algebras. Trans.
Amer. Math. Soc. 182 (1973), 443468.
W. L. Paschke. The double Bdual of an inner product module
over a C
algebras. Adv.
Math. 13 (1974), 176257.
G. G. Kasparov. Hilbert C
Algebras. A friendly
approach. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 1993.
V. M. Manuilov, E. V.Troitsky. Hilbert C
modules
by M. Frank:
http://www.imn.htwkleipzig.de/mfrank/mlit.pdf
Hilbert C*modules
Introduction
Let A be a C
algebra.
Idea:
Take the denition of a Hilbert space and replace the eld of
scalars by A.
This was done independently by W. Paschke in 1973 and M.
Rieffel in 1974.
Note that scalars play a twofold role for Hilbert spaces:
Hilbert spaces are linear spaces (modules) over scalars
Inner product takes values in scalars
Hilbert C*modules
Some basics from C
algebra theory
An involutive Banach algebra A is called a C
algebra if the
equality a
a = a
2
holds for each a A.
Any C
algebras.
An element a A is positive (a 0) if it is selfadjoint and
Spa [0, ).
a 0 iff (a) 0 for any positive linear functional on A.
We write a b if a b is positive.
Ifa 0 then b
ab ab
b for any b A.
Hilbert C*modules
PreHilbert modules
Let M be a right module over a C
algebra A. An action of
a A on M we denote by x a, x M.
Denition
A preHilbert Amodule is a (right) Amodule M equipped with a
sesquilinear form , ) : M M A satisfying the following
properties:
x, x) is a positive element in A for any x M;
x, x) = 0 implies that x = 0;
y, x) = x, y)
for any x, y M;
x, y a) = x, y)a for any x, y M and any a A.
The map , ) is called an Avalued inner product.
Hilbert C*modules
Examples
Example
Let J A be a right ideal. Then J can be equipped with the
structure of a preHilbert Amodule with the inner product of
x, y J dened by x, y) := x
y.
In particular, if J = A, A is a preHilbert C
n
i =1
x
i
y
i
.
Hilbert C*modules
Examples
Example
Let J
i
i N
be a countable set of right ideals of a C
algebra A.
Then their direct sum M =
i N
J
i
is a right module over A. It
becomes a preHilbert Amodule if the inner product of
elements (x
i
)
i N
, (y
i
)
i N
M is dened by
(x
i
), (y
i
)) :=
i N
x
i
y
i
.
The sum in the last example converges because it consists of a
nite number of summands, which makes the last example
unsatisfactory from the point of view of analysis.
Hilbert C*modules
Examples
Our next example comes from topology.
Example
Let X be a compact metric space, : E X a (locally trivial,
nitedimensional) vector bundle over X.
Let (E) be the set of all continuous sections of E, i.e. maps
s : X E such that s = id
X
.
Then (E) is a module over the C
module over
C(X).
Hilbert C*modules
Norm
Denition
Let M be a preHilbert Amodule, x M. Put
x
M
:= x, x)
1/2
.
We usually skip the subscript M when it does not lead to
confusion of norms.
Proposition
 
M
is a norm on M and satises the following properties:
1
x a
M
x
M
a for any x M, a A;
2
x, y)y, x) y
2
M
x, x) for any x, y M;
3
x, y) x
M
y
M
for any x, y M.
(1) is obvious; (3) follows from (2), so let us prove (2).
Hilbert C*modules
Proof of the Cauchy inequality
Let be a positive linear functional on A. Then (, )) is a
usual (scalarvalued) inner product on M, possibly degenerate.
Applying the usual Cauchy inequality for this inner product, we
obtain, for any x, y M,
(x, y)y, x)) = (x, y y, x)))
(x, x))
1/2
(y y, x), y y, x)))
1/2
= (x, x))
1/2
(x, y)y, y)y, x))
1/2
(x, x))
1/2
y, y)
1/2
(x, y)y, x))
1/2
.
Thus, for any positive linear functional , we have
(y, x)x, y)) y
2
M
(x, x)), hence
x, y)y, x) y
2
M
x, x).
Hilbert C*modules
Hilbert C
modules
Denition
A preHilbert Amodule M is called a Hilbert C
module if it is
complete with respect to the norm  
M
.
If M is a preHilbert C
module.
Consider some examples:
Example
If J A is a closed right ideal then the preHilbert module J is
complete with respect to the norm  
J
=  .
In particular, the C
n
i =1
M
i
. The inner product on M is given
by the formula x, y) :=
n
i =1
x
i
, y
i
), where
x = (x
i
), y = (y
i
) M.
The direct sum of n copies of a Hilbert module M we denote by
M
n
or by L
n
(M).
Example
If M
i
i N
is a countable set of Hilbert C
algebra A.
We dene the inner product on M by
x, y) :=
i N
x
i
, y
i
) for x, y M.
Hilbert C*modules
Let us check that the series
i N
x
i
, y
i
) is convergent.
Since the series
i N
x
i
, x
i
) and
i N
y
i
, y
i
) are convergent,
for any > 0 there exists a number N such that, for all n N,
we have
_
_
N+n
i =N
x
i
, x
i
)
_
_
< ,
_
_
N+n
i =N
y
i
, y
i
)
_
_
< .
Then, by the generalized Cauchy inequality,
_
_
N+n
i =N
x
i
, y
i
)
_
_
2
_
_
N+n
i =N
x
i
, x
i
)
_
_
_
_
N+n
i =N
y
i
, y
i
)
_
_
<
2
.
This proves that the inner product on M is well dened.
Exercise
Prove that the module M is complete with respect to the norm
 
M
.
Hilbert C*modules
Standard Hilbert C
module
If each M
i
equals A then the construction of the last Example
gives the Hilbert C
i N
a
i
a
i
is convergent in A.
This module is usually denoted by l
2
(A) or H
A
and is called the
standard Hilbert C
module over A.
If A is the eld C of complex numbers, then l
2
(A) is the usual
Hilbert space l
2
.
Hilbert C*modules
Standard module in the commutative case
In the commutative case there is the follwing description of
l
2
(A).
Let X be a locally compact Hausdorff space, A = C
0
(X). Let
l
2
= l
2
(C) be usual Hilbert space with the norm topology and let
C
0
(X; l
2
) be the space of continuous l
2
valued functions on X
vanishing at innity.
Proposition
The map
j : l
2
(A) C
0
(X, l
2
), j (f )(x) := (f
1
(x), f
2
(x) . . . ),
where f = (f
1
, f
2
, . . . ) l
2
(A), f
1
, f
2
, . . . C
0
(X), is an isometric
isomorphism.
The proof reduces to verication of surjectivity of j .
Hilbert C*modules
Submodules and orthogonal complements
Denition
Let N M be a closed submodule of a Hilbert C
module M.
We dene the orthogonal complement N
by
N
= y M : x, y) = 0 for all x N.
Then N
module M.
However, the equality M = N N
= 0.
In such a case we say that N is not orthogonally
complementable in M
Hilbert C*modules
Generators and basis
A Hilbert C
i
of elements of M is called orthonormal if
x
i
, x
j
) =
ij
.
It is called a basis of M if nite sums of the form
i
x
i
a
i
,
a
i
A, are dense in M.
E.g. the set e
1
= (1, 0, 0, . . .), e
2
= (0, 1, 0, ), etc. is a basis in
l
2
(A).
Hilbert C*modules
DuprFillmore lemma
Since Hilbert C
= x
n
i =1
e
i
e
i
, x), x
= x
+ y.
Then x
, x
) = x
, x
) +
2
1
2
1 > 0.
Therefore the element x
is nonsingular. Put
e
n+1
= x
, x
)
1/2
, then
e
n+1
Span
A
(x
, y) e
1
, . . . , e
n
.
Therefore the elements e
1
, . . . , e
n
, e
n+1
are orthonormal.
Since we have taken x
Span
A
(x, e
1
, . . . , e
n
) and
e
n+1
Span
A
(x
, x
)
1/2
+
n
i =1
e
i
e
i
, x) Span
A
(e
1
, . . . , e
n+1
),
then the equality w x = x
 = y = proves
(3).
Hilbert C*modules
Kasparov stabilization theorem
The following theorem shows that the standard Hilbert
C
nN
be the sequence of all generators of M.
By e
n
nN
we denote the standard basis of the module l
2
(A).
Let x
n
nN
= e
n
nN
y
n
nN
be a sequence, in which each
element e
n
and each element y
n
is repeated innitely many
times. Then the set x
n
nN
is generating for M H
A
.
Lets argue by induction. Assume that the orthonormal
elements e
1
, . . . , e
n
M H
A
and a number m(n) n are
already constructed in such a way that
1
e
1
, . . . e
n
Span
A
(x
1
, . . . , x
n
, e
1
, . . . , e
m(n)
),
2
dist(x
k
, Span
A
(e
1
, . . . , e
k
))
1
k
, 1 k n.
Since each element x
i
is equal to e
j
or y
k
, one can nd a
number m
algebras.
Let A be a nonunital C
module M over A by
the formula
x (a, ) := x a + x, x M, (a, ) A
+
, C,
we equip M with the structure of a Hilbert C
module over A
+
.
Consider the C
module l
2
(A
+
) over A
+
and denote by l
2
(A
+
)A
the closure of the linear span of all the elements of the form
x a, x l
2
(A
+
), a A, in l
2
(A
+
).
It is easy to see that l
2
(A
+
)A = l
2
(A).
The isomorphism M l
2
(A
+
)
= l
2
(A
+
) implies the isomorphism
M l
2
(A) = MA l
2
(A
+
)A = (M l
2
(A
+
))A
= l
2
(A
+
)A = l
2
(A)
(we use here that M = MA, which can be proved by using an
approximate unit in A).
Hilbert C*modules
Projective modules
Denition
A Hilbert Amodule M is nitely generated projective if there
exists a Hilbert Amodule N such that M N
= A
n
for some n.
The following two theorems of Dupr and Fillmore show that
nitely generated projective submodules lie in Hilbert
C
are dense in M
;
2
l
2
(A) = M M
;
3
M
= l
2
(A).
Hilbert C*modules
Proof
We begin with the case, where M
= A
n
.
Let g
1
, . . . , g
n
be an orthonormal basis in M. Fix > 0 and for
each m put
e
m
= e
m
n
i =1
g
i
g
i
, e
m
).
Then e
m
M
and
e
m
, e
m
) = 1
n
i =1
e
m
, g
i
)g
i
, e
m
).
Since x, e
m
) 0 for each x l
2
(A), as m , we conclude
that e
m
, e
m
) 1. So there exists a number m
0
such that for
any m m
0
, the element e
m
is nonsingular.
Then one can dene
e
m
= e
m
e
m
, e
m
)
1/2
with e
m
, e
m
) = 1. Let x M
. Then
e
m
, x) = e
m
, e
m
)
1/2
e
m
, x) = e
m
, e
m
)
1/2
e
m
, x) 0.
Hilbert C*modules
Proof (continued)
Choose a number m m
0
such that e
m
, x) < and set
x
= x + e
m
.
It is easy to see that
_
_
x
x
_
_
= . (1)
Let us check that the element x
is nonsingular. Put
u = x e
m
e
m
, x), v = e
m
(e
m
, x) + 1).
Then u v (since u e
m
), and x
= u + v. Therefore
x
, x
) = u, u) +v, v)
= u, u) + (e
m
, x) + 1)
(e
m
, x) + 1),
and the right hand side is invertible, since e
m
, x) < .
Therefore x
, x
) is invertible too.
Together with the estimate (1), this proves density of
nonsingular elements in M
.
Hilbert C*modules
Proof (continued)
Let x
n
be a sequence, in which each element e
m
is repeated
innitely many times. Put x = x
1
n
i =1
g
i
g
i
, x
1
).
Then (taking = 1) one can nd g
n+1
M
such that
g
n+1
, g
n+1
) = 1 and dist(x, g
n+1
A) 1. Therefore
dist(x
1
, Span
A
(g
1
, . . . , g
n+1
)) 1. At the next step we replace
the module M by Span
A
(g
1
, . . . , g
n+1
), x
1
by x
2
, and = 1 by
= 1/2.
Going on with this procedure, we obtain an orthonormal
sequence g
k
kN
, extending the basis g
1
, . . . , g
n
of M, such
that
dist(x
i
, Span
A
(g
1
, . . . , g
n+i
)) <
1
i
,
so it is a basis for l
2
(A) and the remaining part g
k
: k > n is a
basis of M
. Hence l
2
(A) = M M
and M
= l
2
(A).
Hilbert C*modules
Proof (end)
We pass now to the case of an arbitrary nitely generated
projective module M. Let M N
= A
n
.
By Kasparov stabilization theorem, N l
2
(A)
= l
2
(A), hence
A
n
= N M N l
2
(A)
= l
2
(A).
Therefore, if K is the orthogonal complement to the submodule
N M in the module N l
2
(A), then K
= l
2
(A) and
N M K = N l
2
(A).
But K = M
module
N over A. Then N = M M
.
Proof
As in the previous theorem, the proof can be reduced to the
case, when M is a free module, M = A
n
. If g
1
, . . . , g
n
is the
standard basis of M, then put, for x N, x
= x
n
i =1
g
i
g
i
, x).
Then x
M and x x
, hence N = M M
.
Hilbert C*modules
Dual modules
For a Hilbert C
module M over a C
, x M.
The formula (f a)(x) := a
.
M
, which
is dened by x x, ) =
x.
Denition
A Hilbert module M is called selfdual if M = M
.
Hilbert C*modules
Selfdual modules
Here is some information about selfdual modules (without
proof).
If A is unital, A
n
is selfdual.
Any nitely generated projective Hilbert C
algebra is selfdual.
The condition of selfduality is very strong there are quite a
few selfdual modules:
Any Hilbert module over a C
.
Hilbert C*modules
Dual modules
For an arbitrary Hilbert C
module M, M
module at all.
Description of the dual module for the standard Hilbert module
l
2
(A) is given by the following statement.
Proposition
Consider the set of sequences f = (f
i
)
i N
, f
i
A, such that the
norms of partial sums
_
_
_
N
i =1
f
i
f
i
_
_
_ are uniformly bounded.
If A is a unital C
;
the action of f on elements of the module l
2
(A) is given by
f (x) =
i N
f
i
x
i
,
where x = (x
i
) l
2
(A), and the norm of f is given by
f 
2
= sup
N
_
_
_
N
i =1
f
i
f
i
_
_
_ .
Hilbert C*modules
Bidual modules
Let M
, put
x(f ) := f (x)
.
The map x
x is an isometric map from M to M
:

x = supf (x) : f M
, f  1 f  x x ;

x
1
_
_
x
_
_
_
_
x(x)
_
_
=
1
_
_
x
_
_
x, x) = x .
For F M
by
F(x) := F(
x).
Identifying M with
M =
x : x M M
, we obtain that
F is
the restriction of F onto M M
.
Note that (
x)=
x for all x M.
It is clear that the map F
F is an Amodule map from M
to
M
and 
A by
F, G) := F(
G), F, G M
.
It can be directly checked that F a, G) = a
F, G) for a A.
Besides, for x, y M, one has
x,
y) =
x((
y)) =
x(
y) = (
y(x))
= y, x)
= x, y).
Therefore the inner product dened above is an extension of
the inner product on M.
Theorem (Paschke)
M
is a Hilbert C
= M
, so we have only
three different modules
M M
,
the rst two of which are Hilbert modules, and all possible
variants can be realized:
M = M
= M
; M ,= M
= M
; M = M
,= M
; M ,= M
,= M
.
Denition
M is called reexive if M = M
.
Reexive modules are more frequent than selfdual ones. In
the commutative case there is a criterium
Theorem
Let X be a compact Hausdorff space, A = C(X).
l
2
(A) is reexive iff X contains a copy of the Stone
Cech
compactication N of N.
Hilbert C*modules
Operators on Hilbert C
modules
Denition
Let M, N be Hilbert C
modules over a C
algebra A. A
bounded Clinear Amodule homomorphism from M to N is
called an operator from M to N.
Let Hom
A
(M, N) denote the set of all operators from M to N. If
N = M, then End
A
(M) = Hom
A
(M, M) is obviously a Banach
algebra. However, we shall see soon that there is no natural
involution on this algebra.
Denition
Let T Hom
A
(M, N). We say that T is adjointable if there
exists an operator T
Hom
A
(N, M) such that
Tx, y) = x, T
y) for all x M, y N.
It is easy to check that if an adjoint operator T
exists then it is
unique.
Hilbert C*modules
Nonadjointable operators
The main difference between Hilbert spaces and Hilbert
C
be the C
nN
an orthonormal basis in M.
Let T End
A
(M) be dened by Te
n
= e
1
a
k
. Take x l
2
(A),
x =
nN
e
n
a
n
, where
nN
x
n
x
n
is normconvergent in A.
Then Tx = e
1
nN
a
n
x
n
.
Hilbert C*modules
Example (continued)
The series
nN
a
n
x
n
is convergent: by the Cauchy inequality
for Hilbert C
modules,
_
_
m
n=k
a
n
x
n
_
_
2
_
_
m
n=k
a
2
n
_
_
_
_
m
n=k
x
n
x
n
_
_
=
_
_
m
n=k
x
n
x
n
_
_
and the latter series is convergent by the denition of l
2
(A), so
T is well dened. Also
Tx, Tx) =
_
_
nN
a
n
x
n
_
_
x, x) ,
so T is bounded.
If T
e
k
, e
n
) = e
k
, Te
n
) =
_
0, k ,= 1;
e
n
a
n
, k = 1.
But the series
nN
a
n
a
n
is not normconvergent in A, so T
e
1
is not well dened.
Hilbert C*modules
Operators on Hilbert C
modules
Denote by Hom
A
(M, N) the set of all adjointable operators from
M to N.
The algebra End
A
(M) = Hom
A
(M, M) is an involutive Banach
algebra. Moreover, it is a C
T sup
xB
1
(M)
T
Tx, x) = sup
xB
1
(M)
Tx, Tx) = T
2
,
where B
1
(M) denotes the unit ball of the module M.
Example
Let M = N N
= P, hence
P End
A
(M).
Hilbert C*modules
A nonadjointable projection
Example
Let J A be a closed ideal such that the equality Ja = 0,
a A, implies a = 0 (such ideals are called essential).
Put M := A J, N := (b, b) : b J M.
Then N
= (c, c) : c J. Therefore N N
= J J ,= M.
However, the submodule L = (a, 0) : a A M is a
topological (nonorthogonal) complement to N in M.
Let P be a projection on N along L, P(a, j ) = (a j , 0), where
(a, j ) M, and P 2.
Then P
A
(M).
Hilbert C*modules
Positivity
Positivity for operators can be understood in two different ways.
Lemma
For T End
A
(M) the following conditions are equivalent
1
T is positive in the C
algebra End
A
(M);
2
m, Tm) is positive in A for each m M.
Proof. If (1) holds then (selfadjoint) T
1/2
exists, hence
m, Tm) = T
1/2
m, T
1/2
m) 0.
If (2) holds then m, Tm) is selfadjoint, hence
Tm, m) = m, Tm) and polarization shows that
Tn, m) = n, Tm) for any m, n M, hence T is selfadjoint.
Therefore, T = R S, where R, S End
A
(M) are positive and
RS = 0. Then m, S
3
m) = Sm, TSm) 0. But S
3
0,
hence m, S
3
m) = 0. So S
3
= 0, hence S = 0 and T = R 0.
Hilbert C*modules
Compact operators
Let M, N be Hilbert C
modules over A, x N, y M.
Dene the operator
x,y
: M N by
x,y
(z) := xy, z), z M.
Operators of this form are called elementary operators. They
clearly satisfy the equalities
1
(
x,y
)
=
y,x
;
2
x,y
u,v
=
xy,u,v
=
x,vu,y
for u M, v N;
3
T
x,y
=
Tx,y
for T Hom
A
(N, L);
4
x,y
S =
x,S
y
for S Hom
A
(L, M).
We denote the closed linear span of the set of all elementary
operators by K(M, N).
The elements of K(M, N) are called compact operators.
In the case N = M, the equalities (1)(4) mean that the algebra
K(M) = K(M, M) is a closed twosided ideal in the C
algebra
End
A
(M).
Hilbert C*modules
Compact operators acting on Hilbert modules are not compact
operators in the usual sense, when one considers them as
operators from one Banach space to another.
However, they are a natural generalization of compact
operators on a Hilbert space.
Proposition
Let l
2
(A) be the standard Hilbert module over a unital
C
n
of the
submodules N
n
vanish as n .
Hilbert C*modules
Proof
Denote by P
n
the projection in l
2
(A) onto the submodule N
n
.
Then, for any z N
n
one has

x,y
(z)
2
= 
x,y
(z),
x,y
(z)) = y, z)
x, x)y, z)
x
2
y, z)
2
= x
2
P
n
y, z)
2
x
2
P
n
y
2
z
2
.
Since P
n
y tends to zero, we have 
x,y
[
N
n
 0.
If K K(l
2
(A)) then it is a limit of nite linear combinations of
the form
i
i
x
i
,y
i
, hence
_
_
_K[
N
n
_
_
_ 0 as n .
Hilbert C*modules
Proof (end)
Let us assume now that for some operator K, one has
_
_
_K[
N
n
_
_
_ 0.
Then, since
n
m=1
Ke
m
e
m
, z) = 0 for any z N
n
, one has, for
z 1 and z N
n
,
sup
z
_
_
_Kz
n
m=1
Ke
m
e
m
, z)
_
_
_ = sup
z
Kz 0 ()
as n .
If z N
n
, then Kz =
n
m=1
Ke
m
e
m
, z).
This means that () still holds if the supremum is taken over the
unit ball of the whole module l
2
(A). Therefore the operator K is
the norm limit of the operators K
n
=
n
m=1
Ke
m
,e
m
.
Hilbert C*modules
Compact operators
Proposition
K(A)
= A.
Proof. If A is unital, this is obvious (and K(A) = End
A
(A)).
In general, identify
a,b
with the left multiplication by ab
. This is
an isometric homomorphism and its range contains a dense
set ab : a, b A A, so it is an isomorphism,
Corollary
K(A) = End
A
(A) iff A is unital.
Proof. End
A
(A) is unital.
Corollary
K(A
n
)
= M
n
(A); K(l
2
(A))
= KA.
Proof. The rst assertion is obvious; to obtain the second one,
one has to pass to the limit n .
Hilbert C*modules
Description of operators in the commutative case
In the commutative case there is the following description for
End
A
(l
2
(A)) and for K(l
2
(A)).
Let X be a locally compact Hausdorff space, A = C
0
(X).
Let K = K(l
2
) be the space of (usual) compact operators on the
Hilbert space l
2
with the norm topology.
Let C
0
(X; K) be the space of continuous Kvalued functions on
X vanishing at innity.
Let B = B(l
2
) be the space of all bounded operators with the
strong topology.
Let C
b
(X; B) be the space of bounded continuous Bvalued
functions on X.
Theorem (Frank)
There are canonical identications K(l
2
(A))
= C
0
(X; K) and
End
A
(l
2
(A))
= C
b
(X; B).
Hilbert C*modules
Nonadjointable compact operators
One can get rid of the adjointability condition in the denition of
elementary operators and dene them as
f ,x
: y x f (y), x N, y M, f M
.
The closed linear span of all
f ,x
, f M
, x N, is a
nonadjointable (not necessarily adjointable) analog for
K(M, N).
When N = M, we get a closed twosided ideal of such
nonadjointable compact operators in the Banach algebra
End
A
(M).
Although these algebras are not C
A
(M, N) an
operator with closed range. Then
Ker T is an orthogonally complemented submodule in M,
RanT is an orthogonally complemented submodule in N.
Proof
Let RanT = N
0
and let T
0
: M N
0
be an operator such that
its action coincides with the action of T. By the open mapping
theorem, the image of the unit ball, T
0
(B
1
(M)), contains some
ball of radius > 0 in N
0
. Therefore, for each y N
0
, one can
nd some x M such that T
0
x = y and x
1
y. One
has
_
_
T
0
y
_
_
2
=
_
_
y, T
0
T
0
y)
_
_
y
_
_
T
0
T
0
y
_
_
,
Hilbert C*modules
Proof (continued)
hence
y
2
= T
0
x, y) = x, T
0
y) x T
0
y
1
y y
1/2
T
0
T
0
y
1/2
,
Whence
y
2
_
_
T
0
T
0
y
_
_
for any y N
0
.
