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Chapter - 01 INTRODUCTION Electrical energy plays a vital role at various stages of human life.

It is v ery important task to generate, transmit and distribute the electrical power at various consumer load points. The generation of electrical power can be done by using conventional and nonconventional sources of energy. Technologies to generate electrical power by con ventional sources like coal, petrol, diesel etc and non-conventional energies li ke solar, wind, water etc is available. The mass production of this power is pos sible today and can be handled by a group of sub-stations all connected together forming a grid. ARYA 1.1KV GRID SUBSTATION - A grid substation is a subsidiary station of an electricity generation, transmission and distribution system where voltage is tr ansformed from high to low or the reverse using transformers. It is situated at ACEIT campus, Jaipur approximately 22 kms far from the Jaipur railway station. The basic idea is to produce electricity from one or more generating units and t o efficiently transmit this power for local requirements. The Project is real wo rking substation designed for solving electricity problems in rural and urban ar eas. The whole substation is divided in three major sections Generation Transmission Distribution

1.1 GENERATION Electricity generation is the process of generating electricity from other for ms of energy. Electricity is most often generated at a power station by electrom echanical generators, primarily driven by heat engines fueled by chemical combu stion or nuclear fission but also by other means such as the kinetic energy of f lowing water and wind. There are many other technologies that can be and are use d to generate electricity such as solar photovoltaic and geothermal power. Sources of generation: Steam - Water is boiled by: Nuclear fission The burning of fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, or petroleum). In hot gas (gas t urbine), turbines are driven directly by gases produced by the combustion of nat ural gas or oil. Combined cycle gas turbine plants are driven by both steam and natural gas. They generate power by burning natural gas in a gas turbine and use residual heat to generate additional electricity from steam. These plants offer efficiencies of up to 60%. Renewable Biomass The sun as the heat source: solar parabolic troughs and solar power towers conce ntrate sunlight to heat a heat transfer fluid, which is then used to produce ste am. Geothermal power. Either steam under pressure emerges from the ground and drives a turbine or hot water evaporates a low boiling liquid to create vapor to drive a turbine.

Other renewable sources: Water (hydroelectric) - Turbine blades are acted upon by flowing water, produced by hydroelectric dams or tidal forces. Wind - Most wind turbines generate electricity from naturally occurring wind. So lar updraft towers use wind that is artificially produced inside the chimney by heating it with sunlight, and are more properly seen as forms of solar thermal e nergy. 1.2 TRANSMISSON A transmission substation connects two or more transmission lines. The simples t case is where all transmission lines have the same voltage. In such cases, the substation contains high-voltage switches that allow lines to be connected or i solated for fault clearance or maintenance. A small "switching station" may be l ittle more than a bus plus some circuit breakers. The largest transmission subst ations can cover a large area (several acres/hectares) with multiple voltage lev els, many circuit breakers and a large amount of protection and control equipmen t (voltage & current transformer, relays and SCADA systems). Transmission of ele ctricity is defined as bulk transfer of power over a long distance at high volta ge, generally of 132kv and above. The entire country has been divided into five regions for transmission systems, namely, Northern Region, North Eastern Region, Eastern Region, Southern Region and Western Region. The Interconnected transmis sion system within each region is also called the regional grid. Electric power transmission or "high voltage electric transmission" is the bul k transfer of electrical energy, from generating power plants to substations loc ated near to population centers. This is distinct from the local wiring between high voltage substations and customers, which is typically referred to as electr icity distribution. Transmission lines, when interconnected with each other, bec ome high voltage transmission networks. Transmission lines mostly use three phas e alternating current (AC), although single phase AC is sometimes used in railwa y electrification systems. High-voltage direct current (HVDC) technology is used only for very long distances (typically greater than 400 miles, or 600 km) subm arine power cables (typically longer than 30 miles, or 50 km); or for connecting two AC networks that are not synchronized. Electricity is transmitted at high voltages (110 kv or above) to reduce the en ergy lost in long distance transmission. Power is usually transmitted through ov erhead power lines. Underground power transmission has a significantly higher co st and greater operational limitations but is sometimes used in urban areas or s ensitive locations. 1.3 DISTRIBUTION A distribution substation transfers power from the transmission system to the distribution system of an area. It is uneconomical to directly connect elect ricity consumers to the high-voltage main transmission network, unless they use large amounts of power, so the distribution station reduces voltage to a value s uitable for local distribution. The feeders will then run overhead, along street s (or under streets, in a city) and eventually power the distribution transforme rs at or near the customer premises. The total installed generating capacity in the country is over 148,700MW and the total number of consumers is over 144 mill ion. Electricity distribution is the final stage in the delivery (before retail) of electricity to end users. A distribution system's network carries electricit y from the transmission system and delivers it to consumers. Typically, the netw ork would include medium-voltage (less than 50 kv) power lines, electrical subst ations and pole-mounted transformers, low-voltage (less than 1 kv) distribution wiring and sometimes electricity meters.

Distribution networks are typically of two types; radial or interconnected .A radial network leaves the station and passes through the network area with no no rmal connection to any other supply. This is typical of long rural lines with is olated load areas. An interconnected network is generally found in more urban ar eas and will have multiple connections to other points of supply. These points o f connection are normally open but allow various configurations by the operating utility by closing and opening switches. Operation of these switches may be by remote control from a control centre or by a lineman. The benefit of the interco nnected model is that in the event of a fault or required maintenance a small ar ea of network can be isolated and the remainder kept on supply. Within these networks there may be a mix of overhead line construction utilizing traditional utility poles and wires and, increasingly, underground construction with cables and indoor or cabinet substations. However, underground distributio n is significantly more expensive than overhead construction. In part to reduce this cost, underground power lines are sometimes co-located with other utility l ines in what are called common utility ducts. Distribution feeders emanating fro m a substation are generally controlled by a circuit breaker which will open whe n a fault is detected. Automatic circuit re-closures may be installed to further segregate the feeder thus minimizing the impact of faults. 1.4 FUTURE ASPECTS OF HYBRID GRID SUBSTATION A. By constructing such small substations, the electricity requirement in small villages and rural areas where it is difficult to transmit electricity from urba n areas can b met. B. A small grid substation in the village can be constructed which will serve th e need of the area. C. If such an idea is implemented, every village in India can be enlightened and the electricity problems of rural areas can be solved. With negligible transmis sion losses. D. It is a very economical way of transmission and distribution of electricity.

Fig.1.1 Yard Working Model of 1.1 kV Smart G.S.S. at Arya College Chapter 02

SELECTION OF LAND AREA A typical substation would require an area as large as 1830 m sq. The size of the substation depends upon the number of equipments to be used and ultimately upon the amount of electrical energy to be handled. We can make use of any kind of piece of land to construct the sub-station. The 1.1kv grid sub-station at Ary a College of Engineering & I.T., Kukas, Jaipur is one constructed on a land area of 1830 m sq. Selection of the location of a substation must consider many factors. Suffici ent land area is required for installation of equipment with necessary clearance s for electrical safety, and for access to maintain large apparatus such as tran sformers. Environmental effects of the substation must be considered, such as dr

ainage, noise and road traffic effects. Grounding (earthing) and ground potentia l rise must be calculated to protect passers-by during a short circuit in the tr ansmission system.

Fig. 2.1 Land Preview Chapter 03

BASIC EQUIPMENTS USED IN ARYA 1.1 kV HYBRID G.S.S. EQUIPMENT FUNCTION REMARKS Busbars Various incoming and outgoing circuits are connected to busbars. Busbars receive power from incoming circuits and deliv ers to outgoing circuits Flexible ACSR busbars supported from two ends by suspension type insulators. Isolators To provide isolation from live parts for the purpose of maintenance. C entre rotating horizontal swing. Current Transformer Stepping down current measurement and control. Protective CT Ratio 30/5 Freq. 50 c/s, 5VA Low Voltage, 660L Circuit Breaker Switching during normal and abnormal operating conditions. Opera tion include: Closing Opening Auto-reclosing Miniature Circuit Breaker. Manufacture: L&T 240/415V, 50 Hz 4-pole Station Earthing System To provide low resistance earthing for: Equipment body earthing. Providing path for neutral to ground currents for earth fault protection. Earthing Plates used below 3.5m in ground. Insulators String Insulators Porcelain type. Suspension & pin type insulators. Towers Narrow base towers Height: 5m 3.5m above surface 1.5m for underground support. Poles H-poles Height: 5m 3.5m above surface

1.5m for underground support. Transformer Step-up Step-down 440V-1.1kV 1.1kV-440V 7.5 Kva Conductors ACSR conductors --------Wires Flexible wires --------Maruti Engine Used to drive the alternator 800 cc 4 stroke Alternator Uses mechanical power from the maruti engine to produce electricity 3 -phase 440V, 7.5A 1500 rpm Contactors Used to protect the PLC from fault currents L&T 11 kW 415V/25A SIEMENS 400/415V 5.5kW 7.5 HP

Fig 3.1 Line Diagram of ACEIT 1.1 KV Smart Grid Sub-Station Chapter - 04 COMPONENTS AND EQUIPMENTS 4.1 Unit-I The unit-I uses a petrol engine of 800 cubic capacities which is coupled with an alternator (440 Volt, 1500rpm and 7.5kVA). The petrol engine is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition, designed to run on petrol and similar vol atile fuels. The air and fuel is mixed by the carburetor or electronically contr olled fuel injection. The speed of the engine is set at 1500rpm so that it can b e coupled with the alternator with a coupling iron-disc. This disc is lathed at centre to form uniform hole for the shaft of the alternator and some other key h oles on the outer periphery for the purpose to be attached to the engine. The en gine has to be continuously supplied with petrol. A concrete platform of size (0.9*1.8) m and a 0.9m height from the ground lev el is constructed and an iron frame is welded for placing the engine-alternator set. The entire construction should take two sunny days to solidify. A margin is also provided between the platform and the iron frame for oil tank and silencer .

Fig 4.1 Unit-I 7.5 KVA Generating Set 4.2 Unit-II Unit-II uses a diesel engine as the prime mover and an alternator (440 vol t, 1500rpm) is coupled to it for the generation of electrical energy. The diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to in itiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber during the final stage of compression. This is in contrast to spark-ignition eng ines such as a petrol engine which uses a spark plug to ignite an air-fuel mixtu re. The diesel is comparatively cheaper than petrol and this engine provides eco nomic output.

Fig 4.2 Unit-II 15.5 KVA Diesel Generator Set 4.3 Poles In 1.1kv G.S.S at Arya, 4 H-shaped poles are erected, 2 poles at generatio n side (one for each unit) and 2 poles at distribution side. Poles are simply th e structure of welded cast iron. Poles are used to provide mechanical support to the conductors, insulators, isolators and transformers. Sets of isolators are m ounted on the middle limbs of the poles. Isolators are used when there is a need to disconnect a part or the whole of the system. For the operation of isolator, a plunger attached to a G.I. pipe is provided. On the top limbs of the poles, suspension type insulators are mounted. Thes e insulators are generally used for holding and supporting the conductors and th ereby insulating the live part from the poles. The height of H-type poles at Arya is 2.5m above the ground level and 0.8m under the foundation. All the poles are individually connected to the earthing s trip so that in any abnormal condition, the abnormal amount of current can be di rected towards the ground.

Fig 4.3 H-Type Pole 4.4 Towers Towers are used to handle the transmission of the generated electrical power . They act as the supporting structure for the transmission conductors. They are erected along the distance between any two sub-stations. The distance between t wo transmission towers is kept as close as 2 km (1.5 km in case of mountain regi on). Generally, A-type towers are used in India for transmission of voltage upto 33 kV. The height of the towers at Arya is around 3.7m above the ground level a nd approximately 1m under the foundation. There are 5 towers erected and the dis tance between any two consecutive towers is taken as 4m.

Fig 4.4 A-Type Tower 4.5 Circuit Breakers A circuit breaker is an automatically-operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and, by interrupting continuit y, to immediately discontinue electrical flow. Unlike a fuse, which operates onc e and then has to be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually o r automatically) to resume normal operation. Circuit breakers are made in varyin g sizes, from small devices that protect an individual household appliance up to large switchgear designed to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire ci ty. The circuit breaker must detect a fault condition; in low-voltage circuit br eakers this is usually done within the breaker enclosure. Circuit breakers for l arge currents or high voltages are usually arranged with pilot devices to sense a fault current and to operate the trip opening mechanism. The trip solenoid tha t releases the latch is usually energized by a separate battery, although some h igh-voltage circuit breakers are self-contained with current transformers, prote ction relays, and an internal control power source. Once a fault is detected, contacts within the circuit breaker must open to i nterrupt the circuit; some mechanically-stored energy (using something such as s prings or compressed air) contained within the breaker is used to separate the c ontacts, although some of the energy required may be obtained from the fault cur rent itself. Small circuit breakers may be manually operated; larger units have solenoids to trip the mechanism, and electric motors to restore energy to the sp rings. In larger ratings, oil circuit breakers rely upon vaporization of some of the oil to blast a jet of oil through the arc. Gas (sulfur hexafluoride) circuit breakers sometimes stretch the arc using a magnetic field, and then rely upon the dielectric strength of the sulfur hexa fluoride (SF6) to quench the stretched arc. Vacuum circuit breakers have minimal arcing, so the arc quenches when it i s stretched a very small amount. Vacuum circuit breakers are frequently used in modern medium-voltage switchgear to 35,000 volts. Air circuit breakers may use compressed air to blow out the arc, or altern atively, the contacts are rapidly swung into a small sealed chamber, the escapin g of the displaced air thus blowing out the arc. In 1.1kV G.S.S at Arya, air blast circuit breakers are used. They are high ly economical and their response time is very less.

Fig 4.5 Circuit Breaker 4.6 Isolators When Carrying out Inspection or repair in a substation installation it is essential to disconnect reliably the unit or the section, on which the work is t

o be done from all other live parts of the installation in order to ensure compl ete safety of the working stall. To guard against mistakes it is desirable that this should be done by an apparatus which makes a visible break in the circuit, such an apparatus is the insolating switch .It may be defined as a device used t o open (or close) a circuit either when negligible current is interrupted or whe n no significant change in the voltage across the terminal e.g. each pole of the isolator will result from the operation. In Arya 1.1kV G.S.S are used Centre rotating horizontal swing isolators as shown below in figure (4.6).

Fig 4.6 Isolator 4.7 Insulators In order to prevent the flow of current to the earth from support the tran smission or distribution lines are all secured by the help of insulator. Thus in sulators play an important part in the successful operation. 4.7.1 Types of Insulators 4.7.1.1. PIN TYPE INSULATOR: It consists of a single or multiple shells adapted to be mounted on a spindle to be fixed to the cross arm of the supporti ng structure. Multiple shells are provided in order to obtain sufficient length of leakage path so that the flash over voltage between the power conductor and t he pin of the insulator is increased. The design of the shell is such that when uppermost shell is wet due to rain the lower shell is dry and provide sufficient leakage resistance. It is used up to 33kV.

Fig 4.7.1.1 Pin Type Insulators 4.7.1.2. STRAIN INSULATOR: The strain insulators are exactly identified in shape with the suspension insulators. These strings are placed in the horizonta l plane rather than the vertical plane as is done in case of suspension insulato rs. These are used to take the tension of the conductors at line terminals, at a ngle towers, at road crossings and at function of overhead lines with cables. Fo r low voltages of the order of 11 kV, shackle insulators are used.

Fig 4.7.1.2 Strain Type Insulators

4.7.1.3. SUSPENSION TYPE INSULATOR: It is known as disc or string insulators also. A suspension insulator consists of porcelain disc units mounte d one above the other. Each disc consists of a single shed of porcelain grooved on the under surface to increase the creeping distance. Each disc is provided wi th a metal cap at a top and a metal pin underneath. The cap is recessed so as to

take the pin of another unit and thus a string of any required number of units can be built up. Each suspension insulator is designed for 11 kV and hence for a ny operating voltage, a string of insulators can be used. 132 kV transformer nee ds 12 no. of insulators.

Fig 4.7.1.3 Suspension Type Insulator 4.8. Transformer Transformer is a static electrical machine, which works on the principal of e lectromagnetic induction. It transfers electric power from one electric circuit to another. Electric power from one electric circuit with the help of magnetic p ath (flux) on constant frequency but equal or different voltage and current for this purpose two set of insulated winding wounded on a terminated silicon steel core winding which is connected to the supply is called primary winding and that winding which connected to the load is called secondary winding. Main parts of power transformers: 1. CORE: It consists of terminated steel of silicon in which quantity of silicon 1.3% up to 4% Thickness of lamination is 0.35 to 0.50 mm. normally the shape of core is rectangular and it has three lags. 2. WINDING: Winding of power transformer is an important part. It consist super enameled copper wires. The sizes of wire depend on the capacity of transformer, connection of winding. 3. TAP CHANGER: Tap changer is a switching device by which the transformation ra tio can be changed by the changing the position of tap changing switch. 4. TANK: It is a metallic tank which is filled of insulating oil. The transforme r core and winding assembly are surrounding by the oil. In this tank, It protect s the winding and core from the external mechanical damages. There are two transformers used in 1.1kV G.S.S at the Arya College of Engg. & I. T. Step-up Transformer (Transformer-I) Primary: 440 volts Secondary: 1100 volts (1.1kv)

Fig. 4.8.1 440/1.1 KV Transformer

Step Down Transformer (Transformer-II) Primary: 1100 volts (1.1kv) Secondary: 440 volts

Fig. 4.8.2 1.1KV/440V Transformer

4.9 Conductors A conductor is a material which contains movable electric charges. In meta llic conductors, such as copper or aluminum, the movable charged particles are e lectrons (see electrical conduction). Positive charges may also be mobile in the form of atoms in a lattice that are missing electrons (known as holes), or in t he form of ions, such as in the electrolyte of a battery. All conductors contain electric charges which will move when an electric p otential difference (measured in volts) is applied across separate points on the material. This flow of charge (measured in amperes) is what is meant by electri c current. In most materials, the direct current is proportional to the voltage (as determined by Ohm's law), provided the temperature remains constant and the material remains in the same shape and state. Most familiar conductors are metallic. Copper is the most common material used for electrical wiring. Silver is the best conductor, but is expensive. The conductor used in 1.1 kV G.S.S at Arya College of Engg. & I.T. is Alum inum Cored Steel Reinforced (ACSR). Steel-reinforced-aluminum conductors are commonly used in medium-, high- a nd extra-high-voltage (EHV) transmission lines. They are also called ACSR or alu minum-conductor steel-reinforced conductors. ACSR transmission lines are high-st rength, high-capacity and exhibit excellent conductivity. They are lightweight a nd used in overhead transmission lines, river crossings and longer spans. ACSR t ransmission lines have a central steel strand, surrounded by outer aluminum stra nds. The steel conductor supports the weight of the transmission line while the aluminum is used for its conductive properties. ACSR transmission cables are ava ilable in specific sizes and varying amounts of central steel strands as well as outer aluminum conductors.

4.10 Wires A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, string of metal. Wires are used to bear mechanical loads and to carry electricity and telecommunications signals. Wire is commonly formed by drawing the metal through a hole in a die or plate. Standard sizes are determined by various wire gauges. The term wire is also used more loosely to refer to a bundle of such strands, as in 'multistranded wire', which is more correctly termed a wire rope in mechanics, or a cable in electrici ty.

Not all metals and metallic alloys possess the physical properties necessar y to make useful wire. The metals must in the first place be ductile and strong in tension, the quality on which the utility of wire principally depends. The me tals suitable for wire, possessing almost equal ductility, are platinum , silver , iron, copper, aluminum and gold; and it is only from these and certain of the ir alloys with other metals, principally brass and bronze, that wire is prepared . By careful treatment extremely thin wire can be produced. Special purpose wire is however made from other metals (e.g. tungsten wire for light bulb and vacuum tube filaments, because of its high melting temperature). Copper wires could be plated with other metals, such as tin, nickel, and silver to handle different t emperatures, provide lubrication, and provide easier stripping of rubber from co pper.

Chapter-05 EARTHING AND GROUNDING The earth is made up of materials that are electrically conductive. A faul t current will flow to 'earth' through the live conductor, provided it is earthe d. This is to prevent a potentially live conductor from rising above the safe le vel. All exposed metal parts of an electrical installation or electrical applian ce must be earthed. The main objectives of the earthing are: To provide an alternative path for the fault current to flow so that it will not endanger the user. To ensure that all exposed conductive parts do not reach a dangerous potential. To maintain the voltage at any part of an electrical system at a known value so as to prevent over current or excessive voltage on the appliances or equipment. The qualities of a good earthing system are: Must be of low electrical resistance. Must be of good corrosion resistance. Must be able to dissipate high fault current repeatedly. 5.1 Types of Earthing There are two types of earthing 5.1.1. Pipe Earthing 5.1.2. Plate Earthing 5.1.1. PIPE EARTHING:

This type of earthing is done with the help of zinc coated iron pipe. It sh ould be perforated.The diameter of pipe should be 38mm& the length should not be less then 2.5m. If the moisture in the soil is less than the length can be incr eased. So the length of pipe is depend upon the moisture of soil &another pipe w ith19mm dia & length with 1.25m is connected over the pipe according to the figu re. The pipe is placed vertically inside under the earth. The lower end is kept sharp so that the pipe can be injected easily inside the earth in the base of pit where the pipe is placed a15cm thick layer of coal is laid around the pipe. An alternate layer of coal &salt is laid so that the pit is filled to the groun ds level it help to maintain moisture in the soil around the pipe. A mesh wire f unnel is connected to the upper end of pipe, space with the help of this funnel can be injected inside the earth around the pipe. A cement concrete box is made at the upper end of earthing pipe for water & mechanical strength For protectin g earthing the water immersed in pipe so the protecting the pipe a which is pl aced in cement concrete electrode shall be buried vertically in the ground as f ar as practicable below permanent moisture level, but in any case not less than 3 mtr below ground level. The electrode shall be in one piece and no joints shall be allowed in the electrode. Wherever possible, earth electrodes shall be located close to water tap, water drain or a down take pipe. Earth electrode shall not be located in proximity to a metal fe nce. It shall be kept clear of the building foundations and in no case; it shall be nearer than 2 meters from the outer face of the wall. The pipe earth electro de shall be kept vertically and surrounded with 150 mm thick layer of charcoal d ust and salt mixture upto a height of 2.5 meters from the bottom. At the top of the electrode a G.I. threaded cap shall be provided for watering the earth. The main earth conductors shall be connected to the electrode just below the G. I. c ap, with proper terminal lugs and check nuts. The G.I. cap over the CL pipe and earth connection shall be housed in a masonry chamber, approximately 300 mm long x 300 mm wide and 300 mm deep. The masonry chamber shall be provided with a cas t iron inspection cover resting over a C.I. frame, embedded in masonry.

Fig 5.1 Pipe Earthing 5.1.2. PLATE ELECTRODE In this type of earthing glavansied plate is employed. This type of earthi ng is widely used and the dimension of plate is not less then 60mm*60mm*60mm ot her wise the dimension of copper plate of dimension is 60mm*60mm*3.15mm the dim ension of plate is not less then this dimension plate electrode shall be buried as far as practicable below permanent moisture level but, in any case, not less than 3 meters below ground level. Wherever possible, earth electrodes shall be l ocated as near the water tap, water drain or near down take pipe. Earth electrod es shall not be installed in proximity to a metal fence. It shall be kept clear of the buildings foundations and in no case it shall be nearer than 2 meters fro m the outer face of the wall. The earth plate shall be set vertically and surrou nded with 150 mm thick layer of charcoal dust and salt mixture. 20 mm GI pipe sh all run from the top edge of the plate to the ground level. The top of the pipe shall be provided with a G.I. threaded cap for watering the earth through a pipe

. The G.I. cap over the GI pipe shall be housed in a masonry chamber, approxi mately 300 mm long x 300 mm wide x 300 mm deep. The masonry chamber shall be pro vided with a cast iron inspection cover resting over a GI frame, embedded in mas onry. The plate earthing should be placed vertically above the earth the upper part of the plate which above the height is 1.5 meter glavanised iron or the copper of plate is widely used as glavanised wire is used the coal which is pla ced the salt which around the surface of plate so the moisture is present around the plate at the above of plate iron pipe which is used. The upper part of glav anised pipe a mess type of funne] is used at the time of hot season water is us ed for the moisturizing The top of the pipe shall be provided with a G.I. thread ed cap for watering the earth through a pipe

Figure:- Tower footing of earthing plate

Figure:- Plate earthing

Chapter-06 SYNCHRONIZATION The process of connecting an AC generator (alternator) to other AC generato r is known as synchronization and is crucial for the generation of AC electrical power. A DC generator can be connected to a power network by adjusting its open-ci rcuit terminal voltage to match the network voltage by either adjusting its spee d or its field excitation; the exact engine speed is not critical. However, an AC machine must match both the amplitude and the timing of the network voltage, which requires both speed and excitation to be systematically a nd closely controlled for synchronization. This extra complexity was one of the arguments against AC operation during the War of Currents in the 1880's. In mode rn systems, synchronization of generators is carried out by automatic systems. Conditions: There are five conditions that must be met before the synchronization proce ss takes place. The alternator must have equal line voltage, frequency, phase se quence, phase angle and waveform to that of the system to which it is being sync

hronized. Waveform and phase sequence are fixed by the construction of the gener ator and its connections to the system, but voltage, frequency and phase angle m ust be controlled each time a generator is to be connected to a grid. Process: In the past, synchronization was performed manually using three-lamp method . Nowadays, the process is automatically operated and controlled with the aid of synchronization relays. During installation of a generator, careful checks are made to ensure the g enerator terminals and all control wiring are correct so that the order of phase s (phase sequence) matches the system. Connecting a generator with the wrong pha se sequence will result in a short circuit as the system voltages are opposite t o those of the generator terminal voltages. The sequence of events is similar for manual or automatic synchronization. The generator is brought up to approximate synchronous speed by supplying more e nergy to its shaft - for example, opening the valves on a steam turbine, opening the gates on a hydraulic turbine, or increasing the fuel rack setting on a dies el engine. The field of the generator is energized and the voltage at the termin als of the generator is observed and compared with the system. The voltage magni tude must be the same as the system voltage. Synchronizing Lamps: Formerly, three light bulbs were connected between the generator terminals and the system terminals (or more generally, to the terminals of instrument tra nsformers connected to generator and system). As the generator speed changes, th e lights will rise and fall in intensity at a rate proportional to the differenc e between generator frequency and system frequency. When the voltage at the gene rator is opposite to the system voltage (either ahead or behind in phase), the l amps will be bright. When the voltage at the generator matches the system voltag e, the lights will be dark. At that instant, the circuit breaker connecting the generator to the system may be closed and the generator will then stay in synchr onism with the system. Synchroscope:

From top to bottom: synchroscope, voltmeter, frequency meter. When the two systems are synchoronized, the pointer on the synchrosope is stationary and poi nts straight up. Another manual method of synchronization relies on observing an instrument called a "synchroscope", which displays the relative frequencies of system and generator. The pointer of the synchroscope will indicate "fast" or "slow" speed of the generator with respect to the system. To minimize the transient current w hen the generator circuit breaker is closed, usual practice is to initiate the c lose as the needle slowly approaches the in-phase point. An error of a few elect rical degrees between system and generator will result in a momentary inrush and abrupt speed change of the generator. Synchronizing Relays: Synchronizing relays allow unattended synchronization of a machine with a s ystem. Today these are digital microprocessor instruments, but in the past elect romechanical relay systems were applied. A synchronizing relay is useful to remo ve human reaction time from the process, or when a human is not available such a s at a remote controlled generating plant.

Sometimes as a precaution against out-of-step connection of a machine to a system, a "synchro check" relay is installed that prevents closing the generator circuit breaker unless the machine is within a few electrical degrees of being in-phase with the system. (Synchro check relays are also applied in places where several sources of supply may be connected and where it is important that out-o f-step sources are not accidentally paralleled.) Synchronous Operation: When the generator is synchronized, the frequency of the system will change depending on load and the average characteristics of all the generating units c onnected to the grid. Large changes in system frequency can cause the generator to fall out of synchronism with the system. Protective devices on the generator will operate to disconnect it automatically. The synchronization at 1.1kv G.S.S at Arya College of Engg & I.T. is done by three dark lamp methods and the pole to which the synchronization panel is fi xed is properly earthed. The earthing is done by connecting the pole to the eart hing strip.

