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_{C}_{a}_{l}_{l} No. I'* ' ^
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Author
Title
U _{>} _{x}_{.}_{V}_{\} _{x}
"
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*
This book should be returned on or _{b}_{e}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{d}_{a}_{t}_{e}
_{l}_{a}_{s}_{^} _{m}_{a}_{r}_{k}_{e}_{d} bclo*v.
ELEMENTS OF _{A}_{L}_{G}_{E}_{B}_{R}_{A}
THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY
NKVV YORK  BOSTON _{C}_{H}_{I}_{C}_{A}_{G}_{O}
_{P}_{A}_{I}_{}_{I}_{.}_{A}_{S}
SAN FRANCISCO
THE MACMILLAN MACMILLAN CO. & _{C}_{O}_{,} OF _{C}_{A}_{N}_{A}_{D}_{A}_{,} LIMITKU LTD.
LONDON HOMBAY CALCUTTA
MELUCK'KNK
TORONTO
ELEMENTS OF _{A}_{L}_{G}_{E}_{B}_{R}_{A}
BY
ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE, PH.D.
FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR _{O}_{F} _{M}_{A}_{T}_{H}_{E}_{M}_{A}_{T}_{I}_{C}_{S}_{,} _{N}_{K}_{W} YORK ITNIVEKSITT
_{H}_{E}_{A}_{D} OF THK _{M}_{A}_{T}_{H}_{E}_{M}_{A}_{T}_{I}_{C}_{A}_{L} DKI'AKTMENT, HIH
SCHOOL OF _{C}_{O}_{M}_{M}_{E}_{R}_{C}_{E}_{,} NEW 1 ORK CUT
_{T}_{H}_{E} MACMILLAN COMPANY
1917
_{A}_{l}_{l} _{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t}_{s} reserved
COPYRIGHT, _{1}_{9}_{1}_{0}_{,}
BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.
September, 1910 ; _{J}_{a}_{n}_{u}_{a}_{r}_{y}_{,} 1911; July, IQJS ; February, _{R}_{e}_{p}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{d} 1913,'
Set up and electrotyped.
Published _{M}_{a}_{y}_{,} 1910.
_{J}_{a}_{n}_{u}_{a}_{r}_{y}_{,} 1915; _{M}_{a}_{y}_{,} September, 1916; August, 1917.
. _{J}_{.} 8. _{C}_{u}_{s}_{h}_{l}_{n}_{g} Co.
Berwick & Smith Co.
Norwood, _{M}_{a}_{s}_{s}_{.}_{,} U.S.A.
PREFACE
IN _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{b}_{o}_{o}_{k} the _{a}_{t}_{t}_{e}_{m}_{p}_{t} is made to shorten the usual course
_{t}_{o} in _{i}_{t}_{s} algebra, _{p}_{e}_{c}_{u}_{l}_{i}_{a}_{r} while _{a}_{i}_{m}_{,} still _{h}_{a}_{s} giving certain to distinctive the student _{f}_{e}_{a}_{t}_{u}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{,} complete chief familiarity _{a}_{m}_{o}_{n}_{g}
with all the essentials of the _{s}_{u}_{b}_{j}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{.} While in _{m}_{a}_{n}_{y} _{r}_{e}_{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{s}
_{s}_{i}_{m}_{i}_{l}_{a}_{r} to the author's "Elementary Algebra," this book, _{o}_{w}_{i}_{n}_{g}
which are the following :
1. All _{u}_{n}_{n}_{e}_{c}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{a}_{r}_{y} methods and "cases" are omitted. These
omissions serve not _{o}_{n}_{l}_{y} _{p}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} but distinctly pedagogic
_{h}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{,} ends. Until not _{o}_{n}_{l}_{y} _{r}_{e}_{c}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{l}_{y} taxes the a tendency student's was _{m}_{e}_{m}_{o}_{r}_{y} to multiply _{u}_{n}_{d}_{u}_{l}_{y} but " cases" inva and ingenuity is neglected.
Typical in this respect is the
_{r}_{u}_{l}_{e}_{s}_{,} while the cultivation of _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{'}_{s} _{r}_{e}_{a}_{s}_{o}_{n}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{p}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{r}
of _{a}_{l}_{g}_{e}_{b}_{r}_{a} becomes a mechanical _{a}_{p}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} of memorized
_{r}_{i}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{y} _{l}_{e}_{a}_{d}_{s} to mechanical modes of _{s}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{y}_{.} The entire _{s}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{y}
as far as _{p}_{o}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{,} in order to make every example a _{s}_{o}_{c}_{i}_{a}_{l}
case of _{a} memorized method. Such a _{l}_{a}_{r}_{g}_{e} number of _{m}_{e}_{t}_{h}_{o}_{d}_{s}_{,}
advanced work are given, but "cases" that In are this taught book _{o}_{n}_{l}_{y} all
treatment of _{f}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{o}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{g} in _{m}_{a}_{n}_{y} textbooks
methods which are of real _{v}_{a}_{l}_{u}_{e}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d} which are _{a}_{p}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{e}_{d} in
on account of _{t}_{r}_{a}_{d}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{,} shortcuts that solve _{o}_{n}_{l}_{y} _{e}_{x}_{a}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e}_{s}
_{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y} manufactured for this _{p}_{u}_{r}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{e}_{,} _{e}_{t}_{c}_{.}_{,} are omitted.
2. All parts of the theory whicJi are _{b}_{e}_{y}_{o}_{n}_{d} the comprehension
_{o}_{f} the student or wliicli are _{l}_{o}_{g}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y} unsound are omitted.
All
_{p}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} _{t}_{e}_{a}_{c}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{s} know how few _{s}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} understand and
_{a}_{p}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{a}_{t}_{e} the more difficult _{p}_{a}_{r}_{t}_{s} of the _{t}_{h}_{e}_{o}_{r}_{y}_{,} and conse
vi
PREFACE
quently _{h}_{a}_{r}_{d}_{l}_{y} ever emphasize the theoretical _{a}_{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{t} of alge
of bra. the Moreover, _{p}_{r}_{o}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{t} of a two great negative deal of numbers, the _{t}_{h}_{e}_{o}_{r}_{y} all offered _{e}_{l}_{e}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{r}_{y} in the _{p}_{r}_{o}_{o}_{f}_{s} aver
_{a}_{g}_{e} textbook is _{l}_{o}_{g}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y} unsound _{;} _{e}_{.}_{g}_{.} all _{p}_{r}_{o}_{o}_{f}_{s} for the _{s}_{i}_{g}_{n}
of _{t}_{h}_{e} _{b}_{i}_{n}_{o}_{m}_{i}_{a}_{l} theorem for fractional _{e}_{x}_{p}_{o}_{n}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s}_{,} _{e}_{t}_{c}_{.}
3. TJie exercises are _{s}_{l}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t}_{l}_{y} _{s}_{i}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e}_{r} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{n} _{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{l}_{a}_{r}_{g}_{e}_{r} _{l}_{o}_{o}_{k}_{.}
The best _{w}_{a}_{y} to introduce a _{b}_{e}_{g}_{i}_{n}_{n}_{e}_{r} to a new _{t}_{o}_{p}_{i}_{c} _{i}_{s} _{t}_{o} _{o}_{f}_{f}_{e}_{r} of more difficult _{w}_{o}_{r}_{k}_{.} _{W}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{v}_{e}_{r}_{y} few _{e}_{x}_{c}_{e}_{p}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} all _{t}_{h}_{e} _{e}_{x}_{e}_{r}
the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance _{g}_{r}_{a}_{p}_{h}_{s}_{,} _{b}_{r}_{a}_{"}_{;} hence are _{p}_{l}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{d} either early _{b}_{o}_{o}_{k} in _{m}_{a}_{y} the be course. _{u}_{s}_{e}_{d} to This _{s}_{u}_{p}_{p}_{l}_{e}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t} arrangement the _{o}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{.} will
Lim a _{l}_{a}_{r}_{g}_{e} number of _{s}_{i}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e} exercises. For _{t}_{h}_{e} _{m}_{o}_{r}_{e} _{a}_{m}_{b}_{i}_{}
tious _{s}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{,} _{h}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{,} there has been _{p}_{l}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{d} at the end of
cises in this book _{d}_{i}_{f}_{f}_{e}_{r} from those in the _{"}_{E}_{l}_{e}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{r}_{y} _{A}_{l}_{g}_{e}_{}
4.
Topics ofpractical _{i}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{r}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{,} as quadratic equations and
_{e}_{n}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e} _{s}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} who can _{d}_{e}_{v}_{o}_{t}_{e} _{o}_{n}_{l}_{y} a minimum of time to
algebra to _{s}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{y} those subjects which are of such importance
for further work.
In _{r}_{e}_{g}_{a}_{r}_{d} to some other features of the book, the following
_{m}_{a}_{y} _{b}_{e} _{q}_{u}_{o}_{t}_{e}_{d} from _{t}_{h}_{e} author's _{"}_{E}_{l}_{e}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{r}_{y} _{A}_{l}_{g}_{e}_{b}_{r}_{a}_{"}_{:}
"Particular care has been bestowed _{u}_{p}_{o}_{n} those _{c}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{s}
_{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h} _{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{u}_{s}_{t}_{o}_{m}_{a}_{r}_{y} _{c}_{o}_{u}_{r}_{s}_{e}_{s} _{o}_{f}_{f}_{e}_{r} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{g}_{r}_{e}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{s}_{t} difficulties to
The presen
the beginner, especially problems and factoring. _{i}_{s}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{d}_{i}_{f}_{f}_{i}_{c}_{u}_{l}_{t}_{y} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{t}_{o}_{p}_{i}_{c} for _{y}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{g} students.
_{j}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{,} and it is _{h}_{o}_{p}_{e}_{d} that this treatment will _{m}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y} dimin
"The book is _{d}_{e}_{s}_{i}_{g}_{n}_{e}_{d} to meet the requirements for admis
sion to our best universities and colleges, in particular the
requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board.
This made it _{n}_{e}_{c}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{a}_{r}_{y} to introduce the theory of proportions
quite a _{d}_{e}_{p}_{a}_{r}_{t}_{u}_{r}_{e} from the customary way of treating the sub
tation of problems as given in Chapter V will be found to be
PREFACE
_{v}_{i}_{i}
and _{g}_{r}_{a}_{p}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} methods into the first _{y}_{e}_{a}_{r}_{'}_{s} _{w}_{o}_{r}_{k}_{,} an innovation needed, viz. in geometry ; while in the usual course proportions
are " studied Graphical a long methods time after have their not only principal a great application. practical value,
_{s}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{t} will be able to utilize _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{k}_{n}_{o}_{w}_{l}_{e}_{d}_{g}_{e} _{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{i}_{t} _{i}_{s} _{m}_{o}_{s}_{t}
" _{B}_{y} _{s}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{y}_{i}_{n}_{g} proportions during the first _{y}_{e}_{a}_{r}_{'}_{s} _{w}_{o}_{r}_{k}_{,} the
of view.
_{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h} _{s}_{e}_{e}_{m}_{s} to mark _{a} distinct _{g}_{a}_{i}_{n} _{f}_{r}_{o}_{m} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{p}_{e}_{d}_{a}_{g}_{o}_{g}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}
but cal _{a}_{p}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} they unquestionably of memorized furnish rules.' a very This good _{t}_{o}_{p}_{i}_{c} antidote _{h}_{a}_{s} been against _{p}_{r}_{e}_{} a shorter course _{m}_{a}_{y} omit _{t}_{h}_{e}_{s}_{e} _{c}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{.}_{"}
Applications taken from _{g}_{e}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{y}_{,} physics, and commercial
_{l}_{i}_{f}_{e} _{a}_{r}_{e} _{n}_{u}_{m}_{e}_{r}_{o}_{u}_{s}_{,} but the true _{s}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{y} of _{a}_{l}_{g}_{e}_{b}_{r}_{a} has not been
sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham
_{g}_{r}_{a}_{p}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} _{m}_{e}_{t}_{h}_{o}_{d}_{s} has been so _{a}_{r}_{r}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{e}_{d} that _{t}_{e}_{a}_{c}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{s} who wish
provements upon the prevailing methods. The entire work in
of the _{m}_{o}_{d}_{e}_{s} of _{r}_{e}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{g}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{n} will _{b}_{e} considered im
sented in a simple, elementary way, and it is hoped that some
'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechani
It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student than when the arrangement is based principally upon the alge
braic _{a}_{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{t} of the problem.
hence the student is more _{e}_{a}_{s}_{i}_{l}_{y} led to do the work _{b}_{y} rote
_{f}_{r}_{e}_{q}_{u}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{l}_{y} _{a}_{r}_{r}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{e}_{d} in sets that are algebraically uniform, and
_{M}_{o}_{r}_{e}_{o}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{,} _{s}_{u}_{c}_{h} _{e}_{x}_{a}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e}_{s}_{,} _{b}_{a}_{s}_{e}_{d} _{u}_{p}_{o}_{n} statistical _{a}_{b}_{s}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{s}_{,} are
applications.
to solve a _{p}_{r}_{o}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{m} that results in the height of Mt. McKinley
than _{o}_{n}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{g}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{s} him the _{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r} of _{H}_{e}_{n}_{r}_{y}_{'}_{s} marbles. But
on the other hand _{v}_{e}_{r}_{y} few of such _{a}_{p}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{e}_{d} _{e}_{x}_{a}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e}_{s} are
genuine applications of algebra,
nobody would find the length
of the Mississippi or the _{h}_{e}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} of Mt. Etna by such a method,
_{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{y} _{u}_{s}_{u}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y} _{i}_{n}_{v}_{o}_{l}_{v}_{e} _{d}_{i}_{f}_{f}_{i}_{c}_{u}_{l}_{t} _{n}_{u}_{m}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} calculations.
_{v}_{i}_{i}_{i}
PREFACE
It is true that _{p}_{r}_{o}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{m}_{s} _{r}_{e}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} to _{p}_{h}_{y}_{s}_{i}_{c}_{s} often offer a field
_{f}_{o}_{r} _{g}_{e}_{n}_{u}_{i}_{n}_{e} _{a}_{p}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} ofalgebra. The _{a}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{g}_{e} _{p}_{u}_{p}_{i}_{l}_{'}_{s} knowl teacher of algebra.
_{s}_{u}_{c}_{h} _{p}_{r}_{o}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{m}_{s} involves as a rule the _{t}_{e}_{a}_{c}_{h}_{i}_{n}_{g} of _{p}_{h}_{y}_{s}_{i}_{c}_{s} _{b}_{y} the The author desires to _{a}_{c}_{k}_{n}_{o}_{w}_{l}_{e}_{d}_{g}_{e} his indebtedness to Mr. NEW YORK,
for _{m}_{a}_{n}_{y} valuable suggestions.
_{e}_{d}_{g}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{p}_{h}_{y}_{s}_{i}_{c}_{s}_{,} _{h}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{,} is so _{s}_{m}_{a}_{l}_{l} that an extensive _{u}_{s}_{e} of
Hence the field of genuine applications of _{e}_{l}_{e}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{r}_{y} algebra
_{s}_{u}_{i}_{t}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{s}_{e}_{c}_{o}_{n}_{d}_{a}_{r}_{y} _{s}_{c}_{h}_{o}_{o}_{l} work _{s}_{e}_{e}_{m}_{s} to have certain limi
tations, but within these limits the author has attempted to
give as _{m}_{a}_{n}_{y} simple applied examples as possible.
_{W}_{i}_{l}_{l}_{i}_{a}_{m} _{P}_{.} _{M}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{u}_{s}_{e} _{f}_{o}_{r} the careful _{r}_{e}_{a}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{g} of the _{p}_{r}_{o}_{o}_{f}_{s} _{a}_{n}_{d}
_{A}_{R}_{T}_{H}_{U}_{R} _{S}_{C}_{H}_{U}_{L}_{T}_{Z}_{E}_{.}
April, 1910.
CONTENTS
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
_{A}_{l}_{g}_{e}_{b}_{r}_{a}_{i}_{c} Negative Numbers Solution of _{P}_{r}_{o}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{m}_{s}
Numbers represented by Letters Subtraction
Factors, Powers, and Hoots
_{A}_{l}_{g}_{e}_{b}_{r}_{a}_{i}_{c} _{E}_{x}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} and Numerical Substitutions
CHAPTER II
_{A}_{D}_{D}_{I}_{T}_{I}_{O}_{N}_{,} _{S}_{U}_{B}_{T}_{R}_{A}_{C}_{T}_{I}_{O}_{N}_{,} AND PARENTHESES
_{A}_{d}_{d}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} of Monomials
Addition Signs of Aggregation of Polynomials
Exercises in _{A}_{l}_{g}_{e}_{b}_{r}_{a}_{i}_{c} Expression
MULTIPLICATION
CHAPTER III
Multiplication of _{A}_{l}_{g}_{e}_{b}_{r}_{a}_{i}_{c} Numbers
Multiplication of Monomials
_{S}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{a}_{l} Multiplication Multiplication Cases in of of Multiplication a _{P}_{o}_{l}_{y}_{n}_{o}_{m}_{i}_{a}_{l}_{s} Polynomial by a Monomial
DIVISION
CHAPTER IV
Division of Monomials
Division Division of of a a Polynomial _{P}_{o}_{l}_{y}_{n}_{o}_{m}_{i}_{a}_{l} by by a a Monomial Polynomial
_{S}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{a}_{l} _{C}_{a}_{s}_{e}_{s} in Division
ix
_{P}_{A}_{G}_{B}
1
1
10 3
15
15
10
22
27
29
31 31
6
7
34 36
39 35
46
46
47
48
61
X
CONTENTS
CHAPTER _{V}
LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS
Problems Solution of leading Linear to _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} Simple Equations
Symbolical Expressions
,.
CHAPTER VI
FACTORING
Type
I. Polynomials, All of whose Terms contain a Com
mon Factor
_{T}_{y}_{p}_{e} _{T}_{y}_{p}_{e}
_{T}_{y}_{p}_{e} _{T}_{y}_{p}_{e}
_{I}_{I}_{.}
_{I}_{I}_{I}_{.}
_{I}_{V}_{.}
_{V}_{.}
_{T}_{y}_{p}_{e} VI.
