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Supervised by Dr Tian

Nick Taylor __________________ (signed) Iain Howard __________________ (signed) Andrew Hardman __________________ (signed) Xu Yang __________________ (signed)

Abstract

Flow Meter Calibration is a process to verify the flow rate of a system within industry. The flow rate is known to be dependent on the pressure difference across a restricted and unrestricted piping. The objective of this test is to familiarise flow meter calibration using a Venturi system and also determine the relationship between the flow rate and the pressure difference when measured using a manometer. This will allow a formula to be used to calculate a given flow rate. An experimental test in which both the degree of height difference ( and Flow Rate (Q) are measured using an Armfield F1-15 Bernoullis Thereom Demonstration Unit which suggests that the relationship could be in the form of:

alue is oun to e

The value of m = 0.598 fell outside actual known value of m 0.5. The value was used to calculate the K value which was found to be: K = 0.0004 0.00005 Where: Q = 0.0004 H0.598 It was shown that the hypothesised equation of Q=KHm to be an appropriate formula to be used for Flow Meter cali ration. As long as uncertainties where calculate an known limitations o Bernoullis Thereom were considered.

Contents

List of Notations 1. Introduction 1.1 Background 1.2 Objectives 2 Theory 3 Apparatus & Method 4 Results 4.1 Data Uncertainties 5 Discussion 6 Conclusion

List Of Notations V = Volume H1 = Height at a Manometer Tu e H2 = Height at e Manometer Tu e H = Height difference (H1 H2) Q = Volumetric Flow Rate T = Time k = Correctional Co-efficient m = Arbitrary power Unit: m3 Unit: m Unit: m Unit: m Unit: Unit: secs Unit:

In differing industries there is a need to have a specific flow rate to be used as part of a system. To be able to achieve this, calibration of the system will be needed. Flow meter calibration can be verified using many differing systems. In our testing we will be using a Venturi system. The Venturi system is ase on low continuity an The Bernoullis Thereom. Included in the test will be familiarisation with using a Venturi system with connected manometers and also analysising the resulting data. Ha ing con ucte the test it will allow a iscussion on the results an also o Bernoullis Theorem.

1.2 Objectives

Correct procedural use of a Venturi System, Show that experimental data justifies using a calibration formula of , Whilst including choice of a single best fixed value of the index value m whilst taking into account estimate uncertainties an the theoretical alue o m 0.5, an Quantifying the correction co-efficent, including its uncertainties to establish accuracy of the test.

2. Theory

For a Volumetric Flow Rate measurement using a Venturi system, it should be possible to plot the resulting data of Q vs H and suggest that a power law formula would fit a trendline. To be able to easily show this, plotting Ln (Q) vs Ln (H) would then give a linear trendline. If this was shown to be true, then the resulting gradient of the line would indicate the relevant power involved which would be unknown at the time. This would then suggest:

If it is decided that the above is an acceptable function, then it would be necessary to identify a correctional co-efficient (K). To find the value of k, plotting Q vs should generate a graph with a straight trendline. The gradient of the trendline would give the respective K value. Once all the values are known comparison for its practical use of the system could be evaluated when comparing the function with the well documented equation for Flow Meter calibration testing of:

However this would have to be critiqued as physical assumptions may not hold true for the particular apparatus used in the testing and also uncertainties identified within the procedure.

Apparatus which was used to conduct the calibration comprised of an Armfield F1-15 Bernoullis Thereom Demonstration Unit (See figure 3.1) fitted on to an Armfield F1-10 Hydraulics Bench (See figure 3.2).

Calibration also required a 1000ml measuring container and a Stopwatch. The actual test section comprises of a Venturi system (figure 3.3) with a flow regulator inlet valve and an outlet valve. The Venturi system has 8 tappings connected to a manometer bank which incorporates a manifold with air bleed valve. For the purpose of the calibration, only the manometer tubes from tappings a an e are nee e or the actual height readings. A flow chart diagram (figure 3.4) shows the full system of the calibration.

