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Fundamentals of Number System:

Number: This is one of the simplest mathematical structure. This theory is one of the
oldest part of mathematics and fundamental to study of subjects like mathematics,
science , physics etc.
India’s contribution to the world in Number theory is ZERO ‘0’. Brahmagupta was the
astronomer who introduced the concept of Zero for the first time.

Number System: A number system is the set of symbols used to express quantities as
the basis for counting, determining order, comparing amounts, performing calculations,
and representing value. It is the set of characters and mathematical rules that are used to
represent a number.

Classification of Numbers:

Number Line: A number line is a one-dimensional graph used to represent the numbers
with ‘Zero’ as the reference point such that the positive numbers are to the right of ‘0’and
negative numbers are to its left.

-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

All Numbers can be classified in two categories.

Real Numbers: All numbers that can be represented on the number line are called real
number.

Complex Number: The numbers that cannot be represented on the number line are
called complex numbers..
All real numbers can be classified further as follows.

Real Numbers

Rational Irrational

Integer Fraction Algebraic Transcendental

Proper Improper Mixed


(p/q, Where q>p) (p/q, Where p>q) (a p/q, where q>p and a is an integer)

Whole Number Natural Numbers Negative Integers

Important Notes:

 No number can be both rational and irrational.


 All rational numbers are terminating or recurring
 Zero is neither negative nor positive
 All irrational numbers are non-terminating and non-recurring.
 One is neither a prime nor a composite number.
 Two is only even prime number.
Complex Numbers:
Simplest form in which a complex number is written is a+ib, where a and b are
the real number and i is the imaginary unit whose value is √-1.

Example: 5i, -2i, √3i

Set of complex numbers is denoted by C. For a complex number a+ib, can not be equal to
zero. If a=0 and b≠0 then the number becomes a purely imaginary number. Any real
number can be written in the form of complex number . since any real number x can be
written as x +i(0).

Real Numbers: The set of real numbers includes all integers, positive and negative; all
fractions; and the irrational numbers, those whose decimal expansions never repeat.

It is very useful to picture the real numbers as points on the real line, as shown here.
PROPERTIES OF REAL NUMBERS
The following table lists the defining properties of the real numbers (technically called
the field axioms). These laws define how the things we call numbers should behave.

Addition Multiplication
Commutative Commutative

For all real a, b For all real a, b

a+b=b+a ab = ba
Associative Associative

For all real a, b, c For all real a, b, c

a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c (ab)c = a(bc)
Identity Identity

There exists a real number 0 There exists a real number 1


such that for every real a such that for every real a

a+0=a a×1=a
Additive Inverse Multiplicative Inverse
(Opposite) (Reciprocal)

For every real number a there For every real number a except 0
exist a real number, denoted there exist a real number,
(−a), such that
denoted , such that
a + (−a) = 0

a× =1

Distributive Law

For all real a, b, c

a(b + c) = ab + ac, and (a + b)c = ac + bc


Rational: