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2010 Annual Report Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena

A Deconvolution Technique for Space Charge Recovery in Lossy and Dispersive Dielectrics using PEA Method

B. Vissouvanadin 1 , C. Laurent 1, 2 , S. Le Roy 1, 2 , G. Teyssèdre 1, 2 , I. Denizet 3 , M. Mammeri 3 and B. Poisson 3

1 Université de Toulouse; UPS, INP; LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Bat 3R3, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France

2 CNRS; LAPLACE; F-31062 Toulouse, France. 3 Silec Cable, rue de Varennes Prolongée, 77876 Montereau Cedex, France

* bertrand.vissouvanadin@laplace.univ-tlse.fr

Abstract- The Pulsed Electro-Acoustic method (PEA) is widely used both in laboratory for fundamental research and in industry for components assessment and diagnosis. However, in most cases, the technique is used without paying enough attention for acoustic losses and dispersive effects, which render the interpretation of the material/product response somewhat uncertain, especially when dealing with relatively thick samples. Moreover, for cable systems, PEA signals are affected by the acoustic wave propagation in the material and the response of the measurement system. We developed a deconvolution technique that takes into account the divergent effects due to coaxial geometry and insulation thickness. The accuracy of the recovered charge profile depends on the system modeling (especially the estimate of the attenuation and dispersion coefficients). Furthermore, simulation results show that the recovered charge profiles can be affected, to some extent, by the Signal to Noise Ratio of experimental data. A comparison between experimental results on power cables with and without the deconvolution technique is reported and discussed.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Today the Pulsed Electro-Acoustic (PEA) method is used to investigate polymer charging behaviour. In the field of electrical engineering, this technique is used to study space charge in insulation materials. Improvement has been made over the last decade to understand charge generation and transport thanks to the non-destructive methods like PEA. In the framework of HV cable developpement, a large number of measurements are performed on plaque samples. However, this is not really representative of what occurs in a real cable since geometrical effects such as thermal gradient and non homogeneous electric field are not reproduced. Furthermore, the plane-parallel sample preparation conditions differ from those of the cables manufacturing, and it may also have an effect regarding charge generation and transport. For these reasons, PEA devices have been developed to perform space charge measurements directly on model cables. As the cable insulation is rather thick (up to several cm) and as the PEA method uses pressure wave as detecting signal, the latter is affected by attenuation and dispersion effects. Therefore, it is

necessary to use a deconvolution technique which takes into account not only the instrument transfer function but also the geometry and the material response. We describe here a deconvolution technique that takes into account the response of the material-set-up system, including the divergent effects of the cylindrical geometry.

II. SYSTEM TRANSFER FUNCTION

A. System overview

The system (Figure 1) consists of the cable and the measurement device. The cable is an XLPE based-insulation and has two semiconducting shields which are considered to have the same acoustic properties as the insulator, so that acoustic reflections between these two materials are neglected. The interaction between an externally applied pulse and a space charge at the position r generates an acoustic wave which travels across the cable thickness [1]. A fraction of this wave is detected at the sensor (piezoelectric film + amplifier). The detected signal contains information about space charge but is affected by the system response and noise.

charge but is affected by the sy stem response and noise. Figure 1 : PEA Cable

Figure 1 : PEA Cable System.

As the system is considered to be linear time invariant (LTI), the global response is given by the superposition of the response of each sub-system in the frequency domain:

(1)

Where H syst , H instr and H mat are the system (global), the instrument and the material response, respectively.

H

sys

( f , r)

=

H

instr

( f ).H

( f , r)

mat

978-1-4244-9470-5/10/$26.00 ©2010 IEEE

B. Plaque material response

When propagating across the material, the acoustic wave is attenuated and dispersed. If a frequency-dependent complex wave P(f,z’) is generated at a position z’ and propagates towards the sensor at the position z = 0, the complex magnitude of the wave is given by the following expression:

(2)

Where k(f) is a complex wave vector, of the type:

(3)

α(f) and β(f) are respectively the attenuation and the dispersion coefficients. A relation exists between α(f) and β(f) due to the material causality. Over a frequency range, approximate relations, known as the Nearly Local Kramers-Kronig (NLKK) relations, can be established between α(f) and β(f) [2]. For polyethylene materials, α(f) can be modelized by a linear function of the frequency:

