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S. Shelah and L. Soukup- On the number of non-isomorphic subgraphs

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S. Shelah and L. Soukup- On the number of non-isomorphic subgraphs

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370 revision:1994-08-30

On the number of non-isomorphic subgraphs

S. Shelah ^{∗} Institute of Mathematics Hebrew University, Jerusalem

L. Soukup ^{†} Mathematical Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences

October 6, 2003

1

Abstract Let K be the family of graphs on ω _{1} without cliques or independent subsets of size ω _{1} . We prove that

it is consistent with CH that every G ∈ K has 2 ^{ω} ^{1} many pairwise non-isomorphic subgraphs,

the following proposition holds in L: (∗) there is a G ∈ K such ^{∼}

=

(a)

(b)

(c)

that for each partition (A, B) of ω _{1} either G ^{∼}

G[B],

the failure of (∗) is consistent with ZFC.

_{=} G[A]

or

G

Introduction

We assume only basic knowledge of set theory — simple combinatorics for section 2, believing in L |= ♦ ^{+} deﬁned below for section 3, and ﬁnite support iterated forcing for section 4.

^{∗} The ﬁrst author was supported by the United States Israel Binational Science Foun- dation, Publication 370 ^{†} The second author was supported by the Hungarian National Foundation for Scientiﬁc Research grant no. l805

1

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Answering a question of R. Jamison, H. A. Kierstead and P. J. Nyikos [5] proved that if an n-uniform hypergraph G = V, E is isomorphic to each of its induced subgraphs of cardinality |V |, then G must be either empty or complete. They raised several new problems. Some of them will be investi- gated in this paper. To present them we need to introduce some notions.

An inﬁnite graph G = V, E is called non-trivial iﬀ G contains no clique or independent subset of size |V |. Denote the class of all non-trivial graphs on ω _{1} by K. Let I(G) be the set of all isomorphism classes of induced subgraphs of G = V, E with size |V |. H. A. Kierstead and P. J. Nyikos proved that |I(G)| ≥ ω for each G ∈ K and asked whether |I(G)| ≥ 2 ^{ω} or |I(G)| ≥ 2 ^{ω} ^{1} hold or not. In [3] it was shown that (i) |I(G)| ≥ 2 ^{ω} for each G ∈ K, (ii) under ♦ ^{+} there exists a

G ∈ K with |I(G)| = ω _{1} . In section 2 we show that if ZFC is consistent, then

so is ZFC + CH + “|I(G)| = 2 ^{ω} ^{1} for each G ∈ K”. Given any G ∈ K we will investigate its partition tree. Applying the weak ♦ principle of Devlin

and Shelah [2] we show that if this partition tree is a special Aronszajn tree, then |I(G)| > ω _{1} . This result completes the investigation of problem 2 of [5] for ω _{1} . Consider a graph G = V, E . We say that G is almost smooth if it is isomorphic to G[W ] whenever W ⊂ V with |V \ W | < |V |. The graph

G is called quasi smooth iﬀ it is isomorphic either to G[W ] or to G[V \ W ]

whenever W ⊂ V . H. A. Kierstead and P. J. Nyikos asked (problem 3) whether an almost smooth, non-trivial graph can exist. In [3] various models of ZFC was constructed which contain such graphs on ω _{1} . It was also shown that the existence of a non-trivial, quasi smooth graph on ω _{1} is consistent with ZFC. But in that model CH failed. In section 3 we prove that ♦ ^{+} , and so V=L, too, implies the existence of such a graph. In section 4 we construct a model of ZFC in which there is no quasi- smooth G ∈ K. Our main idea is that given a G ∈ K we try to construct a

partition (A _{0} , A _{1} ) of ω _{1} which is so bad that not only G ^{∼} G[A _{i} ] in the ground

model but certain simple generic extensions can not add such isomorphisms to the ground model. We divide the class K into three subclasses and develop diﬀerent methods to carry out our plan. The question whether the existence of an almost-smooth G ∈ K can be proved in ZFC is still open. We use the standard set-theoretical notation throughout, cf [4]. Given a

graph G = V, E we write V (G) = V and E(G) = E. If H ⊂ V (G) we

=

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deﬁne G[H] to be H, E(G) ∩ [H] ^{2} .

