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Structuralism, poststructuralism and Transtructuralism.

Structuralism is an approach to human sciences, which grew to become one of the methods used to analyze the language, culture and society in the second half of the twentieth century. The work of Ferdinand de Saussure (Course in General Linguistics, 1916) is usually considered the point of origin. In broad terms, basic structuralism seeks the structures through which meaning is produced within a culture. According to this theory, within the meaning of a culture is produced and reproduced through various practices, phenomena and activities that serve as systems of meaning (studying things as diverse as food preparation and serving rituals, religious rites, games, and literary texts, forms of entertainment, etc). The novelty introduced structuralism is the idea of structure, and continuously present along the western thought, but the elimination in the same central concept of ordering all reality, like the Platonic ideas. The initiator and most prominent representative of the current was the anthropologist and ethnographer Claude Lvi-Strauss (late 1940), who analyzes cultural phenomena like mythology, kinship systems and the preparation of food. The term poststructuralism describes a variety of investigations, conducted primarily in France, which emerged in the mid to late 1960 to put into question the primacy of structuralism in the social sciences: anthropology, history, literary criticism and philosophy, as well Psychoanalysis. The term is not original research themselves, but the prevalent that the studied later.

Poststructuralism shares a general concern to identify and question the hierarchies implicit in the identification of binary oppositions that characterized not only structuralism but Western metaphysics in general. If there is a commonality between poststructuralist criticism, is the appreciation of the structural interpretation of Ferdinand de Saussure about the distinction between the study of language over time versus the study of language in a given time (vs. diachronic. Synchronic) .Structuralists argues that structural analysis is usually synchronous (at a given time) and thus suppresses the diachronic or historical analysis. It is also said that post-structuralism is concerned to reaffirm the importance of history and simultaneously develop a new theoretical understanding of the topic. Hence also states that the emphasis of post-structuralism is a reinterpretation of Sigmund Freud, Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche and Martin Heidegger. For example, Nietzsche's genealogy serves as a theoretical reference point in the historical work of Michel Foucault in the 1970s, including his criticism of structuralism. So grand is said that this reductionism is violent, post-structuralism and identified with Western civilization and objectionable excesses colonialism, racism, misogyny, homophobia and the like. Hyperreality is a concept in semiotics and postmodern philosophy. The term is used to describe the inability of consciousness to distinguish reality from fantasy, especially in technologically advanced postmodern cultures. Hyperreality is a means to describe the way in which consciousness defines what is truly "real" in a world where the media can shape and filter radically the way we perceive an event or experience. Among the most famous experts in hyperreality include Jean Baudrillard, Daniel J. Boorstin, and Umberto Eco Hyperreality is significant as a paradigm to explain the American cultural condition. Consumerism, because of its dependence on the value of sign is a contributing factor to the creation of hyperreality. This tricks the consciousness into the evolution of any real emotional engagement, instead opting for artificial simulation, and endless reproductions of fundamentally empty appearance. Essentially, satisfaction and happiness is found through simulation and imitation of reality, rather than by reality itself. The Transtructuralism is a term used by the artist and thinker Pedro Villanueva Gonzalez, who uses the prefix trans: and beyond, as modified, so altered, manipulated, virtual) Exposes the structures are modified or artificially manipulated in the context of hyperreality in the XXI century. The Transtructuralism uses three main methods of study. 1) Study of the relationships between signifiers and meanings hyperreal hyperreal. 2) Study the relationship dystopian hyperreal language according to geographical distribution. 3) Study of metaphor and metonymy hyperreal desires and human drives.

Pedro Villanueva Gonzalez is author of the book "Evolution of the human species noumenal and neogenesis of the feminine archetype." Founder of semiotics synchronistic and post-construction social.