Chapter-07 INTRODUCTION OF PLC A Programmable Logic Controller, or PLC, is more or less a tiny computer wi th a built-in operating system (OS). This OS is highly specialized to handle inc oming events in real time, i.e. at the time of their occurrence. The PLC has inp ut lines where sensors are connected to notify upon events (e.g. temperature abo ve/below a certain level, liquid level reached, etc.), and it has output lines t o signal any reaction to the incoming events (e.g. start an engine, open/close a valve, etc.) The system is user programmable.

Fig.7.1 SIEMENS S7-300 PLC In simple words, it is a digital computer used for automation of electromec hanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines, amuse ment rides, or lighting fixtures. A PLC is an example of a real time system sinc e output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a bound ed time, otherwise unintended operation will result. A formal definition Of a PLC comes from the National Electrical Manufacture rs Association (NEMA): A digitally operating electronic system, designed for use in an industrial enviro nment, which uses a programmable memory for the internal storage of user-oriente d instructions for implementing specific functions such as logic, sequencing, ti ming, counting and arithmetic, to control, through digital or analogue inputs an d outputs, various types of machines or processes. Both the PC and its associate d peripherals are designed so that they can be easily integrated into an industr ial control system and easily used in all their intended functions."

Chapter-08 SYNCHRONIZATION 8.1 CONTROLLING CONTACTOR OF GAS GENERATOR The following Ladder logic programme shows how the contactor operate .In th is programme when we pressing the push button A then the contactor of gas gener ator is in ON condition and connect with bus bar, when we pressing the push butt on B then the contactor of gas generator is in OFF condition and disconnect with bus bar

Fig.8.1: Contactor Use in Synchronization

Fig 8.2 A Ladder Logic Programme for Controlling G.G. Supply 8.2 CONTROLLING CONTACTOR OF DIESEL GENERATOR The following Ladder logic programme shows how the contactor operate .In th is programme when we pressing the push button A & B then the contactor of Diesel generator is in ON condition and connect with bus bar when we pressing the push button A or B then the contactor of Diesel generator is in OFF condition and d isconnect with bus bar

Fig 8.3 A Ladder Logic Programme for Controlling D.G. Supply

Synchronizing above two units with the help of three dark lamp method. When the frequency, phase & voltage are same which is monitoring of above two different u nits then we operate the contactor of diesel generator.

Fig. 8.4 1.1 K V Hybrid Grid Sub Station

8.3 PLC PROGRAMMING OF 1.1 KV HYBRID GRID SUB STATION AND GENERATION

CONCLUSION

The study of Grid Sub-Station equipment and working put together all my te chnical knowledge which I have gained during my practical training session. The training was a part of the partial fulfillment of award of degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electrical Engineering of Rajasthan Technical University, Kota. T his project was beneficial for me in every aspect. I have learned how, al energy takes place. s an excellent example ity, Kota. It has also d personnel. the generation, transmission and distribution of electric The 1.1 kV HYBRID G.S.S at Arya College of Engg. & I.T. i of the curriculum designed by Rajasthan Technical Univers taught me to work under the guidance extremely experience

To become a good electrical engineer, we need to have sound knowledge regardi ng the generation, transmission and distribution of the energy. However, there a

re certain other equipments and components in the whole system which handles the power at various levels such as transformer, isolators, bus-bar system, insulat ors, circuit breakers etc. The study of these equipments is only completed by pr actically observing them working. So it can be said that the project of ours is useful in future aspects also. It has boosted our knowledge gained throughout the past years of our engineering and the practical training session.

REFERENCES

[1] V.K.MEHTA, Principles of Power System , Pg no. 225-230 [2] B.R.GUPTA, Generation of Electrical Power , Pg no. 325 [3] J.B.GUPTA, POWER SYSTEM , Pg no. 226,235 [4] C.L.WADHWA, Electrical Power System , Pg no.173-256 [5] S.S.RAO, Protection of Power System Pg no.110-135 [6] B.L.THERAJA, Principles of Electrical Machines , Pg no. 85-115