{x, y} ∈ E}. If G and H are graphs we write G = H to mean that G and H are isomorphic. If f : V (G) → V (H) is a function we denote by f : G ^{∼} H the fact that f is an isomorphism between G and H. Given a set X let Bij _{p} (X) be the set of all bijections between subsets of X. If G = V, E is a graph take

Given x ∈ V

∼

take G(x) = {y

∈ V

=

:

Iso _{p} (G) = {f ∈ Bij _{p} (V ) : f : G[dom(f )] ^{∼} G[ran(f )]} .

=

We denote by Fin(X, Y ) the set of all functions mapping a ﬁnite subset of

X to Y .

Given a poset P and p, q ∈ P we write p _{P} q to mean that p and q are compatible in P . The axiom ♦ ^{+} claims that there is a sequence S _{α} : α < ω _{1} of contable

sets such that for each X ⊂ ω _{1} we have a closed unbounded C ⊂ ω _{1} satisfying

X ∩ ν ∈ S _{ν} and C ∩ ν ∈ S _{ν} for each ν ∈ C.

We denote by TC(x) the transitive closure of a set x. If κ is a cardinal take H _{κ} = {x : |TC(x)| < κ} and H _{κ} = H _{κ} , ∈ . Let us denote by D _{ω} _{1} the club ﬁlter on ω _{1} .

2 I(G) can be always large

Theorem 2.1 Asume that GCH holds and every Aronszajn-tree is special. Then |I(G)| = 2 ^{ω} ^{1} for each G ∈ K.

Remark: S.Shelah proved, [7, chapter V. §6,7], that the assumption of theorem 2.1 is consistent with ZFC. During the proof we will apply the following deﬁnitions and lemmas.

Lemma 2.2

Assume that G ∈ K, A ∈ [ω _{1} ] ^{ω} ^{1} and |{G(x) ∩ A : x ∈ ω _{1} | = ω _{1} .

Then |I(G)| = 2 ^{ω} ^{1} .

Proof: See [3, theorem 2.1 and lemma 2.13].

Deﬁnition 2.3 Consider a graph G = ω _{1} , E .

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1. For each ν

^{} ξ

take

∈ ω _{1}

let us deﬁne the ordinal γ _{ν} ∈ ω _{1} and the sequence

= 0 and if ξ _{α} : α < γ is deﬁned, then

γ ν : γ ≤ γ _{ν} ^{} as follows: put ξ

ν

0

ν

ξ γ ν = min {ξ : ∀α < γ

ξ > ξ _{α} and ({ξ _{α} , ξ} ∈ E

ν

ν

iﬀ {ξ _{α} , ν} ∈ E)} .

ν

If ξ

ν = ν, then we put γ _{ν} = γ.

γ

2. Given ν, µ ∈ ω _{1} write ν ≺ ^{G} µ iﬀ ξ

γ ν = ξ

γ µ for each γ ≤ γ _{ν} .

3. Take T ^{G} = ^{} ω _{1} , ≺ ^{G} ^{} . T _{G} is called the partition tree of G.

Lemma 2.4 If G = ω _{1} , E ∈ K with |I(G)| < 2 ^{ω} ^{1} , then T ^{G} is an Aronszajn tree.

Proof: By the construction of T ^{G} , if ν, µ ∈ ω _{1} , ν < µ and G(ν) ∩ ν = G(µ) ∩ ν, then ν ≺ ^{G} µ. So the levels of T ^{G} are countable by lemma 2.2. On the other hand, T ^{G} does not contain ω _{1} -branches, because the branches are prehomogeneous subsets and G is non-trivial.

Deﬁnition 2.5

⊂ ω _{1} .

function g : ω _{1} → 2 is an A-diamond for F

{α ∈ A : F (h α) = g(α)} is a stationary subset of ω _{1} .

1.

Let F

:

(2 ^{ω} ) ^{<}^{ω} ^{1}

→

2

and A

We say that a

(2 ^{ω} ) ^{ω} ^{1} ,

iﬀ,

for any h

∈

2. A ⊂ ω _{1} is called a small subset of ω _{1} iﬀ for some F function is an A-diamond for F .

3. J = {A ⊂ ω _{1} : A is a small subset of ω _{1} }.

: (2 ^{ω} ) ^{<}^{ω} ^{1} → 2 no

In [2] the following was proved:

Theorem 2.6 If 2 ^{ω} < 2 ^{ω} ^{1} , then J is a countably complete, proper, normal ideal on ω _{1} .

After this preparation we are ready to prove theorem 2.1. Proof: Assume that G = ω _{1} , E ∈ K.

|I(G)| < 2 ^{ω} ^{1} and a contradiction will be derived. Since 2 ^{ω} ^{1} = ω _{2} , we can ﬁx a sequence {G _{ν} : ν < ω _{1} } of graphs on ω _{1}

Write

such that for each Y G _{ν} = ω _{1} , E _{ν} .

∈

[ω _{1} ] ^{ω} ^{1}

there is a ν

< ω _{1}

with G[Y ] ^{∼}

=

G _{ν} .

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. Since every Aronszajn-tree

is special and I is a countably complete ideal on ω _{1} , there is an antichain S

in T ^{G} with S ∈/ J . Take

Consider the Aronszajn-tree T ^{G} =

^{} ω _{1} , ≺ ^{G} ^{}

A = ^{} α ∈ ω _{1} : ∃σ ∈ S(α ≺ ^{G} σ) ^{} .

Now property (∗) below holds:

(∗)

∀σ ∈ S ∀ρ

∈ (S ∪ A) \ σ + 1

∃α ∈ A ∩ σ ({σ, α} ∈ E iﬀ {ρ, α} ∈/ E).

Indeed, if for each α ∈

A ∩ σ

we had {σ, α} ∈ E

iﬀ {ρ, α} ∈ E, then

σ ≺ ^{G} ρ would hold by the construction of T ^{G} .

S,

embedding. Deﬁne F (ν, σ, T, f ) ∈ 2 as follows:

Let ν

∈ ω _{1} ,

σ

∈

T

⊂ S ∩ σ

and f

:

G[(A ∩ σ) ∪ T ]

→ G _{ν}

be an

F (ν, σ, T, f ) = 1 iﬀ ∃x ∈ G _{ν} (∀α ∈

A ∩ σ)({x, f (α)} ∈ E _{ν} iﬀ {σ, α} ∈ E).

In case ωσ = σ, under suitable encoding, F can be viewed as a function from (2 ^{ω} ) ^{<}^{ω} ^{1} to 2.

⊂ S

Since S ∈/ J , there is a g ∈ 2 ^{ω} ^{1} and f : G[A ∪ T ] ^{∼} G _{ν} , the set

such that for every ν ∈ ω _{1} = 2 ^{ω} , T

=

S _{T} = {σ ∈ S : g(σ) = F(ν, σ, T ∩ σ, f σ)}

is stationary. Take T = {σ ∈ S : g(σ) = 0}. Choose an ordinal ν < ω _{1} and a

function f with f : G[A ∪ T ] ^{∼} G _{ν} .

by (∗), that

For each σ < ω _{1} with σ = ωσ it follows,

=

σ ∈ T

iﬀ ∃x ∈ ω _{1} ∀α ∈ S ∩ σ ({x, f (α)} ∈ E _{ν} iﬀ {σ, α} ∈ E).

Thus g(σ) = 0 iﬀ F (ν, σ, T ∩ σ, f σ) = 1, for each σ ∈ S, that is, S _{T} which is a contradiction.

