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# Consistent Deformations for Trusses

Objectives:
1. 2. Set up the table to calculate truss deformations Calculate the reactions for a 1-degree indeterminate truss structure

## The internal work for a truss member is:

Wi=

S SL AE

The internal work for the entire structure is the sum of all the members internal work. For a truss, the number of redundants is;
D = M + R 2N

where M is the number of members R is the number of reactions N is the number of nodes or joints. if D = 0 then the structure is determinate. D > 0 then the structure is indeterminate to the Dth degree D < 0 then the structure is a mechanism (un-stable).

## Consistent Displacements Truss Example

Given the following truss, find the member forces.

## The number of redundants that need to be removed is; M = 6, N = 4, R = 3, 6 + 3 2* 4 = 1

The structure is indeterminate to the first degree. Step 1) create a determinate base structure. The structure is externally determinate. Support reactions can be found from statics. Cut a member to remove it. The opening or closing of the cut is the redundant displacement. The following determinate base structure will be used:

Cut

Step 2) calculate the displacements at all removed redundants due to the external loads. Using the dummy unit load method, this means applying a unit tension to the member.
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The amount of force required to push the truss apart so that the member can be re-inserted will be calculated. This includes the elongation of the removed member. The virtual load for the structure is:

The displacement, r10, is the distance of the separation of the joints a - d along the line of the member connecting a and d. The forces in the real structure are:

## The following table calculates the internal work;.

Member ab ac bd dc ad (removed) bc

Length (L) 12 16 16 12 20 20

S0

S1

## S1S1L 4.32 10.24 10.24 4.32 20 20 69.12

From the Table the column S0S1L corresponds to the r10 term. r 10 = 1382.4 AE

Step 3) calculate the displacement at the removed redundant due to a unit load at each removed redundant. From the table, f11 is the column S1S1L. 69.12 f 11 = AE The final displacement of the removed redundant must be equal to zero. The cut made in the
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redundant member must remain un-separated. Step 4), substituting into the compatibility equation we have:

or X 1= 1382.4 = 20 69.12

The final force in the removed member is -20. (compression) The final structural forces are:

The final member forces are: S final = S 0 + S 1 * X 1 Virtual work allows any compatible force or displacement pattern to be used as the virtual case. Therefore, the determinate base structure can be used. The following load and structure can be used to determine the displacement under the load: