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Times and hour angles

Celestial bodies are reference for measuring passage of time Sundial o 1500 1300 BC o Measure time of day by shadow o Hours shorter in winter Water clocks / clepsydras o Water dripping at constant rate from small hole o Water filling up a container with markings on inside o Determine hours at night Tower of Winds o Octagonal structure o Sundials & mechanical hour indicators Su Sung clock Mechanical clocks o 14th century o Weight driven o Regulated by verge-and-foliot escapement o Period oscillation depended on driving force & friction => rate difficult to regulate Spring-powered clocks o Between 1500 & 1510 o Smaller clocks & watches Pendulum clock o 1656 o Christiaan Huygens o Used natural period of oscillation o Error less than 1 minute a day o Later refinements: less than 10 seconds a day o William Clement 1671 Anchor / recoil escapement Less interferences with motion of pendulum o George Graham 1721 Improvement accuracy to 1 second a day Compensating changes in pendulums length due to temperature o John Harrison 1761 Refined temperature compensation techniques New methods to reduce friction Very accurate marine chronometer Regional time zone

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o 1850s o Established in New England 1905 => radio time signal transmitted to help ships find longitude Quartz clock o Based on piezoelectric property of quartz crystals o Electric field => changes shape o Squeezing / bending => electric field o In suitable electronic circuit => vibration & generation electric signal of relatively constant frequency o No gears / escapement o Frequency depends on crystals size, shape & temperature Atomic clock o Atoms have stable resonances o New international unit of time => 1 second = 9 192 631 770 oscillations of cesium o Accuracy 30 billionths of a second per year World time scales o Greenwich Mean Time evolved as time reference for the world o Coordinated Universal Time Runs at rate of atomic clocks Difference with Earth near 1 second => adjustment in UTC

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UT/GAT/time equation
Greenwich meridian time (GMT) o Former name for mean solar time at Royal Observatory in Greenwich o Now Universal Time (UT) Mean solar time o Related to mean sun Running in plane of equator Constant velocity o Begins at midnight Apparent (true) solar time o Time interval between two successive lower transits of true sun for meridian o Begins at midnight Time equation ( ) o Difference between mean time & apparent time (or passing mean sun and true sun through meridian) o Given in Nautical Almanac o Causes for differences Plane equator not same as plane Earths orbit around the sun (angle of obliquity = 23,5) Orbit of Earth around sun is ellipse o Remains practically constant from year to year o No correction for 4 days in 1 year (16/04, 14/06, 02/09 & 25/12) o Maximum deviation on 03 or 04 / 11 = 16 min. 23 sec.

o o =C+R o UT = GAT +/-

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Local meridian of observer = reference UT = LMT +/- gt GAT = LAT +/- gt gt o Added when east o Subtracted when west o Calculation 15 of longitude = 1 hour 1 of longitude = 4 minutes Parts of 1 longitude = parts of 4 minutes o Nautical Almanac (Conversion of arc into time)

World subdivided into zones of 15 longitude Time same throughout each zone Each zone has zone description or delay (ZD) indicating with UT ZT = UT +/- ZD ZD = (g + 730)/15 (alles na de komma laten vallen)

ST/Legal time
Adopted in 19th century Zones subdivided or altered in shape for convenience of inhabitants Nautical Almanac/Admiralty List of Radio Signals Sometimes Daylight Saving Time Basis is UT, indicated times added or subtracted as listed Date line on 180 of longitude East of date line is one day ahead

Watch time kept on board Shift takes place in 00-04h watch Main idea: next day watch time 12h00 as close as possible to LMT 12h00

Corrections to time
Chronometer indicate exact UT High precision watch but still an error Radio time signals for comparison

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Syntax times

Celestial bodies expressed by declination & Greenwich Hour Angle Angle between meridian of Greenwich & hour circle of body measured westward from Greenwich meridian Groups of celestial bodies o Sun o Moon o Planets o Stars Add SHA to GHA of Aries to obtain GHA each celestial body Sun o Sidereal hour angle changes 1 daily => GHA sun table inserted o GHA + I => GHA Moon o SHA changes more rapidly with average of 12,85 => separate table o Extra correction due to irregular motion o GHA + I + v-correction => GHA Planets o Irregular pattern o Own table & v-correction o GHA + I + v-correction => GHA Stars o Does not significantly change => NO separate table o GHA Aries + I => GHA Aries => + SHA star => GHA star

Principle same, reference = local meridian GHA +/- g => LHA (+ if g = E, - if g = W) Polar angle (P) o 000 < LHA < 180 => P = LHA & P = W

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o 180 < LHA < 360 => P = 360 - LHA & P = E

Relation between time and hour angle

Correlation between time & hour angle o Same references o Differ 180 or 12 hours Basis time measurement = sun => sun at anti-meridian (180) => 00h00

Syntax hour angles

GHA mean sun + 12h00 = UT LHA mean sun + 12h00 = LMT GHA mean sun = GHA apparent sun +/-

Traditional astro-position
Basic principle of the position line
Vikings used sun & pole star to sail line of latitude No certain method of fixing ships position until mid 18th century 1837 o Captain Thomas Sumner o Establishing position lines from sights o Sextant altitude increases when sailing towards point where line between celestial body and centre of earth intersects the earths surface o Theory used to elaborate a method to determine a line of position Determine altitude & azimuth for estimated position for given time Difference between observed altitude & calculated altitude Convert minutes of difference in altitudes to miles Line perpendicular to azimuth towards or away from geographic position of body Principle line of position o Each celestial body for certain moment has geographical position o All observers sighting celestial body with same declination => circle around geographical position o Geographical positions move on surface of the Earth o Earth & celestial equators in same plane => Latitude geographical position = declination of star Longitude geographical position = GHA o Zenithal distance = distance between observer & geographical position o = 90 - h

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o At least 3 circles for one position o No circles drawn on chart but tangents

The intercept
Difference between true altitude & calculated altitude o True latitude = altitude by observation o Calculated altitude = expected altitude based upon assumed position

sin hc = +/-(sin * sin la) + cos * cos la * cos P + if & l same name & P < 90 - if & l same name & P > 90 - if & l not same name & P < 90 hv hc = h + => towards body - => away from body

Determination astronomical position o Plot assumed position o Line passing position in direction of Azimuth o Measure intercept in right direction o Draw line of position perpendicular to Azimuth

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3 elements at the same time o Altitude by sextant o Reading chronometer o Compass bearing Compass not precise enough => calculate Azimuth

tg la / tg P tg / sin P = cotg Az / cos la A + B = C (Nories, see practical navigation) sin Az = sin P * cos * sec hv

Special case of azimuth Celestial body on true horizon Amplitude = arc between prime vertical & body Quadrantal starting from E/W towards N/S sin A = sin * sec l Nories

Determination of compass errors

Calculated azimuth and amplitude => true bearing Comparing with compass bearing => total error

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Astro-position special cases

True latitude
Bearing due North or South Object crosses observers meridian (culmination) lv = * cu cu = 90 - hcu Exact moment o Nautical Almanac o Calculation Altitude and time of observation before estimated time of passage Note exact time when celestial body has same altitude tcu = (t1 + t2) / 2

True latitude with Polaris

lv = hv 1 + a0 + a1 + a2 (Almanac) Polaris not exactly above true North Pole => corrections lv = hv + a0 + a1 o a0 = * cos P o a1 = * * sin P * sin 1 * tg hv

Correction for meridian passage if not on true meridian lv = + cu cu = - X X = sec hv * sin 1 * P * cos l * cos X = A * P A = in Nories

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True longitude
Longitude tempered by time Time aboard & time at another place with known longitude

Line of position Celestial bodys bearing due East or West 2 elements needed o Altitude o LHA / Polar angle cos P = tg * cotg l o Nautical Almanac to find LMT o LHA star = LHA Aries + SHA star o LMT star = LMT Aries + t (conversion of SHA to time) sin hv = sin * csc l Bearing due east or west => take exact time Nautical Almanac => GHA & cos P = tg * cotg l LHA GHA = lon (g)

At meridian passage LHA = 360 LHA GHA = lon (g)

Position fix
Graphic solution
Intersection two or more lines of position => fix Lines of position separated in time => running fix

Noon position and its value in navigation

Navigational reasons o Indication position logbook o Calculation mean speed over ground since departure o Calculation mean speed over ground since previous noon position o Calculation ETA o Plotting progress of voyage on large scale chart Economical reasons o Charter party: current conditions + renewal or new charter o Economical speed ordered o Ships agent: ETA

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Pagel method
Replaces graphical solution in case of true latitude and almost true longitude Find g to obtain true longitude g = cotg Az / cos lv * l g = C * l (Nories) gv = ge +/- g

Rise, set and twilight

Rise, set
Sunrise & sunset = times when upper limb of Sun is on visible horizon Moonrise & moonset = times when upper limb is on visible horizon Theoretical rise & set = relative to true horizon Visible rise & set = relative to visible horizon True horizon is 33,8 above visible horizon Amplitude: when sun / moon with centre on true horizon o Sun: lower limb semi-diameter above visible horizon o Moon: 1/3 of surface visible above visible horizon (due to parallax)

Before sunrise & after sunset Natural light provided by upper atmosphere (reflection of sunlight) Amount of light during twilight affected by state of atmosphere & local weather conditions Limits applicable considering only position of sun below local horizon Civil twilight o Sun geometrically 6 below horizon o Terrestrial objects clearly distinguished o Horizon clearly defined & brightest stars visible under good atmospheric conditions & in absence of other illumination Nautical twilight o Centre of sun 12 below horizon o General outlines of ground objects distinguishable o Horizon = indistinct Astronomical twilight o Centre of sun 18 below horizon o Sky illumination very faint

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Special diagrams
General Two kinds o Solar eclipse o Lunar eclipse General conditions: centres Earth, Moon & Sun one line in space Types o Total o Annular (shadowing disk covering complete, but off-centre) o Partial (centres almost one line in space, but shadowed disk not complete) Eclipse of sun occurs during new moon o Every month new moon => NOT every month eclipse o Moon passes to north or south of sun Eclipse of moon occurs during full moon o Moon passes north or south of earths shadow o Orbit around earth not same as earths orbit around sun (tilted 5) Point twice a year where moon appears neither north nor south => eclipse o Ascending node (moon moving from south to north) o Descending node (moon moving from north to south) Regular pattern (= Saros) o Periodicity = 18 years 11 days 8 hours o Subsequent eclipses are visible from different parts of the globe o Same geographic region every 3 saroses o Nodes shift eastward => saros series doesnt last indefinitely o Exact duration & number of eclipses is not constant o Different saros series in progress at the same time

Solar eclipse Moon between sun & earth Total or annular => declination & GHA of sun & moon must be the same 3 zones o Eclipse zone => all observers can see total or annular eclipse o Penumbra zone => observers in this zone see partial eclipse & intensity of light decreases o Free zone => observers dont remark anything

Lunar eclipse Earth between sun & moon Total or annular => declination sun & moon opposite sign & same value & GHA differs 180

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Moon becomes dark red due to refraction

Meridian passages of planets

In LMT In diagram o Meridian passage sun in LMT o Meridian passage each planet in LMT o SHA sun & planets throughout year o Possible conjunctions (verification if declination is same is necessary)