_{Q}_{u}_{a}_{d}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{c} Trinomials of _{t}_{h}_{e} _{F}_{o}_{r}_{m} _{x}_{'}_{2} _{}_{f} _{p}_{x} _{}_{f} _{q}
_{Q}_{u}_{a}_{d}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{c} Trinomials _{o}_{f} the _{F}_{o}_{r}_{m}_{p}_{x} 2 _{}_{f} _{q}_{x} _{+} _{r}
The _{S}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{r}_{e} _{o}_{f} a Binomial x2
_{T}_{h}_{e} Difference of Two _{S}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{r}_{e}_{s}
Grouping Terms
_{I}_{x}_{y} _{}_{f}_{/}_{^} .
.
_{S}_{u}_{m}_{m}_{a}_{r}_{y} of Factoring
_{.}
_{.}
.
CHAPTER VII
_{H}_{I}_{G}_{H}_{E}_{S}_{T} _{C}_{O}_{M}_{M}_{O}_{N} _{F}_{A}_{C}_{T}_{O}_{R} AND LOWEST _{C}_{O}_{M}_{M}_{O}_{N} MULTIPLE _{.}
Highest Common Factor
Lowest Common Multiple
FRACTIONS
CHAPTER VIII
_{R}_{e}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} of Fractions
_{A}_{d}_{d}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{S}_{u}_{b}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} of Fractions
Multiplication of Fractions
_{C}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e}_{x} _{D}_{i}_{v}_{i}_{s}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{o}_{f} Fractions Fractions
CHAPTER IX
*
_{,}
*
_{.}
.
FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL _{E}_{Q}_{U}_{A}_{T}_{I}_{O}_{N}_{S}
Literal Equations
Fractional _{P}_{r}_{o}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{m}_{s} _{l}_{e}_{a}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} to _{F}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{a}_{l} and Literal _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}
.
_{P}_{A}_{G}_{E}
_{,}_{6}_{3}
63 _{5}_{5} 67
_{7}_{6}
_{7}_{7}
_{7}_{8}
_{8}_{0}
83
_{8}_{4}
86
87
_{8}_{9}
89
91
93 97 93
105 102
104
108
108
112
.114
CONTENTS
_{X}_{I}
RATIO AND PROPORTION
Ratio
Proportion
CHAPTER _{X}
CHAPTER XI
SIMULTANEOUS _{E}_{Q}_{U}_{A}_{T}_{I}_{O}_{N}_{S} _{O}_{F} _{T}_{H}_{E} FIRST _{D}_{E}_{G}_{R}_{E}_{E}
Elimination _{b}_{y} Addition or _{S}_{u}_{b}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}
Elimination _{b}_{y} Substitution
Literal Simultaneous _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}
Simultaneous _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{i}_{n}_{v}_{o}_{l}_{v}_{i}_{n}_{g} More _{t}_{h}_{a}_{n} _{T}_{w}_{o} _{U}_{n}_{k}_{n}_{o}_{w}_{n} _{G}_{r}_{a}_{p}_{h}_{i}_{c} _{S}_{o}_{l}_{u}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} of _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{i}_{n}_{v}_{o}_{l}_{v}_{i}_{n}_{g} OneUnknown _{Q}_{u}_{a}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{t}_{y}
Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quan
_{R}_{e}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} of Functions of One Variable
Quantities
Problems _{l}_{e}_{a}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{g} to Simultaneous _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}
CHAPTER XII
GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND _{E}_{Q}_{U}_{A}_{T}_{I}_{O}_{N}_{S}
_{.}
.
tities
INVOLUTION
CHAPTER XIII
_{P}_{A}_{G}_{E}
_{1}_{2}_{0}
_{1}_{2}_{0}
121
_{1}_{2}_{9}
_{1}_{3}_{0}
_{1}_{3}_{3} 138
140
_{1}_{4}_{3}
168 148
164
160
_{1}_{6}_{5}
Involution of Monomials 
165 166 

_{I}_{n}_{v}_{o}_{l}_{u}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} of Binomials 

CHAPTER XIV 

EVOLUTION _{E}_{v}_{o}_{l}_{u}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} of Monomials . _{E}_{v}_{o}_{l}_{u}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{o}_{f} _{P}_{o}_{l}_{y}_{n}_{o}_{m}_{i}_{a}_{l}_{s} _{a}_{n}_{d} Arithmetical Numbers CHAPTER XV . 
169 

. 
170 171 

_{Q}_{U}_{A}_{D}_{R}_{A}_{T}_{I}_{C} _{E}_{Q}_{U}_{A}_{T}_{I}_{O}_{N}_{S} INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN _{Q}_{U}_{A}_{N}_{T}_{I}_{T}_{Y} 
_{.} 
1*78 
Pure Quadratic Equations
Problems Complete _{i}_{n}_{v}_{o}_{l}_{v}_{i}_{n}_{g} Quadratic Quadratics Equations
Equations in the Quadratic Form
178
181
189
191
Character of the Roots
193
_{x}_{i}_{i}
CONTENTS
CHAPTER CHAPTER XVII XVI CHAPTER XVIII
CHAPTER XIX
_{T}_{H}_{E} _{T}_{H}_{E}_{O}_{R}_{T} OP EXPONENTS
Fractional Use of _{N}_{e}_{g}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e} and _{N}_{e}_{g}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e} and Fractional _{E}_{x}_{p}_{o}_{n}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} _{E}_{x}_{p}_{o}_{n}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s}
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Radical Equations
Division _{A}_{d}_{d}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} of _{a}_{n}_{d} Radicals Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
_{S}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{r}_{e} Roots of Quadratic Surds
THE FACTOR THEOREM
SIMULTANEOUS _{Q}_{U}_{A}_{D}_{R}_{A}_{T}_{I}_{C} _{E}_{Q}_{U}_{A}_{T}_{I}_{O}_{N}_{S}
I.
II.
III.
IV.
Equations solved by finding x _{+}_{/} and x
One Special _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} Devices Linear, the Other Quadratic
Homogeneous Equations
_{/}
.
