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Human Computer Interaction Revision

20 Mei 2010 11:17

Week 1 :

What is HCI? Human Computer Interaction: Simply, the study of interaction between people and computers Mainly occurs on user interfaces The discipline cornening the design, iplementation and evaluation of interactive computing systems for hum use and with the study of major phenomena surrounding them. Involves human factors and ergonomics
8 Golden Rules of Interaction Design by Schneiderman: Strive for consistency Cater to universal usability Offer informative feedback Design dialogs to yield closure Prevent errors Permit easy reversal of actions Support internal locus of control Reduce short-term memory load

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Week 2:
Persona: A one page textual description of a typical user or customer, a coposite drawn from actual data you colected. 1. 2. 3. 4. Processes of interaction design: Identifying needs and establishing requirements Developing alterative designs that meet such requirements Building interactive versions of the design sothat they can be communicated and assessed Evaluating what is being built throughout the process
Ten-Minute Rule: "To evaluate how a system is easy to use, novice users should be able to learn how to use a system in under 10 minutes." (Not appicable to complex systems)

Week 4
1. 2. 3. 4. Conceptual Models: Types of activities that users are likely to be engaged in when interacting with systems: Instructing Conversing Manipulating and navigating Exploring and browsing VisiCalc: Conceptual model based on object IT was not only analogous to a spread sheet by the way it looks in reality, it was also one of the first interactive spreadsheets that responds to user's input (by way of calculations and recalculations etc.) Interface Paradigms - Ubiquitous Computing : Tehnology embedded in the environment, the ones that are now taken for granted (e.g. Tabs, pads, keys, boards) - Pervasive Computing : Seamless integration of technologies (PalmPilot, BlackBerry, iPhone,
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- Pervasive Computing : Seamless integration of technologies (PalmPilot, BlackBerry, iPhone, Android) - Wearable Computing: Technology that is wearable (handsfree, clip-on microphone) Cognition Defined as what goes on in our heads that involvs cognitive processes such as thinking, seeing, reading, writing, talking.
Experiental Cognition: e.g. Playing video game Reflective Cognition: e.g. Comparing/decision making/evaluating

Computer-mediated Communication (CMC) 1. Synchronous communication : real-time communication supported by letting people type or talk with their voices a. Talking with voice: video phones, conferencing b. Taling with typing: text message, instant messaging, collaborative virtual environments 2. Asynchronous Communication: communication between participants take place remotely and at different times a. e.g. : email, bulletin boards, newsgroups, community forums 3. CMC combined with other activities: Customized electronic meeting rooms

Week 5
Anthropomorphism in Interaction Design Definiton: when human qualities and attributes are embedded in non-human objects or creatures Virtual characters/agents: 1. Synthetic characters - 3D characters in video games that may appear as avatars or third-person (NPC) 2. Animated agents - Similar to synthetic characters, they are designed to help users - They appear on the side of the screen as tutors or qizards and helpers 3. Emotional agents - They allow people to change the emotions of agents and see the effect of their behavior change - For example, in a game, when taxes are reduced the smile emoticon is more dominant 4. Embodied conversational interface designs - These agents have modeling various conversational mechanism - They are mostly agents who guide users to solve problems or find something. Joint Application Development: Users and developers come together to thrash out requirements of the system.

Week 6
Types of requirements: 1. Functional requirements - They acquire what the product is supposed to perform, for functionality's sake 2. Data requirements - They obtain the size or amount, type, volatility, accuracy and the value of the data 3. Environmental requirements - They pass on to the circumstances in which the product is expected to do - There are four aspects of environment: Physical Social Organizational Tehnical 4. User requirements - They acquire the characteristics of the user group
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- They acquire the characteristics of the user group 5. Usability requirements - They obtain the usability goals for the interactive product. Data gathering: 1. Focus groups and workshops (A group of stakeholders gather together and discuss requirements and known issues 2. Studying documentation (Obtaining background information on the work without involving stakeholder's time)
Hierarchical Task Analysis (Textual and Graphical)

Screen clipping taken: 20/05/2010; 14:07

Screen clipping taken: 20/05/2010; 14:06

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Prototyping Low-fidelity:


Week 7
User-Centered Design - Early focus on users and tasks: - Empirical measurement of product usage - Iterative design Contextual Inquiry Definition: An approach to ethnographic study used for design that follows an apprenticeship model: the designer works as an apprentice to the user
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model: the designer works as an apprentice to the user

(4 important principles) 1. Context: Going to the users' workplace and watch them work 2. Partnership: talk to users about their work and engage them in uncovering unarticulated aspects of work 3. Interaction: develop a shared understanding with the user about the aspects of work that matter 4. Focus: direct the inquiry from a clear understanding of your own purpose (it guides what to look for)
Consolidation Two ways of consolidating the data gathered from contextual inquiry and work modeling: - Building affinity diagrams - Building consolidated models

Affinity diagrams aim to organize insights based on the contextual inquiry and work modelling data

Week 8
The Hawthorne Effect: "Individual behaviours of workers may be altered because they kow they are being studied." Observation frameworks Goetz and LeCompte (1984) framework: Who is present? What is their role? What is happening? When does the activity ocur? Where and why is it happening? How is the activity organized?
Robinson (1993) framework: Space - What is the physical space like? Actors - Who is involved? Objects - What objects are present? Acts - What are individuals doing? Events - What kind of event is it? Goals - What do they try to accomplish? Feelings - What is the mood of the group and the individuals?

Week 10
Structures interviews: -questions resemble one that of questionnaires, such as Likert scale questions -CLOSE-ENDED QUESTIONS -Useful when the object of study is clearly identified -It offers users a set of options that are presented on a paper. - usually they begin with "Would", "Do you...", and "How Likely" Likert Scales: -used for measuring opinions, attitudes, and beliefs, and consequently they are widely used for evaluating user satisfaction with products scale of 1-5, or scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Rating scales : similar to Likert but less used, uses pairs of adjectives such as Ugly-Attractive, Dull-Colorful, etc. Heuristic Evaluation:
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Heuristic Evaluation: An informal usability inspection technique in wich experts, guided by a set of usability principles, evaluate whether user-interface elements ( dialog boxes, menus, etc.) conform to such principles. Cognitive Walthrough: Simulating a user's problem-solving process at each step in the humancomputer dialog, checking to see if the user's goals an eory for actions can be assumed to lead to the next correct action.
Difference between CW and HE = CW is useful for examining a small, specified part of a system in detail, HE is useful for examining whole parts of systems.

Week 11-12
Usability Testing: Definition : -Usability is about how we make the user capable of actually using functionality (Kaasgaard, 2000) His five usability attributes are: Learnability, Efficiency, Memorability, Errors, and Satisfaction
-Usability is the etent to which a product can be used by context of use with effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction (ISO 9241-11)

-Usability means that the people who use the product can do so quickly and easily to accomplish their own tasks (Dumash and Redish) Fitt's Law: From Paul Fittes, 1954 it predicts the time it takes to reach a target using a pointing device. T = k log 2(D/s + 0.5), k100msec.'where T = time to move the hand to the
target D = distance between hand and target S = size of target

The further away and the smaller the object, the longer the time to locate and point it.
This is useful for evaluating systems for which the tie to locate an object is important such as handheld devices like mobile phones or PDAs, touchscreen surfaces, etc.

Week 13:
Phillips' approach to creating their products: 1. Prototyping techniques (continuously making, evaluating, and re-designing prototypes) 2. Participatory design (This includes involving the children all the way from concept through final products)

Their usability and user experience goals were that of being enjoyable, entertaining, and fun. //Hence their goals are user-based and cater to user enjoyability and satisfaction Phillip's stages of product development: 1.Initiation (foam/cardboard prototypes) 2.Concept creation (Dynamic visualization) 3. Specification (Focus on the needs and preferences of projected target markets) 4 Finalization (Final prototype to be released for market evaluation)

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