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Introduction

Partex Group is among the large Bangladesh private sector manufacturing and service based enterprises, owning and operating over twenty units giving value for money to all customers. The group started modestly in 1959 in tobacco trading and with prudent entrepreneurship of our Founder Chairman Mr. M.A. Hashem today we have a stake in tobacco, food, water, soft drinks, steel container, edible oil, wooden board, furniture, cotton yarn and the IT sector. Today the group has over twenty family owned private limited companies with a sizable turnover. Ours is a dynamic organization always exploring new ideas and avenues to expand and grow further. Partex is an agro-based substitute of wood. Through the continuous improvement of production process, Partex has been producing its products for the last 40 years. It preserves timber resources and provides a product of excellent properties, cheap and eco-friendly. Particle board has proved to be superior in may respects to natural timber. Of the whole gamut of raw materials used, none has proved as versatile as jute stalks the parent raw material of Partex boards. The boards are produced in a modern and highly sophisticated automatic plant. In structure, Partex is a homogenous board of great mechanical strength. The products can withstand all seasonal changes and also resist termite and fungus attack. Jute stalks are chipped, milled, conditioned and glued forming a composite workable slab, which take final shape of boards under heat and pressure. Partex Board is basically a substitute of sawn and sized timber and therefore, prevents deforestation, thus strengthening the ecological balance. Our products offer multiple choices in Plain, Ply, Veneered and Vinyl boards of various sizes and combinations for use in interior decoration, furniture, door and door frames, partitions, false ceilings, shelves and panels for the home, office and commercial establishment. Now Partex produces Woodex from hard wood chips and offers three types of woodex boards in Plain, Veneered and Vinyl boards

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Product
Long before environment came to dominate the development agenda, Star Particle Board Mills in the sixties pioneered an eco-friendly industry to reduce pressure on our scarce forest recourses. It is a unique combination of environmental protection and commerce; belaying most doomsayers who claim the two to be at odds. The one score and ten year successful perpetuation of our timber substitute products not only speak volumes of the foresight of Partex's founders but also of their vision of the future. We make particle board from agro-waste, mostly jute stalks, and ensure greater value to the jute growers of Bangladesh. Our products are processed using modern technology to produce homogenous and strong particle boards those can withstand seasonal change and are free from termite and fungal attack. These particle boards go on to produce veneered boards of various designs and textures. Also door panel both plain and decorative in various finishes and sizes. In addition, we produce special furniture boards, stylish furniture and even various plywoods on our range of products. So the Final Product is: Plain Board Laminated Board Veneered Board Formica Paste Board

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Operation Department

Basic Operation department for producing Particle Board are as follows: Production Department Maintenance Department o Electrical Department o Mechanical Department Procurement Department Quality Control Department

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Value Added Process


INPUT RAW MATERIALS: Basic 2 raw materials are using in this plant Wood- Kodom, Chatiyani, Chambol, Betol o Moisture of wood must be about 40-80%. o Density of wood is 400-650 kg/m3. o Wood property is soft & compressibility. o High Moisture produce fiber & low moisture produce dust. Resin- Thermosetting resin (UF resin) o Urea o Formaldehyde o Solid content 58-65%, we use 59% (for ERZ resin). o Solid content for our resin plant is 62%.

MACHINES: A full process industry.

LABOR: Near about 80 manpower in necessary for running 24 hours as 3 shift basis.

MANAGEMENT: A complete management is needed for control the process.

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Transformation Process
CHIPPING SECTION: With the help of crane, the log wood are placed in the Chain drive and then woods pass through Belt drive, then vibrating conveyer and finally with the help of Teeth Roller, log woods enter into Hoggar or Chipping machine. No. of Teeth roller 6. Power of Main Motor 75 kw & rpm is 1480. RPM of Chipper drum with knives is 720. No of blade-2 in chipping machine. Size of blade- 575175 or 18516mm Cutting edge angle 32 degree. Angle measured by Bevel protector. Gap between knife edge and pressure bar is about 1.1-1.3 mm Distance of knife edge from a selected base is 225 mm. Size of chips-length 2-3 cm, width 1.5-2cm, height 3-5mm Then via Screw conveyer and Belt conveyer, chips enter into wet silo-1. Capacity of wet silo-125 tons/ 250m3. And height of wet silo 100 ft.

FLAKING SECTION: Manufacturer : HOMBAK. From wet silo-1, chips come through a screw conveyer. At the end of screw conveyer there is a Magnet to hold scrap iron, to reduce accident in flaking m/c. Then via Belt drive chips enter into flaking m/c. There are two knife rings rotating at opposite direction with respect to each other. No of blade in knife are 42 and rotate clockwise direction. It is also called Outer ring.
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RPM of outer ring is 50. Cutting edge angle of knives 39 degree. But theoretically 40.5 degree. No of blade in counter knife are 18 and rotate anticlockwise direction. It is also called Impeller. RPM of impeller is 850. Cutting edge angle of counter knives 90 degree Gap between knife and counter knife is 1.55 mm (Theoretically 1 mm). Parts of knife ring: Knife, Wear plate, Knife holder. Gap between knife & wear plate Approx. 2.00 mm. Blades of knife ring change in every 12 hours. Blades of counter knife ring change according to necessity. After flaking chips enter into wet silo-2 via screw conveyer and Bucket elevator. Capacity of wet silo 75 tons./150 m3 Total chips receiving speed by Flaker is 12 ton/hour. So that if we set the speed @ 40%, then we get 4.8 ton/hour. Same as for 50% speed we get 6 ton/hour. Wood length after flaking is 1.5 to 4.5 mm. Maximum regrinding- 60mm Smallest permissible knife width-40mm.

DRYING SECTION: Following information is about drying section of PB plant, unit-2 From wet silo-2, chips enter into Dryer via screw conveyer. Dryer Manufacturer: TEXPAN. Water evaporation 3700 kg/hr max. Initial water content- 80% max. If we set the speed of incoming chips as 2, then it means dryer receives 2 ton chips per hour theoretically but practically it receives twice than the set value means 4 tons/hour for speed 2. Similarly if we set 2.4 speed, then we get 4.8 ton/hour chips. Dryer inlet temperature is about 400-500 degree Celsius. Dryer outlet temperature is about 120-130 degree Celsius.
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Burner temperature is about 1400-1800 degree Celsius. Maximum indicated Gas pressure 400 milibar. Moisture of chips after drying is about 1-2%. If there is fire in dryer (in normal case) o Switch off dryer inlet (Air lock). o Switch off dryer outlet (FD fan).

Through Discharge Blower dried chips enter into the vibrating screen

GRADING/SCREENING: Following information is about screening section of PB plant, unit-2 After drying chips enter into vibrating screen via screw conveyer and rotary valve and divided into 4 parts. Screen area per deck 75 m2 No. of deck 3. In first deck no. of mesh 2.5 in 1 inch, 2nd deck: 16-20 mesh in 1 inch., 3rd deck : 70-80 mesh in 1 inch. 10*10mm go to Hammer Mill, 4*4mm go to Air grader to CL And Refining mill to SL., 0.2*0.2mm go to SL, Dust go to Dust Silo. Bigger chips pass through Hammer Mill, then Fine Grade Mill and finally SL and CL silo. Medium chips pass through Air grader to CL & fine grade mill to SL silo. Screen in Refining mill is called Condour Screen. Perfect size surface chips enter directly to SL silo. Dust enters into Dust Silo. No. of Blade in Hammer Mill No. of blade in Fine Grade mill is 20. No. of Grinding Track in fine grade mill is 40. Hammer & Refining Mill Manufacturer: PALLMANN. Capacity of SL & CL silo is 45 tons each.
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BLENDING/ CHEMICAL SECTION: Glue Section Manufacturer: IMAL. In this section surface and core chips are mixed with glue in blender. The rating of SL blender motor is 40-50 amp. The rating of CL blender motor is 40-48 amp. If this motor rating is over 60 amp, then both motor tripped at that moment. All pump for glue transfer is Gear type pump. The % of chips through dosing belt or dosing belt speed (is about 10-15% which is indicated in the C.R.) Water used in SL only. There is a cooling machine (Chiller) for establishing a constant operating temperature for the glue blenders. Its Capacity 30000 Kcal/hr.

Preparation of Base Glue Powder resin- 425 kg or 17 bags. Water- 280- 290 kg Liquid resin- 250-500-750 kg Urea- 10 kg Solid content is 59or58%.

Testing of Base glue/Quality control of base glueo Flow Time: 20-22 sec o Gel Time: 70-80 sec

Preparation of Glue/batch for SL: Base glue (59%)80 lt. 62 % for our resin. Wax emulsion (35%)10 lt. Hardener Solution, Ammonium Chloride (20%)1-2.5 lt. COPAS(Borax & Boric Acid) (30%)500 ml Hexamine300 gm.
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Preparation of Glue/batch for CL: Base glue (59%)80 lt. 62 % for our resin. Wax emulsion (35%)6 lt. Hardener Solution, Ammonium Chloride (20%)2.5-6.0 lt. COPAS(Borax & Boric Acid) (30%)500 ml

Quality Test Gel Time for Base Glue: 70-80 sec Gel Time for SL glue: 200-250 sec/ 100-150 for own. Gel Time for CL glue: 60-65 sec Preparation of Wax emulsion/batch: Paraffin Wax: 300 kg Water : 600 kg Stearic Acid : 25 kg Ammonium Hydroxide: 16 lt. Concentration : 33% During preparation, tempr of vessel remain in 800C and pH of wax emulsion remains 10. And Pressure @ 5 bar.

Preparation of Hardener solution: Ammonium Chloride: 25 kg Water : 100 kg Concentration: 20%.

Preparation of COPAS solution: COPAS (Borax and Boric Acid): 3 lt. Water: 7 lt. Concentration: 30%.

Function of Different Chemicals used in making Particle Board: UF Resin--Act as a binder.


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Paraffin Wax--Water repellent affect, for smooth surfaces of board, to reduce board burst etc. Ammonium ChlorideUF resin hardener; reduce Gel time. HexamineTo control reaction of Hardener. COPAS/DurshbanTo protect board from Fungus & Insect attack. Stearic AcidAdded to binder for pH control Ammonium HydroxideFor pH control.

MATFORMING After blending a cake of chips are made in mat forming machine. From blender resinated chips pass through Belt conveyer to feeding belt conveyer. Then from feeding belt conveyer chips enter into Distributor belt, which distribute chips in the dosing belt. Combs rotation made a uniform distribution of chips on the dosing belt. Manufacturer of M/F m/c is TEXPAN, and it is a Air Spreading Mat Forming System., Its working width is 2510 mm. There are 09 nos. Synthetic Belt for Mat forming. Mat height on forming belt : Board thickness*2.5 For 18 mm board the dosing belt speed is 0.94 m/min. A pinned roller distributes chips from dosing belt to mat forming belt. The speed of mat forming m/c for 18/17 mm board is 2.93 m/min. The speed of mat forming m/c is measured by- the minutes required to move the mat forming m/c @ a distance of 2 meter. So the unit is m/min. There are 3600 nozzles on the upper portion of the mat forming m/c. Top bottom ratio is 48/52 % CL moisture is about 8-8.5% SL moisture is about 12-13% MAT moisture is about 9-9.5%. SL-55% & CL-45% in the MAT for 18 mm board.

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PRESSING Thickness of distance bar= board thickness+14**or13mm+1.5mm Total no of valve-14. Y-19&20- Pressure release valve. Y-22&23- Compensating valve. Y-16&18- Break valve. Y-25- Open filling valve. Y-27- Separating valve. Y-31- Press Lift. Y-32- Pressure build up. Y-33- Improve and press bring back. Y-36&37-Pump Swiveling. Total no of hydraulic cylinder or Piston-12. Dia = 600mm. Temp. of Thermal Boiler must not exceed 240 degree C. Hot Press Manufacturer : SIEMPELKAMP. Single day light hot press. Day light clearance = 300mm. Size of Hot plate (2870*10075)mm and (2870*10125)mm. No. of jack rams = 4. Sp. pressure = 430 N/cm2. Total pressing force= 108556 N. Heating Medium Thermal Oil. Max. Heating Medium Temp. = 190 degree C. Max. heating medium pressure = 5 kg/ cm2. Operating Pressure is 320 bar & for this sp. pressure 42 kg/ cm2. Similarly for 280 bar pressure sp. pressure is 38 kg/ cm2 Ram speed is 30 mm/sec both for opening & closing. Radial piston pump used for building high pressure.

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SANDING(Manufacturer-Steinemann)

Tension Roller Guide Roller

Contact Drum

Fig: Head (Single Head) of Sanding m/c.

The distance between guide rollers must be excess than the distance between contact drum, so that only contact drums perform sanding operation. Grid means no. of abrasive chips/mm2. Oscillation distance is 20-25 mm. Oscillation Pressure is 4 bar = 60-85 psi. Cutting speed @ 1st head is 24-26 m/min, but better is 15. Cutting speed @ 2nd is 60 m/min. Air pressure @ upper tension roller is 2.5 bar. Air pressure @ lower tension roller is 1.1 bar.
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Conveying Roller

The temperature of board must be about 30-40 degree before sanding operation. Boards are sanding minimum 3 days later after manufacturing. The sanding operation is done by 50 grit, 80 grit, 120 grit, and 150 grit sanding paper respectively.

OTHER SECTIONS

Weighing: - The weight of total board (328) is measuring here.


Measurement of full size board- 2520mm*9895mm. (83*324)

Cooling: A Star wheel is used for this purpose. Can storage 6 boards, turning of board by 1800CW. Temperature of board after cooling is about 45 degree.

Sizing: This is done by some diamond edge circular disk saw. Size of each board is 1220*2440 mm. Diagonal distance of board is 2730mm. Name of Saws are-Cutting (centre divide), Knife (side) also called trimming saw, Cross (for individual pcs cutting).

Staking
Capacity 5000 kg. Platform Size- 1200*4800mm.

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VARIABLE PARAMETERS FOR DIFFERENT BOARD THICKNESS: Board Thickness (mm) Parameter Weight Density Raw Board Thickness Pressing Pressure* Total Cycle time* 4-Corner Time* Top Platen Temp.* Bottom Platen Temp.* Dosing Belt Speed* Mat forming m/c Speed* Bar Thickness Unit kg kg/m3 mm bar Sec Sec Degree C. Degree C. m/min m/min mm 12 27/28 700 13.1 280* 230 44 174 182 0.93 3.68 26.5 16 34 670 17.2 280* 260 45 173 182 1.14 3.20 29.5 17 37 650 18.2 280* 300 58/60 174 183 0.94 2.98* 31.5 18 38 650 19.2 280* 300 58/60 174 183 0.84 2.95* 33.5* * kg/min Material Flow(SL/CL)* Glue Flow (SL/CL)* Mat height on Dosing Belt Mat Thickness Oil Temp. % l/kg % mm mm Degree C. 225 230 230 230 230 36/24 60/40 19/15 35/32 52/48 19/15 31/25 55/45 18/14 37/30 55/45 19/14 100 34/36 49/51* 20/15 25 48 620 26.3 280* 350 65 174 184 1.04 2.60 39.5

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Boiler Temp. (variable)*

Degree C.

224

225

222-230

223*

220-230

The point * indicate, the value may be changed during time to time

QUALITY CONTROL Test Name Modulus of Elasticity* Screw Holding Tensile Strength* Surface Soundness* Bending Strength Moisture Test Log Wood After Drying Before Glue Mixing SL After Glue Mixing Mat Moisture Before Powder resin mixing Flow Time of Base Glue Gel Time Base Glue Glue for SL Glue for CL Raw Board Thickness Finished Board Density *, Not too much necessary. Sec Sec Sec mm mm kg/m3 70-80 200-250 60-65 Set 1 Set +0.8-0.2 650-700 After Powder resin mixing CL Unit N/mm2 N N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 % % % % % % Sec Sec Standard Value 1700 700 but 1000+ 0.34 0.75 13.8 but 18+ 40-80 1-2 2-3 12-13 8-8.5 9-9.5 20-22 40-42

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Output
Finished Plain Board, from which following product can be produced: Melamine Faced Chip Board Veneered Board Formica Paste Board Doors

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Interaction of other Dept. with Operation Department


MARKETING Marketing department is the heart of any organization. Here they analysis market strategy and fix up the target. According to their requirement production target is to be set. HRM Human resources department is very important because they worked for any related job from recruitment to retirement of any manpower. FINANCE Financial managers actively manage the financial affairs of any type of business- financial and non financial, private and public, large and small, profit- seeking and not- for- profit. They perform such varied financial tasks as planning, extending credit to customers, evaluating proposed large expenditure and raising money to fund the firms operations.

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Scope of Function of Operation Manager


The scope of operations manager ranges across the organization. Operations manager are involved in product and service design, process selection, selection and management of technology, design of work systems, location planning, facilities planning, and quality improvement of the organizations products or services. The operations function includes many interrelated activities, such as forecasting, capacity planning, scheduling, managing inventories, assuring quality, motivating employees, deciding where to locate facilities, and more. In a Particle Board Plant most of the activities performed by manager and employees fall into the realm of operations management: Forecasting such things as product demand by consumer, availability of raw material, weather condition (Moisture in weather) etc. Capacity planning, take right decision when to increase price of raw material or decrease. Scheduling of production and for routine maintenance; scheduling of labor attendants; and scheduling of raw material receiving. Managing inventories of such items as product, first-aid equipment, raw material, maintenance equipment etc. Assuring quality, is the first because it is impossible to produce good furniture without good quality board.. Motivating and training employees in all phases of operations. Locating facilities according to managers decisions on which purpose boards are producing for for, where to locate maintenance facilities, and where to locate major and minor breakdown.

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