.
. .
Interpretation of Negative Results and the Forms i , 
. 

Problems 

CHAPTER XX 

PROGRESSIONS 
. 

Arithmetic Progression 

Infinite Geometric Geometric Progression _{P}_{r}_{o}_{g}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{o}_{n} 

CHAPTER XXI 

BINOMIAL THEOREM _{.} 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
_{P}_{A}_{G}_{K}
195 195
200
205
206 210
.212
.
.
_{.}
_{.}
221 214
218
219
227
234 232
237 232
236
241
243
246
24(j
251
263
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE .
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
_{1}_{.} _{A}_{l}_{g}_{e}_{b}_{r}_{a} _{m}_{a}_{y} be called an extension of _{a}_{r}_{i}_{t}_{h}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{.} Like
_{a}_{r}_{i}_{t}_{h}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{,} it treats of _{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{,} but these _{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r}_{s} are _{f}_{r}_{e}_{}
_{q}_{u}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{l}_{y} _{d}_{e}_{n}_{o}_{t}_{e}_{d} _{b}_{y} _{l}_{e}_{t}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{,} as illustrated in the _{f}_{o}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w}_{i}_{n}_{g}
problem. ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
_{2}_{.} _{P}_{r}_{o}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{m}_{.}
The sum of two numbers is _{4}_{2}_{,} and the _{g}_{r}_{e}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{r}
is five times the smaller. Find the numbers.
'
Let
Then
and and
Therefore,
x the smaller number.
5x= the greater number,
6x
the sum of the two numbers.
6x= 42,
x= _{7}_{,} the smaller number,
5x= 35, the greater number.
3. A problem is a question proposed for solution.
4.
An In algebra, equation problems is a statement are frequently expressing solved the equality by denoting of two
_{6} _{a}_{?} _{=} _{4}_{2}_{.}
quantities; as,
5.
numbers _{b}_{y} letters _{a}_{n}_{d} _{b}_{y} _{e}_{x}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{n}_{g} the _{p}_{r}_{o}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{m} in the form
of an equation.
6. Unknown numbers are _{u}_{s}_{u}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y} represented by the last
letters of the _{a}_{l}_{p}_{h}_{a}_{b}_{e}_{t} _{;} _{a}_{s}_{,} _{x}_{,} _{y}_{,} _{z}_{,} but sometimes other letters
are employed.
B
1
2
ELEMENTS _{O}_{F} _{A}_{L}_{G}_{E}_{B}_{R}_{A}
EXERCISE _{1}
Solve algebraically the following _{p}_{r}_{o}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{m}_{s} :
_{1}_{.} The sum of two _{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r}_{s} _{i}_{s} _{4}_{0}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{g}_{r}_{e}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{r} _{i}_{s} _{f}_{o}_{u}_{r}
times the smaller. Find the _{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{.}
2. A man sold a horse and _{a} _{c}_{a}_{r}_{r}_{i}_{a}_{g}_{e} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{$} _{4}_{8}_{0}_{,} _{r}_{e}_{c}_{e}_{i}_{v}_{i}_{n}_{g}
twice as much for the horse _{a}_{s} for the _{c}_{a}_{r}_{r}_{i}_{a}_{g}_{e}_{.}
did he receive for the _{c}_{a}_{r}_{r}_{i}_{a}_{g}_{e} ?
_{H}_{o}_{w} _{m}_{u}_{c}_{h}
_{3}_{.} A and B own
vested twice as much a _{c}_{a}_{p}_{i}_{t}_{a}_{l} house _{w}_{o}_{r}_{t}_{h} _{a}_{s} _{B}_{.} _{$} _{1}_{4}_{,}_{1}_{0}_{0}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{A} _{h}_{a}_{s} _{i}_{n}_{}
How _{m}_{u}_{c}_{h} _{h}_{a}_{s} _{e}_{a}_{c}_{h}
invested _{?}
_{4}_{.}
The _{p}_{o}_{p}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} Find the population of of each.
The _{r}_{i}_{s}_{e} and fall
South America is 9 _{t}_{i}_{m}_{e}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{o}_{f}
_{A}_{u}_{s}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{a}_{,} _{P}_{h}_{i}_{l}_{a}_{d}_{e}_{l}_{p}_{h}_{i}_{a}_{,} and _{a}_{n}_{d} both their continents sum is 18 _{t}_{o}_{g}_{e}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r} feet. Find have _{t}_{h}_{e} _{5}_{0}_{,}_{0}_{0}_{0}_{,}_{0}_{0}_{0} _{r}_{i}_{s}_{e} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{f}_{a}_{l}_{l} in of the tides in Philadelphia.
_{6}_{.} _{D}_{i}_{v}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{$} 240 _{a}_{m}_{o}_{n}_{g} _{A}_{,} _{B}_{,} and C so that A _{m}_{a}_{y} receive
habitants.
_{5}_{.}
of the tides in Seattle _{i}_{s} _{t}_{w}_{i}_{c}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{i}_{n}
length _{6} _{t}_{i}_{m}_{e}_{s} of _{a}_{s} the _{m}_{u}_{c}_{h} two _{a}_{s} parts. _{C}_{.} and B 8 times as much as _{C}_{.}
_{7}_{.}
_{o}_{f}_{f} _{w}_{a}_{s} _{6} _{t}_{i}_{m}_{e}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{l}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} of the _{p}_{a}_{r}_{t} left
_{s}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{g}_{.}
_{A} _{p}_{o}_{l}_{e} _{5}_{6} _{f}_{e}_{e}_{t} _{h}_{i}_{g}_{h} was broken so that the _{p}_{a}_{r}_{t} _{b}_{r}_{o}_{k}_{e}_{n}
.Find _{t}_{h}_{e}
_{8}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{u}_{m}
of _{t}_{h}_{e}
sides of a _{t}_{r}_{i}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}
_{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l}_{s} 40 inches.
_{I}_{f} _{t}_{w}_{o} _{s}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{t}_{r}_{i}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e} _{a}_{r}_{e} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l}_{,} and _{e}_{a}_{c}_{h} is twice _{t}_{h}_{e} If 2 angles of a triangle
_{A}_{A}
_{r}_{e}_{m}_{a}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{s}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{,} how _{l}_{o}_{n}_{g} is each side ?
_{9}_{.}
The _{s}_{u}_{m} of the three _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{s} of _{a}_{n}_{y}
triangle is 180.
B G
are _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l}_{,} and the remaining _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e} is 4
times _{t}_{h}_{e}_{i}_{r} _{s}_{u}_{m}_{,} how _{m}_{a}_{n}_{y} _{d}_{e}_{g}_{r}_{e}_{e}_{s} are
_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} in each ?
_{1}_{0}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{e} _{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r} _{o}_{f} _{n}_{e}_{g}_{r}_{o}_{e}_{s} in Africa
_{i}_{s} _{1}_{0} _{t}_{i}_{m}_{e}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r} of Indians in _{A}_{m}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{,} and the _{s}_{u}_{m} _{o}_{f}
both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
INTRODUCTION
_{3}
_{1}_{1}_{.}
Divide Divide _{$}_{2}_{8}_{0} _{$}_{9}_{0} _{a}_{m}_{o}_{n}_{g} _{a}_{m}_{o}_{n}_{g} _{A}_{,} _{A}_{,} _{B}_{,} _{B}_{,} and and _{C}_{,} _{C}_{,} so so that that B B _{m}_{a}_{y} _{m}_{a}_{y} _{r}_{e}_{c}_{e}_{i}_{v}_{e} _{r}_{e}_{c}_{e}_{i}_{v}_{e}
_{t}_{w}_{i}_{c}_{e} as much as _{A}_{,} and C twice as much _{a}_{s} B. each travel A travels ? twice as fast as _{B}_{,} and the sum of the dis
_{1}_{2}_{.}
_{t}_{w}_{i}_{c}_{e} _{a}_{s} much as _{A}_{,} and C _{a}_{s} much as A and B _{t}_{o}_{g}_{e}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{.}
_{1}_{3}_{.}
A line 20 inches _{l}_{o}_{n}_{g} is divided _{i}_{n}_{t}_{o} _{t}_{w}_{o} _{p}_{a}_{r}_{t}_{s}_{,} _{o}_{n}_{e} _{o}_{f}
_{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h} _{i}_{s} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l} to 5 _{t}_{i}_{m}_{e}_{s} the other.
How _{l}_{o}_{n}_{g} are the _{p}_{a}_{r}_{t}_{s} _{?}
_{1}_{4}_{.}
_{t}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{s} _{t}_{r}_{a}_{v}_{e}_{l}_{e}_{d} _{b}_{y} the two _{i}_{s} 57 miles.
How _{m}_{a}_{n}_{y} miles did
4
15. A, B, C, and D _{b}_{u}_{y} $ 2100 worth of goods.
Howmuch
_{d}_{o}_{e}_{s} A _{t}_{a}_{k}_{e}_{,} if B _{b}_{u}_{y}_{s} twice as much _{a}_{s} _{A}_{,} C three times as
much as _{B}_{,} and D six times as much
NEGATIVE _{N}_{U}_{M}_{B}_{E}
EXERCISE _{2}
1. Subtract 9 from 16.
_{2}_{.} _{C}_{a}_{n} 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
3. In arithmetic _{w}_{h}_{y} cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 _{?}
"*
\
ami at 4 P.M. it is 9
What is The The the temperature _{t}_{e}_{m}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{u}_{r}_{e} _{t}_{e}_{m}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{u}_{r}_{e} at _{a}_{t} at noon 4 4 P.M. P.M.? is is 16 _{7}_{,} State and this at 10 as P.M. an _{i}_{t} _{i}_{s} 10
4.
of subtraction.
_{5}_{.}
less. What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ?
6. Do _{y}_{o}_{u} know of _{a}_{n}_{y} other _{w}_{a}_{y} of expressing the last
answer _{(}_{3} below _{z}_{e}_{r}_{o}_{)} ?
_{7}_{.} What then _{i}_{s} 710?
8. Can _{y}_{o}_{u} think of _{a}_{n}_{y} other practical examples which
_{r}_{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{r}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e} subtraction of a _{g}_{r}_{e}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{r} number from a _{s}_{m}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{e}_{r}
one?
7. Many practical examples require the subtraction of a
greater number from a smaller one, and in order to express in
_{a} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{v}_{e}_{n}_{i}_{e}_{n}_{t} form the results of _{t}_{h}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{,} and similar _{e}_{x}_{a}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e}_{s}_{,}
4
ELEMENTS OF _{A}_{L}_{G}_{E}_{B}_{R}_{A}
it becomes necessary to enlarge our _{c}_{o}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{p}_{t} of _{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r}_{,} so as to Instead of _{s}_{a}_{y}_{i}_{n}_{g} a _{g}_{a}_{i}_{n} of _{$}_{3}_{0}_{,} and _{a} loss _{o}_{f} _{$}_{9}_{0} _{i}_{s} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l} _{t}_{o} _{a}
loss of _{$} _{6}_{0}_{,} we _{m}_{a}_{y} write
$30$90=$60.
9. The absolute value of a number is the number _{t}_{a}_{k}_{e}_{n}
without _{r}_{e}_{g}_{a}_{r}_{d} _{t}_{o} _{i}_{t}_{s} _{s}_{i}_{g}_{n}_{.}
7 10 =3.
below zero may now be expressed
include numbers less than zero.
_{8}_{.} _{N}_{e}_{g}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e} numbers are numbers smaller _{t}_{h}_{a}_{n} _{z}_{e}_{r}_{o}_{;} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{y}
_{5} _{(}_{r}_{e}_{a}_{d} " _{m}_{i}_{n}_{u}_{s} _{5} _{"}_{)}_{.}
are denoted _{b}_{y} a _{p}_{r}_{e}_{f}_{i}_{x}_{e}_{d} minus _{s}_{i}_{g}_{n} _{;} as
Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre
_{q}_{u}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{l}_{y} called _{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e} _{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{,} and are written either _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{a}
prefixed _{p}_{l}_{u}_{s} sign, or without _{a}_{n}_{y} _{p}_{r}_{e}_{f}_{i}_{x}_{e}_{d} _{s}_{i}_{g}_{n} ; as f 5 or 5.
The fact that a thermometer _{f}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{g} 10 from 7 _{i}_{n}_{d}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{s} _{3}
The absolute value of
5 is _{6}_{,} of _{}_{f} 3 is _{3}_{.}
_{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e} 10. It numbers is convenient _{b}_{y} a succession for _{m}_{a}_{n}_{y} of _{d}_{i}_{s}_{c}_{u}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l} _{d}_{i}_{s}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{s} _{t}_{o} _{r}_{e}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t} laid off _{t}_{h}_{e} on
a line from a _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} _{0}_{,} and the _{n}_{e}_{g}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e} numbers _{b}_{y} a similar
series in the _{o}_{p}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{e} _{d}_{i}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{.}
_{,}
_{I}
_{}_{6}
_{I}
_{}_{5}
lit
_{}_{4}
3
2
I
1
_{I}
_{I}
_{I}
_{+}_{\} +2
_{I}
+ 3
_{I}
+ 4
_{I}
45
_{I}
+6
y
_{T}_{h}_{u}_{s}_{,} in the annexed _{d}_{i}_{a}_{g}_{r}_{a}_{m}_{,} the line from
to _{4}_{} 6 _{r}_{e}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} _{4}_{} _{5}_{,}
_{t}_{h}_{e} _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e} _{f}_{r}_{o}_{m}
to
4 _{r}_{e}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s}
_{4}_{,} etc.
The addition of _{3} is _{r}_{e}_{p}_{}
resented _{b}_{y} a motion of "three _{s}_{p}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{s} toward the _{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t}_{,} 1 and _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l}_{s} the subtrac
_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{o}_{f} 8 _{b}_{y} a similar motion toward the left.
_{T}_{h}_{u}_{s}_{,}
If 5 in _{a}_{d}_{d}_{e}_{d} financial to _{t}_{r}_{a}_{n}_{s}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} we indicate a man'sincomeby
EXERCISE _{3}
_{6}_{,} etc.
1 _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l}_{s} _{4}_{,} 5 subtracted from
1.
_{a} _{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e} _{S}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{e} _{s}_{i}_{g}_{n}_{,} _{i}_{n} what what manner _{d}_{o}_{e}_{s} _{a} the _{n}_{e}_{g}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e} _{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e} _{s}_{i}_{g}_{n} and indicate _{n}_{e}_{g}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e} ? _{s}_{i}_{g}_{n}_{s} _{m}_{a}_{y}
_{2}_{.}
_{b}_{e} _{u}_{s}_{e}_{d} _{t}_{o} _{i}_{n}_{d}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{t}_{e} north and south _{l}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{e}_{,} east and west
longitude, motion upstream and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
_{5}
3.
If If north south latitude latitude is is indicated indicated _{b}_{y} by a a positive _{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e} _{s}_{i}_{g}_{n}_{,} sign, _{b}_{y}_{w}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{b}_{y}_{w}_{h}_{a}_{t}
_{i}_{s} south latitude _{r}_{e}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{d} ?
4.
is north latitude _{r}_{e}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{d} ?
5. What is the _{m}_{e}_{a}_{n}_{i}_{n}_{g} of the _{y}_{e}_{a}_{r}
erly motion of
6 yards _{p}_{e}_{r} second ?
_{2}_{0} _{A}_{.}_{D}_{.} _{?}
6. A merchant _{g}_{a}_{i}_{n}_{s} _{$}_{2}_{0}_{0}_{,} and loses _{$}_{3}_{5}_{0}_{.}
his total _{g}_{a}_{i}_{n} or loss ?
_{(}_{b}_{)} Find _{2}_{0}_{0} 350.
_{O}_{f} _{a}_{n} _{e}_{a}_{s}_{t}_{}
_{(}_{a}_{)} What _{i}_{s}
_{7}_{.} If the _{t}_{e}_{m}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{u}_{r}_{e} _{a}_{t} 4 A.M. is
8 and at 9 A.M. it _{i}_{s} 7
higher, what is the _{t}_{e}_{m}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{u}_{r}_{e} at 9 A.M. ? What, _{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{e}_{,}
is
 _{8} _{+} 7 _{?}
8. A vessel _{s}_{t}_{a}_{r}_{t}_{s} _{f}_{r}_{o}_{m} a _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} in 25 north _{l}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{e}_{,} and
sails 38 due _{d}_{u}_{e} _{s}_{o}_{u}_{t}_{h}_{,} _{s}_{o}_{u}_{t}_{h}_{,}
journey.
_{(}_{a}_{)} Find the latitude at the end of the
_{s}_{o}_{u}_{t}_{h} _{l}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{e}_{,} and
_{(}_{6}_{)} Find 2538.
9. A vessel starts from a _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} in 15
_{s}_{a}_{i}_{l}_{s} 22
_{(}_{a}_{)} _{F}_{i}_{n}_{d} the latitude _{a}_{t} the end of the
_{j}_{o}_{u}_{r}_{n}_{e}_{y}_{,}
_{(}_{b}_{)} Subtract 22 from
15.
10.
11.
12.
_{1}_{3}_{.}
From _{F}_{r}_{o}_{m} 4 _{3}_{0} _{s}_{u}_{b}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t} subtract 12 _{s}_{u}_{b}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t} subtract _{7}_{.} 14. 40. 20.
From 7 subtract _{9}_{.}
From 19 subtract _{3}_{4}_{.}
_{1}_{4}_{.} _{F}_{r}_{o}_{m}
_{1}_{5}_{.} From
_{1}_{6}_{.}
From
_{1}_{7}_{.} From
2 1 _{s}_{u}_{b}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t} subtract 5. 1.
18.
_{1}_{9}_{.}
20.
21.
_{2}_{2}_{.}
23.
_{2}_{4}_{.}
To
To
To To
1 6 2 add add add _{2}_{.} 12. 1.
From 1 subtract 1 subtract 2. 2.
To 8 7 add add 9. 4.
From
25. Add
1 and 2.
