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# Civil Engineering Materials 267

Stresses in Materials

## Civil Engineering Materials 267 (Stresses)

Mechanics of Materials
A study of the relationship b t t d f th l ti hi between th external l d on a the t l loads body and the intensity of the internal loads within the body.

Structural Analysis
Used to determine the member actions (ie bending moments, shear forces, axial forces, torsion moments) on a body which has been subjected to external loads loads.

## St esses Stresses in Materials ate a s

Uses the member actions determined by Structural Analysis to examine the internal stresses set up within a body to resist the applied loading d hold the body together. l di and h ld th b d t th
Lecture 2

## Civil Engineering Materials 267 (Stresses)

Normal Stresses
Due to Axial Forces

## Used this case to also examine , E, fy, fu

Bending Moments B di M t

b di bending , E, fy, fu

Lecture 2

## Normal Stresses due to Bending

Need to have an understanding of Properties of Areas to be able to determine the g stresses due to bending. Quick Revision: Centre of Gravity Centroid Second Moment of Area (I value) Elastic Section Modulus; (Z value) First Moment of Area
Lecture 2

## Centre of Gravity, Centroid

What are they? Where are they?
Geometric centre for the area? Centre of Area? The centre of gravity of a body is the point where the entire weight of the body g y appears to be concentrated. This point is referred to as the Centroid.

Lecture 2

## Civil Engineering Materials 267 (Stresses)

The Centroid of a body is the point where the entire weight of the body appears to be concentrated.

40mm 300 0mm

NO
Lecture 2

40mm 300mm

6

Centroid C t id
F=0

## how do we find it?

Need to satisfy Equilibrium at all points in the body Balance of f B l f forces to prevent the body from moving. t t th b d f i
eg1: Axial stress * Cross sectional area of section = Applied axial force eg2: Total weight of balanced item = reaction force

M=0
Balance of moments to prevent the body from rotating.
eg1: Total applied moment action of a beam = internal stresses*area*lever arm

Shortcut
equilibrium satisfied along axes of symmetry ilib i ti fi d l f t
equal forces and moments on either side of a symmetrical axis g y y Centroid sits somewhere along the axis of symmetry If there are two perpendicular axes of symmetry, the centroid is located at the intersection of the two axes
Lecture 2

## Class E Cl Exercise: i Find location of centroidal axes for this t-beam

(ie: find centroid)
A 300m mm y
x y

## Considering class demonstration of balancing t-shaped section on finger:

40mm Need to find the point where (weight of each element multiplied by its distance from the centroid) = zero ie Mcentroid = 0 (section in equilibrium) Difficult to do when centroid location isnt yet known. Better method: Take moments about another arbitrary point (M=0 at every point). Usually use end of section (Say about line A-A) A A)
Lecture 2

40mm A

300mm

Weight of section

Weight of section

Reaction

## Civil Engineering Materials 267 (Stresses)

Class Exercise: Find location of centroid for this T-beam y-axis is along axis of symmetry x-axis: consider equilibrium to determine
y x

A 3 300mm

M AA = 0 ;
Weight of component (1) = wt1 Weight of component (2) = wt 2

## 40mm Re action = wt1 + wt 2

F = 0

wt = Material density * area t ate a de s ty a ea area of component (1 ) = A1 area of component ( 2 ) = A2 dis tan ce from plane AA to centroid of whole section = y dis tan ce from plane AA to centroid of component (1 ) = y1 dis tan ce from plane AA to centroid of component ( 2 ) = y 2 Re action * y [ wt1 * y1 + wt 2 * y 2 ] = 0

40mm A

300mm

M = 0

Weight of section

Weight of section

y =

Reaction

## [ wt1 * y1 + wt 2 * y 2 ] Re ti R action Material Density [ A1 * y1 + A2 * y 2 ] y = Material Density [ A1 + A2 ]

Refer to Engineering Mechanics 100 notes (Lecture 6B & C) (2004), located on Blackboard, for proper calculus derivation of centroid location (pp 10-21).
Lecture 2

