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American International University, Bangladesh

Semester: Fall 2011

Submitted To: Md. Anwarul Kabir


Course Instructor Management information system American International University-Bangladesh

Submitted By: section B

1.Rabbi Fazle 2.Islam Tauhidul 3.Islam Aminul

ID:09-14159-2 ID:09-14139-2 ID :09-14147-2

Date of Submission: 8th Decemberber, 2011

Topic Name:
Investigate the present state of the Egovernance in Bangladesh and provide recommendations to over the problem.

INTRODUCTION
In general developing countries lagging behind e-Government adaptation compared to developed countries. Within Bangladesh, there is a huge disparity in e-Government. This study present e-Government challenges on behalf of the role of political leaders in Bangladesh. As a result Bangladesh has made significant strides forward in the field of e-Government in the Past decade, starting with slightly scattered projects for internal automation but moving gradually towards eservices Delivery and connected governance. Nevertheless, the country has faced some typical hurdles faced by developing countries, many of which continue to remain barriers to eGovernment implementation. The 2008 elections in Bangladesh brought in a new government with a broad platform to reduce poverty as well as improve governance, rule of law and citizen's access to government services. "Digital Bangladesh" has been proclaimed a high priority of the Government in the pre-election manifesto, and although the lack of clarity with respect to the vision has somewhat impeded implementation so far, there is unprecedented consensus that introduction of digital technologies can be a key modality in making government more efficient, effective and accessible. The Prime Minister and high level government officials are quite emphatic about its commitment to increasingly take government services to 'citizen's doorsteps'. The continued focus on this vision provides a fresh opportunity to take forward the agenda of e-Government, carrying its benefits to ordinary citizens and improving the general business environment through greater transparency in both the regulatory environment as well as in government operations. However, despite the promise of vision, full introduction of egovernment is extremely challenging requiring significant management of change in government offices. The government is yet to outline a solid and coordinated strategy to overcome this and other previously faced challenges in e-Government implementation. Recent studies and experiences with eGovernment projects show that PPPs might be one of the key mechanisms for overcoming persisting challenges to e-Government implementation, including financial and managerial deficiencies. Donor agencies and development partners themselves, also, are suffering from lack of coordination in supporting e-Government projects. Hence, an up-to-date study on the capacity of the GOVT in implementing e-Government, the strategies through which potential pitfalls could be avoided in going forward,

and how donor agencies can optimize resource investments to achieve results, was felt necessary.

OBJECTIVES
For the present state of Bangladesh we have different objectives to makes digital by using e-Government .We have the opportunity to use the following things: The main opportunities for e-government in general, like cost reductions, improved efficiency, and quality of services, E-government offers the potential to bring citizens closer to Bangladesh government. E voter us e-ID card was introduced by E-government (Like in recent UP election, city corporation election at Naraiongonj.). Supporting the governments change towards democratic governance practice, to facilitate communication between central and local governments. To control and ensure accountability towards implementation of good corporate governance, and to enable a transformation towards the information society. The use of the Internet is increasing rapidly in Bangladesh. E-Business system helps us to Collaborate with customers, suppliers, and other business stakeholders. Information technology sides become so much strong. We easily can exchange our information within few seconds. E-Book where students can get all text about their studies. E-Business system helps us to Collaborate to make more loyal. In view of the renewed focus on e-Government by the current government, among many, this document focused on some major gaps that have hampered the progress of e-Government: Slow promotion. Lacking of expert

Lacking of awareness Government sector not use proper E system. Our infrastructure is limited. Our budget is limited. Our directions for moving forward are: Have to make a proper plan and efficient. Conceder our problems, takes the opinion of the people. Improve the IT literacy especially for young public servants and key personnel. Solving organizational and cultural inertia. Change management is necessary to make e-government implementation successful Takes idea from the foreign.

RATIONALE OF STUDY
Governments face developing resources and capabilities to build up the technological and managerial knowledge needed to successfully deploy eGovernment services. This includes the development of skills and know-how to successfully perform the following activities: Digitizing information Performing transactions Streamlining processes Enhancing employee productivity Providing access to public information Fostering citizen participation.

The goal of Digital Bangladesh is to develop ICT systems, infrastructure and human resource for strengthening the vital developmental sectors to make a direct positive impact on the key social and economic indicators. The sectors included in the strategy include: o o o o o o o o o Agriculture Health Land administration Local Government Social Safety Nets Disaster Management, Environment & Climate Change Commerce and Investment Law Enforcement and Judiciary Parliament

o Civil Service

LITERATURE REVIEW
Firstly we should know about E-government can be defined broadly as the use of information and communication technologies in the public sector to improve its operations and delivery of services. Although e-government encompasses a wide range of activities and actors, three distinct sectors can be identified. These include government-to-government (G2G), government to- business (G2B), and government-to-citizen (G2C)]. The present government's vision of making a "Digital Bangladesh" by 2021 has brought about an increased impetus in efficiency and technological improvement towards a greater openness, transparency, and accountability in government system and performance. "Realizing the Vision of Digital Bangladesh through e-Government", as a follow-up to a study entitled "Study of e-Government in Bangladesh" carried out by BEI in 2004. This study aims to assist the Government of Bangladesh and development partners to reach the vision of 'Digital Bangladesh' through more coordinated efforts.

Policy makers, lawmakers, economists, journalists and ICT experts were present, where participants discussed the prospects and problems of the sector. A book estimates that the country needs an investment of over $6 billion in digital technologies over the next thirteen years to realize the dream of creating a Digital Bangladesh. The investments are required in three separate stages, the book said -- a $1 billion investment between 2009 and 2013, $2 billion between 2014 and 2023 and another $4 billion between 2019 and 2023.

The book, 'Going Digital: Realizing the Dreams of a Digital Bangladesh for All', was launched yesterday at Ruposhi Bangla Hotel in Dhaka. Referring to a former AwamiLeg Finance Minister SAMS Kibria, the incumbent Finance Minister AMA Muhith said, Kibria had taken initiatives to import taxfree computers in the country that helped the sector flourish. To review the current tax regime and address related problems, the Muhith said he wanted to sit with the ICT related associations to discuss the matter. Anyone willing to learn about the ICT sector of Bangladesh, its history and implementation process can go through the book, said Professor Jamilur Reza Choudhury, who presided over the programme. We talked about establishing high-tech parks in the country 10 years back for development of software and IT enabled services but unfortunately, they did not see any implementation and we have lost time. In India, not only the central government but also the states are setting up high-tech parks.

Daily Financial Express Editor Moazzem Hossain urged concerned quarters to publish a Bangla version of the book for wider dissemination among people. The three authors of the book are Habibullah N Karim, an enterprenour, and non-resident Bangladeshis Quamrul Mina and Gulam Samdani. Karim said it is the first attempt to document Bangladesh's efforts in IT development since 1960s. Samdani described the contents of the book while Mina joined the programme online. Hardware Lawmaker Hasanul Haq Inu said, Till now, we have not been able to take hold of the Digital Bangladesh concept and therefore, different people are interpreting it differently. He said big business people in the country are neither taking interest nor investing in the ICT sector. The tax and tariff regime of the ICT sector should be reviewed and relevant laws, such as the data protection law and cyber law, should be formulated. Economist said Dr Debapriya Bhattacharya ICT changes the environment and lifestyle as well,. He described the policy, readiness and usage of the ICT sector in Bangladesh and said the main problem is a lack of good

governance for which none of the processes run as desired or required. He said, The three authors have proposed to leapfrog from the old era of economic development industrialisation to a new concept through the ICT sector. They have incorporated their local as well as global experiences in the book.

(www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=201657) Bangladesh is resounding with the target to achieve of digital Bangladesh. In the election days, MOHAJOT (Awamileg) first declared vision 2021 with the aim to develop Bangladesh into a digital country by that the next decade. BNP also added that they started the program in their tenure and will complete it earlier. More than a month ago, the Bangladesh Computer Council also organized a computer fair with the theme Digital Bangladesh. A country goes e-governance means it will be an e-state means all its activities of governance, commerce, education, policies, agriculture etc will be powered by computer and internet. It is easy to speak such a dream, but are we committed to achieve this dream? One of the reasons why our country didnt become digital by this time is because of lack of commitment on the part of our political leaders. A very first step for e-governance would not be to spread the ICT education throughout the country. Every primary and secondary student should have access to the computer and computer based education. Mid level education & short term training should be readily available throughout the country and higher level education on computer sciences should be qualitative. Internet facilities should be made available to the remotest corner of the country and at a cheaper rate. There are countries where the use of internet is free. The speed of the internet must be maximum to get the benefit of the time. A tremendous effort should have to be made and continued in application of the computer and internet by both private and public offices, institutions & organizations in the coming years. Market is to be broadened in and outside the country in software, outsourcing and programming.

plant is also needed to be established in our country. For this necessary contact with the international giants and investment will be required to be made. (bdoza.wordpress.com/2008/12/23/towards-a-digital-bangladesh) (http://www.aseansec.org/13802.htm) (http://egovaspac.apdip.net/resources/readiness/undpepa-aspa2001.pdf)

DATA SOURCES

Primary Data Literature, Film, Plays, Performances, Friends etc. Secondary Data We make a survey how digital Bangladesh moving forward. Interview was carried out by the students of business administration at undergraduate level. They were given proper training about the e-Government concepts and data collection procedure before going to the field. METHOD OF COLLECTING DATA

From different types of method, we collect our data by face-to-face interview. Our questioners are open ended. We survey in different shopping moll, such as Bashundhora, Rifel square, Krishi market , New market.

Challenges
1. Technological Aspects:

As is in most of the Least Developed Countries, Inadequacy of ICT infrastructure is a Common problem in most government offices of Bangladesh. This situation is further compounded by the marked absence of technical infrastructure planning and sub-optimal utilization of whatever infrastructure is available. The other challenge is in ensuring sustainability of ICT infrastructure. Often due to myopic planning of development projects lead to a lack of integration of ICT based systems into the core business processes of an organization and the long term financial sustainability aspect of ICT infrastructure is ignored.

2. Human Resource:

Due to lack of institutionalized means of developing related skills many eGovernment implementation projects suffer from lack of skilled human capital. Only ICT skill courses available for the civil servants are not enough to bridge the gap. There is not much done for the civil servants to enhance their soft-skills associated with managing implementation of e-Governance systems. Government institutions may explore introducing courses on change management, etc. to address such deficiencies.

3. Economic Aspects:

The economic/financial challenge for e-governance system implementation in Bangladesh is two pronged. First, like most developing countries, Bangladesh faces difficulties in investing large sums in e-governance system from its own coffer. Absence of pro-private sector policies impedes this other potential source of investment. There seems to be a marked need for building capacity of the civil servants to conduct cost-benefit and resultsresources benefit analysis before approving e-governance projects. Indeed the lack of managerial acumen and technical know-how to analyze the cost-

benefit scenario and return on investments to assess financial sustainability of a project is hurting the countrys e-governance aspirations. It is also an important reason why the private sector remained as a skeptic bystander rather than a active partner in e-governance.

4. Social Aspects:

In Bangladesh, a country where disparities between haves and have-nots are ever increasing, introducing ICT in the governance mechanism faces the challenge of ensuring equitable access to e-governance services by all strata of the society. It is essential to create public awareness with regard to eGovernance services that are available and could be made available to everyone. The other social aspects that come under e-Governance challenges are lack of literacy and a weak basic education standard; standardization of Bangla for official use; and the Brain Drain of ICT skilled human resources from the government.

5. Administration:

More needs to be done to sensitize senior government officials with regard to e-governance and the benefits inherent to it. It is mostly due to this lack of awareness that e-governance systems lack buy-in from the senior management of government organizations. Such lacking of acceptability often means lack of sustainability of the system and even failure to implement such a system.

FINDINGS & ANALYSIS


The survey conducted in this research presented fact base scenario of egovernment awareness situation among government officials in Bangladesh. The current research concludes with highlighting the following key findings and analysis: More than two third of the government officials covered under current study have lacking clear idea about the e-government initiatives.

Almost 95 percent of the government officials believe that e-government initiatives such as one example used in the current study would benefit to the citizens. Moreover, no one expressed negative attitude regarding the benefits of the e-government initiatives.

Respondents with diminutive information about the project are also un-sure about the potential benefits of the project. This indicates that current awareness creation process has some flaws in creating clear impression. Whereas, a significant portion of the respondents who had no idea about egovernment expressed very optimistic opinion after the briefing sessions. Development organization can provide technical assistance in implementing e-government projects in Bangladesh but they have tiny role to play in the promotion of any e-government initiative within Bangladesh according to the respondents.

A hypothesis can be developed that awareness creation will create positive stance towards e-government among government officials. More then 60 percent of respondents of those who strongly support e-government initiative were unaware about the e-Citizens. Service Application project and express their strong support after concise briefing. The most important factors for successful implementation of e-government are internal political desire, technological infrastructure and overall vision/strategy as perceived by the government officials of Bangladesh. According to the research, the most critical factors contribute to the failure of e-government implementation are lack of internal political desire, inadequate technological infrastructure and lack of overall vision/strategy. In other words it can be said that internal political desire, adequate technological infrastructure and overall vision/strategy are the most critical factors for the implementation of e-government in Bangladesh.

LIMITATIONS
Although we have many opportunities, we also have some lacking.

Very costly

Slow process Lacking of expert Lacking of awareness Government sector not use proper E system.

CONCLUSION
The agenda for modernizing public administration through e-governance is a contemporary phenomenon in many countries as this promises a peoplecentric, accountable, and transparent government and lessens transaction costs. Recent developments yield indications that e-Government is moving to the next phase in Bangladesh, away from isolated e-services towards more integrated, connected and transactional e-services. The present government came to power with the pledge of building a "Digital Bangladesh", and has kept consistent focus on this promise thus far. This has resulted in a political climate highly supportive of and conducive to egovernment projects. A very recent initiative, the Digital Innovation Fair, born out of the A2I program at the PMO, took this opportunity and showcased the various successful and ongoing projects undertaken by the Ministries, effectively putting government agencies in a competitive environment and giving citizens an unprecedented opportunity to witness what services the Government is providing, thereby creating a demand for these services. Reference:
(www.portal.acm.org) (www.thedailystar.net) (www.bdoza.wordpress.com)

(www.bdoza.wordpress.com) http://bangladeshictpolicy.bytesforall.net/ 01/04/2011