= ∅,

3 A quasi-smooth graph under ♦ ^{+}

Theorem 3.1 If ♦ ^{+} holds, then there exists a non-trivial, quasi-smooth graph on ω _{1} .

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Proof: Given a set X, A⊂P(X) and F ⊂Bij _{p} (X) take

Cl(A, F ) = ^{} {B : B ⊃

A and ∀B _{0} , B _{1} ∈ B ∀f

∈ F ∀Y

∈ [X] ^{<}^{ω}

{B _{0} ∪ B _{1} , f ^{}^{} B _{0} , B _{0} Y }⊂B} .

We say that A is F -closed if A = Cl(A, F ). Given A, D⊂P (X), we say that

D is uncovered

by A if |D\A| = ω for each A ∈ A and D ∈ D.

Lemma 3.2 Assume that F ⊂Bij _{p} (X) is a countable set, A ^{0} , A ^{1} ⊂P(X) are countable, F -closed families. If D⊂P (X) is a countable family which is uncovered by A ^{0} ∪ A ^{1} , then there is a partition (B _{0} , B _{1} ) of X such that D is uncovered by Cl(A ^{i} ∪ {B _{i} } , F ) for i < 2.

Proof: We can assume that F is closed under composition. Fix an enumer- ation { D _{n} , k _{n} , F _{n} , i _{n} , A _{n} : n ∈ ω} of D × ω × F ^{<}^{ω} × { i, A : i ∈ 2, A ∈ A ^{i} }. By induction on n, we will pick points x _{n} ∈ X and will deﬁne ﬁnite sets, B and B _{n} , such that B _{n} ∩ B _{n} = ∅ and B _{n} ⊂B

., f _{k}_{−}_{1} . Take

n

0

1

0

1

i

i

n+1 ^{.}

Assume that we have done it for n − 1. Write F _{n} = f _{0} ,

B n−1 = B

0

n−1 ^{∪} ^{B}

1

n−1 and

B

−

n

= B n−1 ∪ ^{} f

j

B _{n}_{−}_{1} : j < k ^{} .

Pick an arbitrary point x _{n} ∈ D _{n} \(A _{n} ∪ B

−

n

). Put

B

i

n

n

= B

i

n−1

n

and

B

1−i _{n}

n

= B

1−i _{n}

n−1

∪

{x _{n} } ∪ ^{} f

−1

j

(x _{n} ) : j < k ^{} .

with B ^{i} ⊃ ∪{B _{n} : n < ω} for i < 2.

We claim that it works. Indeed, a typical element of Cl(A ^{i} ∪ {B ^{i} }, F ) has

the form

Next choose a partition (B ^{0} , B ^{1} ) of X

i

C

= A ∪ ^{} ^{} f

j

B ^{i} : j < k ^{} ,

where A ∈ A, k < ω and f _{0} ,

, f _{k}_{−}_{1} ∈ F . So, if D ∈ D, then

D\C ⊃ {x _{n} : D _{n} = D, A _{n}

= A, i _{n} = i and F _{n} = f _{0} ,

−1

because x _{n} ∈/ A and f

j

(x _{n} ) ∈ B ^{1}^{−}^{i} by the constuction.

, f _{k}_{−}_{1} }

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, f _{n}_{−}_{1} . Given a family F ⊂Bij _{p} (X) we

say that F each i < n.

assume that the empty term denotes the identity function on X. If l ≤ n

take _{(}_{l}_{)} F = f _{0} ,

∈ F , for We will

Consider a sequence F = f _{0} ,

is an F -term provided f _{i} = f

or f _{i} = f ^{−}^{1} for some f

We denote the function f _{0} ◦ ··· ◦ f _{n}_{−}_{1} by F as well.

, f _{l}_{−}_{1} and F _{(}_{l}_{)} = f _{l} ,

,

f _{n}_{−}_{1} . Let

Sub(F ) = ^{}^{} f _{i} _{0} ,

, f _{i} _{l}_{−}_{1} ^{} : l ≤ n, i _{0}

<

< i _{l}_{−}_{1} < n ^{} .

Given f ∈ F and x, y ∈ X with x ∈/ dom(f ) and y ∈/ ran(f ) let F ^{f}^{,}^{x}^{,}^{y} be the term that we obtain replacing each occurrence of f and of f ^{−}^{1} in F with

f ∪ { x, y } and with f ^{−}^{1} ∪ { y, x }, respectively.

Lemma 3.3 Assume that F ⊂Bij _{p} (X), A⊂P (X) is F -closed, F _{0} ,

, F _{n}_{−}_{1}

are F -terms, z |
, z , A |
||||||

(∗) |
z F ∈ Sub(F |
||||||

If f |
∈ F , x ∈ |
X\dom(f ), Y ∈ [X\ran(f )] |
with |
|A ∩ Y | |
< |
ω |
for each |

A ∈ A, then there are inﬁnitely many y ∈ Y such that (∗) remains true when replacing f with f ∪ { x, y }, that is,

(∗∗)

z _{i} ∈/ ^{} ^{} F ^{}^{} A _{i} : F ∈ Sub(F

i

f,x,y

)

^{}

for each i < n.

Proof: It is enough to prove it for n = 1.

z = z _{0} . Take

Write F = f _{0}

Y _{F}_{,}_{A} = {y ∈ Y

: (∗∗) holds for y} .

, f _{k}_{−}_{1} , A = A _{0} ,

Now we prove the lemma by induction on k. If k = 0, then Y _{F}_{,}_{A} = Y \A. Suppose we know the lemma for k − 1. Using the induction hypothesis we can assume that (†) below holds:

(†)

Y = ^{} ^{} Y _{G}_{,}_{F} _{(}_{l}_{)} _{A} : l ≤ n, G ∈ Sub( _{(}_{l}_{)} F ^{f}^{,}^{x}^{,}^{y} ), G

_{=}

_{F} f,x,y ^{} _{.}

Assume that |Y _{F}_{,}_{A} | < ω and a contradiction will be derived. First let us remark that either f _{k}_{−}_{1} = f or f _{k}_{−}_{1} = f ^{−}^{1} by (†). Case 1:f _{k}_{−}_{1} = f ^{−}^{1} . Then Y _{F}_{,}_{A} ⊃Y \A by (†), so we are done.

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Case 2:f _{k}_{−}_{1} = f. In this case x

F ^{f}^{,}^{x}^{,}^{y} (x). Then for each y, y ^{} ∈ Y take

∈

A and for all but ﬁnitely many y

∈ Y

we have z

=

l(y, y ^{} ) = max ^{} l ≤ n : ∀i < l F

(i)

f,x,y

(x) = F

(i)

f,x,y ^{}

(x) ^{} .

By Ramsey’s theorem, we can assume that l(y, y ^{} ) = l whenever y, y ^{} ∈ Y .

Clearly l

Thus z = _{(}_{l}_{−}_{1}_{)} F ^{f}^{,}^{x}^{,}^{y} (x) for each

∈ Y , which contradicts (†) because x ∈ A. The lemma is proved. We are ready to construct our desired graph. First ﬁx a sequence M _{α} : α < ω _{1} of countable, elementary submodels of some H _{λ} with M _{γ} : γ < α ∈ M _{α} for each α < ω _{1} , where λ is a large enough regular cardinal. Then choose a ♦-sequence S _{α} : α < ω _{1} ∈ M _{0} for the uncountable sub- sets of ω _{1} , that is , {α < ω _{1} : X ∩ α = S _{α} } ∈/ NS(ω _{1} ) whenever X ∈ [ω _{1} ] ^{ω} ^{1} . We can also assume that S _{α} is coﬁnal in α for each limit α. We will deﬁne, by induction on α,

y

f _{l} = f ^{−}^{1} and F

(x), so

Then F

(l)

f,x,y

(l−1)

f,x,y

(x)

f,x,y ^{}

F

(l)

(x)

but F

f,x,y

(l−1)

(x)

f,x,y ^{}

F

(l−1)

<

n.

=

=

(x) = x for each y ∈ Y .

1. graphs G _{α} = ωα, E _{α} with G _{β} = G _{α} [ωβ] for β < α,

2. countable sets F _{α} ∈ Iso _{p} (G _{α} ),

satisfying the induction hypotheses (I)–(II) below:

(I) {S _{ω}_{γ} : γ ≤ α} is uncovered by I _{α} ∪ J _{α} where

and

I _{α} = Cl({G(ν) ∩ ν : ν

∈ ωα} , ^{}

β≤α

F _{β} )

J _{α} = Cl({ν\G(ν) : ν ∈ ωα} , ^{}

β≤α

F _{β} ).

To formulate (II) we need the following deﬁnition.

Deﬁnition 3.4 Assume that α = β + 1 and Y ⊂ωα. We say that Y is large if ∀n ∈ ω, ∀ f _{i} , x _{i} : i < n , ∀h if

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1. ∀i < n ∃α _{i} < β f _{i} ∈ F _{α} _{i} ,

2. ∀i < n ωα _{i} ≤ x _{i} < ωβ,

3. ∀i < n ran(f _{i} )⊂Y ,

4. ∀i

= j < n ran(f _{i} ) ∩ ran(f _{j} ) = ∅

5. h ∈ Fin(Y ∩ ωβ, 2) and dom(h) ∩ ^{} {ran(f _{i} ) : i < n} = ∅,

then ∃y ∈ Y ∩ [ωβ, ωα) such that

6. ∀i < n ∀x ∈ dom(f _{i} ) ({y, f _{i} (x)} ∈ E _{α} iﬀ

7. ∀z ∈ dom(h)

{y, z} ∈ E _{α} iﬀ h(z) = 1.

Take

(II)

If α = β + 1, then ωα is large.

{x _{i} , x} ∈ E _{α} ),

The construction will be carried out in such a way that G _{β} : β ≤ α ∈ M _{α}

and F _{β} : β < α ∈ M _{α} .

To start with take G _{0} = ∅, ∅ and F = {∅}. Assume that the construc-

tion is done for β < α. Case 1:α is limit. We must take G _{α} = ∪{G _{β} : β < α}. We will deﬁne sets F

and will take F _{α} = F Let

0

α

α

∪ F α .

0

1

1

, F _{α} ⊂Iso _{p} (G _{α} )

0 = {f ∈ Iso _{p} (G _{α} ) ∩ M _{α} : ∃ α _{n} : n < ω ⊂α

F

α

sup {α _{n} : n < ω} = α,

f ωα _{n} ∈ F _{α} _{n} and f ωα _{n} : G _{α} _{n}

= ∼ G _{α} _{n} [ran(f )] for each n ∈ ω} .

Take F ^{−} =

with F ^{−} ∈ M _{α}_{+}_{1} , so M _{α}_{+}_{1} |= “|F ^{−} | = ω”. Obviously both I F ^{−} -closed and S = {S _{ω}_{β} : β ≤ α} is uncovered by them.

^{}

β<α

F ^{β} ∪ F

0

α

, I

−

α

= ^{}

β<α I _{β} and J

−

α

= ^{}

β<α J _{β} . Clearly F ^{−} ⊂M _{α}

and J _{α} are

−

α

−

1

¿From now on we work in M _{α}_{+}_{1} to construct F _{α} . For W ⊂ωα write

L _{W} = {ν Take

< α : W ∩ (ων + ω) is large}.

W _{α} = { W, f ∈ (P(ωα) ∩ M _{α} ) × (∪ _{β}_{<}_{α} F _{β} ) : L _{W}

is coﬁnal in α

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and f : G _{γ} _{f}

= ∼ G _{γ} _{f} [W ∩ ωγ _{f} ] for some γ _{f} < α ^{} .