(4)

P

(

f

,0)

=

P f

(

,

z

').

e

ik

(

f

)*

z

'

k = β ( f ) iα ( f )

α ( f ) = af + b

c

(

f

)

=

Assuming

c

(

f

0

c

(

f

)

)

+

2 f

β

(

f

)

=

c

c

(

f

0

π

) ⎞ ⎟

2

a

.ln

(

f

0

)

<< c f

π

c

(

f

f

f

0

(5)

(6)

)

⎟ ⎟ ⎠ + b ⎜ ⎜ ⎝

1

1

f

0

f

(

0

)

, c being the wave velocity.

C. Effect of the cylindrical geometry

The geometry has an impact on the wave generation (through the position-dependent pulse magnitude) and on the wave propagation. The pressure spectrum generated at the

position r by the charge sheet σ(r) is given by:

(7)

P( f , r)

=

E

P

( f , r).

σ

(r)

E

P

(

f

,

r

) = −

U

P

(

f

)

r ln(

r

E

r I

)

(8)

Where U p is the applied pulse voltage, r E and r I are the external and the internal radius of the cable respectively. When propagating in the direction of the external radius, the pressure magnitude diverges. If the material attenuation is not taken into account, the relationship between the magnitude of the pressure at r E and r can be approximated by [3]:

P f

(

,

r E

)

(

P f

,

r

(9)by [3]: P f ( , r E ) ≈ ( P f , r D.

D. Set-up response

Since the sensor (piezoelectric + amplifier) is bandwidth limited, the instrument response has to be taken into account in the deconvolution. The transfer function of the set-up is obtained via the well-known “calibration” procedure. A virgin sample is stressed at a known voltage U cal . The set-up

function can then be deduced from the obtained signal

is the set-up transfer function, the

pressure generated at the position r E by the interaction of the

V Scal (f,r E ). If H ( f )

instr

surface charge σ cal (r E ) and the external pulse U p does not
surface charge σ cal (r E ) and the external pulse U p does not
undergo the material attenuation. Therefore the signal (Figure
2) generated by the surface charge σ cal (r E ) is given by :
U p
(
f
,
r
)
=
H
(
f
).
⎜ ⎝
(
)
(10)
V Scal
E
instr
r
ln(
r
/
r
)
E
E
I
cal
r E
⎟ ⎟ σ
ε . U
cal
Here
(
) =
σ cal
r E
⎛ r ⎞
E
r
ln ⎜
E
⎟ ⎟
r I ⎠
0.2
V
Scal (t,r I )
0.1
0
-0.1
-0.2
V
Scal (t,r E )
-0.3
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
signal (mV)

time(µs)

Figure 2 : Calibration signal

E. System transfer function

The goal is to identify the response of the system in the presence of a surface charge σ(r) in the material. The interaction between σ(r) and E P (,r) gives rise to a pressure wave P(f,r) which propagates through the material and reaches the position r E with the magnitude P(f,r E ). Using the expressions (2), (7), (9) and (10), a relationship between the

voltage signal spectrum V S (f,r) at the sensor and σ (r) can be

derived:

V

s

(

f

,

r

)

= H ( f ). P f ( , r ) instr E = H
= H
(
f
).
P f
(
,
r
)
instr
E
= H
( f
).
E
(
f
,
r
).
σ
(
r
instr
P
( f
,
r
)
r E
V Scal
E
[
α
(
f
)
=
e
(
)
r
r E
σ cal
= H
( f
,
r
).
σ
(
r
)
syst
r − [ α ( f ) + i ) . . e r E
r
[
α
(
f
)
+
i
)
.
. e
r
E
+
i
β
(
f
)].[
r
]
r E
σ (
r
)

β

(

f

)].[

r E

r

]

(11)

From the above equations, one can note that the attenuation

and the geometry have an opposite effect. Indeed, the

generated pressure magnitude will be higher close to the inner conductor (as the pulse magnitude is much more important) but the pressure will be more attenuated as it will cross a longer distance. The attenuation and dispersion coefficients can be extracted experimentally (from the calibration signal) as follows:

α (

f ) =

β f

(

) =

3/ 2 − 1 ( f , r ) ⎛ r ⎞ V Scal I
3/ 2
− 1
( f
,
r
) ⎛ r ⎞
V Scal
I
E
ln
⎜ ⎜
⎟ ⎟
d
( f
,
r
)
r
V Scal
E
I
− 1
( ϕ
(
(
f
,
r
))
−ϕ
(
V
V Scal
I
Scal
d

(

f

,

r

E

)))

(12)

(13)

Where d = r E - r I, ϕ is the phase of a complex number. From equations 4 and 12, it is then possible to fit experimental data (Figure 3). Note that the bandwidth of the PEA signal is around 10 MHz, hence the computation of the (experimental) attenuation coefficient is not accurate above this frequency.

