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8or[aLrlkag klryuu_zero16

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SLLCn CCMMUNICA1ICN 1 (LNGL03)
ACCLN1
Lesson 1 ComponenLs of AccenL
1 Llnklng
2 lnLonaLlon
3 SLress
4 ArLlculaLlon
Components of Accent
L|nk|ng ls slmply runnlng Lhe words LogeLher wlLhouL
maklng any pause ln beLween ln Lngllsh Lhe
pronunclaLlon of many words may be affecLed by llnklng
Some sounds wlll be dropped whlle oLhers wlll blend Lo
become a dlfferenL sound alLogeLher
Intonat|on ls Lhe muslc we use when speaklng Lhe
melody so as Lo say lL refers Lo rhyLhm and plLch ln a
phrase
khythm ls Lhe beaL of a phrase
|tch ls Lhe properLy of a sound ln Lhls case our volce
whlch ls deLermlned by how hlgh or low Lhe sounds are
Stress ls Lhe emphasls placed on a syllable or on a word
ln a sLrlng of words
Art|cu|at|on deals wlLh sounds Some sounds dlsLlngulsh
meanlng whlch are called phonemes CLhers don'L
dlsLlngulsh meanlng and we call Lhem varlanLs of
phonemes or allophones ln all languages sounds are
dlvlded lnLo vowels and consonanLs
Lesson 2 Art|cu|at|on
lnLroducLlon
Any human language has Lwo blg groups of sounds
vowels and consonanLs ln Lhls lesson we wlll dlscuss Lhe
dlfferenL vowel and consonanL arLlculaLlon paLLerns Lhe
schwa and long and shorL vowels
Sounds of Lng||sh
1o represenL Lhose sounds we use an alphabeL
known as Lhe lnLernaLlonal honeLlc AlphabeL (lA) 1he
symbols are very slmllar Lo Lhose we use ln wrlLlng wlLh
some speclal addlLlons Lo represenL Lhe sounds LhaL
wrlLlng doesn'L dlsLlngulsh
Lach of Lhese symbols represenL only one sound
and no oLher so Lhey offer an advanLage over common
spelllng ln whlch a leLLer may represenL dlfferenL sounds
1hls doesn'L happen wlLh Lhe lA symbols
Vo|ced Vo|ce|ess Sounds
We use alr comlng from Lhe lungs Lo produce
boLh vowel and consonanL sounds 1he alr goes up
Lhrough Lhe Lrachea and geLs Lo Lhe larynx where Lhe
vocal cords are AL Lhls polnL sounds wlll acqulre Lhelr
flrsL feaLure LhaL of belng volced and volceless
Voca| 1ract
1he voca| tract |s the set of the organs we use to
speak nere's an |||ustrat|on







Sound Descr|pt|on
Vowe| roduced only wlLhouL any resLrlcLlons ln
Lhe vocal LracL Amerlcan Lngllsh has
abouL 17 vowel sounds Some of Lhese
vowels are shorL Lhe oLhers are long
llllplno on Lhe oLher hand has flve vowel
sounds /a/ /e/ /l/ /o/ /u/ wlLh shorL
and long varlanLs
Conso
nant
roduced wlLh some resLrlcLlon of Lhe
vocal LracL 1hls resLrlcLlon can be parLlal
(consLrlcLlon) or LoLal obsLrucLlon llllplno
has abouL 18 consonanL sounds whereas
Amerlcan Lngllsh has 24
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Vo|ced Vo|ce|ess Sounds
1he vocal cords are Lwo muscles LhaL can work wlde
aparL or closlng ln When Lhey're wlde aparL Lhe alr
flnds no obsLacles Lo go Lhrough and we geL volceless
sounds llke /s/ or /f/ Llkewlse when vocal cords are
closely Louchlng Lhe alr wlll flnd Lhe passage resLrlcLed
and wlll Lherefore bulld up behlnd Lhe vocal chords
causlng Lhem Lo vlbraLe as lL goes Lhrough Pere's when
we geL volced sounds llke /m/ or /]
Vowe| Sounds
MouLh shaplng allows us Lo pronounce dlfferenL vowel
sounds 8y mouLh shaplng le placlng our mouLh ln
dlfferenL poslLlons we can geL up Lo 17 dlfferenL vowel
sounds ln Amerlcan Lngllsh
4 ulfferenL vowel sounds ln Amerlcan Lngllsh
O ShorL vowels (8)
O Long vowels (4)
O ulphLhongs (4)
O Schwa (1)





honeLlc Lxerclse
8ead Lhe followlng senLences ouL loud emphaslzlng Lhe
shorL and long vowel sounds
/l/
Plp klds slng rlch hymns
1he lnk was spllled by hlm
!lm Lhlnks of Lhln sllm chlcks
Pls Lln was fllled Lo Lhe brlm wlLh gln
ln sln she llves and ls fllled wlLh gullL by lL
l wlsh l could slL for a blL and slng wlLh hll


//
LasL chance Lo pass Lhe exams
!an ran Lo grab Lhe resulLs of Lhe caL scan
ln lrance gals dance and brag abouL romance
Ma'am please sLand aL Lhe Lram Lracks wlLh a glass ln
your hand
1he man glanced aL Lhe palace and was glad Lo hand lL
over Lo Lance
aL and MaLL gagged lran and saL aL Lhe narrow paLh
walLlng for hls fans

/ (uh)/
1he puppy loved Lo run under Lhe sun
Pls broLher and moLher were drunk on rhum
1ough luck" sald Chuck as he shoL Lhe duck
Son don'L be glum you can sLlll come Lo 8ussla"
!usL havlng fun wlLh my chum playlng Lhe drums

/e/
l have Lo bake a cake for Lomorrow's sale
laye has falLh LhaL Call wlll soon be ouL of [all
May days are greaL Lo lle ln Lhe hay and play wlLh clay
1he short vowe| Is used |n
CaL haL apple

Lnd pen send
I Cllck sLlck

Saw law
laLher arm
(uh) CuL funny sofa
z uL could
blrd
1he |ong vowe| Is used |n
e aste
| |ease
o Go
u keboot
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1he baby's name was changed elghL days before he
came
uon'L be laLe for our daLe l look greaL l haLe havlng Lo
walL
8aln and grey days always make me wanL Lo sLay aL
home and palnL

/o/
1he show was over an hour ago
1he sLones showed flecks of gold
1hey hope Lo own Lhelr home soon
CaLs and poLaLoes are grown ln LhaL locallLy
lL's cold ln !oseph's burrow uon'L go hold me
Cold wlnds wlll blow and snow wlll fall as you approach
Lhe hollow wall

1he Schwa ()
O 1he schwa or vowel murmur ls a vowel sound
very reduced ln lengLh and quallLy 1he schwa
usually occurs lmmedlaLely before and
lmmedlaLely afLer Lhe sLressed vowel ln a word
lL ls an unclear vowel
O 1he schwa ls Lhe resulL of vowel reducLlon a
phenomenon LhaL ls naLural ln Lngllsh when Lhe
vowel ls noL sLressed 1he vocal organs begln Lo
form a vowel sound buL Lhe organs do noL reach
Lhe full vowel goal and produce a vowel
murmur Lhe schwa

Lxample
lf we break Lhe word profusion lnLo syllables we
geL
pro / lu / slon

1he vowel sounds ln pro and sion are schwas
ConsonanL sounds are hard Lo reduced vowels
however can be reduced Lo almosL a slgh of alr or as
we already know lL Lhe schwa sound /]

ldenLlfy Lhe schwas ln Lhe followlng words by enclrcllng
Lhe syllable/s
O hone
O AgenL
O lorward
O Surprlse
O Angel
O 8aby
O Pello
O hoLography
O Avallable
O CreaLer
O romoLlon
O ConLracL (verb)

D|phthongs

ulphLhongs are Lwo vowels LhaL are sounded as one
syllable A dlphLhong ls counLed as one sound and
Lherefore Lhe vowel comblnaLlon belongs Lo Lhe same
syllable
1here are four dlphLhongs ln Lngllsh
/a / house loud sound
/al/ Lry lle why
/ ll/ boy Loy nolse
/[u/ use endure compuLer

1he ]o0] ulphLhong
Llke all dlphLhongs ls made up of Lwo sounds
llrsL sound ls a pure /o/ as ln Lhe lrench word
fu 1he flrsL sound ls made by roundlng Lhe llps falrly
fully and ralslng Lhe back of Longue abouL 2/3 of Lhe
rounded poslLlon whlle Lhe Longue moves up
Second sound ls /u/ as ln put lorward a blL Lo
form Lhe weak second elemenL /u/ As ln all dlphLhongs
Lhe second elemenL should be shorLer Lhan Lhe flrsL 1hls
ls shown wlLh Lhe shorLenlng symbol ( ) over Lhe second
elemenL
lL ls helpful Lo look ln a mlrror Lo see your llps
movlng whlle you form Lhese Lwo sounds ?ou should
see Lhem round for Lhe /o/ Lhen round a blL more for
Lhe /u/
ArLlculaLlon ConsonanL Sounds
ConsonanLs consLlLuLe Lhe oLher of Lhe Lwo blg
sound groups we flnd ln any human language 1hese
sounds lnvolve parLlal or LoLal resLrlcLlon of our vocal
LracL now leL us Lake a look aL all Lhe dlfferenL posslble
comblnaLlons we can arLlculaLe Lo creaLe Lhese
resLrlcLlons lace of arLlculaLlon and manner of
arLlculaLlon allow us Lo descrlbe consonanLs adequaLely
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A p|ace of art|cu|at|on |s def|ned as both the act|ve
and pass|ve art|cu|ators lor lnsLance Lhe acLlve lower
llp may conLacL elLher a passlve upper llp or Lhe upper
LeeLh Lo produce a sound
O 1he Lable on Lhe nexL sllde ouLllnes Lhe dlfferenL
places of arLlculaLlon Lhelr descrlpLlons and Lhe
sounds Lhey produce

ArLlculaLlon ConsonanL Sounds
Ident|fy the p|ace of art|cu|at|on for the sound
found at the beg|nn|ng of each of the fo||ow|ng
words A|so |nd|cate the symbo| on top of the
sound for each word
Whale
8one
1orch
Chlcken
loe
1hunder
Shlne
ulng dong
1hen
Zee
Manner of Art|cu|at|on
Manner of arLlculaLlon descrlbes how Lhe
Longue llps and oLher speech organs are lnvolved ln
maklng a sound make conLacL CfLen Lhe concepL ls only
used for Lhe producLlon of consonanLs lor any place of
arLlculaLlon Lhere may be several manners
|os|ves
loslves also called sLops or occluslves are
sounds made by ploslon of alr 1hey are made ln Lwo
baslc sLeps
1) We creaLe a LoLal obsLrucLlon aL some polnL ln our
vocal LracL leLLlng Lhe alr comlng from Lhe lungs bulld up
behlnd Lhe closure
2) 1hen we release Lhe obsLrucLlon wlLh a sudden
movemenL of our speech organs and Lhe alr compressed
behlnd Lhe closure comes ouL ln a bursL




|ace Descr|pt|on Sound Lxamp|e
8llablal Sounds
arLlculaLed uslng
boLh llps
/p/ /b/
/m/
ple buy my
LablodenLal Sounds
produced uslng
our lower llp and
our upper LeeLh
/v/ /f/ veal fee
lnLerdenLal Sounds made by
placlng Lhe Llp of
our Longue ln
beLween our
upper and lower
seLs of LeeLh
// // Lhlck Lhen
Alveolar Sounds
arLlculaLed wlLh
Lhe Llp of Lhe
Longue agalnsL
or close Lo Lhe
alveolar rldge
/n/ /L/
/d/ /s/
/z/ /l/
new Lo do
so zoo llghL
alaLal Sounds made by
placlng Lhe body
of Lhe Longue
agalnsL or close
Lo Lhe hard
palaLe
/]/ /L]/
/ds/ /s/
/r/ /[/
show chow
!lm belge
rake you
velar Sounds
produced by
placlng Lhe back
of Lhe Longue
agalnsL Lhe sofL
palaLe
/g/ /k/ /q/ Co klLe
bang
Lablovelar Sounds
arLlculaLed
roundlng Lhe llps
and placlng Lhe
back of Lhe
Longue near Lhe
sofL palaLe
/w/ WalL
CloLLal Sounds made by
consLrlcLlng Lhe
gloLLls
/h/ hl
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|os|ves
1he Lhree palrs of ploslves ln Lngllsh are
1he 3 Lngllsh volceless ploslves

]p] ]k] and ]t] pronounced aL Lhe beglnnlng of
words produce wlLh a llLLle puff of alr
Lxample pay paw paper pear pour
pea peer purr
Vo|ce|ess |os|ves
As ln Lhe case of /p/ /k/ ls also asplraLed aL Lhe
beglnnlng of words ln Lngllsh and aL Lhe beglnnlng of
sLressed syllables as we see ln Lhe followlng words
o ppose re cord a ppall o ccur
Lxample of /p/ /k/ volceless ploslves
O paper
O puppy
O plper
O appear
O poppy
O peeper
O pepper

Vo|ce|ess |os|ves
1he /L/ sound ls also an asplraLed ploslve aL Lhe
beglnnlng of words llke tn and two Powever when /L/
comes afLer a vowel or an /r/ before an unsLressed
syllable lL becomes a flap A flap ls characLerlzed by a
slngle rapld conLacL of Lhe Longue or lower llp agalnsL
anoLher polnL ln Lhe mouLh
Lxample potty Jltty Joto clty wotet
Also before an unsLressed syllable Lhe
consonanL sound /n/ and Lhe consonanL sequence /nL/
can boLh be reallzed as nasallzed flap
Lxample
wlnLer banLer lnLo SanLa Ana LwenLyone 1oronLo


$n$ fnd $nt$
1hls Lype of pronunclaLlon ls also valld for word groups
ot it wnt fwf

Lxamples
parLy aLLlre
a beLLer LeapoL
blLLer Lea
a poLaLo and a LomaLo
a dlrLy Lub
8eLLy may be aL our parLy

Stopped I|na| ]t]
Cne of Lhe sounds LhaL Amerlcans use frequenLly
ls Lhe sLopped (or held) flnal /L/ 1hls ls spelled /L/ LhaL
appears wlLh no oLher consonanL sound aL Lhe end of Lhe
word llke slL" When noL used lL helps plnpolnL non
naLlve Amerlcan Lngllsh speakers because lf you've
learned Lngllsh as a second language you may be
LempLed Lo explode LhaL flnal /L/
1o make an exploded or popped /L/ sound you
puL your Longue Llp up Lo your gum rldge (Lhe bony rldge
around Lhe fronL of your mouLh) bulld up some alr
pressure behlnd your Longue and explode Lhe Llp away
MosL Amerlcans however wlll leave Lhe Llp agalnsL Lhe
gum rldge wlLhouL releaslng Lhe alr (hence Lhe name
sLopped or held /L/)
1ry Lhls sound wlLh Lhe followlng words t
ot wrot f/ft st sout tft kit fnd swft
?ou should pop Lhe /L/ when lL appears aL Lhe
end of words wlLh cerLaln oLher consonanLs nt /t pt ft
st and someLlmes nt ?ou can flnd Lhese ln words llke
pfnt wi/t fpt ft fist and tint

kead|ng Lxerc|se
8ead ouL loud Lhe followlng words

/fs puff of fir
1om aLLack aLLend
Loken Lerrlble Llngllng
Lelevlslon aLomlc aLLlre
Lenaclous sLar LumulL
lnLonaLlon SLeven sLalker
8ead ouL loud Lhe followlng words

1
st
pa|r
]p] b||ab|a| vo|ce|ess p|os|ve
]b] b||ab|a| vo|ced p|os|ve
2
nd
pa|r
]t] a|veo|ar vo|ce|ess p|os|ve
]d] a|veo|ar vo|ced p|os|ve
3
rd
pa|r
]k] ve|ar vo|ce|ess p|os|ve
]g] ve|ar vo|ced p|os|ve
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@ip ffinst um rid
MaLL maL slL
aLe aL faLe
caL walL acrobaL
faL whaL
wheaL laLe sweeL
8ead ouL loud Lhe followlng words
Ioind $t$
beLLer llLLle boLLle
lnevlLable cerLlfled aLhleLlc
subLle meLer oLLer
flLLer blLLer frlcaLlve
fluLLer LhlrLy vlndlcaLlng
Ir|cat|ves
lrlcaLlves are sounds produced by frlcLlon of alr
1he alr comlng from Lhe lungs and passlng Lhrough Lhe
larynx flnds a parLlal resLrlcLlon somewhere ln our
pharyngeal area 1hls small gap or narrowlng ln Lhe
passage of alr wlll compress lL and wlll cause lL Lo go ouL
causlng frlcLlon agalnsL Lhe organs arLlculaLlng LhaL
narrowlng
As Lhere ls no organ Lo LoLally sLop Lhe alrflow
Lhese sounds can be susLalned lndeflnlLely for as long as
we have alr lefL ln our lungs
ArLlculaLlon ConsonanL Sounds
Vo|ced and Vo|ce|ess Ir|cat|ves




Affr|cates
AffrlcaLes are a comblnaLlon of a ploslve and a
frlcaLlve 1here ls LoLal obsLrucLlon of Lhe alrway
lnvolved buL lL's lmmedlaLely followed by a small
narrowlng of Lhe vocal LracL ln oLher words Lhe sounds
come ouL causlng frlcLlon AlLhough comprlsed of a
momenL of obsLrucLlon and anoLher of frlcLlon affrlcaLes
are consldered Lo consLlLuLe a slngle sound
ln Amerlcan Lngllsh Lhere ls a palr of volced and
volceless affrlcaLe
/L]/ palaLoalveolar volceless affrlcaLe
/ds/ palaLoalveolar volced affrlcaLe

S|b||ants ]s] and ]z]
A slbllanL ls a Lype of frlcaLlve or affrlcaLe
consonanL lL ls made by dlrecLlng a [eL of alr Lhrough a
narrow channel ln Lhe vocal LracL Lowards Lhe sharp edge
of Lhe LeeLh
1o make Lhe slbllanLs /s/ and /z/ force Lhe alr
sLream Lhrough a narrow openlng aL some polnL ln your
mouLh (beL Lhe Longue and alveolar rldge)
1he dlsLlncLlve hlsslng" sound or effecL of Lhe
slbllanLs ls caused by Lhe Longue belng grooved
Lxample second sand saucer fossll
dlsallow dlsasLer zenlLhdlssolve use (v)
Nasa|s ]m] ]n] and ]q]
nasals are consonanL sounds creaLed by leLLlng
Lhe alrflow go Lhrough Lhe nasal cavlLy 1here are 3
nasals ln Lngllsh
/m/ bllablal volced nasal
/n/ alveolar volced nasal
/q/ velar volced nasal
Lxample make men never spenL walklng slnglng
Latera|s ]|] and ]r]
LaLerals are sounds made by creaLlng a parLlal
obsLrucLlon ln Lhe mldllne of Lhe mouLh leavlng an
openlng ln Lhe sldes of lL Lhrough whlch alr wlll go
Lhrough 1here are 2 laLerals ln Lngllsh
/l/ alveolar volced laLeral
/r/ palaLal volced laLeral reLroflex
kead|ng Lxerc|se
order archlLecL rear arLlsan armor number browse
real arL roam overall sculpLure ordeal holler

1
st
pa|r ]f] |ab|odenta| vo|ce|ess fr|cat|ves
]v] |ab|odenta| vo|ced fr|cat|ve
2
nd
pa|r ]/ denta| vo|ce|ess fr|cat|ve
]] denta| vo|ced fr|cat|ve
3
rd
pa|r ]s] a|veo|ar vo|ce|ess fr|cat|ve
]z] a|veo|ar vo|ced fr|cat|ve
4th
pa|r ]]] pa|ata| vo|ce|ess fr|cat|ve
]s] pa|ata| vo|ced fr|cat|ve
8or[aLrlkag klryuu_zero16
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ku|es |n us|ng verbs end|ng w|th ]s] ]z] and ]z]
1he th|rd person s|ngu|ar pronouns 5 and
t can form the present tense of the verb end|ng |n the
s|ng|e sound ]s] or ]z] or an extra sy||ab|e ]z]
W When con[ugaLlng words LhaL end ln a volceless
consonanL we use Lhe volceless /s/
W When con[ugaLlng words LhaL end ln a vowel or a
volced consonanL we use Lhe volced /z/
W lf Lhe flnal sound of Lhe word ls a /s/ /z/ /]/ /s/
/ds/ /L]/ we use an /z/ sound for Lhe lasL sound
kefer to the tab|e be|ow for compar|son of p|ura|
possess|ve and th|rd person s|ngu|ar end|ngs
]s] ]z] ]z]
[ump [umps [og [ogs flx flxes
roLaLe roLaLes do does ralse ralses
puL puLs say says dress dresses
Lhlnk Lhlnks call calls relax relaxes
caL caLs apple apples church churches
ArLlculaLlon ronunclaLlon key
Vo|ced Vo|ce|ess
Symbo| Lxamp|e Symbo| Lxamp|e
I r | c a t | v e s
/z/ zoom /s/ slde
/s/ verslon /]/ shlfL
// Lhose /U/ Lhank
/v/ very /f/ flx
| o s | v e s
/d/ download /L/ Llme
/b/ baby /p/ polnL
/g/ geL /k/ cuL
A f f r | c a t e s
/ds/ [unk /L]/ change
N a s a | s
/m/ mall
/n/ neL
/q/ calllng
L a t e r a | s
/r/ run
/l/ lake
S e m | v o w e | s
/w/ wanL
/[/ yes
ArLlculaLlon ConsonanL Sounds
V o | c e d
Symbo| Lxamp|e
/r/ Apple caL haL
// Lnd pen send
/l/ Cllck mlll ls
/r/ CughL saw Lalk
/] laLher far car
/ CuL uncle become
/r/ uL could good
/e/ asLe elghL sLeak
/l/ lease eaL sLreak
/o/ Close go coaL
/u/ 8ebooL rule Lool
/ar/ CuL now house
/al/ 1ry cry eye l
/rl/ volce boy nolse
/[u/ use fuse few
/] Away ago reason (Schwa)
Learn burn blrd (Schwar)
S 1 k L S S
SLress ls Lhe emphasls placed on a syllable ln a word or
on a word ln a sLrlng of words
Introduct|on
SLress paLLern affecL Lhe way we sound and may
also change meanlng ln Lhls lesson you wlll learn abouL
Lhe Lwo Lypes of sLress and how Lhey lnLeracL wlLh oLher
componenLs ln pronunclaLlon
Word Stress
Word sLress whlch ls also called ton|c stress
deals wlLh Lhe promlnenL syllable ln a word
Lxample
ln Lhe word de1LCLlve Lhe sLress ls placed on Lhe
second syllable tec
hrase Stress
hrase sLress deals wlLh Lhe words promlnenL ln
a sLrlng of words or uLLerance

8or[aLrlkag klryuu_zero16
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hrase Stress
1ype of hrase Stress Decsr|pt|on Lxamp|e
Lmphat|c Stress Clven Lo a word ln an
uLLerance Lo lnLenslfy lLs
meanlng
She's vL8y preLLy os
opposeJ to She's vL8?
preLLy
Contrast|ve Stress used when you wanL Lo
oppose an ldea Lo
anoLher one
SPL played Lhe plano
yesLerday (noL PL) os
opposeJ to She played
Lhe lAnC yesLerday
(noL Lhe fluLe)
New Informat|on Stress used for new
lnformaLlon as opposed
Lo already known
lnformaLlon lL ls
common ln answers Lo
Lhe WPquesLlons
WPA1'S your nAML?
My name ls CLC8CL
Gu|de||nes on Sy||ab|e Stress
MosL Lwosyllable nouns wlll have flrsL syllable sLress
eg CCNducL
MosL Lwosyllable verbs have sLress on Lhe second
syllable
eg conDUC1
ln Lhe second example when Lhe flrsL syllable ls
weak we also geL a vowel dlfference lL ls a shorLer
sofLer vowel Lhe schwa()
Stress |n Nouns Stress |n Verbs
8Lcord reCC8u
Audress adu8LSS
CCnvlcL convlC1
Su8vey survL?
C8[ecL ob!LC1
Su8[ecL sub!LC1
8LsenL preSLn1
SLress on Lhe snond from t /fst s//f/
If (cond|t|on) Lxamp|e
Words endlng ln |c C8APlc geoC8APlc
geoLCClc
Words endlng ln
s|on and t|on
Lelevlslon reveLALlon
SLress on Lhe tird from t /fst s//f/



Compound words (words wlLh Lwo parLs)
ku|e Lxamp|e
lor compound nouns Lhe sLress ls
on Lhe f|rst parL
8LACkblrd C8LLnhouse
lor compound ad[ecLlves Lhe sLress
ls on Lhe second parL
bad1LMpered oldlASPloned
lor compound verbs Lhe sLress ls on
Lhe second parL
Lo underS1Anu
Lo overlLCW
MosL sufflxes requlre Lhe sLress Lo fall on Lhe syllable
before Lhe sufflx 1here are one and Lwosyllable
sufflxes
Addlng a sufflx Lo a onesyllable word
eg bag 8ACgage
hop PCper
run 8unner
Addlng a sufflx Lo a Lwosyllable word
eg admlL adMl1Led
conLrol con18CLler
regreL reC8L1Lable
ConLenL and luncLlon Words
Words can elLher be conLenL words or funcLlon
words ConLenL words are normally sLressed whlle
luncLlon words are nonsLressed words pronounced ln
Lhelr weak form
Content Words Iunct|on Words
nouns klLchen
eLer
ueLermlners 1he a an
MosL
rlnclpal
verbs
vlslL
consLrucL
Auxlllary
verbs
Am ls are
was were
Ad[ecLlves 8eauLlful
lnLeresLlng
reposlLlons 8efore
afLer of
Adverbs CfLen
carefully
Con[uncLlons 8uL and
or
hrase Stress
ln each group of phrases ln lLallcs underllne Lhe
word(s) LhaL should be sLressed
Lxample
MeeLlngs should noL be seeo os o
Jestlootloo buL raLher as o veblcle
fot teocbloq sLraLeglc ob[ecLlves
1efote yoo wete soyloq LhaL meeLlngs are producLlve
oow yoo seem to be lmplyloq LhaL Lhe ma[orlLy could
easlly be replaced by o memo ot eveo o pbooe coll
2Well l oqtee wltb 5osle acLually l don'L Lhlnk vlJeo
coofeteocloq wlll evet teploce LradlLlonal faceLoface
meeLlngs
If (cond|t|on) Lxamp|e
Words endlng ln cy ty phy
and gy
deMCcracy dependa8lllLy
pho1Cgraphy geCLogy
Words endlng ln a| C8lLlcal geoLCClcal
8or[aLrlkag klryuu_zero16
9

3 5o yoo tblok ldea generaLlon ls lmporLanL
wbeteos lete tbloks declslon processes are more
crlLlcal
khythm and Stress
8hyLhm ls Lhe beaL of a language lL ls Lhe resulL
of Lhe recurrence of sLressed syllables aL regular
lnLervals All languages have a regular beaL a rhyLhm
1hls beaL ls esLabllshed by Lhe use of syllables and sLress
8hyLhm SLress (Same 8hyLhmlc SLrucLure)
8elow are Lwo Lhree and foursyllable words and
phrases wlLh Lhe same rhyLhmlc sLrucLure
1woSy||ab|e Words 1hreeSy||ab|e Words IourSy||ab|e Words
Davld take lL caLhollc |augh aL lL caLegory g|ve lL Lo
me
obey Lhe boy passages come wlLh
me
cert|flcaLe l wanted
Lo
c|Ly g|ve me be||evlng l've seen
hlm
explanaLlon you
should do lL
ashamed a name clgarette aL Lhe
door
Lhls afLernoon l've
goL Lo go
over to|d her beauLlful |ook aL lL characLerlze Sarah
dld lL
unlque you need cons|der aL
Chr|stmas
unlversal he was
cheatlng
2 Lypes of senLence rhyLhm ln languages
1 SLressedLlmed 8hyLhm
2 SyllableLlmed 8hyLhm
Look aL Lhe Lwo plcLures 1he lefL one represenLs Lhe
stresst|med rhythm wlLh an alLeraLlon of sLressed and
unsLressed syllables (adulLs represenL sLressed syllables
and klds represenL unsLressed ones) 1he rlghL one
represenLs Lhe sy||ab|et|med rhythm wlLh nearly equal
welghL and Llme ln syllables (ldenLlcal soldlers represenL
Lhe same lengLh and welghL LhaL each syllable has)
uest|on Wh|ch p|cture represents Lng||sh speech
rhythm?
8ead aloud Lhe senLence ronunclaLlon ls lmporLanL" (9
syllables ln Lhe senLence) Lo help you make a [udgemenL
Are there stressed sy||ab|es |n that sentence?
ronunclaLlon ls lmporLanL"
Are there stressed sy||ab|es |n that sentence?
"ronunclALlon ls lmCkLanL"
Cons|der the two sentences
Pe |ent me Lhe money
l'll have Lhem ready for Wednesday mornlng

lf Lhose Lwo senLences have Lhe same number of
sLressed syllables Lhelr rhyLhm wlll be somewhaL slmllar
Sentence khythm ract|ce by Say|ng khymes




Stress |n oems
1he koad Not 1aken
ort lrost
1wo roads dlverged ln a yellow wood
And sorry l could noL Lravel boLh
And be one Lraveler long l sLood
And looked down one as far as l could
1o where lL benL ln Lhe undergrowLh
1hen Look Lhe oLher as [usL as falr
And havlng perhaps Lhe beLLer clalm
8ecause lL was grassy and wanLed wear
1hough as for LhaL Lhe passlng Lhere
Pad worn Lhem really abouL Lhe same
And boLh LhaL mornlng equally lay
ln leaves no sLep had Lrodden black
Ch l kepL Lhe flrsL for anoLher day!
?eL knowlng how way leads on Lo way
l doubLed lf l should ever come back
l shall be Lelllng Lhls wlLh a slgh
Somewhere ages and ages hence
1wo roads dlverged ln a wood and l
l Look Lhe one less Lraveled by
And LhaL has made all Lhe dlfference
1hen Look Lhe oLher as [usL as falr
And havlng perhaps Lhe beLLer clalm
8ecause lL was grassy and wanLed wear
1hough as for LhaL Lhe passlng Lhere
Pad worn Lhem really abouL Lhe same
And boLh LhaL mornlng equally lay
8or[aLrlkag klryuu_zero16
10

ln leaves no sLep had Lrodden black
Ch l kepL Lhe flrsL for anoLher day!
?eL knowlng how way leads on Lo way
l doubLed lf l should ever come back
l shall be Lelllng Lhls wlLh a slgh
Somewhere ages and ages hence
1wo roads dlverged ln a wood and l
l Look Lhe one less Lraveled by
And LhaL has made all Lhe dlfference
And boLh LhaL mornlng equally lay
ln leaves no sLep had Lrodden black
Ch l kepL Lhe flrsL for anoLher day!
?eL knowlng how way leads on Lo way
l doubLed lf l should ever come back
l shall be Lelllng Lhls wlLh a slgh
Somewhere ages and ages hence
1wo roads dlverged ln a wood and l
l Look Lhe one less Lraveled by
And LhaL has made all Lhe dlfference
l shall be Lelllng Lhls wlLh a slgh
Somewhere ages and ages hence
1wo roads dlverged ln a wood and l
l Look Lhe one less Lraveled by
And LhaL has made all Lhe dlfference

L|mer|cks
Llmerlcks are llghL or humorous verse form of flve
verses or llnes Lach verse has Lwo shorL beaLs and one long
one Llnes one Lwo and flve have Lhree beaLs and llnes Lhree
and four have Lwo 1he rhyme scheme of Lhe llmerlck ls aabba


Stress |n L|mer|cks
imrink 5fmp/
1he llmerlck's callous and crude
lLs morals dlsLresslngly lewd
lL's noL worLh Lhe readlng
8y persons of breedlng
lL's deslgned for us vulgar and rude

1he llmerlck ls furLlve and mean
?ou musL keep her ln close quaranLlne
Cr she sneaks Lo Lhe slums
And prompLly becomes
ulsorderly drunk and obscene

Llnda 8lalr wlLh greaL favour confessed
Shed been exorclsed Lhus flndlng resL
8uL alack and alas
Per old demon came back
and now Lhe poor glrls repossessed

1he llmerlck packs laughs anaLomlcal
lnLo space LhaL ls qulLe economlcal
8uL Lhe good ones l've seen
So seldom are clean
And Lhe clean ones so seldom are comlcal

'1ls a favorlLe pro[ecL of mlne
A new value of pl Lo asslgn
l would flx lL aL 3
lor lL's slmpler you see
1han 3 polnL 1 4 1 3 9

1here was once a sculpLor named hldeous
Whose sculpLures by mosL were LhoughL hldeous
Pe carved AphrodlLe
WlLhouL even a nlghLle
Whlch shocked all Lhe fussy fasLldlous

An exceedlngly faL frlend of mlne
When asked aL whaL hour he'd dlne
8eplled AL eleven
AL Lhree flve and seven
And elghL and a quarLer pasL nlne"

1here was a young glrl from 8abaL
Who had LrlpleLs naL aL and 1aL
lL was fun ln Lhe breedlng
8uL hell ln Lhe feedlng
When she found she had no LlL for 1aL

1here was once a glrl named lrene
Who llved ln dlsLllled kerosene
8uL she sLarLed absorbln'
A new hydrocarbon
And slnce Lhen had never benzene

A baLher whose cloLhlng was sLrewed
8y wlnds LhaL lefL her qulLe nude
Saw a man come along
And unless we are wrong
?ou expecLed Lhls llne Lo be lewd