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QUALITY AND SAFETY ASPECTS OF BOVILLA DRINKING WATER

Lurjana Lila, Lumturi Rui, Rozana Troja Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tirana

Abstract
With population increasing inside Tirana city, and knowledge development, the requirements for drinking water quality and safety have been increased. Nowadays, the request for high quality and safety drinking water has been increased, parallel to industrial, agricultural, energy and aquaculture usage. In this paper is shown results of efficiency analysis for the water system treatment of Bovilla, Tirana, Albania. In 2010 Tirana has a population of 850 000, this means that the safety of drinking water has a high importance. The whole quantity produced for the municipal network of Tirana is 83 700 m3/year, with an average of 2 758 l/s, and 270 l/day/person (Floqi T. (2007). The water treatment system of Bovilla treats an average of 1800 l/s of water following these steps; oxidation, coagulation, carbon active, decantation, filtration and disinfection. The parameters tested to insure the quality of water are 19 physic-chemical parameters and 6 microbiological. Water quality has been tested before the treatment, during treatment process and after final treatment. This study includes results from laboratory tests (2006-2009) and results tests from a 5 months study during January-June 2010. Every day water testing has shown good physic-chemical parameters. In this paper it is studied the impact of some changing parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and alkalinity, turbidity, TDS, organic matter, phosphor, nitrite and nitrate, ammonium, etc.) in the final quality of the water entering the water treatment system. Key words: Drinking water, treatment process, quality assurance

Introduction
Albania is a country with multiple and different natural water sources made possible by the relief and climate very different that our country represents. These aquatic reserves the possibility that the bulk of drinking water is obtained from underground sources -80% and only 20% from surface water sources. In this experimental work has been precisely targeted a modest study of the drinking water situation in the catchment basin Bovilla to provide drinking water, clean and spacious. The paper serves as a valuable summary of the results of drinking water control in order to have the data collection of Bovilla for 2010 which will serve for an ongoing monitoring (2011, 2012) to evaluate the quality and safety of drinking water that goes to consumers and to evaluate improvements by identifying possible corrections. Construction of Water Supply Bovilla in Tirana was seen as an important act, which came to help and to amplify the capacity of water supply for the city of Tirana. Watersheds of Bovilla, built in 1998 is located about 15 km north-east of Tirana, (Anonimous (1996)

The problems faced in the years 2001-2002 that was closely related to the spring and autumn seasons - led to the monitoring of all potential causes of the lake phytoplankton. In the fall, phytoplankton algae were the most important constituent groups by type and by ecological point of view, ( Murtaj B., ullaj A. (2008). In autumn and spring as a result of physical and climatic conditions, is an alloy of lake water and homogenization of the layers. This stimulates the increase of the nutrients (P, N, Fe, As, etc.) in the surface of the water that was precipitated at the end of the lake. Based on perennial laboratory data of Bovilla plant, it seems that for many physical and chemical parameters, the water that comes from the lake Bovilla belongs to A1 category, based on Europian Food Law 75/440, for surface waters used for drinking water, especially for pH -in, BOD5, conductivity, nutrients (nitrates, phosphates), etc. However, in the waters of the lake is noticed increase in value of suspended solids (which often exceed the value of 25 mg / l, A2 category) and high turbidity, especially when it rains, at the same period it is shown an increase even in the content of Fe, coli forms and Streptococcus faecalis. For some other parameters, mainly the water quality deteriorates during the full period of stratification (May-September), for dissolved oxygen in deep layers, for ammonium, etc., but never passed the bounds of the values of category A2, (STASH 3904 (1997), EC-80/778 (Appendix I). Theoretical data, detailed above, served to build on an experimental plan for sampling and controlling parameters. Experimental work was conducted in accordance with a structured plan in advance and theoretical scientific information, followed in detail, served to interpret correctly the results.

Materials and Methods


Quality of drinking water from watersheds of origin Bovilla is regularly controlled by chemical and microbiological laboratory, set up near the treatment plant, where tests are performed on untreated and treated water (control of 19 physical-chemical parameters and 6 microbiological parameters). Water main parameters are measured in the main stages of water treatment performance: access, partitor, floculator, filters and output of the plant. Electronic monitoring devices automatic measures for untreated and treated water, pH, temperature, turbidity, conductivity, free-chlorine, etc. For the determination of physical-chemical parameters were used spectrophotometric method UV-VIS and Volumetric Method. In special cases determinations were made with classical methods as efficient use of the jet case Nessler for ammonia in water. To realize the experiments were used samples of treat and untreated water of Bovilla as well as the separate methods above.

During the experimental work was done: Monitoring of chemical parameters like temperature and pH Determination of Turbidity, NTU Determination of calcium ions (mg/l Ca) Determination of chlorides (Cl-1 mg/l) Determination of phosphates (PO5 mg/l) Determination of sulfates (mg/l SO4-2) determination of ammonia (mg/l NH41) During the implementation of the experimental work was also set many other parameters of micro mineral elements -type, results of which will appear in a new publication that will follow the current as well as assessment of microbial loads. Chemical methods used for the determination above are those of our Standards and EU Legislation, adapted to the above mentioned analysis, which appear very detailed in the whole paper, cited in the references, (ullaj
, et al.)(www.sciencedirect.com)).

Experiments Results and Discussion


pH and temperature measured with electronic equipment are presented in Table 1 and Fig.1. The results refer to samples of untreated and treated water. The values for untreated water are obtained by direct measurement before entering the treatment plant.
Table 1. Results for pH and temperature during monitoring month Month Untreated water TC Jan. Feb. 9.71 8.32 pH 8.27 8.29 Treated water TC 9.87 8.41 pH 7.88 7.86 Months March April May 9.9 9.9 10.1 Untreated water 8.30 8.28 8.26 8.90 9.90 10.1 Treat. water 7.87 7.86 7.89

Figure1. Values of TC and pH during the period January-May of treated and untreated water.

As seen from the graph of the analyzed samples the pH values result within the range allowed by the EU's legislation and standards, after passing the treatment plant. Referring to the experience analog studies for the control of physical and chemical parameters of the water supply network in the period 2003-2005 is identified almost the same performance with very small exceptions to measurements outside the range allowed. The water treatment system gives the effect of significantly reducing the pH values that in the untreated samples are in the basic area, bringing them to neutral values. Comparisons of values depending on seasonal changes give small differences that remain to be interpreted after another group of analogue test to be performed during 2011. Temperature cannot be detailed interpreted because it refers to the measurement period and the respective conditions. (ullaj A. et al, (2005) (www.sciencedirect.com). Determination of turbidity with turbid meter NTU for untreated and treated water are those presented in Table 2 and the graphic of Fig. 2.
Table 2. Determination of turbidity before and after treatment Month Untreated water Turbidity January February 5.98 9.14 Treated water Turbidity 0.27 0.28 Month March April May Untreated water 7.42 2.96 2.81 Treated water 0.40 0.25 0.16

Figure 2. Values of turbidity during the period January - May for untreated and treated water

Higher values of turbidity are recorded in the season of rainfall during February and March, which is estimated to provide maximum valuable recommendations for minimizing the degree of turbidity observed. Differences in values are expected during the spring period, but this is not an absolute must because the turbidity depends on the annual climate change. This means that results cannot be repeated in coming years, but can appear quite different from those analyzed during the experiments. It is important to note in this set of tests the efficient action of the treatment process to reduce the level of turbidity. There is a decrease of over 10 times the level measured of turbidity compared to the samples of untreated water and there are times that this drop of 10 times decrease in value is even doubled. The results obtained provide evidence for effective treatment techniques related to reduction of turbidity and it remains to be checked for evidence the declining rates in the coming years. Values of 0.2 indicate a safe product with turbidity values under control. Determination of Calcium (mg/l Ca), is made of titration with EDTA in the presence of Murexide indicator. Average values of Ca during JanuaryMay 2010 for treated and untreated water are given in Table 3.
Table 3. Determination of calcium before and after treatment Month Untreated water Ca Cl(mg/l) January February 39.5 - 6.8 40,0 - 7.01 Treated water Ca Cl(mg/l) 39.5 - 13.56 40,0 - 13.67 Month March April May Untreated water 39.7 - 6.59 39.4 - 6.34 39.0 - 5.98 Treated water 39.7 13.44 39.4 12.99 39.0 13.21

The treatment process does not affect existing values of Calcium ions. These values are within the norms and conform to the type of water that collects in the basin concerned. Generally, these ions in drinking water range from very low values up to hundreds mg/l. Values at several tens of mg/l are considered as values within the norm. Determination of chloride (Cl mg / l) In preliminary treatment of water has a chlorification step, to ensure the necessary reduction of pollution, including those of microbiological origin. Chlorification is done with respect and allowed rates to the extent possible amount of chlorification of drinking water. The analysis in question is accompanied by a parallel set of tests to identify levels of residual chlorine. Generally there is an increase up to twice the respective ions. It remains to verify if there are applied higher levels of ions to cover the high pollution potential. This part of the experiments will be subject of future publications. Determination of phosphates (PO5 mg/l), sulphates (mg/l SO4) with spectrophotometer are presented in Fig. 3.

Figure 3. Values of sulfate (mg/l SO4-2) and phosphates for untreated and treated water between January and May.

Determination of Ammonia with Jet Nessler and measured values are presented in Table 4.
Table 4. Average values of ammonia of untreated and treated water (January-May) Month Untreated water NH4+ January February 0.04 0.044 Treated water NH4+ 0.00 0.00 Month March April May Untreated water 0.033 0.035 0.028 Treated water 0.00 0.00 0.00

The determined chemical parameters that are presented in Fig.3 and Table. 4 provide a relatively high value during the winter and lower values in spring. Ammonia contamination is considered among other facts as a refereeing result to detect the presence of fecal coli forms or streptococcus which remains to be verified in the future. Pre-treatment process leads to 0 values of ammonia components, almost it doesnt affect sulfates but it reduces significantly the phosphates, which the value are reduced to more than two times during the treatment. The treatment steps bring the above mentioned values parameters to normal level, despite their initial values.

Conclusions and recommendations


The paper presented is only a small part of a cycle of experimental studies on drinking water in our country. It offers a modest contribution to values of physical- chemical parameters of water Bovilla basin. These values will be totally accessible for comparison purposes after evaluating analog parameters in the years to come. By comparing the analysis with the limits of EU Directive 75/440 on the quality of surface water to be used for drinking water production, noted that the lake water Bovilla quality meets Category A1, for almost all physicalchemical parameters presented in this paper, but also those that will be published below; The treatment process results effective to adjust specific parameters, which have high values even when they are within established norms; The problems of safe water quality supply mostly are not related to physical parameters but is related to bacterial loads that water provides. Such microbiological loads and chemical pollution are mainly associated with the physical character in the water distribution network overused; often result individual interference in violation of the law. Microbiological parameters are fully identified and will be part of the following publications. Considering the importance that the Bovilla watersheds has to supply drinking water to Tirana, and relying on data from this study we recommend: To continue monitoring the lake by introducing it into the National Monitoring Network Surface Water under the auspices of the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Water Administration; Increase the frequent monitoring of critical point set not just for research purposes of identification, but to provide confidence in the product that goes to the consumer; Specialists to provide valuable input regarding the awareness of population groups for specific reasons affecting water quality in the basin study: community awareness of the area to avoid water pollution, but also the institutions responsible for maintenance of Tirana lake basin.

References
Anonymous. (1996). Impianti Hidroteknik i Bovills/Impianto Idrotecnico di Bovilla. Ministria e Ndrtimit dhe Turizmit, Tirana. Consorzio Putignano - Bari, Leaflet: Acquedotto di Bovilla. Fase 2. Condotta di Adduzione dalla Diga di Bovilla, Impianto di Potabilizzazione, Serbatoio, Condotta di Avvicinamento alla Rete Idrica di Tirana. Republica di Albania, Ministero delle Construzione e Turismo. Council Directive 80/778/EEC of 15 July 1980 relating to the quality of water intended for human consumption as amended by Council Directives 81/858/EEC and 91/692/EEC (further amended by Council Regulation 1882/2003/EC). ullaj A., Hasko A., Miho A., Schanz F., Brandl H. & Bachofen R. (2005). The quality of Albanian natural waters and the human impact (Review article). Environment International 31: 133-146 (www.sciencedirect.com)/ Floqi T. (2007). Water quality and health - Albanian case. PPT. za ucesnike Godinjeg. Mima M., Fitoka N. E. & Bego F. (Eds.) (2003). Inventarizimi i ligatinave shqiptare. ECAT Tirana & EKBY. Thermi, Greece: 1-130 + 75 pp. Annexes. (In Albanian, Greek and English). Murtaj B. 7 ullaj A. (2008). Limnological assessment of Bovilla basin. Proceedings of International Conference on Biological and Environmental Sciences. University of Tirana, Faculty of Natural Sciences: 688-692 STASH 3904 (1997). Albanian Standard of Drinking Water; ICS 13.060