0.001. Neg



Haveli 54 0.01 # # # 32 Daman


Diu 12 # Neg # Neg 3,573 0.08 0.06 # # 2,686 0.02 0.001 # # 4,200 0.09 0.03 # #

33 34 35

Chhattisgarh Uttaranchal Jharkhand

Total 1,95,210 2.916 2.407 0.797 1.24


Source: Hand Book on Fisheries Statistics, 2005; Report of Working Group on Fisheries for X Five Year Plan, MoA, 2001 142 Table D. Length of Major Rivers of India River Total Length (km) States Length (km) 1 2,525 a) Ganga Uttar 1,450 Pradesh


Bihar 445


West 520



Boundary Bihar U.P.

of and

110 2 Brahmaputra 916 a)

Arunachal 218



Assam 698

3 Indus 1,114 a)

Jammu Kashmir 1,114


4 Brahmani 799 a)

Orissa 541


Bihar 258

5 Krishna 1 a)

,401 Maharashtra 640


Andhra 386



Karnataka 375

6 Mahanadi 851 a)

Madhya 357



Orissa 494

7 Sabarmati 371


Rajasthan 48

8 Narmada 1,312 a)

Madhya (M. 1,079

Pradesh P.)


Gujarat 159


Boundary M.P. Gujarat

of and 39


Boundary M.P. Maharashtra

of and 35

9 Mahi 583 a)

Madhya 167



Rajasthan 174


Gujarat 242

10 Tapti 724 a)

Madhya 228



Maharashtra 228


Gujarat 214


Boundary M.P. Maharashtra

of and 54

11 Godavari 1,465 a)

Andhra 771



Maharashtra 694

12 Pennar 597 a)

Karnataka 61


Andhra 536


13 Cauveri 800 a)

Karnataka 320


Tamil 416



Boundary Karnataka Tamil 64 395 Bihar 269

of and Nadu

14 Subarnarekha a)


West 64


c) Source:

Orissa Report Working on for Year MoA, 143

62 of Group Fisheries X Plan, 2001


Table E. Distribution of Small, Medium and Large Reservoirs in India Small Medium Large Total SI. No. States Number Area (ha) Number Area (ha) Number Area (ha) Number Area (ha) 1 Tamil 3,15,941 19,577 8,906 2 Karnataka 4,651 16 1,79,556 4,37,291 3 Madhya 6 1,72,575 1,69,502 32 4 Andhra 2,898 2,01,927 32 21 5 1,18,307 4,60,384

Nadu 8,895 9 2 23,222 3,58,740

2,28,657 29,078 4,679




66,429 2,937 5 Maharashtra # 0 1,15,054 2,73,750 6 Gujarat 676 28 1,44,358 2,86,230 7 Bihar 112 5 71,711 96,695 8 Orissa 1,433 6 1,19,403 98,198 9 Kerala 21 8 6,160 29,635 10 Uttar 40 2,18,651 44,993 66 11 Rajasthan

7 1,90,151 4,58,507

1,19,515 39,181 0

84,124 57,748 711

12,461 12,523 125

66,047 12,748 1,442

7,975 15,500 30

Pradesh 22 4 71,196 3,34,840

389 30 49,386 1,53,444 12 Himachal 1 0 41,364 13 North 4 2,239 5,835 6 14 Haryana 4 0 0 15 West 4 732 4600 6

54,231 49,827 423

Pradesh 200 02 3 41,564

East 2 00 8,074

282 00 4 282

Bengal 1 1 10,400 15,732

Total 19,134 14,85,557 180 5,27,541 56 11,40,268 19,370 31,53,366 Source: Sugunan, V., Reservoir in FAO Technical No. 1995. Fisheries India. Fisheries Paper 345, V.

and Organisation, Table F. Fishing Crafts - Coastal States and Union Territories

Food Agriculture Rome145

Sl. No State/Union Territory Mechanised boats Motorised Non motorised Total 1 Andhra

Pradesh 2,541 14,112 24386 41,039

2 Goa 3 Gujarat 4 Karnataka 5 Kerala 6 Maharashtra 23,508 7 Orissa 8 Tamil

1,087 932 532 2,551

13,047 7,376 3,729 24,152

4,373 3,705 7,577 15,655

5,504 14,151 9,522 29,177

13,053 3,382 7,073

3,577 4,719 15,444 23,740

Nadu 7,711 22,478 24,231 54,420

9 West

Bengal 6,829 1,776 10,041 18,646

10 A

& Islands*

N 230 160 1,180 1,570

11 Daman


Diu 562 654 211 1,427

12 Lakshadweep* 13 Pondicherry Total 59,619 76,057 106,044 241,720 Source: Fisheries Part#1, Report Working on Fisheries Five Plan, 2001146 Table G. Fish Production Over the Plan Periods Fish Production at the end of the period ( 000 t) Growth (Per cent) during the plan period Plan Period Marine Inland Total Marine Inland Total Average Annual Growth rate Pre#Plan 218 752 Period 534 for Year MoA,

478 306 594 1,378

627 2,306 1,524 4,457

Marine Census, 2005, of Group


# # 1st 243 11.61 11.57 2nd 280 47.65 38.26 3rd 507

Plan 596 839 11.47 2.31 Plan 880 1,160 15.23 7.65 Plan 824 1,331 6.36 14.74




81.07 2.95 Annual 622 9.71 14.65 4th 1,210 1,958 20.26 5.66 5th 1,490 2,306 9.09 3.55 Annual 1,492 2,340

Plans 904 1,526 22.68 4.88 Plan 748 33.85 28.31



Plan 816 23.14 17.77


Plan 848 0.13


3.92 1.47 6th 1,698 2,801 30.07 3.94 7th 2,275 3,677 27.11 6.25 Annual 2,300 3,836 9.56 4.32 Annual 2,447 4,157 11.33 8.37 8th 2,967 5,348


Plan 1,103 13.81 19.70


Plan 1,402 33.98 31.27

(1985 90)

Plan 1,536 1.10 4.32


Plan 1,710 6.39 8.37


Plan 2,381 30.42 69.83 45.44 6.49


9th Plan (1997#02) 2,830 3,126 5,956 4.62 31.29 11.37 2.27 10th

Plan (2002#03) 2,990 3,210 6,200 5.65 2.69 4.10 4.10 10th Plan (2003#04) 2,941 3,458 6,399 1.64 7.73 3.21 3.21 10th Plan 2,780 3,520 6,300 Source: Central Fisheries Institute, for period to State (2004#05)

Marine Research Kochi the up 1970#71, Governments/


Territory since Hand on Statistics, 147 1970#71; Book Fisheries 2005


Table H. Fish Seed Production Year Production (million fry) 1973-74 (End of IV Plan) 409 1978-79 (End ofV Plan) 912 1984-85 (End of Vl Plan) 9,639 Vll Plan 1985#86 6,322 1986#87


1987#88 8,608 1988#89 9,325 1989#90 9,691 Annual Plans 1990#91 10,332 1991#92 12,203 VIII Plan 1992#93 12,500 1993#94 14,239 1994#95 14,544 1995#96 15,007 1996#97 15,852 IX Plan 1997#98 15,904 1998#99 15,156 1999#2000 16,589 2000#01 2001#02 15,608 15,758

X Plan 2002#03 2003#04 2004#05 Source: Book Fisheries 2005 Table I. Fishing Harbours and Fish Landing Centres Commissioned/ under Construction By State/ Union Territory A. Maior Fishing Harbours Designed Capacity Port Cost (Rs lakhs) Year of sanction Status DSV (No) MFV (No.) Draft (m) TL 1. Stage 1975 Vishakhapatnam I 955.50 C 16,333 19,231 20,811 Hand on Statistics, 148

90 4.5 Stage C

300 1,938 II 1099.20 1978

Staqe C

III 454.30


Staqe C


354.00 2001

2. Stage 1973 50 3.0 Stage

Madras I 1,334 C 500 1,220 II 850 UC change capacity. in Stage

1994 No


for facilities Cochin I 494 C 450 560 II (100) UC


3. Stage 1971 57 6.0 Stage 77 1993


change capacity.

in Stage


for facilities Calcutta



(Roychowk) 370 C 15 6.0 5. C 500 2335 6. 1971

# 120 Paradip 50 6.0 2,834(3,807) 1990




825 # 3

(1,099) 1977 UC 700 1153

B. Minor Fishing Harbours and Fish Landing Centres Minor Fishing Harbour Fish Landing Centres Sl. No State/ Union territory Commissioned Under construction

Commissioned Under construction 1 Andhra 2 2 Goa # 2 3 Gujarat 4 20 4 Karnataka 6 10 5 Kerala 8 23 6 Maharashtra 1 35 7 Orissa 3 21 8 Tamil 7 11 9 West 10 3 15