Let us show that the spectrum of the operator T
0
T
0
does not
contain the origin. Suppose the opposite, i.e. that
0 Sp(T
0
T
0
). Let f be a continuous function on R such that
f (0) = 1 = f  , f (t ) = 0 if [t [
1
2
2
.
Using functional calculus in the C
algebra End
A
(M), we dene
the operator S End
A
(M) by the formula S = f (T
0
T
0
).
Hilbert C*modules
Proof (continued)
Then S = 1 and
_
_
T
0
T
0
S
_
_
1
2
2
.
Choose x M such that x = 1 and Sx >
1
2
. Then the
inequality
T
0
T
0
Sx
1
2
2
<
2
Sx
contradicts the assumption (with y = Sx).
So 0 / Sp(T
0
T
0
).
Therefore T
0
T
0
is invertible and, in particular, surjective, so, for
any z M, one can nd w N
0
such that T
0
z = T
0
T
0
w.
Then z T
0
w Ker T.
Hilbert C*modules
Proof (end)
Since z T
0
w Ker T,
z = (z T
0
w) + T
0
w Ker T + RanT
0
.
Since RanT
0
is obviously orthogonal to Ker T, it is a
complement for Ker T. This completes the proof of orthogonal
complementability for Ker T.
Now pass to RanT.
Since M = Ker T RanT
0
, the submodule RanT
0
is closed.
Note that RanT
0
= RanT
RanT.
Hilbert C*modules
Corollaries
Corollary
If P End
A
(M) is an idempotent, then RanP is an orthogonally
complemented submodule in M.
Corollary
Let M, N be Hilbert Amodules and let F : M N be a
topologically injective (i.e. Fx x for some > 0 and for
all x M ) adjointable operator, then F(M) F(M)
= N.
Corollary
Let M be a Hilbert Amodule and let J End
A
(M) be
topologically injective and selfadjoint. Then J is an
isomorphism.
Hilbert C*modules
More Corollaries
Lemma
Let M be a nitely generated submodule in a Hilbert C
module
N over a unital C
: N A
n
acting by the formula
F
(x) = (x
1
, x), . . . , x
n
, x)), where x N.
By the previous Theorem, RanF = M is an orthogonal direct
summand.
Hilbert C*modules
When a projection is adjointable
Proposition
Let A be a unital C
algebra, l
2
(A) = M N, P : l
2
(A) M a
projection and N a nitely generated projective module. Then
l
2
(A) = M M
exists, then (1 P)
= 1 P
+ M
.
By the Kasparov stabilization theorem, one can assume,
without loss of generality, that
N = Span
A
e
1
, . . . , e
n
), N
= Span
A
e
n+1
, e
n+2
, . . . ).
Hilbert C*modules
Proof (continued)
Let g
i
be the image of e
i
under the projection onto M
:
e
1
= f
1
+ g
1
, . . . , e
n
= f
n
+ g
n
, f
i
M, g
i
M
.
Since the projection induces an isomorphism of Amodules
N
= M
, the elements g
1
, . . . , g
n
are free generators and
g
k
, g
k
) > 0 (i. e. the spectrum of this positive operator is
separated from 0 and hence it is invertible).
So, if f
k
=
i =1
f
i
k
e
i
, then e
k
f
k
k
e
k
=
i =k
f
i
k
e
i
+ g
k
.
On the other hand,
1 = e
k
, e
k
) = f
k
, f
k
) +g
k
, g
k
), 1 (f
k
k
)(f
k
k
)
g
k
, g
k
) > 0,
i.e. the spectrum of the element 1 f
k
k
is separated from the
origin, hence this element is invertible in A,
Hilbert C*modules
Proof (end)
e
k
= (1 f
k
k
)
1
_
i =k
f
i
k
e
i
+ g
k
_
N
+ M
(k = 1, . . . , n),
thus N
+ M
= l
2
(A).
Let x N
.
Consider the map Q =
_
1 on N
0 on M
, which is a bounded
projection, since l
2
(A) = N
.
Let x + y M N, x
1
+ y
1
N
. Then
P(x + y), x
1
+ y
1
) = x, x
1
+ y
1
) = x, x
1
),
x + y, Q(x
1
+ y
1
)) = x + y, x
1
) = x, x
1
).
Therefore P
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