We want to ﬁnd functions g ^{W}^{,}^{f} ⊃ f for W, f ∈ W _{α} such that

(A)

(B)

g ^{W}^{,}^{f} : G _{α} ^{∼} G _{α} [W]

=

taking F _{α} = ^{} g ^{W}^{,}^{f} : W, f ∈ W _{α} ^{} the induction hypothesis (I) remains true.

1

First we prove a lemma:

Lemma 3.5 If W,

f ∈ W _{α} , g ∈

Iso _{p} (G _{α} , G _{α} [W ]), g

(i) for each x ∈ W \dom(f ) the set

⊃ f , |g\f | < ω, then

{y ∈ W : g ∪ { x, y } ∈ Iso _{p} (G _{α} , G _{α} [W ])}

is coﬁnal in ωα.

(ii) for each y ∈ W \ran(f ) the set

{x ∈ W : g ∪ { x, y } ∈ Iso _{p} (G _{α} , G _{α} [W ])}

is coﬁnal in ωα.

Proof: (i): Deﬁne the function h : ran(g)\ran(f ) → 2 with h(g(z)) = 1

iﬀ {z, x}

Since

W ∩ (ωβ + ω) is large, we have a y ∈ W ∩ [ωβ, ωβ + ω) such that

∈

E _{α} .

Choose β ∈ L _{W} with ran(h)⊂ωβ and γ _{f}

≤

β.

1. {y, f (z)} ∈ E _{α} iﬀ {x, z} ∈ E _{α} for each z ∈ dom(f )

2. {y, g(z)} ∈ E _{α} iﬀ h(g(z)) = i for each z ∈ dom(g)\dom(f ).

But this means that g ∪ { x, y } ∈ Iso _{p} (G _{α} , G _{α} [W ]). (ii) The same proof works using that ωβ + ω is large for each β < α.

By induction on n, we will pick points z _{n}

W,f

n

: n < ω ^{} will work.

W,f

n

∈ ωα and will construct

=

families of partial automorphisms, ^{} g

∪ ^{} g

: W, f ∈ W _{α} ^{} such

that g ^{W}^{,}^{f}

During the inductive construction we will speak about F _{α} -terms and

about functions which are represented by them in the n ^{t}^{h} step.

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370 revision:1994-08-30

If F

where

= h _{0} ,

h _{k}_{−}_{1} is an F _{α} -term and n ∈ ω take F _{[}_{n}_{]} = j _{0} ◦ ··· ◦ j _{k}_{−}_{1}

j _{i} =

W,f

_{g}

(g

h _{i}

n

W,f

n

) ^{−}^{1}

if h _{i} = g ^{W}^{,}^{f} ,

if h _{i} = (g ^{W}^{,}^{f} ) ^{−}^{1} ,

otherwise.

First ﬁx an enumeration { W _{n} , f _{n} , u _{n} , i _{n} : 1 ≤ n < ω} of W _{α} × ωα × 2 and an enumeration F _{n}_{,}_{i} : i < l _{n} , j _{n} , A _{n}_{,}_{i} : i < l _{n} , D _{n} n < ω of the quadru-

F _{k}_{−}_{1} are F _{α} -

or j = 1 and

., A _{k}_{−}_{1} ∈ J α ^{.} During the inductive construction conditions (i)–(v) below will be satis-

A _{0} ,

terms, j ∈ 2, D ∈ S

ples F _{0} ,

, F _{k}_{−}_{1} , j, A _{0} ,

−

, A _{k}_{−}_{1} , D where k < ω, F _{0} ,

, A _{k}_{−}_{1} ∈ I

−

α

,

and either j = 0 and A _{0} ,

ﬁed:

g

(ii) g

(i)

(iii)

g

W,f

0

W,f

n

W,f

n

= f

∈ Iso _{p} (G _{α} , G _{α} [W ])

⊃ g

W,f

n−1 , |g

W,f

n

\f| < ω

(iv) z _{k} ∈/

^{} ^{} F _{[}_{n}_{]} A _{k}_{,}_{i} : F ∈ Sub(F _{k}_{,}_{i} ) ^{} for each i < l _{k} and k < n

(v) if i _{n} = 1, then u _{n} ∈ dom(g

W _{n} ,f _{n}

n

),

if i _{n} = 0, then either u _{n} ∈/ W _{n} or u _{n} ∈ ran(g

W _{n} ,f _{n}

n

).

If n = 0, then take g

W,f

0

= f.

If n > 0, then let g

n

W _{n} , f _{n} . Assume that

). Then, by lemma 3.5, the

= ^{} y ∈ W : g _{n}_{−}_{1} ∪ { u _{n} , y } ∈ Iso _{p} (G _{α} , G _{α} [W ]) ^{} is unbounded in ωα.

− are bounded in ωα, we can apply lemma 3.3

∪ { u _{n} , y } condition

W,f

g _{n}_{−}_{1} whenever W, f

=

W,f

=

i _{n} = 0, set Y

Since the members of I

W, f = W _{n} , f _{n} and u _{n} ∈/ dom(g

W,f

− ∪ J

α

α

W _{n} ,f _{n}

n−1

to pick a point y ∈ Y such that taking g

(iv) holds. If i _{n} = 1 and W, f = W _{n} , f _{n} , then the same argument works. Finally pick a point

W _{n} ,f _{n}

_{n}

W _{n} ,f _{n}

n−1

= g

z _{n}

∈/ D _{n} \ ^{}

^{} F _{[}_{n}_{]} A _{n}_{,}_{i} : F ∈ Sub(F _{n}_{,}_{i} ), i < l _{n} ^{} .

The inductive construction is done.

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370 revision:1994-08-30

Take

g |
W,f |

n |

: n < ω ^{} . By (v),

g

W,f

n

=

: G ωα ^{∼}

G _{ω}_{α} [W].

By (iv), we have

z _{k} ∈ D _{k} \ ^{} ^{} F

_{k}_{,}_{i} A _{k}_{,}_{i} : i < l _{k}

and so it follows that {S _{ω}_{β} : β ≤ α} is uncovered by I _{α} ∪ J _{α} . Case 2:α = β + 1.

To start with we ﬁx an enumeration ^{}^{} f pairs f _{i} , x _{i} : i < n , h satisfying 3.4.1–5. If k ∈ ω take

^{} ν, x

and

k , x

i

i k : i < n _{k} , h _{k} ^{} : k ∈ ω ^{} of

k

i

) and

k

i

^{} ∈/ E _{β} ^{}

B

k

= h

k

0

−1

{0} ∪ ^{} f

k

i

(ν) : i < n _{k} , ν ∈ dom(f

1

B _{k} = h

−1

k

{1} ∪ ^{} f

k

i

k

(ν) : i < n _{k} , ν ∈ dom(f

i

) and

^{} ν, x

k

i

^{} ∈ E _{β} ^{} .

Applying lemma 3.2 ω-many times we can ﬁnd partitions (C of ωβ such that taking

+

I

β

= Cl((I _{β} ∪ ^{} C

1

k

:

k ∈ ω ^{} , ^{}

γ≤β

F _{γ} )

0

k

, C

k

1

), k < ω,

and

+

J

β

= Cl((I _{β} ∪ ^{} C

0

k

:

k ∈ ω ^{} , ^{}

γ≤β

F _{γ} )

+

the set {S _{ω}_{γ} : γ ≤ β} is uncovered by I

β

+

∪ J β ^{.}

1

B _{k}

We can assume that B _{k} ⊂C _{k} for i < 2 and k < ω because B

∈ I _{β} . Take

i

i

E _{α} = E _{β} ∪ ^{} {ν, ωβ + n} : ν < ωβ, n ∈ ω

and ν ∈ B

1

n

0

k

∈ J _{β} and

and

F _{α} = ∅.

By the construction of G _{α} = ωα, E _{α} , it follows that ωα is large, so (II) holds. On the other hand

I _{α} = ^{} X ∪ Y

+

: X ∈ I

β

,

Y ∈ [ωα] ^{<}^{ω} ^{}

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