Pradesh 1

# 2

2 2

3 3

5 5

1 1

2 7



4 12 10 A N 1 # 11 Daman # # 12 Lakshadweep # 3 13 Pondicherry 1 # Total 38 15 142 46 * Data on ** as 1997#98 Figures brackets the cost C # Commissioned; Under DSV Sea 2

& Islands # #

and #


# #

as 1996#97, Data on

in indicate revised

Completed/ UC# construction Deep Vessels;


Motorised Vessels; Total

Fishing TL# length

of + + + repair quay/wharf meters)

landing berthing outfitting


Source: of DAHD F Book Fisheries 2005


Ministry Agriculture, & & on Statistics, 149

Table J. Details of Fish Farmers Development Agencies (FFDAs)

(Achievements till 2003-04) Sl. No. State/UTs No. of FFDAs Water area covered (ha) Fish farmers trained (nos.) No. of

Beneficiaries Average Productivity (kg/ha/yr) 1 Andhra 22 4,120 5,805 2 Arunachal 2 824 3,500 4,907 3 Assam 23 4,522 22,882 13,190 1,750 4 Bihar 33 25,290 30,459 33,773 2,180 5 Goa 1 # 6 Gujarat 25,886 17,583 1,040 11,927 3,500**




# #

21 61,322

7 Haryana 13,948 16,055 17,547 3,730 8 Himachal 2 573 2,523 9 Jammu 9,162 4,614 10 Karnataka 18 15,875 3,417 11 Kerala 14 25,058 1,465 12 Madhya 81,773 91,984 13 Maharashtra 29 17,076 1,135 14 Manipur 8


Pradesh 5,560 2,800

& 2

Kashmir 4,443 3,000

54,564 11,161

28,177 83,458

Pradesh 38 40,461 1,360

27,487 61,618


4,853 2,400 15 Meghalaya 2 2,067 1,500 16 Mizoram 5 7,326 3,000 17 Nagaland 8 3,915 1,800 18 Orissa 30 48,552 134,721 19 Punjab 17 22,982 6,094 20 Rajasthan** 15 11,604 1,447 21 Sikkim 1 1,345 3,,500 22 Tamil 17


798 2,067

1,310 5,327

2,998 16,931

37,326 2,390

17,515 14,493

7,637 7537

181 1,634


23,255 13,,690 23 Tripura 4 1,02,678 2,200 24 Uttar

7,792 1,000

10,023 48,951

Pradesh 53 1,11,265 2,550 11,3986 107,751

25 West

Bengal 18 1,16,483 2,685 20,5225 383,640

26 Pondicherry 2 701 1,410 27 2,240 28 1,200 29 2,373 Uttaranchal 242 ,994

3 134 1,050 1,394


16 537 5,759 19,895


7 5,083 2,767 9,405

Total 429 6,49,458 7,61,778 11,25,366 2,216 * Data on ** of as 1996#97; Fi 2002#03


Source: Ministry Agriculture, & of DAHD F,


Book Fisheries 2005

on Statistics, 150

Table K. Details of Brackishwater Fish Farmers Development Agencies (BFDAs) Sl. No. State No. of BFDAs Districts 1 Andhra 6 Krishna









2 3 Valsad


Surat 3 2 Bhroach Karnataka





4 7 Ernakunam







Kasargod 5 4 Thane Maharashtra



Sindhudurg 6 7 Kendrapada Orissa






Bhadrak 7 West 3 North

Bengal 24 Parganas




Modnapore 8 Tamil 5 South

Nadu Arcot






Ramnad 9 1 South Goa and Goa 10 A North


Islands 1 Port Total 39 Source: Hand on Statistics, Table L. Fishers Population of India (Hundreds) Total No. of members Number of family members engaged in fishing operations Sl. No State/Union Territory Males Females Children Total Full time Part time 1 Andhra Book Fisheries 2005151 Blair

Pradesh 2,494 2,509 8,934 1,175 3,931 1,507

2 Arunachal 14

Pradesh 16

14 44 # 19 3 Assam 1,313 3,904 4 Bihar 12,667 583 5 19,114 76 466 6 Goa 55 140 22 17 7 Gujarat 1,345 1,299 2,289 837 8 Haryana 9 Himachal 4,933 370 49 36 Chhatisgarh 6,216 5,297 7,601 980 1,611 1,057 664