Method Firstly ensure there is an uninterrupted water flow going to the hydraulics bench. Next Open both the Inlet and Outlet valve slowly and allow the fluid in the manometer tubes to stabilise. Slowly a just the al es as to ma imise the amount o lui in the a tu e an minimise the lui in the e tu e. Take readings of the actual heights for both manometers. The board is in 10mm increments, use a Engineering rule with 1 mm increments for added accuracy of the readings. Next use the 1000ml measuring container to measure the water flow from the test rig for 5 secs. Note the amount of water in the container. Repeat the pre ious 4 steps a urther 4 times, each time re ucing the height le el in the a tu e an increasing the height le el in the e tu e, until on the inal reading there is minimal height i erence in the rea ings rom oth the a an e manometer tu es.

There will now be 5 data sets for which it will be possible to compile results and compute the relevant data.

4. Results

Measure alues or the Volume an heights or Manometers attache to tappings a an e.

Time (sec) 5 5 5 5 5 5

Calculated log values of the Flow Rate (Q) and the Height difference (H)

-8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -8.5 0

y = 0.5983x - 7.8535

-9

-9.5

Ln(Q)

-10

y = 0.5397x - 8.0163

-10.5

-11

y = 0.6718x - 7.7054

-11.5

Ln(H) Figure 4.1 Graph showing relationship between Ln(H) and Ln(Q)

-12

Scatter Graph showing relationship between flow rate (Q) and Height Difference^0.598 (H^m)

0.00025

0.00015

y = 0.0004x - 5E-06

0.00005

0

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 Height Difference^0.598 (H^m)

Figure 4.2 Graph showing relationship between flow rate (Q) and Height Di erence^0.598 (H^m)

Volume: 0.000010m3 Time: 0.31 sec (total) Includes 0.30 sec human reaction + 0.01 sec Stopwatch accuracy H1: 0.001m H2: 0.001m H: 0.002m Q: Ln Q: Ln Q: [ ( ) ( ) ]

Time (sec) 5 5 5 5 5 5

5. Discussion

The objectives in principle were all met. Correct use of the equipment was learnt, including removing an air u le rom the manometer tu e or tapping a. When the resulting data for Ln (Q) and Ln (H) were plotted (Figure 4.1), it can be clearly seen that the relationship is linear. This allowed a calculation of the gradient which resulted in a value of m as 0.598. Including the uncertainties in the value this was midway in the range of 0.5397 and 0.6718. Unfortunately the value was quite outside an appropriate accuracy for industry when taking into account the theoretical value of 0.5. The K value showed 0.0004 0.00005 which is an accuracy of 12.5%. As with above this well above an accuracy norm of 2%. The equipment manufacturer of the Armfield F1-15 Bernoullis Thereom Demonstration Unit o la el the unit as for educational and demonstration purposes. The test also assumed that the equipment was set up to the manu acturers gui elines. Furthermore there are limitations to Bernoullis Theorem which coul help in icate as to why we reached the m and k values. Limitation of Bernoulli's Equation:Shear stress of a liquid means the velocity of the liquid gradually decreases towards the walls of the pipe ue to riction. In Bernoullis equation only the mean elocity is use an losses ue to the shear stress are neglected. If the liquid has a turbulent flow some Kinetic Energy is converted into Heat Energy and in a Viscous Flow some Energy is lost due to Shear Forces. Thus while using Bernoulli's Equation all such losses should be neglected, which does not happen in actual practise. The equation neglects external forces which could have a real world effect on the fluid velocity.

6. Conclusion

Theoretically it has been shown that test data shows that the hypothesised equation of Q=KHm to be an appropriate formula to be used for Flow Meter calibration. When uncertainties were evaluated for both the K and m values it showed that there was insufficient accuracy that the test would meet stringent industry standards. However the Venturi System is a recognised calibration method for Flow Meters. In the discussion areas have been identified to show how the inaccuracies possibly have accrued during the test and the limitations o Bernoullis Theorem itsel . The test rig itself is not of a design for industry calibration ideals and is more suited for theoretical demonstration purposes. As a whole the experiment did allow for the tabulated data to be plotted to find equivalent linear trendlines when Ln Q vs Ln H were plotted. Also there was sufficiently linearity in from the plotting of Q vs Hm.