## Civil Engineering Materials 267 (Stresses)

Class Exercise: Find location of centroidal axis for this t-beam

A 3 300mm

y
x

40mm

(A.y) y= A

Area of each component of the section dist. of each component centroid to arbitrary plane

40mm A

300mm

## dist. to section centroid Sum of area of components

Weight of section

Weight of section

Reaction
Refer to Engineering Mechanics 100 notes (Lecture 6B & C) for proper calculus d i ti of centroid l l l derivation f t id location. ti
Lecture 2

10

## Civil Engineering Materials 267 (Stresses)

Similarly, Si il l resultant of normal stresses f lt t f l t from an axial load acts through the centroid (in order to satisfy M=0)

40mm
y x

(A.y ) y = A

3 300mm

Stress in section

y A 300mm

## Equivalent Force (acting through centroid)

Stress in section

40mm A

Lecture 2

11

y x

y
b1

1
y1 b2

d1

2
d2

## (Ay )component y = A component

x
y2

x 3
b3 d3

y
y3

( b1 * d1 * y 1 ) + ( b2 * d 2 * y 2 ) + ( b3 * d 3 * y 3 ) y = ( b1 * d1 ) + ( b2 * d 2 ) + ( b3 * d 3 )
Lecture 2

12

y x

x1 b1

y 1
d1

x
x2 b2

2
d2

## (Ax )component x= A component

x
x3

x
d3

3
b3

( b1 * d1 * x1 ) + ( b2 * d 2 * x 2 ) + ( b3 * d 3 * x 3 ) x= ( b1 * d1 ) + ( b2 * d 2 ) + ( b3 * d 3 )
Lecture 2

13

## I-value Second Moment of Area I-value,

What is an I-value? What does it mean? Why do we need to use it?

1 2

## Which is the best orientation if using it as a beam?

Why would you orientate it this way? Less deflection Lower stresses induced thus is stronger in this orientation

I-value is a measure of the geometric stiffness of a shape. I-value allows us to quantify deflections and stresses depending upon the orientation of the beam.
Lecture 2

14

## I-value, I-value Second Moment of Area

y

In order to more easily define orientation of beams we beams, refer to the bending axes. If a beam is bending in the stronger orientation as orientation, shown here, it is referred to as bending about its strong axis (usually referred to as the x-axis)

Picture grabbing the x-axis with your hand and rolling it forward (bending about the axis). The beam will bend, top, with compression in the top and compression in the bottom, the same as it you applied a load to the top of a simply supported beam.

We calculate Ixx (second moment of area about the x-axis) in order to quantify behaviour (deflections and stresses) when bending about the x-axis. ( ) g Similarly, we calculate Iyy (second moment of area about the y-axis) in order to quantify behaviour when bending about the y-axis.

Lecture 2

15

## I-value, I-value Second Moment of Area

General formula for calculating I value:
(made up of a series of rectangular elements)
y x

bd 2 I = + Ah 12
3
an individual rectangular element

y
b

Where: b = dimension parallel with axis being considered of considered, d = dimension perpendicular to axis being
id d f individual t l l t considered, of an i di id l rectangular element

A = area of the individual rectangular element h = the dimension between the centroid of the
individual rectangular element and the centroid of the whole section (must know location of centroid ) in order to calculate h and thus I value) Proper calculus proof given in Engineering Mechanics 100 Lecture 6B&C notes (pp 22-32). It shows why the depth is cubed.
16

Note the significance of the depth in the formula (being cubed). This indicates that a minor increase in depth provides the section with significantly greater stiffness and strength.
Lecture 2

## I-value, I-value Second Moment of Area

y x

y
b

bd 3 2 I = 12 + Ah
bd 3 I rec tan gle = (about its centroid) 12 bd 3 = 12 + Ah 2
0

Lecture 2

17

## I-value, I-value Second Moment of Area

bd 3 2 I = + Ah 12
y x

## General equation about the x-axis y

b1 * d1 3 2 Ix = + ( b1 * d1 ) * y 1 y 12 b2 * d 2 3 2 + + ( b2 * d 2 ) * y 2 y 12
d2

b1

1
y1 b2

d1

2 x

x
y2

b3 * d 3 3 2 + + ( b3 * d 3 ) * y 3 y 12

y
y3

3
b3

d3

y
Lecture 2

18

## I-value, I-value Second Moment of Area

bd 3 2 I = + Ah 12
y x

## General equation about the y-axis y

d1 * b1 3 2 Iy = + ( b1 * d1 ) * x1 x 12
d1

x1 b1

1 x
x2 b2

2
d2

x
x3

x
d3

d 2 * b2 3 2 + + ( b2 * d 2 ) * x 2 x 12 d 3 * b3 3 2 + + ( b3 * d 3 ) * x 3 x 12

3
b3

y
Lecture 2

19

## I-value, I-value Second Moment of Area

Tricks for doubly symmetric sections about the x-axis
y

bd 3 2 I = 12 + Ah
x

b1

1
y1 b2

d1 d2

b1 * d13 2 Ix = 12 + ( b1 * d1 ) * y1 b3 * d 3 3 2 + + ( b3 * d 3 ) * y 3 12 b2 * d 2 3 + + ( b2 * d 2 ) * 0 2 12

Ix,flanges Ix,web b

y3

## Flanges: b1=b3 , d1=d3 , y1=y3

3
b3

d3

b1 * d13 b2 * d 2 3 2 Ix = 2 * + ( b1 * d1 ) * y1 + 12 12

Lecture 2

20

## I-value, I-value Second Moment of Area

Tricks for doubly symmetric sections about the y-axis
y

bd 3 2 I = 12 + Ah
x

For the I-value about the y axis, all of the rectangle elements are centred about the centroidal axis therefore the I for each axis, rectangle can be added together:
d1

b1

1
b2

d2

d1 * b13 d 3 * b3 3 Iy = 12 + 12 d 2 * b2 3 + 12 y,web

Iv,flanges

## Flanges: b1=b3 , d1=d3

3
b3

d3

d1 * b13 Iy = 2 * 12

d 2 * b2 3 + 12

Lecture 2

21

## First Moment of Area Elastic Modulus (Z) ( )

When external axial loads are considered, the considered internal resisting stresses are determined based on the th cross sectional area of ti l f the section. When external bending moments are considered, they need to be resisted by an internal resisting couple. It therefore follows that we need a first moment of area to help determine the stresses in ab beam subjected t a moment. bj t d to t

P axial = A (MPa)

(N) (mm2)

bending be d g
(MPa)

M = Z

M
L Lever arm

C T
22

Lecture 2

Tensile stress t

## First Moment of Area Elastic Section Modulus (Z) ( )

y x

y
b For a rectangle: d

Ix Zx = y max

Proof given in g g Engineering Mechanics 100 Lecture 6B&C notes (pp 33-35)

bd 3 Ix = 12

and d

y max

d = 2

## Z rec tan gle

bd 3 = 12

d 2

bd 2 = 6

But for all other sections, must calculate I first, then determine Z

Lecture 2

23

## Normal Stresses due to Bending N lS d B di

Consider a beam subject to b di t bending

c
Bottom of beam fibres stretch tensile strain Top of beam fibres compress compressive strain

t
Somewhere between these two regions there must be a plane S in which the longitudinal fibres will not undergo a change in length. Thi plane i referred t as th l th This l is f d to the neutral axis. t l i
Lecture 2

24

## Stress Distrib tion Distribution

To determine normal stresses in a beam subject to bending, a relationship needs to be developed between the applied bending moment and the longitudinal stress distribution in a g g beam developed to resist/support the external moment. Beam theory assumes small deflections and strains stresses still within elastic range of the material the material behaves in a linear-elastic manner Hookes law applies ie: = E A linear variation of normal strain must be a consequence of a linear variation in normal stress t
Lecture 2

25

Equilibrium
F=0 M=0 M 0

## Max. Compressive stress M C i t

c C

N.A.

Lever arm

T
Max. Max Tensile stress t

## We have a linear stress distribution. (These internal stresses are induced

in the section in order to resist the externally applied bending moment)

The resultant of the internal tensile and compressive stresses are a tension and compression f t i d i force which f hi h form a couple t resist th l to i t the externally applied moment (thus M=0 is satisfied) The tension and compression forces must be equal to satisfy F=0. (ie: T = C) Lecture 2

26

Neutral Axis

## Max. Compressive stress M C i t

c C

The Th position of th neutral iti f the t l axis can be located by satisfying the condition that y g the tension and compression forces are equal.

N.A.

Lever arm

For a rectangular section it can be easily seen that the Max Tensile stress y Max. t neutral axis will occur at the mid-height of the beam. The location of the neutral axis occurs at the centroidal axis for all sections under elastic loading.

Lecture 2

27

Equilibrium
F=0
ie: C=T

## Max. Compressive stress M C i t

c C

N.A.

Lever arm

Force = Stress*Area Top half of beam has compressive stress Compression force =av. compr. Stress T *area of top half of beam

d C= * b* 2 2

## Max. Max Tensile stress t

Force acts closer to top of beam (more stress at the top of the beam) Actually acts through the centroid of the stress triangle (ie: 1/3 height of
triangle from the base of the triangle).

Lecture 2

28

Equilibrium
d C= * b* 2 2

N.A.

Lever arm

M=0

## Internal moment (= C*lever arm) = Externally applied bending moment (=M)

2 d 2 d 2d Lever arm = L + = 32 32 3
29

Lecture 2

Equilibrium
M=0

c C

N.A.

Lever arm

Internal moment
= C * lever arm

## T d 2d c = * b* * 2 3 2 Max. Max Tensile stress t bd 2 = c 6 = M (External Moment)

Zrec tan gle g bd 2 = 6

Lecture 2

M c = Z
30

## Normal Bending Stresses:

From Structural Analysis: y

Lecture 2

M E = = I y R

31

## Normal Bending Stresses:

From Structural Analysis: y

## From this comes:

1 M = R EI

M E = = I y R

M = ( cons tan t ) EI
Constant defined by load application pattern and beam length.
eg : 5 wL4 = 384 EI

Lecture 2

32

Stresses
y x

y 1

Z top =

## ytop fibre 2 x ybottom fibre 3 y

Z bottom =
y x

Mx y x = Ix
y = dist. from neutral axis to a point p on the section in direction of y-axis

max bottom

max top p

Mx = Z top
Lecture 2

max bottom

Mx = Z bottom
33

Stresses
y x

y 1 x

ZLHS = ZRHS =

2 xRHS fibre x

xLHS fibre 3 y

y =

My x Iy

max RHS

max LHS

max LHS =

My

Z LHS
Lecture 2

max RHS =

My Z RHS
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## Civil Engineering Materials 267 (Stresses)

Important Formulae:

## (Ay )component y = A component

bd 2 I = + Ah 12
3

Ix Zx = y max
ymax = dist. from neutral axis to extreme fibre of section in direction of y-axis

My = I
y = dist. from neutral axis to a point p on the section in direction of y-axis

bd 2 = 6
Lecture 2

max

M = Z
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## Stresses due to bending

Dependent on geometry and applied loads (moments) Independent of materials used

## Strains due to bending

Proportional to stresses Dependent on the material used E value Low E-value not a very stiff material high strains high deflections g g
Lecture 2

36

## Civil Engineering Materials 267 (Stresses)

y 400 y 10 400 x 20 y 100 10 x y 100

Class exercise/tutorial Which section will have the: greatest Ix-value? value? smallest Ix-value? greatest Iy-value? smallest Iy-value? value?
x 10 y 100 32 y 32 32 20 y x y 80 120 y x 10mm wall x thickness all around

Section 1

Section 2

Section 3

10 280 10 x 10

y 260 x y 350 20
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x 10 y 350

Section 4
Lecture 2

Section 5

Section 6