13,912 23,014 49,595 371

59 33 73 165 27 14

Pradesh 15 14 27 56 6

10 Jammu 76 132 305 33 20 11 19,309 52 214 12 Karnataka


Kashmir 96


5,779 5,716 7,814

558 529 502 1,590 144 99 13 Kerala 1,148 327

2,240 3,178 2,061 7,478

14 Madhya

Pradesh 2,139 2,006 3,025 7,170 54 179

15 Maharashtra 634 466 619 1,718 196 497 16 Manipur 17 Meghalaya 5 14 24 # 5 18 Mizoram 55 53 179 1 14 19 Nagaland # 20 Orissa 21 Punjab 22 Rajasthan 26 30 23 Sikkim 99 83 86 268 11 3 24 Tamil 58 # 55 36 149 71 5

250 241 214 705 30 41

710 483 607 1,800 353 388

22 19 51 91 16 13

17 73 7 10

Nadu 1,720 1,561 1,485 4,766 693 431

25 Tripura 160 132 176 467 35 56 26 Uttar 489 598 1,791 145 158 27 28 West Uttaranchal .32 .23 .35 1 .52 2

Pradesh 704

Bengal 5,872 2,052 1,192 9116 2,679 4,465

29 A

& Islands 99 77 0 176 26 72

30 Chandigarh 212521 31 D

# # 32 Daman

& Haveli # # #


Diu 76 78 101 255 41

33 Delhi 34 Lakshadweep 104 26 0 130 42 38 35 Pondicherry 124 128 128 380 47 26 India 46,962 40,340 9,331 10,721

5 5 15 25 2 3

(Data year 152 Table L. (contd.)


the 2002#03)

(Hundreds) Family members engaged fishing related activities other than actual fishing State/Union Territory Marketing of fish Repair of fishing nets Processing of fish Other activities 1 Andhra 2 Arunachal 3 4 5 6 Gujarat Assam Bihar Goa


1,121 504 219 260


420 # # # 132 113 26 # 331 167 56 167 20 6 3 7

147 34 7 Haryana # # 8 Himachal # 9 Jammu 11 # 10 Karnataka 114 16 11 Kerala 254 81 12 Madhya 2 #

116 637

# 38

Pradesh 1

& 39 1


47 26

135 426

Pradesh 152 23

103 15 13 Maharashtra 650 184 14 Manipur # # 15 Meghalaya

272 45

# #

# # 16 Mizoram 1 # 17 Nagaland # # 18 Orissa 132 4 19 Punjab # # 20 Raiasthan # # 21 22 Tamil 23 24 Uttar 25 West 26 A

# #

# #

# #

113 9

# #

1 # Sikkim ####

Nadu Tripura

221 237 48 69 13 4 # 1


246 89 50 376


613 320 95 394

5 27 Chandigarh

and Islands 5 1

N 5

3 # 28 Dadra # # 29 Daman # # 30 Delhi # # 31 Lakshadweep 6 32 Pondicherry 31 24 India 4,647 2,257 875 2,562

# #

& Haveli # #


& # #


# #

## 2

13 89

Source: Indian Livestock Census-1992. Summary Table Volume-I; Hand Book on Fisheries Statistics 2005 153 Table M. Structure of Fisheries Cooperatives Sl. No. State State Federation (17) Central

Societies (108) Primary Societies (11,440) Membership Total Fishermen 1 Andhra 1 3,646 4,96,731 2 Arunachal 4 5,716 3 Assam 1 456 4,75,000 4 Bihar 1 532 11,13,018 5 Delhi # 2 16,430 6 Goa 1 # ,300

Pradesh 10 3,59,021

Pradesh #

# 3,909

5 40,000

# ,239

10 18,836 7 Gujarat 4


1 385 80,000 1,40,208

8 Haryana # 59 16,034 9 Himachal

# 1,,005

Pradesh # 1 7,096

28 8,455 10 Jammu # 11 Karnataka 1 296 8,10,468 12 Kerala 1 292 7,10,502 13 Madhya 1 1,001 1,30,982 14 Maharashtra 1 2,024 4,25,652

&Kashmir # 13,000 #

3 76,136

16 2,00,000

Pradesh 7 62,570

21 2,08,273

15 Manipur 1 181 32,350 16 Meghalaya # 2,569 17 Mizoram # 36 ,600 18 Nagaland # 168 1,85,350 19 Orissa 1 482 2,02,112 20 Punjab # 4 4,200 21 Rajasthan 1 107 13,557 22 Sikkim # # ,550

# 9,182

# 58 11,,097

# 808

# 4,285

4 1,20,000

# 60

# 4,624

# #

23 Tamil 1 10

Nadu 675 4,44,866 2,67,309

24 Tripura 1 129 50,955 25 Uttar

# 14,225

Pradesh 1 5 41,000

110 1,60,823 26 West 1 20 1,072 1,60,000 5,97,180


27 A # 45 3,678 28 Chandigarh # 1 29 D

& islands #


# ,250

# 130 30 Daman

& Heveli # #

N #

& #


6 2,993 31000

31 Lakshadweep # 2 32 Pondicherry 1 36 10971 33 34

# 6000

2 28,754

Chhattisgarh Jharkhand

31,427 9150

Total 17 108 11,847 19,17,305 59,59,144 Source: Hand on Statistics 154 Table N. Infrastructure for the Seafood Processing Industry Category Registered as on 31.3.1990 Capacity Registered as on 31.3.2000 Capacity Exporters Fishing vessels 12,083 # 14,266 # Plant 231 2,296 394 8,439 Plant 24 84 13 51 864 # 1,549 # Book Fisheries 2005




Plant 132 1,854 157 2,970 Meal 26 463 12 229 Plant



sheds 924 # 576 3,387 481 # 511 # Storage 304 42,458 479 105,991 agar Plant # # 4 0.145 # # 1 10 Plant ##33 Plant # # 5 112

Conveyance Cold


Isinglass AFD




Report Working on for Year MoA,

of Group Fisheries X Plan, 2001

Table O. Contribution of India to World Fish Production

(000 t) World Production Contribution of India Year Total Marine Inland Total Marine Inland

1950 19,755 2,234 520 1955 28,642 3,673 596 1960 36,691 4,026 880 1965

17,521 730 210

24,968 839 243

32,665 1.161 282

51,229 46,141 1,331 507 1970 67.279 6,003 1,086 1975 68,341 6,860 1,482 1980 75,585 7,633 1,555 1985 91,553 10,665 1,747 1990 1,03,590 14,593 2,300 1995 1,24,152 5,088 824

61,277 1,759 673

61,481 2,267 785

67,953 2,445 891

80,888 2,839 1,092

88,997 3,875 1,575


21,351 2,786 1996 1,28,648 23,396 3,016 1997 1,30,882 25,112 3,024 1998 1999 2000 Source:

4,998 2,212

1,05,252 5,353 2,337

1,05,770 5,477 2,453 1,17,790 92,593 25,197 5,275 2763 2,512 1,26,651 99,468 27,183 5,592 2848 2,744 1,30,433 1,01,831 28,602 5,689 2852 2,837 Hand on Statistics, Book Fisheries 2005 155

Table P. Fish Production Projections by the enf of XI Plan

(mil lion t) Area Present Production (2006) Proejcted Production (2012) Marine Mariculture Inland Coldwater Coastal capture 0.007 0.05 capture fisheries aquaculture 0.68 1.12 0.0003 0.001 0.113 0.25 2.958 3.1

Freshwater 5.088 Total Exports Exports



6.3728 9.609 (Quantity) (Value Rs 7245 15,000 Source: Division. 2006156 in crores) 0.46 1.06

Fisheries ICAR,

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Websites accessed 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.


Schemes Components Budget (Rs crores) Marine Fisheries Capture Fisheries

Ongoing Schemes Motorization crafts 20.00



Forecasting, and dissemination 5.00




boxes traditional/ scale

for small

sector 10.00

Sea 10.00




of Reefs FADs 20.00 and


New Schemes Diversification/reduction



capacity fishing


costal vessels



kits outboard

for engines


Squid 10.00



Introduction specific

of deep






MCS/VMS 10.00



ranching 11.00

Mariculture New schemes Fishfish/shellfish 25.00


Mariculture finfish 80.00



Seaweed 30.00 HRD in fisheries



and HRD

mariculture in fishing, sea modern open

mariculture 5.00 Sub total 550.00 Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture Ongoing Schemes Capture Development inland capture Programme augmenting productivity of fisheries resources for fisheries



Aquaculture Development Freshwater Aquaculture Development Aquaculture hill regions Development fish of culture coldwater of

(FFDA) of in

Development water areas aquaculture

of logged for

Development inland soils aquaculture Development integrated 432.00 aquaculture New schemes Capture fisheries Survey,

of saline for

of coastal 164

assessment evaluation

and of





Improving inland water

productivity open#




Improving in Reservoirs 305.00 Aquaculture Freshwater Magur





establishment production



6.00 Advanced Upgraded for breeding

& protocols Carp


Seed both fish and

certification food





Certified 30.00 Brackishwater Hatchery





production and spot (Etroplus) 50.00 Coldwater Establishment seed production

of Pearl






Construction Raceways




Trout in Regions Hilly


2.00 Conservation of fish


and diversity of in





for monitoring

surveillance, and

reporting diseases 10.00



Establishment quarantine centers at airports



strategic and

international 30.00 General Establishment shops


of at


district states 25.00




level testing and






Establishment 10.00 Sub total 1,035.00 Infrastructure New Harvest New Schemes



fishing 50.00


New 162.50

minor harbours


Upgradation fishing 150.00


major harbours

Upgradation fishing 225.00


minor harbours

New 46.00

fish centres


Upgradation centres 150.00 Post#harvest New



model fish 100.00

retail markets

Modernisation markets 145.00




& containers

Insulated to

societies 50.00


SHGs marketing 50.00

for (Kiosks) 165

Value 50% SHGs 50.00 Culture Domestication

addition to


Holding labs,

centres, sales


counters stock 4.00



Testing feed, & 10.00 Sub total 1,242.50

facilities seed fish


Welfare programmes, Governance, Transfer of technology and Capacity building Ongoing Schemes

Welfare Development Fishers 96.00

Programmes of Villages


Group for

Accident active


fishers 15.00 Saving#cum#Relief 96.00 Capacity building and

Awareness Establishment Centers 4.00

creation of Awareness

Training fishers 7.20



Extension films 1.60 Trainers



training Refresher 10.00

& courses

New schemes Welfare Hut Programmes insurance 5.00







farmers 15.00

Mediclaim 10.00


Incentives groups (SHG) 2.00



Safety 5.00



Assistance 10.00 Policy National Policy formulation aspects 5.00 Mangement governance Co#management,



issues Fisheries







certification and hatcheries 9.60 Human




development Capacity the level 10.00 building State at


of in 2.00 ToT


Programmes 1.00



Vocational fisheries schools 0.25



Capacity fisheries operative SHGs

building co# Associations,




Strengthening delivery system 8.00 Co#operatives Private Revitalization



and partnerships of




Capacity 7.50


Demand fish 50.00 Demonstration Exhibitions Location trials




specific and


Demonstration 5.00 166


Trickle 10.00



Involving ToT 2.00 Co#ordination Linkages FTDC






units Fisheries 20.25

at institutes/SAUs

Sub total 497.00 Strengthening of Database and Information Networking


Survey estimation inland

for of


resources, potential

their and

fish 5.55



on fisheries 2.00


Catch for

assessment inland



marine 45.00


Development for and marine 22.45

of inland



Delineation areas, assessment & production 3.00 Sub total 78.00 Fisheries Institutes Fishery India, Ongoing Survey






of Mumbai

Schemes of pelagic

coastal resources

60.95 On going excluding construction activities




Creation facilities 16.20 New Schemes Strengthening Division 1.10 Acquisition vessels 185.00







Re#commissioning workshop, dredgers and Dry#dock at slip#way Mini






on genetics fish

population of

populations 2.00

Resources inshore waters 12.00 Development forecast models 2.00






Reef Surveys

Ecosystem: and

Investigations 2.30

Training and


Scientific Technical

personnel 2.00 Central Institute Fisheries Engineering Training, of Nautical & Kochi

Ongoing schemes 10.00 New Schemes Fishery 40.00 Buildings 8.30



Equipments marine engineering, navigation, etc. 5.00






works 18.00 Salaries


2.00 Integrated Kochi Induction of generation and in harvest 3.72 Extending marketing to large efforts cover segments consumers of sector post# new Fisheries Project,



0.51 Establishing appropriate design dissemination

rural technology and center 1.85


Activities the sector

in fisheries

0.26 Scheme strengthen

to communication and



0.15 Capacity in technologies the staff

building new among

0.40 Support on#going above

to and new activities 5.35 Central

Institute Coastal For Bangalore

of Engineering Fisheries,

Ongoing 10.00 Sub total 610.54 Grand Total 4013.04


Summary of Projected Budgetary requirements for Fisheries in the XI Plan Sl. No. Schemes Budget (Rs crores)

1 Marine 550.00 2 Inland 1035.00 3 1242.50 4 programmes, Transfer technology

Fisheries Mariculture


Fisheries Aquaculture



Welfare Governance, of and

Capacity building 497.00 5 of and Information 78.00 6 Central 610.54 Total 4013.04 Provision of Rs 2,069 crores made for NFDB during the XI Plan Strengthening Database