1 experimental model 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 5 10 15 Frequency attenuation (Neper/mm)
1
experimental
model
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
5
10
15
Frequency attenuation (Neper/mm)

frequency (MHz)

Figure 3 : Experimental and simulated values of α(f).

For the XLPE cable under test, the following set of parameters has been found:

a = 6, 2.10 -2 Neper/ (mm.MHz)

b = 0

f 0 = 2 MHz c(f 0 ) =1,9.10 6 mm/s For cables containing charges, the detected signal is given by the contribution of all charges located between r I and r E , then:

(14)

V

s

(t)

=

r

E

r

I

h

syst

(t, r')ρ(r')dr'

Where ρ(r’).dr’ = dσ(r’). The time transfer function of the system h syst (t,r) is deduced from H syst (f,r) using the Inverse Fourier Transform. Equation (14) is a Fredholm Integral Equation of the first kind and its discretization in the space and time domains leads to the following linear system of equations:

V

S

(

t

i

)

r

.

N

j = 1

h

syst

(

t

i

,

V

S

= h

syst

'.ρ

r

j

)ρ(

r

j

)

(15)

Where Δr is step discretization of the space domain. V S and ρ are column-vectors containing respectively M and N points, h syst ’=h syst .Δr is a M*N matrix. The above matrix equation depicts the relationship between the sampled output signal V S and the space charge profile ρ. Some columns j (space) of the

matrix h syst versus the lines i (time) are represented in Figure

4.

 

III.

SPACE CHARGE RECOVERY

A.

Inversion method

The system matrix previously computed is ‘ill- conditioned’ since a small perturbation on V s (t) may induce a huge uncertainty as regards estimation of the charge density ρ(r). Since H syst (f,r) contains some terms close to zero (especially for high frequencies) the inverse transfer function

is likely to contain some important coefficients. This leads to a

highly instable inverse system transfer function.

3 x 10 4 2 1 0 j= 1 -1 j=162 j=324 -2 j=541 j=
3 x 10 4
2
1
0
j= 1
-1
j=162
j=324
-2
j=541
j= 811
-3
j=1621
j=1622
-4
0
500
1000
1500
column j [z j = j.
z]Δ

row i [t i = i.Δ t]

Figure 4 : Transfer matrix of the system (h syst ).

Instead of searching to solve the previous linear system in a direct manner, the idea is to find a solution which minimise both the residual norm (first term in Eq. 16) and the side constraint (second term in Eq. 16). A particular solution with desirable properties can be selected by choosing an appropriate matrix L [4]:

2 h '. ρ − V syst S 2
2
h
'.
ρ − V
syst
S
2

2

+ λ

2 L ρ 2
2
L
ρ
2

(16)

λ is the regularization parameter which controls the filtering of the solution. After the optimization of λ, the estimated charge

is given by:

~

ρ

=

T

h

syst

' .h

syst

'

+

λ

opt

L

1

T

h

syst

' .V

S

(17)

B.

Our purpose is to test the deconvolution performances when dealing with noisy signals. In that goal, a

planar configuration has been adopted and the transfer function is derived from the previous paragraph. The following parameters have been adopted for the material:

Effect of noise

d = 0.5 mm

a = 7.10 -2 Neper/(mm.MHz)

b = 0

f 0 = 1MHz c(f 0 )= 2.10 6 mm/s

A 50 MHz bandwidth gaussian pulse has been implemented.

The sensor is assumed to behave like a high pass filter with the following transfer function [5]:

(18)

2

2

i

f

π

/

f

e

1

+

i

f

π

/

f

e

H

instr

(

f

) =

f e is the cutting frequency of the sensor which depends on the (piezo + amplifier) characteristics. For this work, f e is set to 50 MHz. Two surface charges are placed respectively at z= 0 and

at z = d,{Q(z) = −δ (z) + δ (z d )}.

An additional Gaussian noise with a variance v r is added to the simulated output signal as shown in Figure 5a. This noisy signal is then deconvolved using the noiseless signal as a calibration.

For v r = 5.10 -4 , the results show some ripples at the vicinity of the peaks and the second peak is broadened. Subsequent filtering suppresses the ripples but in the same time reduces the resolution (Figure 5b).

0.02 0 -0.02 -0.04 -0.06 0 2 4 6 time (s) x 10 -7 signal
0.02
0
-0.02
-0.04
-0.06
0
2
4
6
time (s)
x 10 -7
signal (A.U)

a)

0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 charge density (A.U)
0.05
0
-0.05
-0.1
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
charge density (A.U)

position (mm)

b)

Figure 5 : a) simulated PEA signal, and b) recovered charge profile.

C. Comparison of charge profiles with and without correction

PEA measurements have been performed on XLPE cable model having the following geometric parameters:

+ Inner conductor diameter # 10 mm

+ Outer conductor diameter # 19 mm

+ Insulation thickness # 4.5 mm

The cable was stressed under 50 kV for 90 min at room temperature and then grounded. Negative polarity has been applied to the inner conductor. PEA measurements have been carried out in volt-on at 10 and 90 min and after 10 min under short-circuit. The resulting PEA measurements have been treated with two deconvolution methods: the standard one which ignores attenuation, dispersion and geometry effects, and the one presented previously. Both techniques show an homocharge build-up at each electrode (Figure 6) albeit with some differences that we shall discuss. The second peak, which corresponds to the surface charge at the inner conductor, is broader in the case of the standard deconvolution (Figure 6a) since the attenuation effect is not taken into account. Also, the depolarization profile shows the presence of negative charges, adjacent to the inner electrode, which is not observed on the profiles during polarization. These charges require additional corrections on the charge or field profiles. For our deconvolution technique, the spatial resolution at the two electrodes is roughly the same (Figure 6b), which is as good as the resolution of the first peak for the standard deconvolution. Moreover, polarization and

depolarization profiles are identical. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that, for the present method, the space charge profiles depend on the accuracy of the transfer matrix and therefore how the attenuation and the dispersion coefficients are estimated.

10 min 1 90 min depolarization 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 1 2 3 4 5
10
min
1
90
min
depolarization
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
1
2
3
4
5
charge density (C/m 3 )

position(mm)

a)

1 10 min 90 min 0.5 depolarization 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 0 1 2 3
1
10
min
90
min
0.5
depolarization
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
charge density(C/m 3 )

position (mm)

b)

Figure 6 : experimental profiles of space charge. a) standard deconvolution without any correction, and b) our deconvolution method.

IV.

CONCLUSION

The results show that the present method of deconvolution is able to correct attenuation, dispersion and geometry effects in 5mm thick cable model. It is however still necessary to minimize the noise level of rough signals to improve the quality of the results. This can be achieved by averaging acoustic responses over a longer period of time with however the need to avoid charge build-up during calibration. The use of a fast pulse generator does constitute the solution to both issues.

REFERENCES

[1] Y.Li and M. Aihara, "Space Charge measurement in thick dielectric materials by pulsed electroacoustic method”, Rev. Sci. Instrum, Vol. 66, pp.3909-3916, 1995.

[2]

R.J. Lyons, "Determining distributed source waveforms in causal, lossy, dispersive, plane-wave materials", PhD. Thesis, Boston University,

1998.

[3] M.Fu and G.Chen, “Space charge measurement in polymer insulated power cables using flat ground electrode PEA system”, IEE Proc.-Sci

Meas. Technol., Vol 150, pp. 89-96, 2003. P.Hansen, "Regularization Tools, A Matlab Package for Analysis and Solution of Discrete Ill-Posed Problems", Technical University of Denmark, 1998.

[5] P.Morshuis and M.Jeroense, “Space Charge Measurements on Impregnated Paper: A Review of the PEA Method and a Discussion of Results, IEEE Electr.Insul.Mag, Vol.13,N°3, pp. 26-35, 1997.

[4]