_{2}_{6}_{.} Solve _{e}_{x}_{a}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e}_{s} 1625 _{b}_{y} _{u}_{s}_{i}_{n}_{g} a _{d}_{i}_{a}_{g}_{r}_{a}_{m} similar to
motions. _{t}_{h}_{e} _{o}_{n}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{1}_{0}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{a}_{d}_{d}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} and subtractions as
27. Which is the greater number :
_{(}_{a}_{)} _{l}_{o}_{r} _{}_{1}_{?} _{(}_{b}_{)} 2 _{o}_{r} 4?
_{2}_{8}_{.}
_{B}_{y} how much is
7 _{g}_{r}_{e}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{r} than
12?
ELEMENTS OF _{A}_{L}_{G}_{E}_{B}_{R}_{A}
_{2}_{9}_{.} Determinefromthe _{f}_{o}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w}_{i}_{n}_{g} table the _{r}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{e} of _{t}_{e}_{m}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{}
ture in each locality :
_{N}_{U}_{M}_{B}_{E}_{R}_{S} REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
_{1}_{1}_{.} _{F}_{o}_{r} _{m}_{a}_{n}_{y} _{p}_{u}_{r}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{e}_{s} of arithmetic it is _{a}_{d}_{v}_{a}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{g}_{e}_{o}_{u}_{s} to
_{e}_{x}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s} numbers _{b}_{y} letters. One _{a}_{d}_{v}_{a}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{g}_{e}_{w}_{a}_{s} shown in 2 _{;} and b = If _{t}_{h}_{e} _{l}_{e}_{t}_{t}_{e}_{r} _{t} means _{1}_{0}_{0}_{0}_{,} what is the value of _{5}_{t}_{?}
others will _{a}_{p}_{p}_{e}_{a}_{r} in later chapters ( 30).
_{1}_{.}
_{2}_{.}
_{3}_{.}
4.
EXERCISE _{4}
_{W}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{i}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{v}_{a}_{l}_{u}_{e} of 3 _{6}_{,} if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ?
6 =7? _{I}_{s} the _{l}_{a}_{s}_{t} answer correct for _{a}_{n}_{y} value of d ?
4 ?
_{W}_{h}_{a}_{t} is the value of 17 _{c}_{,} if c=5? ifc=2?
_{W}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{i}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{v}_{a}_{l}_{u}_{e} _{o}_{f} a+ _{&}_{,} if a= _{5}_{,} and
if _{a}_{=} _{6}_{,}
5. If a _{b}_{o}_{y} has 9c? marbles and wins 4c
_{m}_{a}_{r}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{s}_{,} how
_{m}_{a}_{n}_{y} marbles _{h}_{a}_{s}_{.}_{h}_{e} ?
_{6}_{.}
_{7}_{.} A merchant had 20m dollars and lost 11m _{d}_{o}_{l}_{l}_{a}_{r}_{s}_{.}
How much _{h}_{a}_{s} he left ?
_{8}_{.} What is _{t}_{h}_{e} sum of 8 & and G b ?
9. _{F}_{i}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{e} numerical value of the last answer if b =15.
_{1}_{0}_{.} _{I}_{f} _{c} _{r}_{e}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} _{a} _{c}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{a}_{i}_{n} _{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r}_{,} whatrepresents9 _{t}_{i}_{m}_{e}_{s}
that number _{?}
INTRODUCTION
1
11. From 26w subtract 19 m.
12.
What From 22m _{i}_{s} the subtract numerical _{2}_{5}_{m}_{,} value and of find the last the _{a}_{n}_{s}_{w}_{e}_{r} numerical if m= value 2?
if m=2?
13.
of the _{a}_{n}_{s}_{w}_{e}_{r} if m= 1 2.
14. Add 13p, _{3}_{p}_{,} _{6}_{p}_{,} and subtract 24p from the _{s}_{u}_{m}_{.}
_{1}_{5}_{.}
16.
_{1}_{9}_{.}
From From
10q subtract 20 _{q}_{.}
Add _{}_{l}_{O}_{g}_{a}_{n}_{d} _{+}_{2}_{0} _{q}_{.}
22# _{s}_{u}_{b}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t} 0.
20. From From
_{1}_{7}_{.}
_{W}_{p} subtract subtract 26 _{1}_{0}_{^}_{)}_{.} x.
18. Add 6 x and 8 x.
21. If a = 20, then 7 a = 140.
What sign, therefore, is
understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12. The signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division,
_{a}_{n}_{d} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{t}_{y} have the same _{m}_{e}_{a}_{n}_{i}_{n}_{g} in _{a}_{l}_{g}_{e}_{b}_{r}_{a} as _{t}_{h}_{e}_{y} have
in arithmetic.
_{1}_{3}_{.} If there is no _{s}_{i}_{g}_{n} _{b}_{e}_{t}_{w}_{e}_{e}_{n} _{t}_{w}_{o} _{l}_{e}_{t}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{,} or a letter _{a}_{n}_{d} _{a}
number, Between a sign two of figures, multiplication however, is understood. a sign of multiplication
_{6} _{x} _{a} is _{g}_{e}_{n}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y} written 6 _{a} _{;} _{m} _{x} _{n} is written _{w}_{i}_{n}_{.}
_{(}_{e}_{i}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r} x
or
_{)} has to be employed ; as, 4x7, or 4 7.
_{4}_{x}_{7} _{c}_{a}_{n}_{n}_{o}_{t} be _{w}_{r}_{i}_{t}_{t}_{e}_{n} _{4}_{7}_{,} for 47 means 40 _{}_{f} _{7}_{.}
_{1}_{4}_{.} A _{p}_{r}_{o}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{t} is the _{r}_{e}_{s}_{u}_{l}_{t} obtained _{b}_{y} _{m}_{u}_{l}_{t}_{i}_{p}_{l}_{y}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{t}_{o}_{g}_{e}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}
two or more _{q}_{u}_{a}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{e}_{s}_{,} each of which is a factor of the _{p}_{r}_{o}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{t}_{.}
Since 24 = 3 x _{8}_{,} or 12 x _{2}_{,} each of these numbers is a factor of _{2}_{4}_{.}
Similarly, 7, a, 6, and c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A _{p}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{r} is the _{p}_{r}_{o}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{t} of two or more _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l} factors
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